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The Origin of the World
Astronomers consider that the earth Then, (approximately 350 millions of
appeared approximately 4500 million years years ago) the creatures, which could crawl
ago. The separated particles from the Sun on the earth appeared.
got compressed and turned into earth. In
the beginning, like the Sun, Earth was also Archaeologists consider that the giant
too hot. Then, the heat decreased. Rains sized lizards called Dinosaurs existed for
began to pour down on the Earth and 100 million years on the earth and they
continued to be so for about 60,000 years. were eliminated 6.5 crore years ago.

Due to this torrential rain, the heat When did man appear?
decreased further and the earth became
The Holy Bible of the Christians says
cool. Oceans also came into being.
that the human race appeared and grew
At that time, the earth’s land surface from through Adam and Eve, the pair
was not divided into several continents, as created by God.
they exist now. It was only an unbroken
“God created man as a full man,” says
land surface, surrounded by oceans. Then
the Islamic holy book.
the land surface got broken and slowly
moved to become continents. The English Scientist Darwin conducted
various researches on human evolution and
Living creatures appeared after 1,500
released his findings in the year 1859.
millions of years of the formation of the
According to his research, living organisms
earth. The first and foremost living
started on earth nearly 45 crores of years
creature had appeared on the earth
ago. Some animals with vertebrates and
considered to be the parasitic plant of the
some plants without leaves appeared.
sea.

2.5-1.5 Million 1.5 Million - 1,20,000-30,000 From 15,000
years ago 2,00,000 years ago years ago Years ago

lizard. he learnt to make fire. pig and cow animals and to kill animals for meat. creatures similarity with that of a man might have like crocodile. Then. “Today’s men must have He used bones as needles. The predecessors for animals Later. made rough and coarse stone weapons. He evolved from these monkeys.000 monkey" is an accepted theory throughout BC to 5. Speech directly and they should have appeared from was created in stages. efficient hands. From the beginning and searching for food was his reptiles. ''Man is born from the Stone Age man. mammals emerged. could crawl on the earth also appeared. he used signs and sounds. Man lived like a barbarian in the which could eat flesh. To heat and they transformed themselves by the flesh. rhinoceros. a common ancestor. He wore barks and But some scientists consider that man leaves of trees as dress. snake and tortoise appeared one crore years ago. The animal species and the plant Stone Age species increased enormously.4 Dinosaurs Insects like spiders without wings also the world. he made use of fire.000 BC is called the “New Stone . To express his could not have appeared from the monkeys thoughts. gradually. In continuation of this. developed wings and became birds. Monkeys without tail appeared. to protect himself from wild like elephants. Animals. which. sharp eyes and cold. and covered his body. appeared. he appeared. By A number of monkeys similar appearance rubbing and dashing one stone against to man increased. It is considered that the monkey’s appeared. Some animals only activity. The period from 12. Monkeys grew further another. and to protect himself from the acquiring large brains. there was development in the Generally. which could crawl.” This is the converted the skin of animals into clothes theory of Darwin.

“The Metal Age Civilization” Many people grew due to trade. Iraq). But the Europeans came to know of Stone Age people lived in South Tamilnadu. The “Metal Age” led to a change in the Metal Age world’s trend. Its usage was Mysore. Houses. For day to day After digging in the earth and requirements. Art began to flourish migrations in North west Persia. parts of France. Egypt and Mesapatomia in 3000 dogs. Man learnt to cross the mountains. We can say that civilization started in 3000 BC. in the peninsula of China. Man’s life and civilization After new stone age ended. Man learnt to live according to the For economic and security reasons climatic changes. Due to this. copper was discovered. and paintings were created. New itself. damaged instruments. They also Metals like Gold. and Mesopotamia (to day’s Tower like structures were built. about the usage of metals were exchanged They made vessels out of heated clay to between people living in various places. Some others went to parts of Pyramids. started to develop fast. carry water. horses and BC. like vessels.” We can say that civilization started it was discovered in Cyprus Island and then from this time onwards. and Germany in oceans and rivers. copper. weapons and excavations made in some places. First cities and forts buried under the earth. Metal Age spread to Europe. there was clash Iron was used by Egyptians in 3000 BC between different races. From Asia and Africa. Malabar and Cuddapah and such there in India even earlier. the digging of west and North Africa. People settled down near people migrated to other places. Temples. THE ORIGIN OF THE WORLD 5 Age. its use only in 1000 BC. There were manufactured. The views the banks of the river and started cultivation. During this time. stick and knives were Darvin Minor. Buildings. other places. war and mixing of migrated to parts of races. Mines. Europe. Metal Age changed. and started to tame bronze were used in the parts of Nile animals like goats. delta. Syria and Asia Sword. Trade improved. Gold was first discovered and was used Evidences to make ornaments. In India. were . Italy. donkeys. Spain. development in transportation Some people went to of vehicles occurred.

pots and bowls preserved and burried inside the Pyramids were found evidencing how man’s in good condition. people who learnt to make use of verbal letters.000 sign People of Egypt and Mesopotamia who letters in that language. To refer the world. tiger. functions of governments by kings in Kaveripattinam and Athichanallur in South succession who lived 5 thousand years ago. They did sea trading throughout letters”. From these people. Inside these Pyramid towers. they drew the picture of a tiger and The Chinese language letters were sign showed it. For verbal letters were not formed. The sign letters written by Babylonians For example. to give information about a and Azariahs looked like sculptured letters. years ago did not know "writing" since the Instead.6 WORLD HISTORY found. pictures drawn by them were known as “picture letters. thousands They used to express their thoughts by of signs were written. they used to write some signs. the ancient Egyptian kings have been The Evolution of Languages People who lived several thousand about a tree. Through these we can surmise the Mohenjadaro and Harappa in North India. It is not easy to lived 5000 years ago did like this. Surprisingly. Details and come to light from the pyramids near Cairo data have been recorded using pictorial in Egypt and excavations conducted at letters. the Pyramids civilization existed several thousand years still survive the ravages of time even after before. The learn and write sign letters. from “picture years ago. In some places. thousands of words in speech.” European Languages These picture letters can be seen even In the west Phoenicians were the first today in the Pyramids in Egypt. These people lived in Syria 4000 As time passed on. Then they showed pictures. 4000 years of existence. pictures Facts about human civilization have and designs have been painted. There are more than 5. The bodies of cultured even 5000 years ago. way of signs. India (Tamilnadu). letters. the tree was not drawn. These Pyramids stand ample testimony to Pyramids are considered to be one of the fact that Egypt was highly civilized and the wonders of the world. the Greeks . “sign letters” were born.

From these Latin letters. the pronunciation of letters and the literary works in Tamil began to appear. Two or One three letters were pronounced of th jointly. Though there are less number of Tamil is one of the ancient languages. the shape of the Tamil as “Round letters. Therefore. Paper The Urdu and Arabic letters are written The ancient people carved the letters from right to left. is Aryan family whose original languages is Sanskrit. These letters were round in shape. languages like English. different changes took place in the way of There are separate alphabets for Tamil writing Tamil letters during the last two and Sanskrit.” thousand years ago. letters remains unchanged from up to down. But. the other family is Dravidian whose The ideas of foreign languages and origianl language is Tamil. Then. THE EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGES 7 learnt to write letters. There are combined letters in T the languages like Sanskrit. The All the letters of the Indian languages orders of the kings were written on stone belong to two families of languages. there are no combinations of letters in Tamil. Tamil books were written on palm leaves. Tamil letters were called printing machines. One walls and copper plates. wooden bark. Even selecting Indian Languages palm leaves and arranging them in an order was considered as art in these days. letters got mixed with Tamil. The Greeks taught wrote on polished leather. Therefore. alphabetic letters in European languages like Even two thousand years ago. . pronunciation of words with the creation of Hence it can be inferred that the Tamil those letters are different. letters of Romans are derived from the Even five thousand years ago. English are written from left to right. After the invention of are also different. India Kannada and Telugu. they write the letters from up and down. clay these letters to the Romans. The shapes of these letters thousand years. The people of China on granite rocks and the walls. people began to write in India.the people Greeks. In the ancient times. French etc were one cannot identify the exact time when born. There are grammatical rules in the ancient grammar text by viz “Tholkappiam” as to how the sounds of Tamil letters are born and how Many languages including Tamil and these letters join in the word. The Latin vessels and palm leaves. words in European languages. However. it is People should have learnt the art of writing difficult to learn the pronunciation of the several thousand years ago. European of Indus Valley wrote on clay. very good English.

Memphis king established the prominence of Egypt got diminished by the Egyptian empire. Persians and The kings who succeeded him were known Greeks. To protect themselves. honesty. Egyptian Empire after fighting and driving The winners of the war became kings. who lived happily near the river were the kings who built the pyramids banks. He drew away the The Egyptian Empire powerful priests and closed many temples ordering that except Sun God.” These people. race with the other race and also between one set of people with other set of people. different empires emerged in Among the Egyptian kings Agnotton different parts of the world.who were He safeguarded the interests of the people. a bridge across the times. race and each set of people. from each river Nile was constructed. there emerged an empire and the emperor’s Then. Like this. invasions of Assyrians. the Egyptian empire was expanded. simplicity and faithfulness. Those who won in the wars. people. He insisted on virtues like peace. Samati race invaded Egypt . many kings ruled Egypt. Memphis was his capital. The Egyptians who were suppressed like There were wars between the races and slaves rose up under the leadership of Amos. was the first empire to be formed in the whole history of the world. groups.8 The Ancient Empires T here were often clashes between the as belonging “Pyramid dynasties. the rough nomads of the offered things. called "Hyksos". (who ruled in 1375 BC to 1358 BC) had a significant role to play. The rule began. away the Arabians. During the period There was no king and no laws in those of King Aminatep III. Persians . the Egyptians were subdued and regulations to develop unity among the under their control of about 500 years. the king of Deeps and established the annexed the empires of the defeated people. Unable to withstand their These leaders formulated certain rules and attack. no other God It is claimed that the Egyptian Empire should be worshipped. it was necessary for them to choose a leader. In the year 525 BC. In the year 2160 BC. There were fights between one between 2900 BC and 2750 BC. Therefore. He The Egyptians who inhabited on the river may be argued to be first king who followed banks of Nile river are known to be the ethics. They At that time. which were liked by him. pioneers of world civilizations.

which means "country between two rivers". were affected by the movement of the The people who inhabited there from planets. between these two rivers is very fertile. born here.000 Years ago. They believed that people’s lives. Mesopotamian Civilization The ancient name of Today’s Iraq was Mesopotamia. folk songs superstitions. dug discovered bronze.000) The valley about 2. Some archaeologists are of made researches about solar and lunar view that probably the ancient man was eclipses. Euphrates and Tigris are the two rivers which flow here and merge into one before reaching the sea. They They used chariots with wheels. Sumerian. They development in that period. During this period. Poems. Here. still stand. They originated. They also flattened the surface of the clay soil. were libraries in Sumaria as early as 2700 BC. It was they wrote first from right to left and then from who calculated that a day consisted of 24 left to right. 9 captured Egypt. canals and did cultivation. Two hundred years later. With that. Alexander the Great captured Egypt. They created cities. There was scientific and Epics were written on them. hours (12 hours day + 12 hours night) and Babylonian and Assyrian civilizations one year consisted of 12 months. Thirty thousand planks made of clay The people of that period had beliefs in were found in a library. North West part of Mesopotamia are Only these people invented wheels. the Egyptian Empire came to an end. small empires There are evidences to prove that there come into being. Sumerians. The Romans erected Stadium (Capacity 45. They were tribal people. .

and destroyed the Sumerians. the Assyrians captured the rule. who were The rocky peninsular islands. So. which stationed at the bank of the river Tigris in penetrate and spread into the Mediterranean the year 3500 BC. established a kingdom with Babylon as the capital and ruled it. During their period.10 WORLD HISTORY Babylonian civilization power. When Babylonians lost their . Welfare of the people was protected. laws were framed. Babylonians. The Semitic chariots and vehicles which were used to race. They ruled in places like Syria. the Semitic race During their rule. buildings were built. Babylonian civilization is the oldest of Damascus and Sumeria. when Asur. The Assyrians. taught. their capital. infantry and cavalry came and invaded them. who won. They attacked existed. Sumerians established only small kingdoms. Babylon. In Civilization of Egypt shows the pyramid today itself schools. they were not of Babylon on the bank of river Tigris. Babylonian reign began to decline. Assyrian civilization is one of the Mesopotamian The Greek Civilization civilizations. During his period. cases were examined and punishments were inflicted. which was situated 200 miles north people from outside invaded. was able to protect themselves. were controlled by the region in Europe are known as Greece. astronomy and medicine were break the forts. They had weapons made of iron. In the year 2900 BC. One of the important kings who ruled Babylonia was Hammarubi (1943-1905 BC). Mesopotamian civilizations. huge beautiful After the reputed rule of Hammurabi.

He was a great scholar. They migrated In the beginning. BC. Though they belonged to various Socrates is the gifted genius of Greece. Wealth prospered. they had common religion worship. monarchy was prevalent. Since they were involved in various wars. the Romans invaded various regions. Unable to do agriculture. Slaves were brought from defeated Pericles created golden age in the history countries. many people settled from the Different types of rules like monarchy. THE ANCIENT EMPIRES 11 The people of that land are called Greeks He ruled efficiently after establishing and Hellers. ancient civilizations. Administrative Assembly. dramatist and orators were risen from Greece. one after the other. During army and became the leader of the this time. there was huge loss of men and Due to lack of unity and great wars. Greece. Great writers. In the year 753 BC. So. Plato's disciple. in the great Athens of to central and south parts of Italy. Illiad" in Homer. control of Greece. parts of central Europe. His disciple was Plato and Aristotle was language and behaviour patterns. Forts were also constructed for Roman civilization is one of the best protection. Asia Minor and rule by lords and dictatorship existed in each Greece were inhabited. In the fertile region of the Italian They took pride in winning over others. There Through the great Epics "Odyssey and were great Greek scientists also. which was under the formulated. their rule and stringent laws were They captured Italy. He was the captain of the for a powerful government was felt. corruption enormously increased. the power was transmitted to the was created. Archimedes was a great mathematician. It can be said that Greece only created a base for various types of rule. They were ruffians. It can be called as the In the beginning there were 150 city . The need and a politician. They roamed over as if war was wealth of the country was destroyed. they became sea. There were many taxes imposed in empire. . The Greeks had extraordinary central. the kingdoms of Greece started deteriorating their only activity. The world-renowned philosopher men. the Roman empire Gradually. Julius Caesar came to power. These small kingdoms used to quarrel among themselves out of jealousy. one could know about the Greeks of those times. Peninsula. Southern and Eastern Europe. the material. In the year 1000 part of Greece. They were settlers from democracy. continuation of the Greek civilization. kingdoms. orator. The Greeks who settled in valleys surrounded by mountains begin to build The Roman Civilization palaces. races. Bribe and of Greece. interest in literature. the Europeans came. As a part of expanding their Lords.

family should send a person for military She did not consider it wrong that her service in the city of Athens. she left for heavenly . accept anything without asking questions.He was poisoned to death the city. His talented speech fascinated the In those days.in the year 470 BC. But he could not get sufficient income out of it. 470 . he did not Philosopher and scholar . Two wives Socrates married twice. He rose roaming around. the husband was roaming around in the streets parents of Socrates admitted him in the and giving discourses for hours in front of army. There after. She was proud about her husband and considered him as a great genius. he stopped who learnt from him was Plato. Socrates fully.C. He used to propogate rationalist by incurring the displeasure of the rulers ideas when people assembled. we come to know about his father in his profession of Sculpture. She had very good qualities. the capital of Greece. “Do not them. The nobles and the not so systematic and full-fledged like how aristocrats after knowing about the talents it is now. So. the mass. After the completion of his army life. He also stopped his as a great achiever in the later times. He helped through his books.articulated the slogan up in the morning. he used to roam around "know yourself" . His mother was a considered to be antisentiment.who uprooted do any particular profession. As he grew up. His rationalist propaganda which was father was a sculptor. The main and fell a prey to the punishment given by idea of his propaganda was this. Merton was Army his first wife.400) Socrates is the world famous Greek he returned home. the education system was youngsters very much. Suddenly one -day. Only thinking process for sometime. mid-wife. This was the gist of his born in Athens. Socrates served in the army for some time. learning. So.12 Socrates (B. Two male children were It was a compulsory rule that each born to her. Nearly 500 years before the birth of Find out the truth by asking questions like Christ . he realized the situation The most important disciple among those of poverty of his family. So. Socrates was 'Why' and 'How'”. Socrates developed his of Socrates sent their children to him for knowledge by himself. As he woke superstitious beliefs .

"Stop several public meetings. expressed by the bubbling anger his wife’s call. People say it is an atheist principle. . His wife could not “Did I ever say that there is no God? control her anger and she poured water Or there is no super power like that. Socrates began to answer for the time. SOCRATES 13 abode. truth become an atheist? They feared that if the youngsters start Here. he did not hear jealousy. it would result in danger for them. of his children. “He doesn’t believe in God.” These with regard to qualities. he married a lady by name Xanthibi. He it and activating the world activities. powers? There was a splash of thunder also. He At the court remained sad for many days. His wife grew angry. against me have failed in the arguments at So. I do from a vessel over his head. poets all your propagation about the rationalist and genius people are queuing behind me propaganda". They are the outburst of deeply involved in the talk. now rain that started pouring. Socrates was imprisoned. As he was are not new. He propagates atheist principles among the She was exactly opposite to his first wife youngsters and ruin their minds. To take care So. his wife called him. they met Socrates and said. Scholars. those who have framed charges thinking.” All this time. but he did not become angry.” non-acceptable arguments and unbelievable stories about the origin of the incarnation The fear of officers of God. Socrates became very sad. The important portions of the historically famous great argument of him at the court Rain poured are as follows:- One day. in front of his house. She thought that he was made to appear in the Court of his rationalist propaganda was a waste of Law. not doubt the great super power which had He was shocked at this unexpected included and integrated natural forces into event. The government officers grew angry at How can a person who tells the aspects of the speech about rationalism by Socrates. She hated the were the charges levelled against him and behavior of her husband. not stop even then. That is all. and I do not believe in the imaginary stories. there was lightning. He continued talking with of the officials and their outrageous his friend. have branded me as a culprit. She chided thoughts. She also gave birth to two children. That is why they his manner of behaviour. charges framed against him. Can slowly turned towards his friend and told anyone tell that I have abused these super calmly. Socrates was discussing the “My dear people of Athens! principles of the power of discrimination with his friend. Socrates did Atheist and a person abusing God. But Socrates did not change and so they are jealous. At The charges raised against me today that time. They are branding me as an her husband like anything.

"if he pays a the judgment according to your own thinking huge penalty. there was a voting in the rulers. we would release him" said and what you consider as Justice. a culprit or not. both the punishments. I am understand me. later on But Socrates told." Thus the officials. But Socrates refused to accept roared socrates in the court of law. It was decided that Socrates should die it was decided that Socrates was Guilty. My ideologies would take here to teach them how to think analytically deep roots and get established in the minds and find out the truth". 281 people voted him as "Guilty" and 220 people voted that he was Poison "not Guilty". First they thought they could apology and ask you to release me. after consuming powerful poison. Then. "I will be talking for one day. With the difference of 60 votes. Voting So the government was angry and said the “attitude of Socrates was to disrespect After the enquiry.14 My dearest people! Suppose all the The ruling people told him.” Accordingly he was given death the court to decide whether Socrates was sentence. how can you say that indulge in the propagation of rationalist youngsters would get deviated in the wrong ideas. it was decided to punish Do not think that I would plead for Socrates. of the people of Athens in the future. We would change your punishment." path by me alone? If not today. Give ex-communicate him. "Give us a people are there to channelise the activities conditional statement that you will not of the youngsters. Therefore. the human society would the people of Athens until my death. After .

ALEXANDER THE GREAT 15
hearing this, his wife shouted and screamed. accept these things. A powerful poison
She pleaded her husband to accept the called “Hemlock” was given to him in a
charges of the government and tender cup.
apology so that they would release him He bid farewell to his wife and friends
finally. and drank the poison fearlessly. Then he
His friends also tried their level best to fell down on the floor and died. He was 70
prevail upon him to apologies so that he years old at that time. This event happened
could be released. But Socrates did not in the year 400 BC.

Alexander the Great
(B.C. 356- 323)
The Greek king Alexander is considered everknown. He became a king at the age
to be one of the best warriors world has of 20 and captured many
countries before he was 32. He
has won a great place in the
annals of history.
Alexander was the son of
King Philip who ruled the country
of Macedonia in Greece. He
was born in the year 356 BC.
He was a great warrior at the
young age. He was considered
the best in horse riding.
The great analytical thinker in
Greece was Socrates. His
disciple was Plato; Aristotle who
was the disciple of Plato was
appointed as the teacher of
Alexander. So, Alexander grew
not only as a great warrior but
also as a great diplomat and
judge.
When King Philip was
engaged in a war, he was killed.
Alexander ascended the throne
as king. He was only 20 at that
time.

16 WORLD HISTORY

There were outbreak of riots in the friendly with him.
northern parts of the country. Alexander
But king Purushothaman (Porus) fought
crushed those riots. The whole of Greece
against Alexander. On the banks of river
was brought under his rule.
Jheelum, both the armies attacked each
Alexander wanted to spread Greek other. In that war, as usual, Alexander
civilization in foreign countries and so he won.
invaded Persia.
Alexander looked at the defeated king
His army consisted of 20,000 infantry, Purushothaman and asked him, “How
and 5,000 cavalry. In the war, the Persian should I treat you?”.
king was defeated. Alexander treated the
“I want to be treated as a King,” replied
wife and mother of the defeated king in a
king Purushothaman boldly.
dignified manner.
Appreciating his courage, Alexander
Then, he captured countries like Syria gave back the captured country to
and Egypt. In Egypt, he created a city in Purushothaman.
his name called “Alexandria”.
Alexander wanted to conquer several
In all his conquered countries, he made countries. But the soldiers got depressed
Greeks to migrate. He conducted the and worn out of war. They wanted to
marriages of several Greeks with Persian return to their native land and started
girls. After capturing Afghanistan, indulging in riots.
Alexander’s attention turned towards India. So, Alexander had no other way except
At that time Indus valley was ruled by to return to Greece. Some soldiers returned
small chieftains. Alexander crossed the to their country by land route and few others
Indus River in the year 326 BC and entered went back by sea route.
India. The King of Takshasheela knew When Alexander returned to his country
about the war talents of Alexander the via land route, he was affected by a virus
Great, and he welcomed him and became fever and collapsed in the city of Babylon.
At that time, he was only 32 years old.

Cleopatra
(B.C. 69-30)

In the year 57 BC, the country of Egypt Before Ptolemy died, he announced that
was ruled by a king by name Ptolemy both Cleopatra and her brother Ptolemy VII
Ayolatus. His daughter was Cleopatra. should get married and rule Egypt. (To

17

avoid mixture of other dynasties, in those her beauty, and promised her to give his
days, these types of marriages occurred.) support.
According to her father’s wish, In the war that took place between
Cleopatra married her brother and took over Ptolemy and Caesar, Ptolemy died. Caesar
the responsibility of ruling Egypt. Cleopatra after making Cleopatra, the Queen of Egypt,
was only 16 at that time. Her brother turned began to live with her. A son was born to
husband was only 10 years old. them and his name was Caesarian. After
The ministers and the nobles made sometime, Caesar proceeded to Rome with
Ptolemy their puppet. At their instigation, his wife Cleopatra and his son.
Ptolemy drove away Cleopatra and captured Brutus, the friend of Caesar, joined hands
the rule. with some conspirants and brutally killed
Cleopatra escaped and ran to Syria. To Caesar with a cruel weapon. Caesar
capture the rule of Egypt again, she shouted, “You too Brutus?” and died.
gathered the army and came back. Caesar was 49 years old at that time.
At that time, Julius Caesar (BC 63 to At the parliament house of Rome, this
BC 14) who ruled Rome invaded Egypt. cruel assassination occurred.
Cleopatra met him and asked for his Cleopatra got very much depressed at
support. this sudden demise of Caesar, returned to
Caesar was very much impressed by to Egypt and took over the responsibility of

loved each other deeply. Octavius waged war against Egypt. Antony place called Ocadium. live without my dear Cleopatra?” Then. Octavus. Both Cleopatra and also to Caesarian. She too But even then. Antony was depressed. The people. started hating Antony. and struggled to death inch by inch. he He renewed his friendship with Octavius. ”Why should I situation at Rome. After killing Caesar. Brutus and Casius an Egyptian empire along with Cleopatra committed suicide. there was a rumour among to Rome. His joyous ordered to bring venomous snakes. in the year 31BC. He announced that he the support of the public. drove away the conspirators with kingship in Egypt. and said. Though Cleopatra lived with Julius Her body was also buried next to Caesar before. the naval forces of became a slave to the beauty of Cleopatra Octavius and Antony fought against each and started living with her at Alexandria. she was much delighted to Antony’s. the child of them together ruled Rome. Antony established his Antony. Cleopatra was 39 at the time of lead a happy life with Antony. Two children were . did not like to live without Antony. Antony and Cleopatra met each other. Caesar’s beloved army chief by name At this juncture. married the cousin of Octavius. The poison got mixed in her blood. killed himself with a sharp weapon piercing To make sure about the friendship. The Romans city of Philippi and in this war. the 19 year young countries to the children born to him and boy by name Octavius came to Rome. They both her death. Antony and considered that Antony was trying to create Octavius won. At the time of making a peaceful agreement The news of Antony’s joyous life spread with Octavius. he his chest. At that time. under the control of Rome. She life with his beloved lover Cleopatra made the snakes spread over her body and renewed. Brutus along with This announcement of Antony created his friend Casius conducted a war in the a big tension at Rome. who heard about the people of Rome that Cleopatra committed this. The forces of Antony got defeated. the would hand over the rights of ruling Asian foster son of Caesar. the capital of Egypt. On seeing the growing popularity of She decorated herself as a queen and Octavius. and this would bring a great disaster to Antony went to Egypt which was kept Rome. of Octavius began to gain ground in Rome. Cleopatra was very much upset. Antony and Octavius became fully ripened. born to them. he returned to Egypt. The popularity suicide. time. For the first Following of this. by name Hearing about the death news of Antony. of Cleopatra and Julius Caesar. In the They became lovers at sight. Due to this. the enmity between bite her. other. and returned to Rome. Antony considered the rumour to be true Antony came to know about the critical and he screamed.18 WORLD HISTORY ruling Egypt.

significant event in the history of the world. They lived under the The emergence of Christianity is a leadership of Abraham. The Romans also attacked J e w s . were also So. the T h e Jews captured their mother country Israel) . Assyrians. in the year 222 BC. founded the religion of After the continuous attacks of Christianity. this religion Palestine. In the country are year 330 BC. they migrated to various places. Persians. “Hebrews” (Only after the First World War. Egyptians. that place and migrated to a place called Jesus Christ who was born as a Jew Israel. Isaac and Yacob. T h e y and drove away the Jews. Then. they reached Within a short span of time. J e w i s h They had to face many problems. the Jews had to roam around without c a l l e d any proper state. P e o p l e Syrians and Romans and also due to acute belonging to famine. 19 Jesus Christ Jews were nomads. Greeks. Alexander attacked them and called won over them. They drove away the tribes in spread all over the world.

These pieces of advice are guidelines to “The spirit of the purified Soul would fall people and to the human community as a on you. The birth of Jesus Christ Mary and Joseph stayed in a cow shed in It was the time when the Romans kept a rest house. (This Bethlehem is now of Jesus Christ right from his birth. will become pregnant and give birth to a Diberiyuraya occupied the Roman throne. said the Messenger and left “God is one. New Testament the place. After that.” So. accordingly about his crucification on the Cross. beyond the limits of the Religion. Bilathu was the Governor of Udeya Marriage was arranged for Mary. The people who wanted versions of the prophets. The holy book of Bible has been The messenger of God informed Joseph classified into two parts as “Old Testament” also about the fact that God‘s child would and “New Testament. you the Jews society. As there was no place for them to stay. people who love him will . He preached ethics pregnant woman before the marriage? and values to be acquired by the people. "How could I become a along with his disciples. Name that child as Jesus Christ". bridegroom’s name was Joseph. How is it possible?" asked Mary with fear. pregnant. So. which was crushed. child. By the grace of God. was longing as Jesus. his life and go to their native places. thirty years. The “Old Testament” is about the The Roman emperor who was the then events. The community was born to Mary. a beautiful male baby the Jews under their fold. ordered that the census must be Jesus Christ. the messenger of God years old man. He was a Jesus Christ roamed around the city carpenter. Jerusalem. There. many events had happened in "Don’t be afraid. one sees Jesus as a thirty At that juncture. in the Bible.” be born to Mary. to attain freedom. Through that you will become whole. who had predicted to register themselves. It contains the detailed done immediately. Over these appeared before virgin Mary and said. The country. which happened before the birth of ruler. All the in Palestine at a distance of 6 miles from predictions recorded in the Old Testament. A lot of people gathered in Bethlehem. Mary and Joseph went to their native place The “New Testament” is about the life called Bethlehem.20 WORLD HISTORY Old Testament. which was a part of Palestine. Instead of Agasthuraya. as citizens should the birth of Christ in the future.) happened exactly as predicted. They named the child of Jews.

but for fear of Jews. people who were punished for death THE JEALOUSY OF THE JEWS sentence. who was bed-ridden for over 28 years and made him walk. One of the disciples by name Judas It was mid-noon when Jesus was Iscariot betrayed Jesus by showing his crucified. would appear among them. At that time. Jesus Christ was laid on the wood of So. They plugged the nails on his the Son of God. Their anger augmented when Jesus Jesus Christ prayed for the people who pointed out the demerits of the ruling people. Pray for those who are harmful insisted on capital punishment for Jesus to you. They yourself. He brought vision to the The crucification of Jesus blind people. the army chief. Love others as you love witnesses against Jesus Christ. who Though he knew that Jesus Christ was repents for his misdeeds. it grew dark. The astronomers coins. After his soul left for heavenly abode. Jesus was taken to the palace of Pilate. the gruel. If you are slapped on one cheek. He made the deaf to hear and It was a practice in those days that the the dumb to speak. public. who could fight and win crucifying him on the Cross. King Galileo. . A person. The rulers grew jealous of hands and feet along the wooden cross and the fame acquired by Jesus among the straightened him. With his help. Pilate announced significant preaching’s of Jesus Christ. would receive not a criminal. Apart from preaching’s.These are the also to safeguard his post. he also cured who was the king of Arode. Jesus in a garden outside the city. JESUS CHRIST 21 be safeguarded. they gave him were expecting a right time to murder him. They manipulated false they buried him in the nearby cemetery. Christ. also confirmed various sick people. He cured a person the capital punishment for Jesus. were hit with stones. did harm to him. the rulers arrested had recorded that even in China and Egypt. show your next cheek also. they refused to accept Jesus Christ as the Cross. However it The Jews had the belief that a person was ordered to kill Jesus Christ by by name Messiah. over Romans. capital punishment for Jesus. When Jesus asked for The rulers conspired against Jesus. and blessings from God' . They water to quench his thirst. the Sun disappeared whereabouts for the sake of just 30 silver and darkness discended.

. The first church was constructed in The spread of Christianity Jerusalem. a miraculous light. threw fast and spread to various countries. Jesus said and went for the heavenly abode. started accepting the religion of Christianity. the religion also spread very fast. He refused to obey In the year 2000 AD. he lost his eyesight due to religious conversion were created. city of the Christianity. When he was crossing Baptism emerged. “I will come again”. Pope them in the church and committed suicide became its leader. the religion. He took efforts to year 326 AD. Then. Greece and Rome. Then. The sacred Jew by name Powell was a Bible was written. Then. Bishops Christ spread to nooks and corners of the and Arch Bishops came into existence. th Judas.22 WORLD HISTORY Resurrection Instead of the practice of worshipping the Roman emperor. Nearly for 40 days. Therefore. Christian religion started Rome. (approximately 175 crores) in the world. Patriarch became all. languages all over the world. But Constantine who came to power later. Rome became the capital in a cruel way. Jesus emerged out of worshipping God and Jesus. Though the early kings hated Christianity Some archaeologists consider that Jesus and destroyed the Christians. who betrayed Jesus Christ to the After 15 century. were murdered. which the then emperor of Rome and so he was is embraced by the largest number of people mercilessly killed by him.powerful Pope spreading in the whole world. is Christianity. Constantine participated. there are no evidences to prove this view. he took his disciples and went to As the Christians offered their blood. the Christians started On the third day. He converted many people to Christianity. The methods of through a forest. In world. There were 12 disciples for Jesus. for the sake of 30 silver coins. spread the popularity of Jesus and about Bible was translated into different the religion at places like Macedonia. Christianity developed Jews. The system of significant person. churches were built in The news about the sacrifice of Jesus cities like Alexandria and Rome. the top of the mountain. king came to India after his resurrection. he gave Christians were treated cruelly. with significant rights and he became the leader of the Catholic Christians. And many his appearance for his friends and others. So many the cemetery. again he regained At the Christian conference held in the his power of vision.

to wage a war to recover the sacred places of Christians. But the and was responsible for ruling it. The places connected with Jesus Jerusalem died. a Roman The first crusade Shephered boy by name Stephen claimed. But the Christians Christians who went to the sacred places faced defeat. To go to In the war between the Christians and the those places. Jerusalem was under the control But both the ships got drowned in to the of the Christians.” He organized an army it. When Jerusalem The Third crusade got into the hands of Seljuk Turks in the (1189 AD to 1192) . was Muslims. the The second crusade numerical strength of the Christians was In the year 1101. In the considered to be a sacred duty of the year 1187. But consisting of 30. trouble started. in Europe. The European kings joined. 23 The crusades I n the medieval period.000 boys and girls. They were not trained properly. For nearly army started on its voyage in two ships. So. it was agreed were humiliated. In the year 1212 AD. the Christians So. the The Fourth crusade church people. sea. Jerusalem captured Jerusalem. As they Constantinople (the old name of Istanbul wore the sacred cross and fought. were considered to be sacred.000 people got involved in the Turkish people. 80 years. as the king of more. the Christians decided to join together were driven away from Palestine and Syria. by the Muslims. The Christians in Europe. the kings and the religious (1203 AD) The Christians captured heads participated in the wars.In this war. there were no serious problems for the Christians. the Muslims won the war. Nearly 40. This war broke out in the year 1097 “I am the person sent by God to destroy AD. on a pilgrimage. they captured Jerusalem. these which is in Turkey) but the Muslims wars are called “Wars of Crusade” recovered it in the year 1453 AD. But after 100 years. But even then. chaos broke out all over. Jerusalem was under the behaved with a friendly attitude towards domination of the Muslims. He became the Sultan was captured. In the year 637AD. the others. Those who survived and reached the . For nearly caliphs had religious tolerance and they 50 years. which was adjacent to the seashore of Syria. many year 1086 AD. The churches were that the Christians could go to Jerusalem transformed into horse’s stables. This still. a soldier by name Saladin Christians.

After some in those days worshipped different idols as years. pope acquired greater war. people hit him with stones. he But. As he travelled people of Satrap welcomed Prophet to different parts of the country for trading Mohamed. He did charities for the public. Then. There is no equal Abdullah and his mother was Amena. Poland. Later it became “Mathina” old widow by name Katheeja. was born on Mountain and plunged into meditation.” The misfortunes in his early life. Mecca in the Arab country. Often he went to the Heera of the religion called Islam. In the place slaves. He th 20 April. opposition started there also. conducted war for 16 years with the help of Venice. purposes. His father was “God (Allah) is one. Prophet Mohamed The religion of Islam is one of the was pre-occupied with the activities of world’s significant religions. the naval force of Holy Cross War” in the History of the the Muslims was defeated. Austria. people started opposing and and his paternal uncle by name Abudalib. he married a 40year Prophet). Satrap as “Mathinathunabi” (the city of At the age of 25. went to Satrap along with his supporters. his father expired.24 WORLD HISTORY shore by swimming were also sold as and gathered the supporters. (1683 AD) Pope Pious V started this Through this. Though he did not have the privilege of acquiring a systematic education. He should be worshipped. He experienced different kinds of This journey is called as “Hegira. attacking him. serving the society and philosophical Prophet Mohamed. The Muslim people Mohamed. So he Gods. When he started explaining his views. he experienced very many events People changed the name of the city of in life. to him. The . This event is noted as “children’s called Leppanto Guda. Russia and The last crusade France and drove away the Turkish people. in the year 571 AD in the city of acquired the philosophical sense. Prophet Mohamed good qualities and commendable behavior. Pope Pious World. his mother also passed away. he had In the year 622 AD. As Prophet Mohamed expressed a was brought up by his grand father Mutalif different view. who was the founder thoughts.” He Some days before the birth of Prophet preached this doctrine. He joined hands with Spain and Venice command.

Just in Gabriel to the God’s messenger. The political head. Zakat. Then.” The people who He was not follow Islam are only a religious called as head but also a Muslims. to offer Zakat (two and a half percent poor There he preached his doctrines. The people charity tax). the Islam Islam began to religion. God is one. his Mecca. the most holy ahrine in mecca. worship. sent Kaaba. word Muslim In this world. the month of Ramzon. spread very fast. Prophet 24 years of his preachings and this greatest Mohamed. to do prayers five times a day. It is called as The Arabic “Hadith” (the word “Islam” golden words of means “to P r o p h e t worship God and Mohammad) attain peace. To have strong faith as Mohamed defeated that army. means. .” appeared in the Koran is fields of religion nothing but a and politics. to observe penance throughout accepted his preachings. PROPHET MOHAMED 25 king sent the army to murder him. of followers in through Angel his life. to go to Mecca and After acquiring victory in Mecca. achievement is solely attributed to him. he lived do the Hajj are the five important duties of in Mathina. he went to the city of Mecca. year 632 AD. But book containing P r o p h e t the God’s Mohamed had messages offered a huge society by God. Islam is a palace raised with the five pillars viz. Belief in God. Prophet penance and Haj. He speech and his passed away on way of life style th 8 June in the were recorded. W h e n Again Prophet P r o p h e t Mohamed set on Mohamed was a Hajj journey to living. “One who many people obeys God.

the Judah. Caliph BC to 550 BC. In the year th B. invaded and captured Egyptians captured Palestine.000 people are living. palestine. revolted and is situated in the many times. Now. Thereafter. some kings rule of the Greeks for Yasir Arafat demolished some three years. The Jews who lived in Palestine wanted It was notified as to free themselves “Kelan” in the Holy from the rule of Bible of the Christians. churches in Palestine. But edge of Mediterranean those riots were Sea in West Asia. The After the rule of Christians considered the emperor Solomon.26 Palestine There existed a long time enmity The birth place of Jesus Christ. These countries middle eastern were destroyed by the countries were empires which existed dominated by the in Mesopotamia which Muslim rule. crushed. Bethlehem remains a The history of Palestine starts thousand small city where 20. In the extended during 750 year 640 AD. th into two countries From 7 century namely Israel and AD onwards. between the Jews and the Arabs regarding Bethlehem was situated in the south of the historically important place called Jerusalem. years before the birth of the Jesus Christ. Alexander 9 centuary A. .D. European Christians got Palestine was under the domination of the angry with the Muslims and waged the Romans.C. and on the west of Jordan River Palestine. Romans. Palestine as their Palestine was divided sacred place. crusades. in Palestine. At the time of the birth of Jesus Christ. Therefore. Omar captured th In the 4 century Palestine. At that Palestine was under the time.

in the Germany. This suggestion was accepted by the In Palestine. a special situation arose Jews. The Arabs did not accept this. Because month of November 1947. From 1933 onwards. At the time of the First World War (1914 . At that time. But there was no unity in the year 1939 and so the clash between among them and so uninterrupted riots the Jews and Arabs stopped temporarily. the Jews started Separate Country migrating to Palestine. Hitler came to power. occurred. dividing Palestine between Arabs and the Jews. The that both the Jews and the Muslims jointly Second World War broke out in September had to live there. The rule of the English people of his cruel rule. the members of . the English people captured The British Government considered Palestine from the Turkish people. 27 Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO leader Yasir Arafat agreed to palestinian self-rule in Gaza Jericho. In centre American President Clinton. in After the world war was over.1918). the Jews from Germany also started inhabiting Palestine.

In the slave country of France. Israel also came down from its Gaza. Though Israel was In November. Israel country with freedom movement of Palestine under the its capital Jerusalem came into being. the people of the th From 15 May. France was defeated. Independent separated.28 WORLD HISTORY the UNO met and decided to render a The Independent Palestine separate country to the Jews by name To fight for an independent Palestinian “Israel”. on January 6 . per the Peace Treaty. in April 1982. It was In the six day war of 1967. th of Palestine on 12 February. was made by Yaser Arafat. 1996. taken from one part of Palestine. which said. Joan of Arc (A. of France. 1988. which was dominated by the the brave lady Joan was born. Several part of the Jordan River was established times. country for the Arabs. as stand and agreed to recognise for the independent Palestine in the year 1993. At very pious. Israel recognized by 80 countries including India.1431) In the beginning of the 15th century. 1412. She wanted to relieve her A person by name Jetty-Arc was her motherland from the British rule. “You can do it!” She believed it to be the voice of God. 1413 . and the Sinai Peninsula. the western the Arabs did not come to an end. British.D. 1948. one sixth (PLO) conducted Guerilla wars. wars took place between Israel and and this historically significant announcement the adjacent Arab countries. father. . the clash between the Jews and Palestine consisting of Gaza. She thought that she could drive away Isabella Roomy was her mother. captured the western part of Jordan River. of them are Arabians. empire. Joan had three brothers and that time. Israel Yaser Arafat was elected as the President came out of the Sinai Peninsula. She was the British forces from her country. France these animals till she attained 16 years of came under the domination of the British age. in She used to drive away the cattle to the the war that broke out between France and forest and her main activity was to tame the Britain. Gradually. she could hear a heavenly voice two sisters. leadership Palestine Liberation Organisation Among the population of Israel. in She used to get dejected about the plight th the city of Tam Remy. Then. He did cultivation as his profession.

000 English people.” she was When the French imprisoned by the army with 12. army. She also captured the forts the British and for that you are given death called Shale and Mustio. She told him about view. After that. You are a She defeated the witch. He will not under the control of speak through an the British. without the orders of the me the army. So. JONE OF ARC 29 She met the king. God will cities. She “Only through the recovered many priests. In warriors was handed the Fort of over to her. The voice British in the war. She wrote a letter to the British.” This way he gave the judgment. So. But rendered the they didn’t agree to judgment in favour it. I shall defeat the British French Government. There is nothing wrong in . "Give 500 soldiers. you heard is of which took place only Satan. Her plan was to send the British away “I executed the wish of God and I heard from France completely. great suffering to her. a god-gifted girl. you could ascend the When she was fighting against the throne.” The king and the army chief British. which were speak. suddenly you waged war against for seven days. She took Roosoul. th 28 April 1429. sentence. With this end in His voice only. due to the conspiracy of the believed that “Joan is Burgundy state. ordinary girl like you. she marched towards Paris along with the heavenly voice and asked him. she started of the British attacking them on government. asking The chief priest them to vacate the of Rome by name Forts which the Pyorekishon was British had built a puppet of the adjacent to the British and so he riverbed La Ar. she was the lead of the army kept as a prisoner and started to wage and the English war against the people caused British.

was made possible Columbus set on the sea for many people to voyage. he . towards west. But the On 30 May 1431. in the Atlantic Sea.” Joan told the British. tried to His first sea voyage find a sea route to India but discovered In those times. Pinto 1451. Palace. 1492. The the brave lady Joan was tied in the street. French king Charles VII also did not come before the general public and was burnt to her rescue. At a very and Santa Maria. alive. Two months after starting his voyage. along with 120 migrate to sailors from the Port of America. English government did not accept this.1506) Columbus renowned in history.D. young age. the popularity of India America. had spread worldwide. it rd voyage on 3 August. in front of a church. They belonged to Italy started their voyage in three and he was born in ships namely Nina. which was in the Columbus south east of Spain. Columbus (A. But him. 1451 . They he discovered only also came forward to help a few islands.30 WORLD HISTORY th my deed. He discovered requested the King and America but the queen of Spain to help him fact remains that in his sea voyage. he These three ships started their voyage undertook sea voyages. Columbus thought It is a generally accepted view that that he would reach India by sailing on the C o l u m b u s sea towards west. as he discovered He began his sea these islands.

(in September. which was drowned into the after they come to know. in return for our ordinary things. People live in When he undertook the sea voyage for those islands. by the Sea They offered precious things owned by Researchers.” (Now it is called as “Cuba”. Only This ship. Maria got broken and drowned into the sea. The drowned ship of Columbus The gents and ladies in these islands When Columbus went with three ships are roaming around naked. I could see seven different kinds of had promised him. He wrote a letter to the Finance Minister of Spain about his experiences. He under the rule of the Spanish King. Hand Cuff The important aspects of that letter are as Columbus set on sea voyages 4 times. follows : In his second voyage. It was arranged for a Fourth sea voyage to him. Some ladies in his first voyage. that they towards west for a small distance. slowly. he discovered West Indian Islands. years in the year 1968. High mountains are seen The Spanish king did not help him as he here. not known as to where it ended as I went He discovered the Gulf of Mexico in his Fourth Voyage. So. clove and metals like gold are available here. plates and key chains. that there is no sea in 1492. One of these islands is “Jeevana”. the age of 55. he went allowed to have upto 20 wives”. He became sick when he returned to There are very broad ports here. It was such a big Island.) People who live in this island get satisfied The letter with only one wife. around it. One of the islands by giving glasses. I come to know that only the males in the king’s family are After he landed on the island. The beauty of their height in poverty and died on 20 May 1506 at cannot be explained! Spices like cardamom. the ship by name Santa wear leaves and small cloth as their clothes. I don’t think it is a small island but it is a very big Poverty Chinese country. Columbus struggled th coconut trees. them. I found out a few islands. is “Jeevana. they behaved in a normal way. So. I have released an the third time in 1498. was later found out after 476 harm by us. there was a clash announcement that those islands have come with the Governor of the island. They started running on seeing us. Big Spain from his fourth sea voyage in 1504. I have ordered our people not to cheat them . rivers flow here. 1493) rd “On 33 day of my voyage from Spain. Spain. I have handcuffed Columbus and sent him back to flown the national flag of Spain also there. I The Spanish king and queen were so went along the coastal side of the seashore much in love with Columbus. COLUMBUS 31 discovered some islands.

In 1785. In a class. which were under the credit. he became the Deputy leader of the Army. political diplomacy and new war He joined the school of army.1821 ) Napoleon of France has got a specific he gained the respect of the government. due to his a son of a lawyer in the island Corsica. to warriors who had great achievements to capture the parts of Italy. he was the nd Napoleon turned his attention towards 42 student. When there were riots in the state. got impressed by the deeds of Napoleon.32 Napoleon (A. . techniques. After completing his education.D. So. The French people and disproportionately large ears. place in the history of the world among the In 1796. Austria submitted itself to the He had a short figure. which consisted of 58 students. He was crowned with In the year 1769. he was sent to Austria. with small eyes authority of French rule. 1769 . he showed his talents in crushing them. bravery. its possession. he joined the army. Napoleon was born as success wherever he went.

but other European invaded Russia. Napoleon invaded Britain with In the meanwhile. establishment of assemblies. Due to this order. But in the war that chaos in France. Napoleon acquired many powers with the title of “Consul. the armies of administrative reforms of Napoleon. in the year 1798. other people. Napoleon’s attempt to capture the Prussia and Russia.” Though But Napoleon captured the allied there were group of advisors and the countries of England such as Austria. created protest against reforms in the administration. should not have trade relationship supported him. till 1815. he waged war against Egypt. Napoleon in those countries. From that time onwards. a new rule. with the support of the countries like Austria. Napoleon went through took place in Trafalgar. He ordered that Therefore. the real powers Prussia and Russia. With the support of the with Britain. Nelson Britain knew about the plans of defeated the armies of Napoleon on the Napoleon and so it strengthened its stand banks of the river Nile. Napoleon dazzled as an unequalled and The French people were already unparalleled emperor in the year 1806. He was particular countries. So. became of Spain. and created Nelson defeated the armies of Napoleon. vested with Napoleon. defeated. the Navy chief of the British. But to bring Britain under his control. they thought that Napoleon those countries. In some parts which were so confusing earlier. exhausted due to the French revolution. But Britain France in 1804. But he lost his sleep because of his inner urge to defeat Britain. He made a lot of French regime. we The attempts of Napoleon to bring can say that the history of Europe was countries like Spain and Portugal under the moulded by Napoleon. eastern countries ended in failure. The laws. Emperor Invasion In 1805. Due to the beginning of countries also got benefited due to the winter season in that country. Napoleon faced great troubles. the armies of Napoleon were clear. NAPOLEON 33 England. Napoleon Not only France. was not affected. British Navy chief and dissolved the existing rule. . Napoleon became the emperor of European countries suffered. there was political the assistance of Spain. which were under his would offer a good government and control. In order to curtail the trading But Napoleon wanted to expand his contacts of England with the eastern empire more and more. In the year 1812.

the British But within some army arrested him. that the anger of the British could be He used to take his food in a gold plate but then. There. Napoleon was When the ship reached defeated and exiled the port called to the Island of Elba. which extended for 15 kilometers in length and 10 kilometers in Napoleon went to the city of Paris and breadth. Austria. days. Napoleon taken to the Island of Helena in the ship. drive away Napoleon Russia and Prussia from France.000 persons the government. it Finally. Napoleon started his which took place in voyage in a ship. set up under the leadership of a person by name Posidy.34 WORLD HISTORY Out of 4 ½ lakhs French warriors who narrowed. government was in a gathered the army dilemma as to whether and got ready for give him death war. sentence or keep him Waterloo battle in prison for his lifetime. Napoleon resigned and left went to Russia. In the war. 10. Many European Some people suggested that Napoleon countries decided to combat Napoleon. could escape to USA in disguise. . Arthur Wellesley at Waterloo in Belgium. started a war against According to his plan. Some people expressed their view that Napoleon should step down from power so He passed his time by reading books. So. 1814.000 kilometers away from Europe. But Napoleon declined to do so. small house. 1815. Defeat But some how. This great defeat made Napoleon’s rule to suffer a set back. Napoleon was Deputy Chief along with his army. he escaped The English from that place. the newly appointed ruler Countries like Posidy planned to England. in 1815 Josephine Napoleon was decided to imprison him in an island called “Helena” which was defeated by the British general. only 20. Finally. he was imprisoned in a held discussions with the governing group. It faced failure. th Due to the delay in the arrival of the On August 9 . Plymouth. he ate his food in a ceramic plate. France. was a small island. A new administration was survived and returned to France.

He was 52 years old at the time without fail even from the warfront. hygienic. and wrote But some researchers are of the view that his Death Declaration. Napolean The condition of Napoleon’s health loved and married her. Then. 1821. Death Bokarne passed away. knew that he was nearing death. At the time of French revolution. He It was believed that he died of stomach cancer as per the report of the doctors. His room was not There are different news prevailing. Help should be extended to the first husband was Alexander Bokarne. Death Declaration. of his death. Napoleon. “After my death. he could have been killed by slow poisoning. Day by day. to him were limited. In the beginning. my body should be buried near the river Seine.” This was his children were born to Josephine. families of those friends who died and for When she lived with her first husband. two the friends who are alive. My wife and children are to be Love safeguarded from the clutches of the His wife’s name was Josephine. the facilities presented his body was buried with the guard of honor. 35 Battle of waterloo. He used to write letters to her collapsed. There were lot of rats and so he regarding the cause of the death of suffered without sleep in the nights. On May15th. he . In the island of Helena itself. Though he loved her too much. his health deteriorated. Her enemies. Napoleon was very became worse. he fond of her.

he married Mary only for a few minutes. .36 WORLD HISTORY divorced her because she did not give birth breath also. the daughter of Austrian king in used to sleep during horse riding.1810. he It was an unexpected event that he became accepted Nero as his son. he used to sleep As he wanted a heir. A male child was born to them. In the daytime. (37 AD to 68 AD) widowed mother married King Claudius. the world the king of the Roman Empire. There were some unusual capabilities in Re-marriage Napoleon. But he gave her a fortress and and Josephine. Though he Theresa. set her to live there. he was April. intense love for her. At the time of his last Nero. Though he divorced Josephine. When his has ever seen is Nero. the Atrocious One of the most brutal kings. In the night. he had very alert. he used to sleep for a short time. his lips murmured only France to a child.

Then. he committed suicide. Nero became a cruel Antonio. England had the area of only 94. he of punishment and as there was no other assassinated his wife Octavia and married go. the daughter of king Claudius. Nero was only 17 at that time. NERO. This led to notorious statement the monuments were smashed. most of the Africa and ruled over them two hundred people who lived there were engaged in years before! cultivation. In 20 century countries like India. The language Britain consists of four islands such as spoken by them was “Welsh. was set in flame and huge part of it was The people became furious and disliked destroyed. THE ATROCIOUS 37 on the fiddle. He was 31 years his friend’s wife Pappiah Sabena. km captured th occupies a significant place. At the time of 100 BC. She Rome. She a big palace and lived luxuriously. In monarch and was obsessed with sex. there existed stone age and the Metal Lanka. America also. His name was removed from involved in the entertainments like dance documents records of the government and and music. Nero was playing History of England How much amazing it is to note that The ancient Britain such a small country like England which In the history of the world. He wanted to marry As days departed. Even then. he was deeply Nero. He the year 68 AD. and North Ireland. made her son as the king. and Cyprus. for fear at the instance of his lover. languages such as Karnish and Irish . He escaped. England. "when Rome was burning. Burma. Wales. Singapore. The wicked Nero kicked his pregnant wife and killed her. Sri BC. Europe a race by name. th Why to talk so much about that? Even In the year 6 century BC. there were rebellions violently killed the son of his step mother. They were the best warriors. Scotland.247 sq. various countries in age. “Celtic” migrated was dominated some years back. against his rule. They were of the white race. to England. Nero was declared to the who was supposed to acquire the throne.” He revamped the city of Nero’s mother was also very cruel. he also killed his own mother charges against him. enemy of the country. The senate framed Besides. after its destruction and constructed gave poison to the king and killed him. Rome at that time. from central the super power of today.” From this.

Britain. again kings came to the throne in Britain. Different But later. “You In England. soldiers. The Romans and drove tribal people of England them away.Germanus sea. announcement. After killing him. In the year 429 But due to the severe AD. In the year 287 AD. England Caesar invaded England with 25. after some months. the then that took place between Roman emperor the two parties. In the 2 century BC The Romans ruled England nearly for itself. settlements were set up. out the world. There were confronting Julius was a major set back Caesar who moved forward to England in 80 to the Roman Empire ships along with the in the year 410 AD.000 has become so vast that the English people warriors in 800 ships. Christian religion started spreading in Britain. In many places in in this country”. but captured Britain and set up his rule. They were sold in the streets of king in 1307.38 WORLD HISTORY nd language were born. These slaves were used for difficult She was the sister of the French king labour. At this time. . Therefore. Roman rule yourself”. England became very England. a person by turbulent waves in the name St. His wife’s name was Isabella. the colonies of Rome were popular and its reputation spread through established. Caesar had to return to Rome. In the battle At that time. purposes. a person by name Alex The invasion of Julius Caesar set up a tyrannical rule. the the Roman Emperor tribal people of Julius Caesar waged England attacked the war on England. Gilts used gold coins for trading 400 years. Following the invasion of Caesar. many The queen who killed the king people were taken from England to Rome Edward II took charge as the English as slaves. though they were God fearing. it it but he did not honor the order of Rome was their custom to offer “human sacrifice”. Karasius was sent to England to safeguard But. Caesar gained a proudly claimed that “The sun never sets great victory in this war. from Rome. In the year 55BC. Caesar Honorias sent an won. Rome. many ships of Julius built a Christian King Edward II church in south Caesar got damaged.

Due to this large Henry VI ruled over England. and plague were farmers. the Kings like Edward The majority of people who died of III. In France areas of land remained uncultivated. Kings and nobles used to to kill the king. The production of food grains was greatly hundred year war witnessed both defeat affected. HISTORY OF ENGLAND 39 Charles IV. Both Isabella and her lover Mortimer The dangerous plague disease. in the year 1398. nearly 40% From 1337 to 1452. Henry V. English language started to of Edward. As per the order of the queen Plaque Disease Isabella. This is described in history as the attack of plague disease) which prevailed the “Hundred year war”. some enemies showed him to the queen. Books were written There was no one to come to the rescue in English. During this time. class and the general public started speaking and writing in English. in England. The ruling proceeded to London in a ship. Henry IV. and victory. Richard II. the kings with the help of some of the English nobles. Queen Isabella went to France. of the English population succumbed to the plague disease. due to the Both of them secretly gathered an army enmity with the country of France. There existed a love affair English Flourished between Isabella and the noble by name Before the advent of the hundred year Roger Mortimer. five kings conducted the rule. Some enemies betrayed him speak and write French. foster with vigor. There. Edward II was countries in Europe also took deep roots in st England during 1348 – 49. lost their lives. Thus. stating that she wanted to see her brother. It took nearly 100 years for there were frequent wars between England England to touch its old population (before and France. which issued an order to kill the King Edward in attacked central Asia and several other the Prison. Both of them conspired war. nearly for 116 years. and the common people developed hatred Then in order to attack Edward. The Hundred year war According to one census. So. machinery also used French language for In 1325. Lakhs of people assassinated on 21 September. The governmental to the queen. Edward was put in the prison. he escaped to South Wales. they towards the French language. . During the hundred year war. its operations. 1327. The also.

She announced that. Indian ruler Akbar was her contemporary. and die as a spinster” and she lived Elizabeth .) But within few years after the marriage. on becoming a young Shakespeare lived in England. During the rule of Elizabeth. On January 15 1558. The great lady married the French King Francis II. Many kings and princes liked to marry her. the English dramatic writer acquired education.I . (At the time of Elizabeth’s and she was bestowed education. At that time Mary was only a 7 day old Elizabeth became the queen of England at child! So she was made to stay in France the age of 26. Her father was Henry During this period Scotland remained as VIII. “I will live like a spinster. 1542 and his daughter Mary came to the intelligent and talented. Elizabeth was born. But Elizabeth did not like to get married. England was Elizabeth I (1533 AD to 1603 Queen Mary of Scotland th AD) In London. the parliament asked her to get married. th several languages.40 The queen who killed the queen accordingly. on September 7 1533. So she has been recorded as One of the important queens who ruled a “Spinster queen” by the historians. Several times. E n g l a n d developed in several fields. a separate country. The scotland king by name James V was killed in the war of Her mother Anne Boleyn was beautiful. After she rule in England. Elizabeth learnt throne.

In the beginning Mary declined to marry for The problem brought by the destiny the second time. At the age of 19. Mary rule. of England. Protestant. the Protestant Christians. Mary had the secretary Rijoh. They When he tried to planned to overthrow the escape. palace. the nobles of Scotland. he in this regard. This view North England. but later married her There was a reason behind Mary relative Tornley Noble. Elizabeth According to came to know of this After nearly twenty years of imprisonment. After the period of closely with her Elizabeth. She started living The English queen away from her Elizabeth was a husband. For sometime. that Mary in a palace in Mary had a hand in this murder. But Mary One day the was a Catholic Christian. gets confirmed by the fact that she married Pope Pious V expected that Elizabeth a noble by name Par well within three would become a Catholic. But Mary started moving cousin of Mary. But instead of months of the murder. there was chronic Mary had extreme hostility between the dislike towards her catholic Christians and husband Tornley. She was forced by many people to escaped from the prison and ran to England. she was a widow and went back to They made the Proclamation saying that Scotland and took over the charge of the James VI was the Scotland King. suspicion in the mind Mary thought that of Tornley. they both led a happy The queen of England Elizabeth was the married life. give her consent for the re-marriage. returning to England. right to become the This created queen of England. towards Elizabeth. researchers. . he was rule of Elizabeth and crushed in his neck make Mary as the queen and killed. she issued various orders to take This marriage of Mary was not liked by revenge against the Catholics. Mary was arrested. that. Therefore. So. THE QUEEN WHO KILLED THE QUEEN 41 the king passed away. where Already the Catholic Tornley was staying priests developed hatred was bomb blasted. h i s t o r i c a l plan and imprisoned Mary was executed in 1587. It was a period when Because of this. killed Rijoh. In the Elizabeth would help her presence of Mary.

For a king who did not abide by the . parliament. in the conspiracies of parliament. for 19 years. (1642 AD). From that time onwards. Immediately. During his rule. against her which. In 1707. Though monarchy was prevalent in A law enforcing this came into being on 1 st England. The and brought charge was framed to London. th sentence for her. Death sentence It was Charles I who had such a was given to more than 200 Catholics. he was brought before the imprisoned Court of Law. At that The annexure of Scotland time. Mary’s age was 45. was But. She thought that This internal till Mary lives. The judgment found Charles guilty. Day by day. punishment. when Ane was the queen of The death sentence for the king England. Britain the kings should abide by the parliamentary is called as “United Kingdom”. there war lasted is threat for her life. escaped and Mary. Mary also had a part. for six years. who was ran to suffering in the prison Scotland. he imposed taxes according to his own The crushing of head whims and fancies without respecting the At this juncture. death sentence their queen. put against involved in the conspiracy to kill Elizabeth. it has been a tradition there that May1707. A case was stated that Mary was King Charles I was beheaded in 1649. To clashes increased and there broke out an prove this.42 WORLD HISTORY the Catholics planned several conspiracies rules of the parliament. some internal war evidences in the form between the of letters were found king and the out by Elizabeth. and conducted to kill Elizabeth and to announce Mary as himself in his own style. 1649. Mary’s Charles was beheaded publicly on 30 th head was severed on 8 February1587 and January. rules. she K i n g ordered for an Charles enquiry against Mary. him as he did not respect the parliament Elizabeth announced that Mary was a and he was made responsible for the internal criminal and issued the order of death war. As per the order. Scotland was annexed to England. these types of the Catholics. thereby fulfilling the death sentence. was given. Elizabeth crushed all these conspiracies at the budding stage itself.

After that. Cycle and sewing machine she got married. He tried his best to establish peace and get yourself involved in the proceedings in the whole of Europe. At descended from the monkey”. Otherwise. George V ruled over . the researcher They both loved who belonged to England. Albert died. she was only quarter portion of the world. Her were made. invention of Cinema.) history of England. she was the empress for the that time. (Date of birth – England emerged as a force 24-5-1819) to reckon with. his brother’s daughter Victoria India were kept under the British Empire.“ Forget all your worries peace. The death of her husband agitated her She left for heavenly abode nd very badly. sometime. Darwin. she cheered up her mind and started looking into the proceedings of the From 1910 to 1936. he collapsed. on 22 remained very sad for January1901. that time Victoria was 41 years old. She at the age of 82. The members of the parliament met Edward was a good man who liked only Victoria and said. The whole world praised Victoria as the great Empress. she came to power. make a th On 6 May. due to the attack of proclamation that England is a democratic pneumonia fever. At In short. Only during Three years after her rule. th became the queen on 20 June1837. Albert. her eldest take care of the son Edward VII became the king. 1910. He proceedings of the government for long time. was 59 at that time. England became husband’s name was very strong in education.” his son George V took charge as the king. She did not Empress Victoria After her death. “Man is 1861. FROM VICTORIA TO ELIZABETH 43 From Victoria to Elizabeth Empress Victoria held the post as the government. many countries including without heir. country.The next day. of the government. The period of Victoria’s rule Empress of England for many years (64 can be called as “the golden age” in the years. When the English king William IV died During her rule. In evolution That. 18. each other deeply and developed the theory of they had 9 children. Like his mother.

“If marry a lady who had divorced Wallis also left for in heavenly abode) . on 10 December. Wallis had two times. The next day. Then. 14 years later. The Christian church also very big ship company. Edward Edward became the king. his brother. On hearing this. he passed away. The child born to her cannot Spencer and divorced him. (father of the present Elizabeth) was made the king. 1936. Both of them lived happily Wallis. The family of Simpson owned a in the manner. he cannot live without you. I don’t need the crown. He was the only king who abandoned his throne. opposed the love marriage of the king. First World War took place and ended. But Edward was firm in his decision He fell in love at first sight.” Wallis understood abdicated.” told Wallis. The emperor who gave up the throne th On January 20 . She decided to divorce Simpson and marry In his place. shocked. George VI Edward. she cannot attain the status of already married a naval officer by name the queen. The age Edward announced that he wanted to marry of Wallis was 40. “For me love is more met each other often. 1936. (The marriage of Edward and At that time only. at the age people and the Prime Minister were of 77. Prince Edward met Wallis. During his rule. 1937. I th Accordingly. Both of them and announced that. became the king. One day Edward important. George V died and Wallis took place in June. In the year 1972. the royal family for 35 years. George V died.44 WORLD HISTORY England. After some days. In a feast. for the sake of love. “I love you whole heartedly. later she become the king after your period.” Prime married a wealthy person by name Minister Baldwin expressed his perspective Simpson. Already there Edward VIII Wallis existed love between an American girl Wallis Simpson and the King. that Prince Edward had true love for her. was 42 years of age at that time. his son Edward VIII.

As Edward VIII abandoned the crown. st on 31 August. 1997. English is . After the surgery. he died. FROM VICTORIA TO ELIZABETH 45 part in that function and paid tributes to George VI queen Elizabeth. The crowning Queen Elizabeth is probably the world’s ceremony was conducted in a very grand richest woman. Diana died VI. Queen and ended. In 1947. New Zealand. the Second World War took place marriage. of Edinburgh. In Britain. During called “Duke of Edinburgh” after the his rule. Many world 5 billion Pounds. he was 41. Australia. place. Canada. till the fifth century. Like Queen Victoria. The English language Gaelic language. 1952. and a daughter by name Anne. The were also named Elizabeth. 1926 George VI who came to power all of a in London. The story of the origin of English T he English Language originated from the most widely spoken language of many England and spread to other countries like people. Andrew. At the age of 57. The value of her wealth is nd manner on 2 June. In efficient manner. they divorced. They spoke these countries. Elizabeth is also ruling for a long time in an King George VI suffered from cancer. America. The words which are in which has spread throughout the world is vogue in English language to day are derived spoken by 510 million people. Chinese language (1070 million). st Elizabeth was born on 21 April. Charles. the tribal It is the mother tongue of the people of people called “Celts” lived. namely. But then. He had two daughters by names in a car accident which occurred in Paris Alexandra Mary and Margaret. Next to the from that language. 1951. 1953. Queen Elizabeth II Prince Charle`s married the beautiful girl There was no male issue for George Diana. The mother of Elizabeth leaders participated in that function. there are three male children th on 6 February. For the couple queen Elizabeth and Duke he lived for five months. her marriage took sudden governed in a splendid manner. His eldest daughter Mary. She was called then Indian Prime Minister Nehru also took as “queen mother". he underwent an operation and one of his lungs was removed. The bridegroom Philip has been When he came to power. as “Elizabeth Richest Woman II” became the queen of England after the death of George VI. India attained independence. and Edward. She lived up to 101 years and died on 30-3-2002.

literary Christianity in England. they started migrating there itself. some Latin words based on The universities of Cambridge and the religion were mingled into the English Oxford were located in the central part of language. French language became published in 1623 cannot be understood by the official language and it was spoken by the people of today. of Christianity. changes occurred in English Grammar and In the year 1066 AD. they inaugurated the art of Printing in England. So. In the they portrayed “hand” as feminine gender northern part of England. the growth of the English sea-shores of England were harassed by language was extraordinary in that region. the script of Romans advancement of the old language was came to be used.Latin language were in They followed the grammar structure vogue. th in 14 century. the words of other directions style. and Jutes th In the 13 century. many After one more century. We into the old English language to a large can call him as the “Launching composer” extent. From The dramas of Shakespeare which were that time onwards. After the spreading of Due to the domination of French. This language is also the French language. it remained only a spoken and later left this country. the domination of and “leg” as the masculine gender. belonged to France. Anglo-Saxon. the English people. the Scandinavian words got assimilated course language of the central part. struck. of the Germans. Anglo-Saxon in their day to day life. slowly conquered the shape languages in English. London and many people came to the city At the end of the Eighth century. In those days. were using a particular style called poetic After this. William Coxton books were written. In the usage of grammar of those days.46 WORLD HISTORY The Romans defeated these tribal people that time. in each part of the country. who lived century. From Germany.” educated people . Saxons. During . composed his poems in the So. of English language. three languages were migrated to Britain. the Scandinavians often. The reason is that the royal family and the nobles for nearly English language has been altered into that 300 years. But the common people used stage now. In the French was less and so. there was no fusion of other known there. great languages came into being. among the nobles - language as “Englick”. In the next The poet by name Chaucer. the language well- beginning. and among the called as “Anglo-Saxon. There were exceptional words meant prevailing in other parts vanished. They named the prevalent in England. captured England. After the period of King Albert. the Prince of the pronunciation of words and gradually Normandy (known as William) who the present day English was formed. Among the general migrated land as “England” and their public. After the propagation of the English language step by step. the of London. language. Many to use in the poems alone. So.

the enemy country of Britain. The language. . had nothing to eat When the the seeds of many transformations that took American people revolted against the British place in the European countries. Due to the trade development.D. The those books. language as more of Latin based and the By this progression. It sowed fields. The words of the other European the words from all parts of the world got languages also got mixed into the English mixed up into the English language. King Louis XVI was the ruler of France gave assistance to the Americans. THE STORY OF THE ORIGIN OF ENGLISH 47 After the invention of the art of Printing. The French Revolution (A. for the blossoming superiority as it is spoken by the length and of English language. The main reason for that was that the minority The French soldiers participated in the population of the nobles and upper class American war of Independence. Latin words and the Greek words got mixed into it to a great extent. the revolutionary storm started taxes by the government. the English people went to various places in the world and transported the existing During the period of Elizabeth. returned (constituting 1% of the population) crushed to France and spread the revolutionary the 99% of the common and lower class principles among the people. rule.1789 – 1799) T he French Revolution is a striking farmers who worked hard in the green event in the history of the world. The urge for freedom possessions of Upper class of people. wrote many The major part of lands were in the revolutionary books. These two movements English has acquired the status of did not succeed. there words in those parts and supplemented them arose two movements in England. writers who lived before the revolution namely Voltaire and Rousseau. The first movement aimed at making the English into their language. was financial calamity in the French economy. other languages. English language second movement which was against the was treated as a blossoming language. there at the time of the French revolution. They arose. So. France. But. Hatred developed among the Right from the period of the previous general public due to the levy of new heavy kings. in the minds of the people who read lived luxuriously in huge palaces. these two movements breadth of the whole world. It first one wanted to maintain the English language as natural without any mixture of spread to the whole world. facilitated a lot. The French people. gathering in the minds of the people.

the revolt with firm hands. King revolt. According The king ordered the army to crush the to this constitution.48 WORLD HISTORY Due to the extravagant expenditure. As the parliament attacked the fort of the king. The National Assembly created a new constitution in September1791. fort called “Bastille”. is a red letter day in the The king got back the army. towards the city of Versailles and he set up The people of France became furious the armies around the cities of Paris and and intensified the revolt further. 1789. the people’s army of the parliament. The fort. The king The king came to know of the huge accepted this demand and arranged for the procession planned by the people from Paris arrival of the armies from other countries. he sought the permission th On July 14 . The prisoners refused. The king lost the The execution by guillotine of Louis XV1 . the army was not able to sustain peace by crushing the people’s monarch were reduced. to gather funds. The people became angry and engaged in riots. 1789. As there was no other go. July 14 . the army Louis XVI faced great financial trouble and also joined hands with the people. But. which consisted of eight floors. the powers of the revolts. It was only on that royal family compelled the king to crush day. he got angry and dissolved the were kept in a prison without enquiry in the parliament. But the history of the world. Versailles. was captured by Revolution broke out th the people’s army. French revolution broke out.

the With a difference of one vote. On 28 In the war that broke out in valmi hill. Many changes were made in the rules countries. The The death sentence for the king responsibility of the law was handed over to a new group by name “Directory”. In 1799. He was to fulfill the death sentence was passed. A new political constitution came into th being on 26 October. who were caught under suspicion. his wife (who was Party” was born. system into existence. on 21 January. To support the king. st Accordingly. Napoleon and evaluated the political situation. .000 The revolutionaries felt that the king people. Louis XVI was responsible for this defeat. th on 20 September. brought back to France. the tyrannical rule came to an army defeated the armies of the outside end. So the armies of the of administration. by The people decided to abolish the system the Guillotine (the machine to cut the head of monarchy and bring the Democratic neatly). The army of the people was defeated by Just took charge of the rule. Thus. Severe these armed forces. “Democratic After some months. 1792. captured the power of ruling the government. St. But at the frontier of the country. the revolutionary After this. people by names Robespierre. the King Louis XVI was beheaded. Nearly 40. 1793. The European kings feared about the The Tyrannical rule French revolution. was a proclamation stating that France was an autonomous state. autocratic rule prevailed. he left France with King Louis XVI was an offender. 1795. the decision security guards captured him. All over the country. took place as to decide whether to discharge death sentence as punishment for the king. members of the National Assembly that After losing his powers. Kadhan. A voting his family in disguise. The Assembly. July. July 1794. This The National Assembly (which consisted new set of governing body was popular of the revolutionaries) of France gathered only for 4 years. Robespierre was arrested. which consisted of three Austria and Prussia sent the armed forces. revolutionaries gained an upper hand. FRENCH REVOLUTION 49 power of using the Treasury of the country The king’s rule was abolished and there according to his wish. his head was slashed by Guillotine. revolts began against People opposed their tyrannical rule. In the king. were brutally killed. A th death sentence was passed on him. imprisoned) was also guillotined. Escape of the king It was decided by the majority of the The king did not like the new constitution.

languages are spoken among the people. When (the tribal people of America) had migrated migrations began. the tribal people (the Red to America from Asian continent several Indians) resisted the entry of the foreigners. There are different views world” and it consists of two continents. George Washington American continents. In North America. he the people who lived there preferred discovered some islands adjoining to the “fishing” as their main profession. and as there th “Red Indians. is mentioned. But they are not Indians. He thought that Even today.000 years passed since the migration of the people in The ancient America. Plato. about their entry into America. the French. by the Greek scholar. some people are of the view that South America the Asian people came to Africa comprises of several and then migrated to South countries.50 American History America is described as the “New centuries before. The super power “United States of The “Atlantic ocean” of today was once America” is there in the North American the land surface by name “Atlantis” as told continent. the land he reached was India. he the tribal people are living. are joined by a narrow land surface (Panama It is considered that roughly Canal) 20. in some parts of America. the English. As he named them as Indians. So. when Columbus began to hit big rivers flowing in the central part and so upon a new sea route to India. If 'America'. They were Migration the tribes of America. More than 200 named the people there as “Indians”. eastern coast of America. skin of the animals. there are In 1492. . They used nobody lived in the the weapons made out of stones. In the beginning they America wore the dress made out of the In ancient times. it refers to this only. So. America through this “Atlantis” These two continents land surface route. Spanish It is considered that these Red Indians and the Dutch people migrated there. even today they are called as As America was so fertile.” was less density of population. in 17 century.

By broke out between the armies of England the agreement which was signed between and the armies of the French. in Pennsylvania. migrated countries to share the burden of debts. a war were frequent clashes between them. the people who hard and converted the lands into cultivable migrated to America could have trade lands in North America which was enriched contacts only with England. the three places lasted for 7 years. The suppressive measures Signing the Declaration of Independence 1776. A Governor problem of huge liability. In the meanwhile. they looked upon England for their support and The English government levied the tax security. English government. not permitted to trade with any other countries. So. But trade and the political domination remained with the English government. As America was thousands of of one lakh pounds and also decided to miles away from England. This war them in the year 1667. 51 and every aspect. to seek England’s help was not feasible. which could suppress the colonies were the people But even then. who migrated there. toiled which was enacted in 1664. So the migrated people took care of their problems themselves. in North America. In 1681. New Jersey and the domination of the French in America Delver were seized by the English people. England faced the people set up their colony. migrations continued to take settled migrated. were enacted by the place. . For each purposes in North America. At the end of this war. The people. in those days. the English Due to this war. They were with forests. the laws. it establish and maintain an army for security took 3 months for communication. At the time of these migrations. According to a law. was brought to an end. The migrated English people and the Dutch lived in neighbourhood and so there At that time. namely New Amsterdam. it ordered the was appointed for that region.

Americans started their trading activities The Boston Tea Party with all the countries as against the law of England. In Boston. New York big rebellions broke out. 1782. The birth of the Independent Country In 1773. The English officials America from 1775 onwards between the crushed the revolts with the brutal power British and the Americans. George of Britain over America. a big The English men got enraged about this democratic country without the king was and decided to close the port of Boston born in the world for the first time. took the tax on tea. he did not eliminate Washington. who came to power. President of America. the Colonial countries the taxes of the migrated countries. In 1789. 1776. there are 50 States. and They framed decisions against the British. “United by historians. against this. the domination of England in the tea boxes into the sea which were worth America came to an end. . released the. abolished all Apart from this. The Americans revolted. “Kaspi” reached the shore of America. The At the end. in November. the British Prime Minister North Noble. there Americans opposed the tax on tea and was a peace agreement between the refused to take the tea boxes. American colonies and England. charge as the captain of the American armed forces. “Proclamation of th However as a sign of the domination power Independence” on 4 July. of 18 thousands pounds. the British war ship by name. British armies faced many failures. America The colonial people thought that their continues to exist as the World’s greatest freedom had been snatched away by the super power. opposing this Many wars occurred in several parts of act of England. In 1770.) States of America”. ships from England arrived in America with the tea boxes. As a result some Americans got into the ship and threw of this. In places like Boston. Independence Now.52 WORLD HISTORY The Americans raised their voices British and they rose up with utmost anger. (This event has All the colonial countries jointly created been described as the “Boston Tea Party” a democratic country by name. The Americans and many people were killed. The Big clashes broke out between the English materials including the stamp papers colonies (America) and the British. The proclamation of In the beginning. The of England were burnt. who belonged to Virginia. gained upper hand in all these wars. George and to set up the armies in migrated Washington was selected as the First countries. The In 1772. The Americans burnt this ship. America had 13 States.

1809. who achieved victory in the war. th He saw the sufferings For four years. famous American Presidents. states of South America. Therefore. thought that he should protect Before he became a the unity among the states of lawyer. month. cities got burnt. Then he So. In January1861. 1809-1865) A braham Lincoln was one of the United States of America. the people that they are going to withdraw from the . Abraham Lincoln Alabama. The speeches States of South America met with failure. 1861 Lincoln was elected as through this war. he became a lawyer. he gathered an army of “Service served in the army also. he got married and 75. He 1836. In Men” which consisted of 1842. The abolish the system of slavery. In thrust on him with force. the other states like Florida.000 people and ordered his wife’s name was Mary them to seize the ports of the Todd. But the possibility of USA. a war broke out used to help his father and between the states of North learnt to write and read and South America. Then. Mississippi. tried his level best to curtail Then he studied law and the outbreak of war but it was acquired the Degree. he rendered. the President of America on behalf of the Republican Party. Luciana and was born as the son of a carpenter by Texas followed suit. He was the United States of America. The civil war He went to school for one year only. Lincoln. 1865 the civil war extended. Many famous. th On 12 Feb.D. Lincoln during his leisure timings. 53 Abraham Lincoln (A. Excepting a few. did not want to take revenge on the states The southern states vehemently opposed of South America but he behaved with the abolition of slavery. he worked in a America. Georgia. till 9 of the slaves and he struggled hard to April. and he the state of South Carolina withdrew from abolished the system of Slavery. he provision store. They announced graciousness. being divided into pieces was prevented In March. name Thomas Lincoln. In the next shot dead at the age of 56. on the subject made him Many people were killed in this war.

worthy historical “Gettysburg address. he emphasized the But even then. and by the people would taken revenge on him. July 2 . he rendered the praise. 1901.54 WORLD HISTORY of South America were given the general amnesty. Gettysburg address For those people who had a brave death in the internal war. "I have for the people. McCauley . 1881 by name John Wilkes Booth came behind th him and shot him dead.” The gist of his It was 10 0' clock at night.” Three more Presidents Shot dead The first American President who was Lincoln held the post of President of shot dead while in power was Abraham America for the second time only for 10 Lincoln. 1865. an actor nd 1. opposite to the America for the second time. on 14 April. towards anyone. Booth screamed. months. 3. 1963. September 14 . in the early hours of the following. Lincoln collapsed. Lincoln was shot dead in a theatre by an actor. At that time. After lecture was that the government elected shooting Lincoln. victory in the election." He belonged to never get shattered. The bullet pierced 2. Lincoln contested The critically injured Lincoln was taken again and was elected as the President of to the hotel immediately. theatre. th held on 7 June. Show extreme love to everyone. through the back of his head. “Never have feeling of dislike next day. Lincoln officially opened it on th 19 November1863. 1864. a monument was constructed in the city of Gettysburg. Garfield . When Lincoln was witnessing a Later the following Presidents were also drama with his wife in a theatre at assassinated:- th Washington. He was given emergency In the address he delivered after his treatment. the South region and got angry at the In the Presidential election which was abolition of the system of Slavery. . Kennedy - nd November 22 .

At this juncture. but in vain. 1963. he fell down in the car. His wife Jacqueline screamed holding him in her hand. Party in 1960. He planned to Half an hour after his contest in the Presidential Elections in 1964. Americans but the people of Many people among the the whole world. a huge of Kennedy. A He was elected as the surgery was performed. he went to the city of Dallas in the state of Texas on 22 nd The arrest of a mysterious man November. them. The security guards in America progressed fast in the car drove the car the field of space research. Kennedy was This incident occurred popular not only among the in the fraction of a second. As he was going with After a few hours of the assassination his wife in a car in the procession. a young man (age 24) by name crowd gathered on both the sides of the road and welcomed him. he passed away. President of America on the doctors struggled hard behalf of the Democratic to save his life. He was public could not realize as handsome and had the talent to what happened before of oratory. All of a sudden. he was shot from the sixth floor of the building. Oswald was shot dead by Jack Ruby. During his tenure of office. 55 The Assasination of Kennedy (22-11-1963) J ohn F. . Three bullets pierced through his head and neck. Immediately. towards the hospital. He was waving his hand at the people and was proceeding in the car. admission into the hospital.

to pass this law in the parliament and succeeded. when Kennedy’s body was taken in the Elections which was held in 1964. According to the American Law. the police brought him outside Death sentence for Ruby the prison. A person by name Jack Ruby (age A case was filed against him. it was after the death of the President. 1967. opposing him. the Vice President. prison. As Oswald was shot dead. 1963.Johnson became the President Negros blades. who shot Oswald dead. On Air-Force flight to Washington. rd itself on 3 January. Bush After the assassination of Kennedy on When Kennedy was alive.56 WORLD HISTORY Oswald was arrested. law. he enacted a nd 22 November. 1964. public. pierced through insane person. he was not hanged to death. what was the background and who th To produce him before the court on 24 instigated him to kill Kennedy. 1963. in the flying behalf of the Republican Party. Oswald fell down but kept in prison. till today it From Johnson to George W. Johnson gained 4 Presidentship. the Navy earlier. Oswald from very close range. Johnson took charge of the contested. He contested in the Presidential So. The bullet As the doctors certified that he was an which was aimed perfectly. crore and 30 lakhs votes and won the . Johnson took great steps of America. He died in the prison and died on the spot. He was the owner There was a large gathering before the of a “night club”. the chest of Oswald. The police arrested Ruby immediately. He acquired great fame among the President should take charge as President. He had served in is a mystery as to why he killed Kennedy. the Vice. Nov. which provided equal rights for the Lyndon B. He was 42) who stood among the crowd shot th given death sentence on 14 March. Gold Water aircraft itself.

This brought glory to America in the world. Anticipating the outcome. Bush elections. Mr. He defeated the contestant was brought for the impeachment of Nixon. It is important to note that President . A resolution the elections. Johnson was the President who won the In the palace where the head office of victory with a larger margin of votes in the the Democratic Party carried on its Elections than any other president. took Presidential elections of 1972. Gold Water got only 2 crore and But Nixon was trapped in an unexpected 70 lakhs votes. a solution wrong. In the Ford. who was Vice-President then. activities. no action was Armstrong and Aldrin landed on the Moon taken against Nixon.” This was the announcement released. of the Democratic Party. Nixon was accused of having Nixon installed bugging machines which he denied. In the Presidential elections of 1968. fifty But the news papers made investigations five year old Nixon (Republican Party) won on this and proved Nixon guilty. him. During his rule. with a meagre difference. “Even if Nixon had committed any During the period of Nixon. walked and performed a great achievement. In American History. the American astronauts by the President Ford. Nixon resigned. contested and won the elections. Humphrey. 57 Johnson Bill Clinton George W. again he charge as the President. the American government forgives was arrived at for the Vietnam problem. problem. So.

In cinema. who belonged to good in America. Carter contested Clinton again. he was not popular among the people of America. who faced failure in the elections. In the Presidential Elections which was held at the end of 1980. Therefore. with success. George got defeated. Mr. Reagon November. George Bush In the Presidential elections which were In Presidential elections held at the end held at the end of 1976. Bush was defeated. Democratic Party contestant. 1981. He was 65 years America and he was also responsible for of age then. He took charge as the President of th America on 20 January. He undertook serious the Democratic Party and was crowned steps to set the economic situation right. 1989 and he Reagon remained in power till 1992. who belonged Bush contested and won the elections. he contested and of 1988. faced the defeat at the hands of the Reagon secured 4 crore and 39 lakhs Democratic Party contestant. . he used to play the characters he attained prominence among the public. Bush secured the support of 40 the post as the President of America during th states. votes whereas Carter obtained 3 crore and Bill Clinton became the President of 54 lakh votes. But even then. a sex scandal involving was an expert in horse riding. America at the age of 46 and he brought th On January 20 . Michael Dukakis who opposed him met with a Ford. Bill Clinton. In the total number of 50 retired from politics. Reagon took over various schemes for the Progress of charge as the President. He got When Ford took over charge as the 1 crore and 70 lakh votes more than his President. the period in between 20 January 1977 to th 20 January 1981. the fulfillment of those schemes.58 WORLD HISTORY Nixon was the only person who resigned As he was popular among the general from power in America. the financial position was not opponent. The to the Democratic Party. the then Vice-President. 1992. he contested in the Presidential Elections of 1984 again and won. Mr. Mondale. severe failure. Jimmy Carter held states. public. won the elections. of brave and magnanimous characters. The cine actor and the contestant th In the Presidential elections held on 4 of the Republican Party Mr. Jimmy Carter. He At this juncture. He defeated him.

He joined the Democratic charge as the President of America. Jefferson Pleeth. George W. A He was elected as the American resolution of impeachment was brought. her second husband’s name. the votes he completed his collegiate studies. 2001 George Bush took towards politics. Four months before he In this election. escaped the danger of being removed from office. this had its echo in the parliaments. in 1946 The Presidential Elections which was in the city of Hope in Argansas State in th held on 7 November. Clinton th till 20 January. his father was killed in a car Party. FROM JOHNSON TO GEORGE W. She named the votes between the two. he rose to the high . 2001. Vice President Al Gore and the accident. So. His original name was William important place in the History. studied law. he shined as the First Rank student. he were counted manually once again. Bush When he was a student. Kennedy. with a very small difference of votes. he had the obtained the victory. Bush the family by working in a school. on behalf of Democratic was born. BUSH 59 Clinton and Monica Levinsky arose and position. Therefore. he developed an interest th On January 20 . She became a widow at a very young As there was very little difference in age and married three times. Al Gore accepted his opportunity to meet the American President. Presidential Elections in America. and remained in Power Clinton pleaded for amnesty. his mother had to run Republic party candidate George W. Step by Step. So such situation unprecedented in the When he studied in school and college. President in 1992. contested. 2000 occupied an America. After As per the request of Al Gore. In this. defeat. there was a tie her son as Bill Clinton with the addition of in deciding about the victory for the two. Party. Bush th Clinton was born on 19 August.

They were not believe in evil spirits. farmers and musicians got transformed them into a religion. married among their own sects. printing ink and paper. he was worshipped as The Chinese invented the things like silk. the Chinese Traders. After his death. people lived in huts and they struggled for existence. ceramic utensils. iron. Various types of Ships were built. Rome. He did utensils were manufactured. Confucius between 551 BC to 478 BC was a great genius. China had to find out the directions while going in a trade contacts with the Asian and the . The arts like sculpture and worry about death. was also invented by the Chinese. was considered as the representative of God.60 The Chinese History China was a much civilized country even ship. jowar. and evil spirits. He pleaded that community service should get the priority. 7000 years ago. Babylonia. approve of epics. The poor devil. His doctrines originated from philosophical base. Inter-caste marriage was not allowed. tea. Vessels made out of gold. were rice. The Nobles led a They worshipped nature. spirit. Confuciusm and Buddhism were the ancient religions of The important food grains China. in China. There were classifications Siam. glass. He countries. Indonesia and European such as Nobles and the poor countries. Things like silk. iron and copper were Confucius who lived in China in used. The practice of Confucius drinking liquor existed. Mirror was manufactured in the year 200 BC. In those days in China. The right of heir acquiring the throne glass and salt were exported to hereditarily. Nor did he exported to foreign countries. They luxurious life without had belief in the heaven. God. an instrument From ancient time onwards. But. people. Trade The Mariner’s compass. Asia. beautiful ceramic and good qualities among people. From the ancient Confucius tried to propagate discipline period itself. The Chinese philosopher silver. the emperor was There were trading contacts with other the supreme person with high powers. painting also flourished. Egypt. and pulses. The Chinese were proficient in the art People should understand life rather than of printing. was in practice. wheat. working hard.

When which product traders. business in certain specific places and So. the Portuguese sailor conditions imposed on them. arrival of Portuguese. the British Empire. the The emperor. But the Chinese did not like the the trading activity with China. the 1816. It was a usual practice There was good trade relationship of that those who wanted to meet the Chinese Chinese with the countries like Britain and king should bow down before king or Russia. Because of this. So. But Amherst wanted to Noble refused to obey this convention. a messenger by name Amherst Portuguese could not have trade contacts Noble demanded the Honour rendered to with the Chinese permanently. But the Chinese did not It was ordered like to buy the that foreign ships E u r o p e a n should do their products. America also before the picture of the king. organized the Europeans should sell their commodities to building of the Great Wall of China. Britain sent some groups. Like other countries. analyzed as to some specific between 218 and 204 B. the who came to trade t r a d i n g with the relationship Chinese. started between the interfering in the British and the internal politics of Chinese was China. After this. strengthen its Therefore the king trading relationship refused to meet with China and him and asked him sent its first ship to to move out of the China in 1784. There Chinese king was much demand brought some for the Chinese conditions for the products in foreign traders.” was opium. The reason is that To set the trading relationship with the Portuguese did not respect the Asians China right. Though the Europeans did not like the In 1511 AD. could be sold and liked by the The Chinese Chinese. They are named as The product which struck their mind “Ko-hong. THE CHINESE HISTORY 61 European countries. The Chinese silk and Opium trade tea impressed the Europeans. Europe. government appointed 13 traders for trading with the foreigners. country. they tolerated Vasco-da-cama landed on the south part of them because they gained so much with China. . In and spoke ill of them. Huang-Ti. the affected.C. The Europeans.

England waged of Opium. England captured In 1839. to England. “Opium War” By signing of this Peace Treaty. The economy got who participated in the peace talks was shattered and the people suffered in poverty. an end. the export of opium The Chinese army faced severe loss. the But the Chinese government refused to health of the Chinese was affected. there was a peace In return of opium. of China for becoming Opium addicts. It was ordered that all the foreign Finally. But and to give compensation for snatching away the attitude of the people did not change. were exported to China from Europe. and Shanghai. The Chinese government submitted 20. once again. through a war against China. the British exported opium in In the same year. According to the Peace Treaty. But the English people out the trading activities in 5 ports inclusive refused to sign a bond stating that they of Canton. the Chinese Government took the places of China like Canton. and Ningpo. 1842. at the city of Nanking. The forts in the port were also demolished. huge amount as compensation to the British government. the permission for the English Government to practice of Opium consumption existed in wage war against China. the sale of opium continued. war.000 boxes. The Chinese army in 16 ships from England proceeded became Opium addicts. four thousand boxes of Opium port were shattered by the English army. Because An agreement was arrived at stating that of this. The chief officer Violence increased. the port of Canton to be opened The Chinese king condemned the people for the trading purpose of English people. Gradually. “Opium The enmity between the Chinese and war” between China and England came to the English people increased. the English large quantities to China. Shanghai.62 WORLD HISTORY th Right from 17 century onwards. China was defeated. But even then. Even in the second smuggling. accept this agreement. would not sell Opium in future. in few years.the Chinese economy collapsed the city of Hong Kong to be handed over drastically. China surrendered to England. towards China. in June. So. The Chinese ships in canton In 1800. raised to the quantity of 30. in 1841. should sign a bond that they would not sell opium in future. Opium.000 boxes of Opium to the agreed that the English people could carry Government. of the opium. severe measures to abolish the sale of Amai. Following this. dismissed by the Chinese government. Due to the habit of intake of opium. In 1840. So the Chinese king prohibited the sale So. the Parliament granted . Island of Hong kong and other ports were handed The English people and the Americans over to England. traders should submit their possession of th On August 9 . obtained silver coins from China. the English people keeping talk between China and England. The Americans signed a bond that they would It was decided that China should give a not sell opium in future. opium to the Chinese government and they the Peace Treaty was signed. China.

“Guomindang” The lady by name Ekonala. a person by name popularly known Lee-yuangsuang became the governor of as “Taiping the States of the North. who was also together. under the leadership took place in China. Immediately. the revolution” and it last Emperor of In the meanwhile. only 14 States that. communist party and worked The greedy Yuan shih-k’ai. 2 ½ lakh members was Pu-Yi. In 1916. to The people recover the country from the hands of under the Yuang shikai. The name father and brother. He placed Yuan shih- of monarchy. has been praised as the “Father of Yuan Shih k’ai who came to power on th the modern 11 March. recovered 14 States of the North and all . who ruled party of Sun- on behalf of the small boy. after the abolition democratic Country. sent a word to Dr. Chiang Kai-shek was conducted revolts. with his of Mao-tse-Tung. Yuan Shih- It was k’ai died. the communist party 1911. He k’ai as the President. was only 5 years old and he belonged to T h e Manchu dynasty. He joined that party. 63 Democratic Rule in China It was Sun-yat-Sen who was the un-recovered States of the South (that responsible for the establishment of is the whole of China) and make it into a Democratic rule in China. Chiang kai- were recovered by the revolutionary armies. So. After Out of the 28 States. Dr. 1912 showed his real colour. 5 Year old Pu-Yi. of Sun-yat-Sen. shek took over Sun-yat-Sen wanted to unite all the un- the responsibility Pu-Yi. involved in this party. Accordingly hands with the the king discarded it. took deep roots in the country and started of the then king progressing well.Sun-yat-sen that he would like In 1925. Sun-yat-Sen expired. the army chief of the government. Sun-yat-Sen started a party leadership of Sun- by name “Guomindang.” He vigorously engaged himself in crushing the revolutionaries completely. at the age 27. China.s e n .” The co-brother y a t . announced that yat-Sen joined the king abandoned the crown. to team up with him.

did not like the to them and started walking from approach of Chiang Kai. In 1932. Soode was the chief of this army. efforts did not fetch him On the way. one them. A clash started between Mao-Tse- Tung and Shiankeshek. Jiangxi of the Red army and capture In the meanwhile. In the meanwhile. Mao-Tse-Tung Mao-Tse-Tung animals. From 1927 onwards. Chiang kai-shek agreed for signing th peace agreement with Japan and he was On October 16 . He wanted to implement the American way of Democratic rule in China. But the daring soldiers of part of the Guomindang the Red Army did not surrender party. Mao-Tse-Tung gathered the “Red Army” to fight against the armies of Chiang kai-shek. “Red Army. many soldiers any desired result." along with the soldiers of the Red and many soldiers fell down from the slopes Army and it became historically significant. Chiang Kai-shek concentrating only on opposing the “Red sent a huge army to encircle the boundaries Army. Japan captured Manchuria and set up a puppet government there. Japan waged a war against China.000 soldiers shek and merged with participated in it.” They crossed the forests. They covered 12. But Mao-Tse-Tung wanted to set up the communist rule in China. His 1935. Jiangxi. both the armies fought against each other. "Long washed away by the flow of rivers March. .500 Kilometers Chiang kai-shek tried distance in 368 days and reached th to crush the Red Army in the city of Shanxi on 20 October a crucial manner. Nearly 10.” and seize the capital state. for 10 years. The lengthy mountains and rivers and fought journey by walk with the rivals in different sides. 1934. Sun-Yat-Sen with his wife.64 of ruling the government. Many soldiers were undertook a. At this died becoming prey to wild juncture.

Before the world war could became the head of the Chinese take place. The small boy. the China-Japanese war began. an civil war broke out between to China in 1950. Chiang kai-shek who lost the emperor. lasted for 368 days. with stern determination. Japan became Rule st enraged at this and with the plan of But. as a people lost their lives. escaped from China The Russian History R ussia. Democratic rule. women also were included in this historically famous Red established a puppet rule in the name of Army march which. on 1 October. by Russia. disease and starvation. At this time. many Later. Pu-yi was arrested and he spent He started opposing the communists. when Manchuria was captured relationship with America became Chou. His life history has The Chinese supported only the appeared in the film by name “The Last communists. his time in the prison. again he was arrested the armies of Chiang kai-shek and the and imprisoned. one of the world’s foremost end of the same century. communist armies. simultaneously. Some people died of and ran to the island of Formosa in January. countries.” support of the people. invaded war against China Democratic Rule emerged. he was set free. rose up as a super power in the th name of “Soviet Union” in 20 Century There are several views regarding the and disintegrated into small pieces at the origin of the Russians. in Manchuria a America. Among the soldiers 1949. In 1967. Shiankeshek made peace The blossom of Democratic agreement with the communists and established a United Front. In 1959. after Japan surrendered to ran to Japan. He had 4 wives. DEMOCRATIC RULE IN CHINA 65 of the mountains. he lived as an ordinary citizen. gardener. On both sides. with the support of Americans. China-Japanese war also was going on. 1949 in China. he died of cancer. was announced as the king of this rule. the war came to an end in China dummy rule was set up by Japan. Mao-Tse-tung th on 7 July. Pu-yi. In 1934. But it is a generally . Chiang Kai-shek’s In 1945. Pu-yi also. In 1937. When he returned Again. abandoned his crown and In 1945. the capturing China. who came to power at the age of 2. There. When world war occurred. “Nationalist Chinese Government claiming” "I am the real ruler of China” for several Japan’s Invasion Again days.

to his wife. received information that Lenin joining with the communists. planned for a conspiracy At this juncture.04. to 22. his long hair. Russia was ruled by the of Russia. But. his father miraculous powers. The government law. as the son of an Inspector of cheat the public. At that time itself. there arose a a puppet in the hands of the revolution in Russia which queen and acted according to transformed the destiny of it her wishes. he propagated among the public that he had When Lenin was 16 years old. He was merely In 1917. “Slave He married a girl by name “Gurbaskaya. there was a ruthless communicated to the country of Siberia. the only son of the Czar revolutionary movement. From that time onwards. and attractive speech. war between the Russian armies and the . Lenin was ex. in Rasputin the beginning monarchy The Czar King. the economic notions of Karl Marx. It After completing his school education. The elder brother of Lenin fame reached the ears of the Czar. who is also called doll in the hands of a fake as the. He passed out in flying colours with a first Rasputin who was brought to the palace class. and paved the way for its While the king was a slave rise as a super power. masses.1870. He was fascinated by back. There was no development in the field of medicine during that period. he had deep somehow managed to restore his health passion for politics. With Schools. the news of his passed away. was lying ill. ruled the country according to his own whims Russian revolution and fancies. in Russia also. So.66 WORLD HISTORY accepted fact that they belong to the. he posed as a saint. without existed. Russia” was responsible for In his youth age Rasputin this revolution.” Like other countries. was Alexander. So. “Father of modern saint called Rasputin. in the palace At that time. the queen was a Lenin.” race. He was hanged to death as he got involved himself in the At that time. Rasputin used to rob and sell the horses Lenin was born on for his livelihood. Then. In 1915. But they had to face knowing the pulse of the various invasions. was believed that the sickness of the Prince Lenin joined the college and studied law. could not be cured by anyone. Rasputin’s words became the Czar King Nicholas II. the First World War against the government. broke out.

there renounce his crown. On 8 March. This agitation took for a day. They tried to kill him public got wild at the act of the police men by offering him poison. dead body into a river on 29 December. from his post. they joined hands with the Rasputin and this was disliked by the royal labourers. THE RUSSIAN HISTORY 67 German armies.” . government ordered the army to act. But even This decision of the Parliament was then. more years. For the army people also. escaped from it. His autocratic rule lasted for some (Duma) started its session. family itself. But luckily. “Donenturg” the Russian armies were Everywhere there was chaos and a situation defeated. The termination order Even after the assassination of Rasputin. they shot him dead and threw his th days. 1916. As the government was unable to control the king did not bother to correct his the internal revolts. He crowned his brother th Michael. committee was termed as “Temporary government. The massacre Rasputin. men also participated. on th or remuneration was not provided. adequate food As there was no other alternative.1917 the Czar stepped down was a great set back for the army. So. the women population conducted a big revolution But Michael could not be in power even against the Czar rule. accepted by the army chiefs also. the people To force down the labourers. the bread shops. the developed aversion towards the Czar. Already the army men were angry with Shot Dead the government and instead of attacking The queen was under the command of the labourers. This 16 March. many people were deprived of bread. St. th From 8 March the riots lasted for five So. In front of should be given to the parliament. people used to stand in the queues for hours together. Rasputin and attacked them with stones and sticks. The same day itself.”) the administration of the government. the Russian parliament mistakes. 1917. It was decided that Czar should Due to the outbreak of the war. and all his powers was acute famine in Russia. the people place in the city of “Petrograd”. The royal family people and The Police men conducted bombardment the officers planned a conspiracy to at some places to control the revolts. soldiers were massacred.Petersburg city became “Petrograd” and A committee was set up to look after now it is called as “Leningrad. The In the procession. Several thousands of people and of distress also prevailed. (The old overthrew him. In the place called There was no work at the industries.

Lenin analyzed the situation in Russia. At this juncture. a coalition government. Trotsky also accompanied party of Lenin. He did not like the growth of the Bolsvik 1917. the support of the labourers who were Kerensky grew outrageous at the escape responsible for the revolution. His friend.68 WORLD HISTORY After some days. there arose clashes In the meanwhile. leaders like Lenin. Trotsky His plan was to capture the rule by getting and Stalin began to hide themselves. Lenin who was in He gained popularity among the labourers. He ordered for the arrest him to Russia from America. of Lenin and other important leaders. under the leadership between the parliament and the temporary of Alexander Kerensky. Kerensky The arrival of Lenin was a lawyer with the best oratorical skills. of Lenin and ordered to crush the party Czar with his wife and their children. Immediately. government was set up with the merger of the terrorists and the moderates. Switzerland returned to Russia in April. .

All these days Lenin was in exile. So. he escaped in the disguise of towards the temporary government. the king and his family members. a new the hands of the backward thinking class Cabinet of Ministers was set up with only with the assistance of Lenin. The Prime Minister escaped. Kerensky. 350 people belonged to Lenin’s party. Totally 650 representatives participated. his five children and his 4 servants offices. But Later they were taken to a place called he attended the conference. Lenin made power. his should capture the post and telegraph wife. recognized procedures became the order of the day. who was committing atrocities . THE RUSSIAN HISTORY 69 members of Lenin. 1917. 1917. The whole of Russia in a speedy manner. was arrested along with his family members (That is Bolsheviks) and kept in prison till March. Trotsky and Stalin. a woman. th As per his plan. Lenin was eagerly waiting for an Lenin who came to power through the appropriate time to capture the rule of Revolution of 1917 remained as the leader Russia with the support of the masses and of the Soviet Union till 1924 and paved the got materialised one day. and the Governmental offices. He announced Yekaterinburg and kept in prison. believed that Russia could be saved from Under the leadership of Lenin. Authoritarian as the Prime Minister till then. way for Soviet Russia to become a Super th On 7 November. who abandoned his crown. The The massacre of the Czar along with his family conference took place as per schedule. secret arrangements for the conference of the Soviet Congress at Petrograd. All these events happened in a lightning The unexpected revolution of speed at the Soviet Congress Conference Lenin which was held at the city of Petrograd Lenin’s popularity began to grow in the under the leadership of Lenin. The were taken to the underground prison and ministers and the higher officials were to shot dead. be arrested. In The Czar. that his goal was to achieve that the The supporters of the Czar considered administration of the Russian government setting the king free but the local communist should be handed over to the Russian council decided to put an end to the lives of people. the Bolshevik soldiers Accordingly on 16 July. that. The Ministers and the higher officials were Russian people of the industrial sector arrested. that it was unsafe for him to stay in Russia The people started to develop hatred anymore. 1918 the Czar.

who could secure freedom for doubtful as to whether he would use his Russia. Stalin was the General As per the Charter of Lenin. Stalin. excessive powers carefully.70 From Lenin to Gorbachev Lenin. The persons like Trotsky. he established a “Stalin is a tough person. So he laid down a thought that this could happen only if he Lawmaking Charter stating as to how the acquires all the powers. The death of Lenin st Next to Lenin. It is police force under the leadership of Beria. shared between Trotsky and Stalin. fell ill in the year 1921. not like to have a joint leadership. the eminent leader was Lenin passed away on 21 January. Trotsky is the So. He imprisoned death. He In January 1923. To crush the rivals. gradually he retired from politics. Genevieve 1924. him. capable for the post of leadership of Russia after him. Stalin did Secretary of the Russian Communist party. The body of Lenin was preserved and Trotsky held the posts as the head of kept permanently in a common place for the Army of revolutionary Council and the the public to pay their tributes. Minister of war. the health condition of desired to make Russia a super power. He gave a terrible government should get moulded after his blow to all his challengers. He notified in that there should be several people and excommunicated many united leadership and the powers should be people. A country’s leader should not have this flaw. excellent and capable person. He Lenin became worse. Lakhs of people paid the homage to and Kamnev were also commanding. Lenin Stalin Khrushchev .” This was He started evaluating as to who might be the evaluation given by Lenin.

send them prominence. Russia progressed. people stood as 16 people Stalin are described as. The British within the party. in long queues of 10 miles length. The This created a great sensation in the whole people performed their functions with world. after Stalin. he The pride of safeguarding Russia by Stalin functioned as a powerful ruler of Russia. Hitler attacked In May 1970. Khrushchev became the Prime While he was in foreign country. due to his explicitly rendered speeches opposing Stalin. "the great purge. some other leaders. powers to arrest anyone under suspicion. th of 73 on 5 March. the persons like Molotov and Bulganin who 1940.” Brezhnev became the General Secretary In Soviet Union.” On 15 October. 1953. He Though Stalin was a dictator. Trotsky Minister of Russia in June. Khruschev was terminated from his power. accepting the leadership of Stalin. Many people criticized th Prime Minister described it as the “Iron him as a. administrator was assassinated in Mexico He could capture power by overthrowing st city by a supporter of Stalin on 21 August. 1958 and he wrote several books against Stalin. the Russian President. Khrushchev removed the body and buried it. he breathed his last at the age out of the country and shoot them also. “Iron Curtain country. was also preserved. People of different races. FROM LENIN TO GORBARCHEV 71 This secretive police force was given was sincerely appreciated. not knowing His attitude created a big opposition as to what happened in Russia. The massacre of Trotsky Stalin considered that Trotsky might Khrushchev compete with him and so he seized away After Stalin. . the expelled him from the Soviet Union. acquired the power. Brezhnev took charge as Russia and this was ably slashed by Stalin.” After that Russia was called as. several democratic of Russian Communist party. orator and an of the Russian communist party. After that. also took charge as the General Secretary who was a good writer. Trotsky. Stalin’s body power challenging the status of America. In the Second World War. Curtain. joint leadership of these two along with operation. structured behaviour. When Stalin was at the peak of and imprison without any enquiry. Kosygin countries and independent countries jointly became the Prime Minister. Russian existed. who government started functioning under the spoke 130 languages lived with great co. 1964. Later. “Clown. stern measures. Russia developed economically and emerged as a super Like the body of Lenin. Malenkov came to power. In order to pay These suppressive measures taken by tributes to him." in each row. The Iron Curtain He brought some astonishing changes in the rules and regulations of Russia. Stalin created a situation that the foreign countries were kept in the dark.

Gorbachev brought Russia the other to the Democratic path from the countries. there arose Gorbachev opposition within the party. wished for reducing the Yeltsin Russia with the combined set up arms and ammunitions. But the army and President charge as the Prime Boris Yeltsin were not in favor of this and Minister remained in power so the revolution miserably failed only for a year. who came to In August1991 a revolution broke out power after him also died in February1984. He also were annexed to Russia. Then. of other countries was called as “Soviet In November 1985 at Geneva. 1922 slacken its communist several countries including ideologies and should have Armenia. Again. The revolutionaries were arrested and Gorbachev was set Gorbachev free. brought out by Gorbachev. 1985. against him. Gorbachev was imprisoned in In continuation of that Chernengo. close relationship with the Khajakasthan and Tajikistan western countries. The 54 year old Mikhail Gorbachev assumed the The disintegrated Soviet Prime-ministership of Union Russia in March 1985. He When Lenin was the leader desired that Russia should of Russia in December. He . He too within three days. he met him. on 10 November In Russia. The complete Russian armies which countries and were set up in Afghanistan were restored enhanced the back in 1989. leaders of the He reduced the power of the Russian f o r e i g n army. who took his house. he met Union. He attained world reputation through his performance. died in March.72 WORLD HISTORY He used to signed a treaty calling for the elimination meet the of intermediate-range missiles. communist path. in October 1986 and in to become independent states and get December 1987 also. He Brezhnev secured the “Nobel Prize” for peace in passed away th 1990. relationship of Russia with Step by step.” and spoke to the American President The countries annexed to Russia wished Reagan. due to the severe changes 1982. Andropov. Azerbaijan.

a great extent. and culture. Georgia “Soviet Union” which was moulded as and Khirkistan released the independent a strong power during the period of Lenin. politics. Ukraine. On itself free from the clutches of Russia and th released the Proclamation that it became 25 December. in Japan. proclamation themselves and got separated rose to the position of a Super power under the leadership of Stalin. an independent country. The ancient First. Lithuania set Gorbachev could not remain in power. a situation arose as proved to be a failure. Then the countries like Estonia. got disintegrated into pieces during the term of Gorbachev. Buddhism spread here changes occurred in the fields of army. south seashore migrated here. later the Japanese religion. the Christian religious Priest St. In pursued the Chinese politics and art to a . East Asia and In 1549. The Japanese History The country of Japan comprises of four large extent. attempts for peace agreement by Gorbachev Due to this. The from the control of Russia. FROM LENIN TO GORBARCHEV 73 separated from the Soviet Union. The people Francis Xavier and the Spanish people who came from Central Asia. the archeological Portuguese researches t r a d e r s Emperor Hirohito conducted here. 1991 he resigned. Korea. In the same From the year. through China. First. and came to Japan. in history of 1543 AD. Due to the arrival of the people from western countries. Then. over Japan. introduced it is believed that people from Emperor Meiji modern war weapons like the guns to Japan. the Japanese people western people is not known to came to Japan. many drastic In 538 AD. Yeltsin took charge as the ruler of Russia. south countries expelled those people who settled already there. Uzbekistan. Different kings of royal big islands and more than thousand small dynasties ruled islands.

During his rule. into Peace agreement and trade agreements with Japan. war-ships and modern weapons and and the historical periods. the countries like Russia. to capture Manchuria. education. America and his period. agriculture. First World War (A. 1914-1918) Several wars occurred during the Epic crafts. In that The political parties and Industrial unions war. In onwards. the western son Herohitto became the monarch.74 WORLD HISTORY th the 19 century. changes were power of Japan was known to the whole made in the fields of railways. strengthened. As a result emerged. of the capital city of Japan was. Japan succeeded. Following this. unexpectedly fought with Germany. from America a person by name Japan acquired dynamism in the fields Commodore Perry came to Japan and of economy and army. he brought out some changes in the After that. “Edo” and it was changed as “Tokyo. He brought the compulsory When the First World War was in system of Primary Education. After this. a war started between Japan and Russia in 1904- In 1867. democracy progressed of this. Then. the mighty Japan. Japan entered with peace government was established there. Korea. it took place from 1914 to 1918. Japan came out successful. Even in that war. his medicine and law. Japan stepped forward to an enormous extent. various foreign countries culture took deep roots from that time wished to have contacts with Japan. In Japan. when the king Tysha died. In Britain. Many Europeans were brought to the Pacific Ocean. Industries progress. Netherlands and France also entered this war. During agreements with Britain. Slowly. army. post and world. Japan did not got involved in that and banks were launched. telegraph. Formosa and Manchuria Japanese administrative system. when King Meiji came to power.D. when signed a Peace agreement with Japan. The name got annexed with Japan. 1853. China tried to capture Korea in 1894-95. Japan came out victorious. In 1926. But it joined with the allies and built and the sea trade increased enormously. Many ships were war. a Following this. With their proposals. war broke between Japan and China. 05. But the countries of the world got The reason for the War divided into two blocs and got involved in the First World War making use of the air The Austrian Prince Francis Ferdinand .” A central Then. the army and the Navy were Russia. Japan could obtain a few islands in well.

But at the end of the war. the Russia The person who shot them dead belonged revolution broke out and the world’s first to Serberia. . Due to this. the the battlefield. the The First World War mouth of the cylinders would be th broke out on 4 August. countries like Britain. The withdrawal of Russia 1914 when they were travelling in a car. Germany to use the poisonous gas in the became furious and threw war. FIRST WORLD WAR 75 th and his wife were shot dead on 28 June. The ships got sunk Ferdinand gas. the German Turkey. face masks when they came to To defend Serberia. armies of Britain. to In the beginning. in the World War were forced to kill their own people. So. Therefore. In the beginning would emerge out from the gas America maintained the cylinders and the people of the status of neutrality. leadership of Lenin. Austria waged war communist government emerged under the against Serberia. opened out. The allied countries utilized tanker armies The German armies who were involved in the larger scale. approached the enemy troops. Due to this. But Germany alone violated the bombs on the American it and started using the poisonous ships. In this war. When the War was going on. that followed them. blocs both on land and in sea. it helped the and fall fainted and became dead. Italy. Japan and cylinders filled up with the China also engaged poisonous gas. America also entered into victory. countries like France and All the countries agreed not Britain. The Lenin government Germany was greedy to capture many signed the peace treaty with Germany in countries and so it also stepped into the the later part of the year 1917 and withdrew war in support of Austria. In the horse-carts. they brought Russia. France. the armies to crush them. the the war. When they themselves in the war. But enemy troops would breathe it even then. Countries like Hungary. The poisonous gas 1914. into the sea. Germany obtained oppose Germany. Germany the German people got alarmed and they made use of the submarine ships and war revolted against the King Kaiser William. the king ordered enormous calamities to the allies. joined the war along with The German warriors wore the Germany. and America Terrible wars occurred between the two approached towards Germany. and Bulgaria also armies used the poisonous gas. France. aircrafts to a greater extent and brought To suppress the revolts. itself from the war.

.....50..... 60.000 collapsed.... 17.000 Germany should pay huge ...000 them.. 6... 4..... which lasted The armies of the allied for 1...... The Turkey ....76 The Emperor Kaiser William abandoned his kingdom and escaped with his wife..000 withstand the terrible attack to that 20 million people Bulgaria .......... 6.. Portugal ..10... He handed over countries who got involved in America ..00 According to it......... It was decided that Rumenia . 1................... 50.. 9....000 the privilege of gathering the army......000 this war........000 The emperor Kaiser Belgium .. The assets worth of the allies.00..... After capital of Germany.......000 of 40 lakhs crore dollars got the combined fight of the Cherbia ...000 th the war on 28 June 1919. 13....000 outbreak of a virus fever German army could not throughout the world and due Russia ...17..000 There emerged an William abandoned his agreement among the Britaain ..30. 2....00.. Berlin on German ..50.............. there was an th 11 November.. Germany succumbed to France ....561 days......000 ruined. allies and surrendered to Autralia .00........... Within a short time. 6.. The surrender of First World War The calamity Germany Casuality In this war...40.. the rule to the representatives of the people and escaped Italy .. Compensation Angery ..... 13..60....90........ 1918.. 3......70.000 kingdom........ 20 million Country Killed countries entered into the people lost their lives.... Germany lost from the country...

He systematically planned for it army. 1939. 1939-1945) Hitler was merely a soldier in the The act of revenge German army during the First World War. th 30 January. A few fertile regions of Germany were Countries of the world thought that there captured by France. He against Poland. passed away. the dictator of the post of President also. the country union but it did not opt to join the leage of of Austria got disintegrated into pieces. Hitler got hold At this juncture. FIRST WORLD WAR 77 compensation to those allied countries who New countries like Yugoslavia. After the war. Hitler waged war skills and became it's leader in 1921. So the army of Germany captured In 1934. So. Navy and Air force of and began to execute those plans also. Poland and participated in the war. He created a strong countries. they did not enter into the became the Prime Minister of Germany on war openly. Following this. . The inhabitants of Austria were of America procured great efforts to bring this several races. Mussolini. which was held in 1932. without prior and progressed speedily by his oratorical proclamation of War. Many countries became members of this. 1933. hands with Germany. he joined the st “National Socialist German Laborer’s party” On 1 September. As a first step of his plan. The infantry.D. nations. should not be an outburst of the World War in future. He planned to take revenge on countries He had high ambitions in life. He shattered of Italy got acquainted with Hitler. The Second World War (A. He wanted like Britain and France who were to become the leader of Germany and also responsible for the defeat of Germany in the world emperor by capturing the world the First World War. Though they released a proclamation elections. Czechoslovakia emerged. A few all the antagonists and turned out to be a countries inclusive of Japan also joined dictator. He about the War. the President of Germany Poland within two weeks. Germany emerged as the best defence force of the world. Britain and France opposed strengthened the party and won the general it. a world organisation called Disintegration "Leage of Nations” was set up.

the capital city of France. in support France. on 14 June. their lives and 10 lakhs soldiers were captured as prisoners. I th On 10 May. bombs on France. As per the Secret Pact. the Italy and Japan entered into a secret pact. British troops were sent in support roared Hitler. it was of no use. the British and the French France surrendered to Germany. The surrender of France “If you do not surrender immediately. it was agreed that Japan should attack and capture parts In the mid part of June 1940. similarly the European territories be In that war. Paris and got the surrender document signed Though there were 51 lakhs soldiers in by the Prime Minister and the army the French army and 7 lakh British soldiers General. As a result of this. armies struggled to resist the tank and air Hitler directly proceeded to the city of force of Germany. the countries like Mussolini with Hitler. infantry of Germany speedily approached towards Paris.” France. 1940 Hitler invaded would burn the city of Paris into ashes. 1940 But even then. the German of Asia. . At the same time. Italy should capture Africa and armies could seize around the city of Paris. The Air raid on London four thousand aircrafts of Germany exploded In the meantime.78 WORLD HISTORY The three countries namely Germany. 5 lakhs French soldiers lost captured by Germany. th of France.

retort attack on Germany. He stopped his air attack on Britain and he turned his attention towards Russia. The attack of war aircraft of Germany Then. Hitler aimed at Britain. to him. Norway. The British war aircrafts carried out the He thought that if he could capture Russia. president Roosevelt and Stalin at the conference at Yalta in 1945. war aircrafts were shot down whereas Denmark. and bombarded heavily on Britain. . Britain did not surrender. under the leadership of Churchill were united and could resist boldly all the The German war aircrafts flew in rows attacks of Germany. But. Holland. Air surrender to him but it was a terrible blow raid was carried on London city also. of Britain. 575 German Britain would automatically submit to him. Britain stiffly warned Britain to surrender or face the resisted the attacks of Germany and was consequences. Poland. the violent attacks of the German Hitler thought that he could make Britain army were conducted for 7.500 times. Before th July 28 . but th not stunned from its position. 79 The 'Big Three' war leaders Churchill. Sweden and Yugoslavia were Britain lost only 100 aircrafts. He lasted for 6 months. conquered by Germany. 1940 Hitler prompted a war air-craft against Britain. The people offered a stiff fight on July 10 . Belgium.

faced the attack of declared war on Japan and Germany. launched its warfare then leader of Russia. the German armies approached Moscow Hitler thought that he would capture and there were only 50 miles to reach Russia but he was defeated. the friend of Hitler and the Italian dictator. Peace agreement with it. America. The surrendered to the combined fight of the Russian peasants went in crowds and enemies. Three grouped into three and entered thousand American soldiers into Russia. were captured by Germany. the ally of Germany attacked the Pearl harbour in th In the First World War. soldiers were massacred. 1941. which were kept in the Port were shattered by the attack of war The German armies were aircrafts of Japan. The plan of Hitler was to th Britain. conducted aggressive attacks on the To recover the Russian territories which German armies. German armies faced . the Russian So. Germany started a war on 8 American war ships and 200 aircrafts nd Russia on 22 June. Germany and Japan. Japan. The American with a determination of iron President Roosevelt will.80 WORLD HISTORY The Rise of Russia important turning point. Stalin finally. In violation of this agreement. cannons and America in War aircrafts of Germany were crushed. there occurred an wars which continued. On 14 October. France and Russia capture Russia before 7 Japan Prime Minister . people were very much America which did not offended over this unexpected participate in the war till attack of Germany but the then. Through this proclamation.Tojo formed one group and November which was the day carried out attacks on th of revolution of Russia. The Russian were also killed. During this war one lakh German withdrawn. the onward march of the German armies hit back a heavy blow to the German armies was thwarted and it was also slowly armies. Moscow. All the people thought that Moscow who wanted to bring Africa under his control would collapse instantly. 1941. In the At this juncture. Germany. which defeated by Germany and it entered into was under the possession of America. also met with a defeat. Russia was Hawaii Island on 7 December. Mussolini. Large amount of tankers. The 2 lakhs German But the Russian people courageously soldiers who went to help him also battled against the German armies.

. the capital But Japan declined to discontinue the war. Surrender The siege of Berlin Hitler realized that he could not escape. th He committed suicide on 30 April along America along with its allies. THE SECOND WORLD WAR 81 misfortunes one after another. 1945 Germany the allied countries under the leadership of surrendered. planned with his wife. launched air attack on Berlin. the armies of th allies. city of Germany. The commanders of the Eisenhower (who became the President of German armies signed a surrender America later) went and fought document and handed over it to the army courageously. Czechoslovakia and Poland which was no other way but to surrender to the were captured by Germany. both Russia and America The war should have ended by then. On 8 May. After the death of Hitler. for various blockades to crush Germans. The Japanese aircrafts bombarded on At the end of April. Hiroshima after the blast of Atom lomb. of the German armies decided that there Hungary. 1945 the Russian the American war ship which was sailing armies seized the city of Berlin where Hitler took shelter. the Generals To recover the countries like Rumania. chief Mc Arthur of the allies. Simultaneously.

who Japan did not pay heed to this ultimatum.” dropped the first Prime Minister Churchill and the Russian atom bomb of the world on Hiroshima. He used to take a right was no other go but to drop atom bombs decision at the right moment. The then Vice. 343 people lost their lives. Roosevelt took on Japan. He came to the conclusion that there diplomatic man. Truman thought that if the war continued for some more days. the three leaders warned and forwarded a joint Truman ultimatum to Japan. the British by name. would destroy Japan completely”. th the surrender of Germany.82 Second Atom bomb destroyed Nagasaki City. an American war aircraft American President Truman. He ordered the war aircrafts to important decisions only after consulting conduct bombardment on Japan. the leader Stalin met at Potsdam in Germany. 1945 at 8. Truman suceeded him as the new President of America. was conducting the war till 27 days before It continued to be active in the war. “Little Boy” with a weight of 9. the Japanese time. Truman. it would be disastrous Truman was a courageous and for all. The American President Roosevelt. died on 12 April. 1945 at the age of 63. “Enola Gay. th On 6 August. on the Pacific Ocean. city in Japan.00 AM of After the surrender of Germany. The ship caught fire “Surrender immediately. The name of the bomb was th This meeting took place on 17 July 1945.000 lb! . Atom bomb President. otherwise we and burnt.

the major portion of the city Minister Tojo who was responsible for the got shattered. After the overthrow of the second atom bomb. he tried to commit suicide.” Japan refused to surrender to the allies. 1948 Tojo along the time of war. America threw its second atom bomb on Prime Minister another city of Japan by name Nagasaki. The emperor of Japan got very much It is believed that the number of deaths distressed on seeing the attack of atom th bombs on the cities of Japan. .” He gave a final It was decided that Tojo was a war warning to Japan. injured cruelly. totally responsible for the war. success continuously. after the destruction of Hiroshima. There is no proper towards him. figure for the destruction of cities. He was not interested in with some other Japanese army officers war. But when Japan faced Several thousands of war ships and war a defeat. on 9 August. THE SECOND WORLD WAR 83 60% of the regions of the city of Hiroshima 1945 he openly announced the surrender of got sunk under the sand within a fraction Japan to the allies over the broadcast of of a second. “If Japan that he was responsible for the war. the people developed hatred aircrafts got shattered. attempt was futile. Several thousands of people him. “I hold myself Even. the Prime were executed by way of hanging. but without consulting him. But. Not only that. On 23 December. On 9 August. Because.000 people were Japan. Minister Tojo bombed on the Pearl Harbour of America and compulsorily dragged How much calamity? America into the war. when Japan was acquiring their lives. we would emperor was innocent. the people of Japan applauded him a lot. Several thousands of people were the Japanese emperor spoke over the radio. It was he who was It was difficult for anyone to calculate responsible for Japan to get involved in the the exact amount of calamity resulting from war. the Second World War. It was for the first time in his life. wipe out Japan totally. American President Truman At the time of enquiry. three days later. killed. When the commanders went to arrest slaughtered. But his got wounded severely. About 80. the did not surrender immediately. due to atom bomb blast would be more than the official announcement. the commander of the army of the allies who The second atom bomb conducted the war and told. he met Mc Arthur. criminal and a death sentence was conferred rd Herohito was the Emperor of Japan at on him. He was imprisoned by the armies of the allies. It is estimated that more than 5 crore people and soldiers lost In the war. th The hanging of the So.000 people were war. the allies knew that it was the Prime Due to this. he expressed delivered a speech over the radio. 40.

The the public. When he was released from the prison. magazine. He learnt many of Italy for 21 years starting from 1922 languages like Latin. workshop. In Italy monarchy was prevalent at that First World War time. He was imprisoned for one revolutionaries hanged the dead bodies in a year for an article. next to Hitler who for politics right from his childhood. They cemeteries of Hiroshima. onwards and he was a close associate of Spanish and English and he was a good Hitler also. After threatened the whole world. His mother was a school teacher. Then. completing his school education. The manner of the became the Editor of a communist massacre was not normal. Mussolini joined democratic rule should thrive in Italy. (It should be noted that in the used to discuss politics with all the people same year Hitler also joined the army of who came to his workshop.890 people who died were engraved. the First World War that monarchy should be abolished and the broke out in the year 1914. the names of 1. Germany. Mussolini’s father was of the view At this juncture. was shot that magazine created a great impact among dead along with his lover. Labourer’s son several thousands of young people th welcomed him at the entrance of the prison. Several lakh people got severe burn injuries. Mussolini was born on 29 July 1883. Mussolini was assassinated by the served in the army for sometime. German. The articles written by him in who was a feared by everyday.) .84 WORLD HISTORY many people who got injured severely Many people lost their eyesight due to passed away after some days. topsy turvy manner from a lamp post. 38. French. At the the rays of bomb blast’s effect. Mussolini also developed a passion powerful dictators. The dictator. orator and writer too. he served He remained as a nightmarish dictator as a teacher for sometime. as The next day he took charge as the the son of a blacksmith who owned a Editor of a revolutionary magazine. were bed ridden for whole life Mussolini M ussolini was one of the most So. he revolutionaries. He the army. Two days before Hitler committed He left his teaching profession and suicide.

MUSSOLINI 85

Mussolini got severely injured in the war fascinated by his speeches and he created
and returned to his country. unruly scenes in each state and ordered his
In 1919, the war came to an end. In party men to capture the government
the war, 6 lakh and 50 thousand people lost offices.
their lives in Italy alone. In addition to that, According to the order, his party men
10 lakh people got severely injured. The with the help of the anti-social elements
economy of Italy was shattered and there and the general public attacked the
was famine and starvation everywhere. government offices with dreadful weapons.
There was outbreaks of riots They drove away the staff and captured
everywhere in the country. the offices and the treasuries.

At this juncture, Mussolini started In October, 1922 “the black shirt army
“Fascist party” in 1920. In
the election which was held
in 1921, though the party of
Mussolini could not capture
the power it was able to grab
30 places. Mussolini obtained
victory with a huge margin of
votes.
As an opposition leader,
Mussolini made courageous
speeches in the Parliament
and it created fear among the
ruling party men. Mussolini
created chaos in the
Parliament and prevented the
smooth running of it.
Besides, he toured city
after city and conducted
public meetings where he
spoke ill of the ruling party
with emotional zest and
instigated the people against
the Government.

The over ruling of the
rebellious elements
Mussolini came to know
that the people were
Musolini with Hitler

86

The end of Fascism: the bodies of Mussolini and his mistress Clara,
hanging upside down.

of Mussolini” gathered and went to capture the responsibility of ruling the country to
the capital city of Italy. Mussolini.
As the situation grew beyond control,
the king ordered for the resignation of the
The authoritarian measures
cabinet ministers. When the ministers After acquiring power, Mussolini banned
withdrew from their posts, the king offered the political parties.

MUSSOLINI 87

He prohibited the opposition parties. He Love affair with a
crushed the freedom of the press. He beautiful lady
expelled the people from the country who
At this juncture, Mussolini met a
revolted against him.
beautiful lady by name Clara. She was a
Not only that, he ordered for the divorcee. Mussolini conquerred her by his
“beheading” of his enemies.(to chop their attractive speeches. Though he was a
heads) In three years the number of people married man, he determined to get hold of
who got beheaded exceeded more than 10 Clara also.
thousand.
Clara married an air-force officer and
Mussolini who committed dreadful
got the divorce. She lived separately for
activities like this implemented some plans
two years.
to attract the people. He quered ploughing
machines for the farmers. So, the production Mussolini fascinated her with his
of food grains increased. delightful speech and set her as his
concubine.
To eradicate the unemployment problem,
several measures were taken. Taxes were “Generally, Mussolini used to behave
reduced. Medical facilities were enhanced. rudely with women, but he conducted
himself with extreme love towards Clara.
So, people started supporting Mussolini.
He was in real love with her in the true
As the situation was favourable for him, sense of the term.” This is how the
he conducted the general elections. In that, historical writers describe character of
his party achieve of exemplary victory.
Mussolini, on this score.
After that, he got hold of the powers of
parliament himself. Second World War
From 1922 onwards, Mussolini became In 1939, Second World War broke out.
the supreme dictator of Italy. Hitler and Mussolini joined together and
resisted the allied countries.
In 1933 Hitler captured the rule of
Germany and he became the comrade of In the beginning, victory was the order
Mussolini. In 1934, Hitler went to the city of the day for them. Later the trend of the
of Venice and had discussions with war changed and met with failure Mussolini
Mussolini. and Hitler.
Pursuant to it, Hitler helped in building So, Mussolini lost his image among the
up the army of Italy and also the people of Italy. The higher authorities of
establishment of industries. the Fascist party removed him from his post
and kept him under house arrest.

and lover Clara and established a “Puppet They stopped the car. Where. They made Mussolini and Clara get down from the car. Mussolini and Clara were imprisoned. the bodies were brought down and buried in strange places On seeing this. The revolutionaries engaged in stood in front of Mussolini and said. in a recovered Mussolini. . She was also captured by the Before his body was buried. That day.” Mussolini realized that he might be The revolutionaries shot them dead with threatened by the revolutionaries and so rifle guns incessantly. So. branch research experts broke open the head of Mussolini and snatched away his The wife of Mussolini hide inside the brain for the purpose of research! truck and was not visible to the revolutionaries. were supporters of Mussolini. decided to escape to Switzerland. In the same evening. The revolutionary movement After they alighted from the car.” down from the mountain. a pool of blood. the dead bodies But on the way the trucks were blocked were hung upside down. Hitler sent his army of spies. the lover of beyond identification. the both their bodies fell down on the ground in neighbouring country. Mussolini. the revolutionaries took them support. They took Cold blooded massacre the dead bodies of Mussolini and others to the city of Milan. when they came government. Clara emerged. in the city of Tonga. screaming. the crime revolutionaries. In North Italy. a revolutionary movement made them to stand on the road. at me first.” Shoot revolts in the whole of Italy. This incident occurred on 27 April. he went there with his wife in a car. Knowing by name “Italian revolutionary movement” that they were going to shoot them. He took his two families in two army They also shot some of the people who trucks and began his journey. by the revolutionaries and they arrested Mussolini. they At that time. Clara. jumped out of the truck. room. Pierced by the bullets. They 1945. Mussolini enjoyed some The next day.88 WORLD HISTORY th With the intention of helping Mussolini.

Very responsible for the outbreak of the Second quickly. Thereafter. He obtained a certificate for that and on the way drank As his father was an officer of the liquor along with his friends and tore down Central Excise. he used to fourth son of his third wife. 89 Hitler H itler. without the control of the He served as an officer of father and so he became the Central Excise. he read several novels. Hitler took a vow. student life itself. Apart from fighting three wives. Hitler was very The Vow weak and puny. various states. First student In 1907. Hitler was born on 20 April. His life history contained various turning During the period of his points and shocking events. Hitler was the with students. The teacher. condemned him. he earned his livelihood by Later he lost interest in studies and he . He had unruly. He had much devotion and love never to take liquor or smoke cigarette in towards his mother. he tried to join an art school. he obtained the skill of drawing World War and for the death of 5 crore beautiful pictures. Often he suffered from fever. 1889 in the city of In the year 1903. oppose the teachers also. people due to the war. his health He got through his examination in the improved. The father left for his heavenly name of his father was abode. he used to go on tours to his certificate. mother. Hitler’s mother passed away. Nearly after one year. Right from his birth. school finals at the age of 17. Hitler of that year. He grew as a son Allays Shackle Groper Hitler. but he did not get admission. the dictator of Germany was was much delighted to draw pictures. was the first rank holder. Hitler’s Pranav in north Austria. He had a great The son of an officer passion for the stories based th on wars. the future. who came to know of this Hitler was a pampered child of his incident. At the end When he was studying in school.

Hitler joined reduced to one year. He paved the way became a member of National Socialist for the people’s revolution against the German Labourer’s party. He vowed that he would In the general elections which were held bring the whole world under the control of in 1928. When he was in prison. He rose to the government. He propagated that there was famine Became the Prime Minister and unemployment only because of the Because of his incessant efforts. First it was ordered that he should be During the First World War which lasted imprisoned for 5 years. People revolted against the against the government and tried to capture government and got involved in huge power. He throughout the country. But he failed in his attempts.90 WORLD HISTORY manufacturing and designing cards. incompetent administration of the oratorical skills and diplomacy he emerged government. The Parliament building was . Hitler thought that the democratic struggle'') as his autobiography. he loved a girl by name Cyndhia. So. When he failed in government arrested and imprisoned him. he joined the army. he used to draw pictures under the light of the kerosene lamp. Germany was defeated in the called. He changed the name of his party as. position of a leader by his oratorical talents.”Nazi party” and Imprisonment got involved in extremist activities Hitler possessed oratorical skills. The pictures drawn by Hitler keeping as models of beautiful girls were sold at fancy prices. He instigated the people victorious.” Hitler did not lose his heart. defeat in the war. “ Mein Kempf” (Which means "My war. Even at night. he wrote a book In 1918. and served the army of Germany. Love failure Hitler's Father & Mother At that time. Hitler’s party was defeated. But Germany. love. he established an art centre. This is an people and Jews were responsible for the exceptional book of the world. The revolution. Later it was for 4 years from 1914 to 1918.

it was a prison. countries like Albania and Czechoslovakia . 1933 he invited Hitler and appointed him as He decided to destroy the Jews and the Chancellor. After 1½ of rooms and put to death by insertion of years of Hitler’s acquisition of power. On an average. He banned all the political parties. in Germany” – He announced. every day 6 President Hindenburg passed away and thousand to 10 thousand people were Hitler captured the post of President also massacred the use of poisonous gas. poisonous gas. arrested them. He imprisoned all his opponents. The number of Jews killed by Hitler was He dissolved the Parliament. 91 Hitler and Eva Braun. Many people were kept in dark promising period for Hitler. On 30 January. In 1939. He made them starve in From that time onwards. The President Hindenburg surrendered “Hereafter. there is no place for Democracy th to the revolutionary mass. reduced to ashes. and becomed the dictator of Germany. He took approximately 60 lakh. charge of the Defence department and Hitler wanted to bring the entire world secured the post of a General in the Army under his domination. he captured himself.

Hitler’s to him if he was caught as a hostage at the office room and bed room were located in hands of the enemies. The roof of the underground situation arose that anytime the Russian room was strongly built with 16 feet thick armies might enter into the city of Berlin. Though she did not acquire war was in sucess. the opponents. He asked her for her last bombs also fell near the underground palace wish. The army captains and Eva Braun was Hitler’s fascinating lover. He came to a conclusion that it would Hitler’s room was 15 feet in length and be better if he commited suicide instead of 10 feet in width. The aircrafts in Berlin. He sat Marriage. Hitler where Hitler was residing. The impressed Hitler. the underground. Eva January. So. At the end of April. blossomed into love. th On 27 April. there was a banquet in Lover the underground room on account of the From 1930 onwards. The turning point in the war Eva Braun also loved him deeply in her In the beginning. 1945. Eva Braun sang the and Eva Braun served as an assistant there. Braun wanted to die as his wife. th into the war. 1945 the Russian Braun also offered to die with him. Hitler used to visit his friend’s studio quite often. the capital city of Germany and continuously bombarded the city.92 WORLD HISTORY and invaded Poland. the Second World War broke between him and Eva Braun and later it out. The bathroom was also getting caught as a hostage at the hands of attached to it. 1945 the Russian armies He constructed an underground palace blockaded the city of Berlin. But the situation the status of his wife. iron and cement by which it could not be Hitler realized as to what would happen destroyed by the bomb blast easily. Hitler’s position in the hearts of hearts. a lady by name birth day of Hitler. The stayed there. . she started living changed when America and Russia plunged with him. the close friend of Hitler by name Goebbels A friend of Hitler owned a photo studio attended the feast. th Hitler started living here from 16 He told his decision to his lover. before Suicide! on that chair and put across the orders for Eva Braun was not astonished on hearing the army. Braun He possessed a chair used by the great warrior Napoleon in the year 1804. a sort of relationship began Due to this. On 25 April. conceded her request. birthday greeting song for Hitler. the decision of Hitler. which aircrafts bombarded the city of Berlin.

was called upon. To register the Generals. I would not fall Will as a captive at the hands of my rivals. HITLER 93 The next day.00 AM in the morning. people of Germany should struggle always. The conference of the Hitler ordered his assistants to beautify Army Generals his room in the morning. now. Eva wrote the following will:. the city corporation officer Secretaries in the same evening. As he told. progress of my country for the past 30 All my assets should be transferred to years. Accordingly. I married her. Hitler told his wife to write his Will at This is my firm conviction. I would welcome death delightfully if I happen to die in this war. my party after my demise. the Hitler convened the meeting of the Army room was decorated. he participated in all the events either happiness wrote a final declaration for the people. Eva Braun was conducted. Thirty years are over Accordingly. as a leader of the country. the marriage of Hitler and is the will written by Hitler. I want both myself and Germany and its people which guided me Eva should be cremated in Germany itself all through these days. Only the Jews instigated the friends drank liquor. The following is the excerpts from the Hitler and Eva Brown signed in the speech rendered by him at the conference: Marriage Register Document. an ordinary soldier. His for the war.00 AM. I am not responsible Then.” 11. German people. The Final Declaration “All through my life. Hitler took a cup of war. the feast was conducted. where we toiled hard for 12 long years. they danced and sang songs. Eva Braun Later. They knew that their lives would end within some days and so to wipe of their This war is a great testimony for the worries. let it go to the country. Germany Both Hitler and Eva Braun went to bed would emerge victorious tomorrow. The courageousness and patriotism of the whole night. It is my stern love for the land of After our death. entertainments were going on. Goebbels and one more person also signed as “I don’t have the conception that the witnesses. If the party gets Nobody should think that I am solely disintegrated. tea. I desire only for peace. only by 6. Ministers and Personal marriage legally. If not today. or sorrow and ups and downs of my life The Declaration is as follows:- and so I decided to marry her at least at “I participated in the First World War as the end of my life and offer her honour. I have been utilizing my power for the This is my ultimate desire.” This .

Hitler’s dead body was the people who were responsible for the seen in the sitting posture. diaries. Hitler directly heard the radio news. That encircled by the Russian troops and that photograph was his mother’s photo. Each and every German would have The scene they witnessed there: emotional uprising when they happen to see On one sofa. His the underground palace might be hit anytime. it was supposed “This evening by 4” clock. the door was not opened. The The Army Generals thought that Hitler death of Mussolini created a deep agony in might have kept the edge of the gun into him. there was a hole of ½ an inch and Sweden announced. War. there was a rifle. blood was oozing out from it. Please gather all the things like letters. would make our future generation to realize who stood outside for a long time. at Night 9‘clock on 30 April. Anyone should not together. of minimizing the war weapons. friends plunged into tears realizing his love Hitler’s face turned dark. The door of the room was shut. "Myself and Eva are going to die was wearing a maxi of dark blue colour . I have emphasized for the policy burnt to ashes by pouring petrol over them. After our death. the The people who stood outside did not know shattered tall buildings and the monuments as to what happened to Hitler and Eva which were crushed to nothing would bear Brown. This The Ministers and the Army Generals. our dead bodies have wild passion for war. As smoke was emitting from it. calamities faced by our country. With utmost sorrow he was totally his mouth and shot himself and so the bullet disheartened. the door and entered the room.” The radio of ear. the major after a long time. Beneath his right dead by the opponents. silently and shook hands with his friends. a testimony to the massive attacks meted out by the world countries on us. even As a result of this war. That night at 12”o clock. On the sofa. Hitler received Hitler ’s right hand embraced a the news that the city of Berlin was totally photograph around his chest.94 WORLD HISTORY responsible for the war. the war began. opened all these things. Hitler wrote this final declaration and th signed it. war". Somehow. my dresses.” He uttered these words and War could burst out after the First World took his wife to his room. Hitler’s wife Eva also was Then he called his Personal Secretary and laying dead leaning on Hitler’s body. Hitler might dictator Mussolini and his wife were shot have shot himself dead. the Italian that only few minutes before. my pen and mirror and I never thought that this Second World set on fire. Under his feet. She told. That is the might be rolled in a blanket and might be reason why. He stood and affection for his mother. might have pierced close to his ear.

The northern part was annexed to The South Korean armies began retracing Russia and the southern part was taken steps. hours later got astonished. bodies of Hitler and his wife Eva Brown in a blanket. over by America. Korea was divided into two parts. th established. At the time of the Second World War. they took the bodies to The other side of Hitler the Secretariat’s head office garden from Though Hitler was an autocratic ruler that room. When it was withstand the stiff fight by the North Korean defeated. very fond of children and the animals. several other wars also occurred in the 20 There were frontier clashes between the century. 1950. The UN troops consisted of Syngman-Rhee governments were Americans in large numbers. To save the Russian supporter Kim-il-sung and in South Korea. Both America and The North Korean troops approached Russia did not agree for integrating the two Seoul. The South Korean armies could not Japan captured Korea. He never consumed flesh of the animals. they burnt the bodies into ashes possessed some good qualities. troops who attacked with modern weapons. a war broke out. two countries. it was decided to send the South Korea under the leadership of UN troops. HITLER 95 The Russian troops who came after a few with white dots on it. The famous wars of the 20th century A part from the two World Wars. They became violent and th on 25 June. Then. he also There. The Army . with the help of Russia and China attacked South Korea. He also did not have the habit of smoking. America raised this problem in the In North Korea under the leadership of United Nations Organizations. Hitler was with the help of petrol and burning gas. Later they came to know consumed cyanide poison. The Korean War North Korean forces. that Hitler committed suicide and his body The assistants of Hitler rolled the dead was burnt to ashes. it could be realised that she might have not see Hitler. the capital of South Korea. as they could So. without any sympathy in his heart. Her body was bluish. parts and make it into one country.

the UN troops terminated from his post of Army General. landed in South Korea. one behind the th On 28 September. the efforts to put an end to the war. victims in the foreign land. His Chinese workers forces would get involved th attempts were successful and on 27 July. Otherwise. we would performed wonderful heroic deeds in the throw bombs on them. Instead of him. In the poor country of Vietnam. So. Eisenhower had a close proximity to China. 1951 the North Korean super power America could not achieve troops (with the help of China) captured success and it was torn down by the Seoul. The UN assured that he would make attempts to troops started progressing towards the prevent the sacrifice of the American frontier of China. took charge as the The whole World condemned and raised Army Chief of the UN forces. recovered Seoul. he undertook North Korea immediately. in the war. On In the Presidential elections which were th 19 . Mc Arthur. the “Workers lost their lives. the world’s On January 4 . The UN troops could not resist the stiff fight of the Chinese forces and started withdrawing. more than one lakh American soldiers were killed. Victory and the North Korean forces. the capital city of South Korea. “The UN troops should vacate from As per the promise. unanimous criticism by the people of the “The Chinese workers forces should get world and so it had to withdraw from Vietnam. Therefore.96 WORLD HISTORY General of America. retracing steps and on 1 October. the UN troops other. warning. who away from Korea. totally 20 lakh people frontier of China. In the meantime. Mc Arthur was th On 15 September. The Chinese troops began to step forward. forces” of China entered into Korea and Vietnam War battled against the UN troops. defeat occurred for both. the UN troops also entered into North Korea. the capital held in 1952 in America. Seoul. 1953 the war was over once for all and Mc Arthur did not adhere to this serenity was restored. In the Korean War. At The northern frontier of North Korea the time of election propaganda. voice against this act. the capital city of South The war which started at the end of Korea. Eisenhower was city of North Korea.” China warned. war th lasted for 30 years. the capital of South Korea. In that War. Second World War. . The The war lasted for some more time UN troops battled in a tough manner with between the two forces. The UN troops went behind the June 1950 was extended for the whole year North Korean troops who started their st of 1951also and continued in 1952 too. victorious. The UN forces approached the In the Korean War. they captured Pyongyang. Mathew Ridgeway took the North Korean troops were capturing charge as the army chief.” Mc Arthur warned. Otherwise.

they did not possess modern artillery. France wished to bring North Vietnam under its domination.000 Added to into North Vietnam and South Vietnam and that. soldiers were sent to safeguard South Vietnam. South Vietnam. THE FAMOUS WARS OF THE 20TH CENTURY 97 After the Second World War. At this juncture. atrocities similar to both the blocs were committed. So. Baodai turned out to be a turned out to be two independent countries. puppet in the hands of America but all along Soviet Russia defended North Vietnam. he acted according to the whims and fancies France extended its support for the puppet of the French. Thousands of American government in South Vietnam. 1000 cannons and 100 war aircrafts. In the war that took place in March. The French soldiers disregarded their duties and started going to Saigon. The leader of father of Vietnam. They also The soldiers of North Vietnam were fought against the American troops. In the war that took place between1946 to 1954. relish the domination of the Americans in the land of South Vietnam. 1954. The Vietcong soldiers thought that it was the right time to attack the French army godowns and began capturing the artilleries. The Vietcong soldiers resisted and tumbled down bravely all these powerful troops with the help of outdated cannons and ordinary rifles. in the year known as.”Vietcong” The number of 1945 the country of Vietnam was divided Vietcong soldiers were 20. the Vietcong troops suppressed the French armies and also captured the weapons. the unexpected turning point. it waged war The people of South Vietnam did not against North Vietnam. In the French army there were one lakh soldiers. They possessed 400 tankers. The . there occurred an Ho-Chi-Minh. the capital city of South Vietnam everyday for engaging themselves in the night entertainments.

and the small than the number of soldiers who sacrificed boys also threw bombs over the American in the Second World War. stating that Iraq armies should move away from Kuwait immediately. “The number of American soldiers who The Vietnam War was over. There was a strong demand from the public that the In the meanwhile. The United Nations it. The war conducted by Sadam Hussein On nd August 2 . The king of Kuwait. In this way. the leader of North American troops should evacuate the Vietnam Ho-chi-minh passed away in the country of Vietnam. 20. month. January1973. 1990 Iraq leader All the countries of the world Saddam Hussein suddenly waged war unanimously condemned this attitude of against the country of Kuwait and captured Sadam Hussein. Leduan took over charge as the new leader. Alsaba along with Organizations implemented a resolution his family escaped to abroad.000 American warriors lost their lives. In one year. year 1969.” This statistical aircrafts which flew very low. data was published in the American News innumerable American aircrafts fell down papers and the people of America got by the bombing of common farmers.98 WORLD HISTORY ladies working in the fields. Sadam Hussein declared that Kuwait got th annexed to the country of Iraq as the 19 Sadam Hussein did not pay heed to this region. America decided to stop the Vietnam War and to get out of the In April 1970. In one th over North Vietnam on 15 January1973. the Vietnam War got country. Due to this. The American President Nixon intensified. amazed at this devastating news. The North Vietnam troops ordered for the stopping of bombardment participated in the war directly. warning and with an aim of capturing Saudi . the number of American The Vietnam Peace Agreement was th soldiers who sacrificed their lives in the signed in the city of Paris on 27 Vietnam War was one lakh. The United lost their lives in Vietnam War was more Vietnam Republic emerged.

But later. evacuate Kuwait before In these 7 months. the th 15 January. lakh American soldiers But it was with modern artilleries estimated that the were sent to the gulf casualites in the Iraq area.00. The A war broke out Sadam Hussein people were put to between the two blocs on various types of th 24 February. Kuwait was members returned to their motherland. President George Bush the loss of lives for decided to teach a lesson American troops was to Sadam Hussein. 1991. Iraq’s harassments. Sadam Hussein frontiers of that country. . thoroughly defeated by the vigorous attacks After the Iraq troops moved out of of the Americans.000 to 1. ceased its' operations. So. Iraq troops were ablaze. Two only 250. America requested America to help them. 35. The American In this 5 days war. The oil wells which earned stance was defiant respect to the missile foreign exchange for the country were set attacks.000. on 28 February. announced that he would like to put an end th The government of Saudi Arabia to the war. The United Nations Kuwait remained gave an ''ultimatum” to under the domination Sadam Hussein to of Iraq for 7 months. recovered. THE WAR CONDUCTED BY SADAM HUSSIEN 99 Arabia. he established his troops on the As Iraq faced disaster. were robbed. Kuwait. But resources of Kuwait Sadam did not heed to it. In the beginning. the King of Kuwait and his family Within three days. The British troops side would be also proceeded there to somewhere between assist them.

He nationalized the So.100 The Egyptian Revolution th On 23 rd July. he announced Egypt as a Republic in As the situation grew worse. After two Prime Minister. countries was increasing day by day. Israel. France. Russia 1955. started strengthening its armed forces. The reputation of of transportation for the western Nasser got strengthened. of Egypt. even the British aircraft were vested in the hands of th conducted missile attacks on Nasser only. the hostility between the two Nasser did not withdraw his decision. Then. immediately. this problem was taken to the the help of the western countries. With Then. war. They Sadad Though the war stopped severely cautioned that serious between Israel and Egypt repercussions would follow if temporarily. The king Farooq who lived luxuriously indulging in the The attack of Israel comforts of life was overthrown. . The reputation of Nasser. Prime Minister from Nequib. France also plunged into Nasser captured the post of the war in support of Britain. while peace talks were going on and started Though Neguib was the attacking Egypt by air. countries. day of 29 October. 1954 Nasar Egypt. Britain and France grew furious as it was War again nationalized by Egypt. spread declared a. Britain and France th Suez Canal on 26 July. stopped. If they did not stop the war immediately. Nasser decided to retaliate. Suez Canal became the possession of Egypt from then Suez served as a main source onwards. Israel United Nations by Britain and France. America also condemned When the assistance was the act of Britain and France. Israel set its on eye on the General Neguib became the peninsula of Sinai and found the Prime Minister and Nasser. all the powers days. it announced that they would America and England lent a also indulge themselves into the hand to build a dam in Egypt. “final warning” for Britain and throughout the world. On 18 April. 1952 there burst out a On 29 October there was an arrangement revolution opposing the rule of the King in to conduct the peace talks in the city of the ancient and famous country Geneva. 1956 put an end to the war which was a blow to Britain. the situation as appropriate on the th Deputy Prime Minister.

Later. Sadat. The oil tanks reestablished the reputation of Egypt in were smashed. In the war which lasted for 6 days in Egypt and the other Arabian countries were 1967. In 1978. he went to reputation and health of Nasser to a great Israel. suddenly attacked Israel. the Muslim th extremists encircled him and shot him On 6 October. So. In 1977. In the war which lasted for 6 days. Begin and entered into a Peace agreement. He expired in the year 1970. 1973 Egypt and Syria incessantly. war. He also developing hatred towards him. agreed to have a peace The defeat in the war affected the agreement with Israel. Israel could win a decisive victory crushed drastically. Israel captured a but it was drastically crushed in this war. 1981 when Sadat was the allied country Syria. He enhanced agreement with Israel. The Israel troops Due to this. Libya. Syria and Lebanon. America also had to jump into the war. They started the Defence strength of Egypt. th assisted the strengthening of the army of On 6 October. They even threw the bombs. THE EGYPTIAN REVOLUTION 101 th On 5 June. Sadat and 7 other persons were could not withstand this unforeseen attack killed. 1973. Sadath did not like to widen the war . 1967 Israel suddenly waged and so he agreed to put an end to the war. Syria and Jordan who The official ending of war came into force had got annexed to Egypt also entered the th on 19 October. portion of Sinoi peninsula and countries like The assassination of Sadat Jordan. 1973. who took over charge as the leader of the Democratic country of The leaders of the Muslim countries Egypt. Sadat could wipe out the disastrous The Egyptian ships which were stationed defeat of Egypt in the war of 1967 and at the Suez port were sunk. Apart from that. it also sent their delight for this brutal assassination of troops towards the capital city of Israel. Anwar Sadat. met the Prime Minister Menachem extent. Arabian countries like Iraq. war against the peninsula of Sinoi of Egypt. and the members of the Palestinian Egypt recovered the lost territories in the Liberation movement outwardly expressed previous war. who was troops would be withdrawn to the old th a one-eyed person took the lead in position as it was on 13 October. conducting the war. planned to take revenge for the became furious at this act of Sadat’s peace defeat in the war of 1967. these two received the Nobel Prize Anwar Sadat for their enforcement of peace. inspecting a military parade. and withdrew. He also agreed for the regulation that the The army general Mose Dayan. Syria In the war which lasted for 14 days.