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Handy_Formulae_for_Quantitative_Aptitude_Problems

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# 114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems

Author: Sagar Sonker

ℵ Numbers ℵ H.C.F & L.C.M of Numbers ℵ Surds & Indices ℵ Percentage ℵ Profit & Loss ℵ Ratio & Proportion ℵ Partnership ℵ Chain Rule ℵ Time & Work ℵ Pipes & Cisterns ℵ Time And Distance ℵ Trains ℵ Boats & Streams ℵ Alligation or Mixture ℵ Simple Interest ℵ Compound Interest ℵ Logarithms ℵ Area ℵ Volume & Surface Area ℵ Stocks & Shares ℵ True Discount ℵ Banker’s Discount ℵ Copyright Notice

(12 + 22 + 32 + … … … + n2) 19. (a + b)2 . … … ….rn)] / [1 . … … …. A number is divisible by 8. P. if. ar2. if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9 6.b) = (a + b)(a2 . if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3 3. A number is divisible by 9.) with first term ‘a’ and Common Difference ‘d’ is given by: [a]. [(a + d)]. [(a + 2d)]. Results on Division: Dividend = Quotient × Divisor + Remainder 15. Tn = arn-1 Sum of first ‘n’ terms Sn = [a(1 .b)(a2 + ab + b2) 14. A Geometric Progression (G. [a + (n . (a + b)2 8. A number is divisible by 11.1)d] nth term. (a3 + b3) 13. starting from the RHS. P. A number is divisible by 4. Tn = a + (n . 2. (a .r] 17.ab + b2) = (a . Sn = n/2 (First Term + Last Term) 16. (13 + 23 + 33 + … … … + n3) = [n(n + 1)] / 2 = [n(n + 1)(2n + 1)] / 6 = [n2(n + 1)2] / 4 Page 2 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. if the number formed by its last three digits is divisible by 8 5. (Sum of its digits at the odd place) – (Sum of its digits at even place) is equal to 0 or 11x 7. A number is divisible by 3.(a . arn-1 nth term.b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 = a2 .b)2 = 2(a2 + b2) 11.2ab + b2 9. or 8 2. (a + b)2 + (a . 4. ar3. if its unit’s place digit is 0.) with first term ‘a’ and Common Ratio ‘r’ is given by: a. (1 + 2 + 3 + … … … + n) 18.b)2= 4ab 10. ar.com . (a2 – b2) 12.sonker. A number is divisible by 2. An Arithmetic Progression (A. (a3 – b3) = (a + b)(a . if the number formed by its last two digits is divisible by 4 4.1)d Sum of first ‘n’ terms.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Numbers 1.

29. am × an 22. . ( 31.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker H. not to increase the expenditure is {100R / [100 + R] } % 35. 30. × Their L.com / 28. (ab)m 24. am / an 23. Product of two numbers = Their H. not to increase the expenditure is {100R / [100 . To express x% as a fraction. 27. If ‘A’ is R% less than ‘B’. = a(m + n) = a(m .R] } % 36. (a / b)m 25. M. then ‘B’ is more than ‘A’ by OR If the price of a commodity decreases by R%. C. then the increase in consumption. we have a / b = (a / b × 100) % 34.sonker.n) = a mb m = an / bn =1 = a1/n = (a1/n)n =a = = )m = = Percentage 32. then the reduction in consumption.M of Numbers 20.F & L. F.C.C. C. then its population after ‘N’ years is P (1 + R/100)N Page 3 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. a0 26. If ‘A’ is R% more than ‘B’. Surds & Indices 21. If the population of a town is ‘P’ in a year. To express a / b as a percent. we have x% = x / 100 33. then ‘B’ is less than ‘A’ by OR If the price of a commodity increases by R%.

x α y.R/100)N] 40. (a + b) / (a . then its population ‘N’ years ago is P / [(1 + R/100)N] Profit & Loss 38. a3 : b3 is a triplicate ratio of a : b 48. (e : f) is (ace : bdf) 45. If a / b = c / d. If the value of a machine is ‘P’ in a year. a2 : b2 is a duplicate ratio of a : b 46. 52. The equality of two ratios is called a proportion.p. If a / b = c / d. The compounded ratio of the ratios (a : b). then its value ‘N’ years ago at a depreciation of ‘R’ p. 51.b) / b = (c . we write a : b :: c : d and we say that a. Page 4 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. b. then. the first and fourth terms are known as extremes. (a . 53. If a / b = c / d. c.a is P (1 .a is P / [(1 . If a : b = c : d. (a + b) / b = (c + d) / d. Product of extremes = Product of means 43. which is called the componendo. Also. we say that x is inversely proportional to y if x = k / y for some constant k and we write x α 1 / y. If the value of a machine is ‘P’ in a year.d). d are in proportion.R/100)N 39.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker 37. Mean proportion between a and b is 44.c. (c : d). while the second and third are known as means.Loss%) × Cost Price] / 100 Ratio & Proportion 41. which is called the componendo & dividendo. Variation: We say that x is directly proportional to y if x = ky for some constant k and we write.p.b) = (c + d) / (c . In a proportion. 42. : is a sub-duplicate ration of a : b 47. If the population of a town is ‘P’ in a year. then its value after ‘N’ years at a depreciation of ‘R’ p. then. then. 50.sonker. which is called the dividendo.c. Selling Price = [(100 + Gain%) × Cost Price] / 100 = [(100 . a1/3 : b1/3 is a sub-triplicate ratio of a : b 49.d) / d.com .

the net part of the tank filled in 1 hour is (1/x – 1/y) Time And Distance 63. 58. Ratio of times taken by A & B to finish a work = 1 : 3 Pipes & Cisterns 62. then Share Of Partner = (Total_Profit × Part_Share / Total_Share) Chain Rule 55. then on opening both the pipes. Lengths of trains are ‘x’ km and ‘y’ km. If A is thrice as good a workman as B. Time taken to cross each other is [(x + y) / (u + v)] hrs 66. u > v) in the same direction. The work done is directly proportional to the number of men working at it. The cost of articles is directly proportional to the number of articles. then average speed during his whole journey is [2xy / (x + y)] kmph Trains 64. If two trains start at the same time from two points A and B towards each other and after crossing they take a and b hours in reaching B and A respectively. 56. Time & Work 59. then: Ratio of work done by A and B = 3 : 1. Time taken to cover a distance is inversely proportional to the speed of the car.com . Page 5 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. 61.sonker.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Partnership 54. then A’s 1 day’s work = 1/n. Suppose a man covers a distance at ‘x’ kmph and an equal distance at ‘y’ kmph. 60. If a number of partners have invested in a business and it has a profit. then the time taken y the over-taker train to cross the slower train is [(x + y) / (u . If a pipe can fill a tank in ‘x’ hours and another pipe can empty the full tank in ‘y’ hours (where y > x).v)] hrs 65. 57. then A can finish the work in n days. If A’s 1 day’s work = 1/n. If A can do a piece of work in n days. The time (number of days) required to complete a job is inversely proportional to the number of hours per day allocated to the job. moving at ‘u’ kmph and ‘v’ kmph (where.

We represent the above formula as under: 75. then: Speed downstream = (u + v) km/hr.b) km/hr. Alligation: It is the rule that enables us to find the ratio in which two or more ingredients at the given price must be mixed to produce a mixture at a given price.sonker.com . P R T = ( P × R × T ) / 100 = ( 100 × S. c. 72.I.I.m) : (m .114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Then. ) / ( P × R ). 74. = ( 100 × S. Speed upstream = (u . S. b. Let Principle = P. Then. then: Speed in still water = ½ (a + b) km/hr. x kmph = (x × 5/18) m/sec. Mean Price: The cost price of a quantity of the mixture is called the mean price. Rule of Alligation: If two ingredients are mixed. a.c) Simple Interest 76. . 70. Rate of stream = ½ (a . Page 6 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.I. ) / ( P × T ). then: : ). 68. y metres/sec = (y × 18/5) km/hr. ) / ( R × T ). = ( 100 × S. Rate = R% per annum and Time = T years. Boats & Streams 69. d.v) km/hr.I. If the speed of a boat in still water is u km/hr and the speed of the stream is v hm/hr. If the speed downstream is a km/hr and the speed upstream is b km/hr. Alligation or Mixture 71. 73.: (Cheaper quantity) : (Dearer quantity) = (d . A’s speed : B’s speed = ( 67.

114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Compound Interest 77. When Rates are different for different years.e. Then. Logarithm: If a is a positive real number. loga (xy) b. 82. and 3rd year respectively. R3% for 1st. namely characteristic and mantissa. loga 1 e. say 3⅞ years. Rate = R% per annum and Time = T years. The logarithm of a number contains two parts. Properties of Logarithms: a. Page 7 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. then we write m = loga x and say that the value of log x to the base a is m. When interest is compounded Quarterly: Amount = P (1 + R/4/100)4N 78. Then. but the time is in fraction. When interest is compounded Annually. Then. Logarithms to the base 10 are known as common logarithms j. When interest is compounded Half-yearly: Amount = P (1 + R/2/100)2N III.loga y = 1 (i. The integral part is known as characteristic and the decimal part is known as mantissa. Log of 1 to any base is 0) = p loga x = 1 / logx a = logb x / logb a = log x / log a (Change of base rule) d. R2%. loga (x/y) c.com . Amount = P (1 + R1/100) (1 + R2/100) (1 + R3/100) 80. Log of any number to its own base is 1) = 0 (i. Let Principle = P. When interest is compounded Annually. loga (xp) f. it is taken as 10 i. logx x = loga x + loga y = loga x .sonker. x due n years hence is given by: Present Worth = x / (1 + R/100)n Logarithms 81. Amount = P (1 + R/100)N II. Present worth of Rs. other than 1 and am = x. loga x g. Amount = P (1 + R/100)3 × (1 + ⅞R/100) 79. I.e. When base is not mentioned. 2nd. loga x h. say R1%.

234 0. Area of a triangle = . Characteristic 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 For mantissa. II. In this case. Area of a square = ½ (diagonal)2 85. e. Rectangle: a. Radius of incircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = a / 2 e. Area of square = (side)2 b. Area 83. the characteristic is one less than the number of digits in the left of decimal point in the given number.34 0. and a. Area of a parallelogram = Base × Height Page 8 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. Area of 4 walls of a room = 2 (length + breadth) × height 86. Triangle: a. Case 2: When the number is less than 1. Area of an equilateral triangle = / 4 × (side)2 d.com . IV. we look through the log table. where s = ½ (a + b + c).00234 III. Area of a rectangle = (length × breadth) b.56 23. Number 234.0234 0. Square: a.g.sonker. Perimeter of a rectangle = 2 (length + breadth) 84. Case 1: When the number is greater than 1. b. then antilog y = x.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker I. Area of a triangle = ½ × base × height b. c are the sides of the triangle c. the characteristic is one more than the number of zeroes between the decimal point and the first significant digit of the number and it is negative. In this case.456 2. Antilog: If log x = y. Parallelogram/Rhombus/Trapezium: a. Radius of circumcircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = a / 87.

units =( × a) units Diagonal = (l × b × h) cu units = 2 (lb + bh + hl) sq. units . Area of trapezium 88. units b. Curved Surface Area = (2πrh) sq. = ½ × (Product of diagonals) The halves of diagonals and a side of a rhombus form a right angled triangle with side as the hypotenuse. Cube: Let each edge of a cube be of length a. Circle/Arc/Sector. Then. Then. Then. Surface Area c. Area of a rhombus c. Circumference of a circle = 2πR c. Area of a circle = πR2 b. a. where R is the radius of the circle: a. Length of an arc = Ө/360 × 2πR = ½ (arc × R) = Ө/360 × πR2 Volume & Surface Area 89. breadth = b & height = h units Then. units c. 92. 90.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker b. Surface Area c. a. Volume b. Page 9 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. Cylinder: Let radius of base = r & height (or length) = h.sonker. Volume b. a. Area of a sector 91. units = units d.com Total Surface Area = 2πr(r + h) sq. Diagonal = a3 cu units = 6a2 sq. Volume = (πr2h) cu. Cuboid: Let length = l. = ½ × (sum of parallel sides) × (distance between them) d. Cone: Let radius of base = r & height = h.

800. units d. 100. The selling price of a Rs. Suppose a man has to pay Rs.P. brokerage is subtracted from the selling price.P. 98. the payment of Rs. Sphere: Let the radius of the sphere be r.sonker. Surface Area 94. 9% stock at 95’. b. 100. Hemi-sphere: Let the radius of the sphere be r. at par. 156 in 4 years. units c. is Rs. annual interest is 9% of the face value and the market price of a Rs. 100 stock is said to be: a. 800. units Curved Surface Area = (πrl) sq. So.) = Rs. units 93. Total Surface Area = πr(r + l) sq. l b.) = Rs. units = (4/3 πr3) cu. if S. 100 exactly. By ‘a Rs.W. we mean a stock whose face value is Rs. True Discount 100. above par (or at premium). Then. 99. 100. (156 .100) = (Sum due) – (P. 156 due 4 years hence. 95. Volume c. a.) Page 10 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. units Stocks & Shares 95.com . if S. Then. a. is more than Rs. Total Surface Area = (3πr2) sq. 100 stock is Rs. units b. = units = (⅓ πr2h) cu. 156 due 4 years hence. 96. is less than Rs. 156 after 4 years and the rate of interest is 14% per annum. Rs.W. Present Worth (P. We say that: Sum due = Rs.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker a. below par (or at discount). Curved Surface Area = (2πr2) sq. units = (4πr2) sq. 97. Clearly. Slant height. if S.P. When the stock is sold. When stock is purchased. Brokerage: The broker’s charge is called brokerage. Volume = (2/3 πr3) cu. c. 100 at 14% will amount to Rs. 100 now will clear off the debt of Rs. brokerage is added to the cost price.D. Volume b. True Discount (T.