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AP Gov Mid-Term Review textbook sections[1]

AP Gov Mid-Term Review textbook sections[1]

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AP Gov & Politics Mid-Term Review – textbook sections I. Chapter I A. p. 3,4,5,6,9, 10, 11, 12 II. Chapter 2 A. p. 17, 20, 21, 23, 27, 29, 30, 36 III. Chapter 3 A. p. 50, 54, 55-56, 61, 66, 69, 70 IV. Chapter 4 A. p. 78, 79, 80, 81, 84, 85, 87, 90, 92 V.

Chapter 5 A. p. 100, 102, 105, 108, 111, 112 VI. Chapter 6 A. p. 140, 127, 128, 131, VII. Chapter 7 A. p. 158, 163-167 (cleavages in public opinion), 169, 170, VIII. Chapter 8 A. p. 181-183 (previously disenfranchised groups), 188, 189, IX. Chapter 9 A. p. 198, 200, 201, 202, 203, 205, 207, 209 X. Chapter 10 A. p. 231, 232, 234, 235, 237, 244, 245, 250, 254, 255, 256, 258, 259, 260 XI. Chapter 11 A. p. 265, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 274, 275, 278, 282

AP Gov & Politics Mid-Term Review – concepts Chapter I A. two ques. on which your text focuses a. who governs? And to what ends? B. aver. income tax rate a. 21% C. political power

D. Shay’s Rebellion a. Marxist view-view that the government is dominated by capitalists b.a weak constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary War D. Power Elite view-view that the government is dominated by a few top leaders. John Hancock as pres. Plan to have a popularity elected House based on state population and a state-selected Senate. Enumerated powers. Definition of democracy is the “rule of many” Majoritarian politics a. Revolution goal a.Powers given to the state government alone . During certain periods in our history we have taken an active interest in the outside world as well as looking inward Chapter 2 A. Never showed up to take the job as he was elected to the meaningless office of “president” under the AOC E. Bureaucratic view-view that the government is dominated by appointed officials d. A government in which elected representatives make the decisions I. Pluralist view-the belief that competition among all affected interests shapes public policy Pluralism a. 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates G. Delegates assembled at Philadelphia to revise the Articles. Sought to protect the traditional liberties and do be an independent nation C. Pluralist view-the belief that competition among all affected interests shapes public policy Foreign affairs approach a. Constitutional convention a. F. adjourned four months later having written a wholly new constitution B.Powers given to the national government alone c. Power-the ability of one person to get another person to act in accordance with the first person’s intentions Aristotle a. 1785 a. A Republic a. E. Assembly of PA gov’t pro/con a. but trampled minority rights-government was too strong F. AOC. Amer. Concurrent powers. a. Pennsylvania: radically democratic.powers shared by the national and state governments b. Articles of confederation & state governments a. with two members for each state H. Reserved powers. most of whom are outside of government c. Great Compromise a. Concurrent powers/ enumerated powers a. G.

Federal gov’t income 19th cent and early 20th a. Federalism a. Government authority shared by national and state governments K. AFDC and Medicaid a. Hamilton’s view: national supremacy since the Constitution was the supreme law of the land b. Terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not they accept federal grants H. Civil War issues E. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) settled two questions0 a0) Could Congress charter a national bank? Yes. Slavery was addressed in three provisions of the Constitution0 a0) House of Representatives apportionment—the “three-fifths compromise” b) Congress could not prohibit slave trade before 1808 c) Fugitive slave cause 10. Wording of Constitution a. 40. Hamilton views of gov’t a. McCulloch v. localities to non-profit and private organizations . 20. even though this power is not explicitly in the Constitution because of the “necessary and proper” (elastic) clause b) Could states tax such a federal bank? No.J. AFDC did actually become a block grant d. Necessity of compromise: the Constitution would not have been ratified and slavery would have continued under the Articles of Confederation―with no prospective challenge possible 20. social and political catastrophe Chapter 3 A. Some evidence that devolution in welfare programs continued from states to localities. because national powers were supreme and therefore immune to state challenge. the national government was likely to be the principal threat to individuals’ liberties C. e. Madison’s view: D. Republicans in 104th Congress proposed making these and other programs block grants c. Maryland a. F. Madison v.g. Hamilton’s view: national supremacy since the Constitution was the supreme law of the land 3. Constitution 1. Precise definitions of powers are politically impossible due to competing interests. Devolution became part of the national political agenda e. Elastic language in Article I: necessary and proper clause0 10. AFDC and Medicaid had operated as entitlements— b. Mandates a. Slavery v. Legacy: civil war. B.. 50. commerce 2. G. Confederation a. 30. Jefferson’s view: states’ rights with the people as ultimate sovereign. 1.

Early church influence son gov’t G. I. Political efficacy a. Bill of Rights . Political conflict a. following the French Revolution b. Insulation of courts form public opinion Chapter 5 A. Americans are less likely to think that hard work goes unrewarded 80. political culture. directed against German Americans in World War I B. 1. Espionage and Sedition Acts a.a coherent way of thinking about how politics and government ought to be carried out B.I. Devolution a. Swedes tend to favor equal pay and top limit on incomes 60. Religious beliefs have played an important role in American politics a. Freedom in the marketplace a. Both liberals and conservatives have and do use the pulpit to promote political change (civil rights leaders. Religious leaders central to anti-slavery movement 90.S. Moral Majority of the 80’s. The First Great Awakening (1730’s-40’s) transformed political life of colonies b. Sedition Act of 1798. Family influence on gov’t a. E. Family instills the ways we think about world and politics0 a0) Greater freedom of children and equality among family members… b) …leads to belief in rights and acceptance of diverse views in decision-making H. Candidates for national office in most other contemporary democracies rarely mention religion. drastically different in the U. confidence in pol. Americans favor economic freedom over equality 70. Americans are less likely to think that government should guarantee citizens a basic standard of living D. Swedes v. Institutions a. F. C. Reagan era/trust in gov. Eur. Espionage and Sedition Acts. Break with England-language of Declaration of Independence c. The effort to transfer responsibility for many pubic programs and services from the federal government to the states Chapter 4 A. Christian Coalition of the 90’s) 100. US 1. religiosity: US v. A belief that you can take part in politics (internal efficacy) or that the government will respond to the citizenry (external efficacy) J.

Blacks were being segregated up until the 1960s and then they realized that they needed to start the civil rights movement to gain them more political and life freedoms from the segregation they faced.Plessey was one-eighth black and refused to sit in the “black” railroad cars and was convicted. allow abortions. Libel a. “in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ had no place” because “separate but equal facilities are inherently inequal.19th Amendment. Religion. protect the rights of the accused. Chapter 7 A.the majority of young people identify themselves with the party their parents associate with. C. b. Blacks and Whites attendeed the same schools now. create social welfare programs. C. lock up . Plessey v. Most likely young.a. Occupation. Ferguson.want the government to cut back on the welfare state. etc. Pure Liberals. the Constitution cannot put them on the same plane. He appealed it to the Supreme Court which than claimed that “Separate-but-Equal” was constitutional because if “one race be inferior to the other socially. Pure Conservatives. 60 percent of adults still associate with the parties their parent’s did. Liberal defined in FDR’s time-referred to his political program.Race. D. Income. Fergusian was dead.. Board of Ed. Once they finally got what they wanted. Sex. Sources of cleavage in public opinion. Civil rights Move-ment of the 60s. populist. Flag burning a. allow the market to allocate goods and services. keep taxes low. Writing that falsely injures another person D. Region. Family influence on party choice.want government to reduce economic inequality. Wall of separation a.unanimous Supreme Court ruling that Plessy v.a. and by shifting the struggle to a policymaking deal. Brown v. the blacks wanted to make everything equal for themselves and all. There may be no law that bans flag-burning E. Political classifications/ conservative. Court ruling that government cannot be involved with religion Chapter 6 A. B. First 10 amendments of the Constitution C. They did this by allying white political elites. nonreligious. D. tax the rich heavily. and help certain groups (such as organized labor) acquire greater bargaining power. Education.States that B. regulate business. cure the economic cause of crime. and guarantee the broadest possible freedoms of speech and press.” Landmark decision. collegeeducated.one that called for an active national government that would intervene in the economy.

Most likely an older person. 235.Conservative on economic matter. Voting Specialist. weak government that has little control over the economy or personal lives of citizens. 258. 275. 274. 272. 207. Most likely young. live in the South or Midwest. Populists. 198. 271. and do not participate in anything political. previously Disenfranchised groupsB. often. They like to take their problems to the local government and work out their problems in the community. mostly African American. Campaigners. they are willing to contact local officials about specific.liberal on economic matters. Parochial Participants. 250. high income. higher incomes. XII. p. high income and well educated. 282 . 268. the turnout has never reached 70% even 50% some years. female.(11%) participate in all forms of politics. and conservative on social ones. c. Inactivists-(22%) rarely vote to never vote and do not talk of politics. 234. Most likely had little education and income. Chapter 9 B. is that the competition between the 2 major parties declined since the 19th century and the parties settled down in their respective regions and didn’t fight for politics like before. Libertarians. 237. p. to regulate personal conduct. However. 260 XIV. 201. 254.people who vote. f. Communalists. little education. 202. because fraud voting was easily accomplished up until the later 20th century. 270. and older. and live in the Midwest. 265. 267. Want a government that will reduce economic inequality and control business. 269. and live in the West. lock up criminals. 244. 205. college educated. personal problems. white. religious. Activists. but they also want the gov. And this is why the numbers are higher before then. no religion. low income. Decline in Voter Turnout. 232. 209 XIII. except that they tend to be more temperate. 255.Vote and love to participate.before the 1900s the voter turnout was around 70 and even 80 percent! And since the 1900s. e. Most likely young. poor educated. low-income. d. and permit school prayer. 203. 256.They are just like the Campaigners. but liberal on social ones. Most likely older. 259. Want a small. Another theory is that the voting ratios are more apparent than real. and curb forms of conduct they regard as antisocial. 278. 200. b. d. They have a passion for sticking to their party and campaigning around. One view reason as to why. voter participation groupsa.Do not vote at all.criminals. Chapter 10 B. C. c. 245. white. p. Most likely middleaged. but not much more. Chapter 8 A. 231. Chapter 11 B.

primary G. 1911 – House size fixed at 435 F. causes of factions according to Madison B.disliked them.split tickets. J. Campaign reform act of 2002 I.First political party was made in 1790s after the following of Jefferson.Chapter 9 C. voting for candidates who are all of the same party. Invention of the party conventions were made in this Jacksonian era. Weakness of Parties Today. voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election. interest access to gov’t in US C. Jacksonian era party system. Retrospective voting K. pres.Early 19th century.party chose pres. 1896 to 1932/ Republican domination M. growth of public interest groups in 60s E. Decentralization of parties. Parties. Who chooses candidates?. D. institutional interest groups/lobbying . Organization of pol. Candidates. F. a label. Funding for congressional v. increased over the years as opposed to straight tickets. institutional interest groups/examples F. National party conventions I. H.Weaker in the categories or a set of leaders. Modern Republican party K. Founders view of political parties. how?C. campaigns H. Candidate tactics: general election v. Party identification: factor in determining how people vote J.At the (Republican and Democratic) national conventions. Elections w/largest voter turnout D. They got rid of caucuses and this was a huge step from switching systems from the Founding Father’s original party system. 1980 election impact on taxes. southerners and union members lost L. the national committees and national congressional campaign committees. and regulatory practices Chapter 11 A. They were called the Republicans. and an organization. spending. periods in which interest groups expanded most rapidly D.ran from the bottom up. National conventions Chapter 10 A. % of House incumbents who win reelection E. G. Democrat strong hold on Catholics. Three clearest critical alignment periods L. 1964 election impact on social assistance programs N. E.

M. I. . N. J. Solidary reasons for joining PTA Materials benefits Purposive membership organizations Ralph Nader/ auto safety testimony Hostile administration allows increased effectiveness of public interest lobbies Social movements. size of Peak year of unions in US Corporations make up what percent of interest groups in DC Campaign finance reform so f 1973 Essay questions to be discussed in class. H. US participation in religious assoc. P. that of Eur. K. L.G. O.s v.

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