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tqdyfoifhwdrfrsm;

jrefrmEdkifiHwGif t}uD;qkH;jzpfaom wDuspfausmufrD;aoG; owWKwGif;pDrHudef;. oifcef;pmrsm;

© Yuzo Uda

jrefrmEdkifiH. txifu&jzpfaom tif;av;uefESifh 13 rdkif (21 uDvdkrDwm) tuGmwGif EdkifiH.t}uD;qHk; tyGifh


ausmufrD;aoG; owWKwGif;ESifh t}uD;qHk; ausmufrD;aoG;avmifpmoHk; v#yfppfpuf&Hkudk vkyfudkifaer_a=umifh t}uD;
tus,f jy\emrsm; jzpfvmzG,f&Sdygonf? ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;teuf ywf0ef;usifudk tnpfnrf; apqHk;jzpfonfh
vpf*Edkuf ausmufrD;aoG; wefcsdef 2˜000 udk TowWKwGif;Y ae@pOf wl;azmfxkwfvkyfaeygonf? ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;udk
teD;&Sd v#yfppfpuf&HkwGif avmifpmtjzpf avmifu|rf;apI ae@pOf tqdyfoifhjymr_efrsm; wefcsdef 100 rS 150 txd
xkwfv$wfaeonf? T"mwftm;ay;puf&HkrS xGuf&Sdonfh v#yfppf"gwftm;udk tjcm;owWKwGif; pDrHudef;wckodk@ ydk@
aqmiftoHk;jyKaponf? Ttaetxm;rSm jrefrmEdkifiH. avmifpm pGrf;tifu¾wGif jzpfysufae+yD;/ wdkif;jynf.
obm0o,HZmwrsm; xkwf,laejcif;rSm jynfolvlxk. zGH@òz;wdk;wufr_twGuf r[kwfbJ/ aiGtrsm;qHk;ay;Edkifoludk
a&mif;pm;&efom jzpfonf? jrefrmEdkifiHonf ,cktcg tjcm;ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rsm;udkvnf; wl;azmfxkwfvkyf&ef
pDpOfae+yD;/ aemufxyf ausmufrD;aoG; avmifpmoHk; v#yfppfpuf&Hkrsm; xyfrHwnfaqmuf&ef &Sdaeonf?

csKdpGL v_yf&Sm;r_ uGef,uf ytdk0f;vli,ftpnf;t&kH;


2011 ckESpfwGif xkwfa0onf?

qufoG,f&ef : pyorg.net@gmail.com
0ufqdk'f : www.pyo-org.blogspot.com

"mwfyHkrsm;tm;vHk;onf oD;oef@rlydkiftrnf azmfjyxm;jcif; r&Sdygu ytdk0f;vli,ftpnf;t&kH; (PYO) . rlydkif jzpfygonf?

ytdk0f;vli,ftpnf;t&kH; (PYO) .ta=umif;

ytdk0f;vli,ftpnf;t&kH; (PYO) udk 1998 ckESpfwGif vli,frsm;udk pGrf;tm;jr‡ifhwifay;jcif;tm;jzifh +idrf;csrf;aom/ w&m;r#wr_udk


tajccHonfh vl@abmif tzG@J tpnf;opfw&yf wnfaxmifEikd &f ef &nf&, G cf sujf zifh pwif wnfaxmifcjhJ cif; jzpfygonf? vGwv
f yfaom
t=urf;rzufonfh vli,ftzGJ@tpnf;wckjzpf+yD;/ jrefrmEdkifiHwGif +idrf;csrf;a&;/ w&m;r#wr_/ 'Drdkua&pD tcGifhta&;rsm;twGuf
&kef;uefv_yf&Sm;aeygonf?

ytd0k ;f vli,ftpnf;t&k;H (PYO) onf 2009 ckEpS f ZGev f wGif “tem*wfukd vk,zl suq f ;D jcif;” trnf&onfh tpD&ifcpH m wapmifukd
(2)ESpfausmf=umwGif jrefrmEdkifiH. t}uD;qHk; yif;yufoHowWKrdkif; ESifh trSwf 5 oHr%d puf&Hkae&mwdk@wGif avhvmokawoejyK+yD;
xkwjf yefcyhJ gonf? ytd0k ;f vli,ftpnf;t&k;H taejzifh TpDru
H ed ;f ESihf tjcm;aom owWKwGi;f rsm; wl;azmfaer_ tajctaeudk qufvuf
avhvmapmif=h unfah e+yD;/ &yf&mG vlxk rsm;od@k obm0ywf0ef;usiEf iS hf vlra_ &;t& xdcukd f oufa&mufvmEdik rf r_ sm;udk ynmay;r_rsm;
aqmif&Guf aeygonf?

qufoG,f&ef : kyoju2010@gmail.com

csKdpGL v_yf&Sm;r_ uGef,uf. ta=umif;

2010 ckEpS f azazmf0g&vD wGif csKpd LG v_y&f mS ;r_ueG ,


f ufukd pwifz@GJ pnf;&jcif;. &nf&,
G cf surf mS Xmaea'ocH aus;&Gmvlxrk sm;onf
rdrdwdk@udk,fwdkifukd,fus obm0t&if;tjrpfrsm;ukd umuG,fxdef;odrf;jcif;pGrf;&nf ydkrdktm;aumif;vmapa&; jzpfonf?
“csKdpGL” a0g[m&onf ytdk0f;vlrsKd; bmompum;jzpf+yD; “pdrf;vef;oef@&Sif;jcif;”[k jrefrmvdk t"dy`g,f&onf?
rmwdum
ed'gef; ....................................................................................................................................... 5
tusOf;csKyf ................................................................................................................................ 7
tydkif; (1) jrefrmEdkifiH. ausmufrD;aoG;oHk; vSsyfppf"gwftm;xkwfpuf&kHrsm; ................................................. 9
obm0&if;jrpf ºu,f0aomfvnf; pGrf;tifcsKd@wJhqif;&Jaeonfh jrefrmEdkifiH .................................... 10
jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd ausmufrD;aoG;owWKwGif;rsm; ........................................................................... 11
jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd t"du ausmufrD;aoG;odkufrsm;jyZ,m; ............................................................. 12
wDuspf ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;ESifh vSsyfppf"gwftm;ay;puf&Hk pDrHudef;ajrykH ........................................ 14
ausmufrD;aoG; avmifpmoHk; v#yfppfpuf&HkwGif xkwfvGwfrltqifhrsm;jyZ,m; .............................. 15
jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd ausmufrD;aoG; avmifpmoHk; a&aEG;aiG@vSsyfppf"gwftm;ay;puf&Hkrsm; .......................... 15
jrefrmEdkifiH. ta&S@awmiftm&S t}uD;qkH;ausmufrD;aoG;puf&kHpDrHudef; ........................................ 15
tydkif; (2) wDuspfausmufrD;aoG; pDrHudef; ......................................................................................... 16
wDuspfaus;&GmESifh ywf0ef;usifa'orsm; ............................................................................. 19
txufbDvl;acsmif; ...................................................................................................... 19
tif;av;uef .............................................................................................................. 20
wDuspfausmufrD;aoG; pDrHudef;ESifh tif;av;uefajrykH .............................................................. 21
wDuspfausmufrD;aoG;owWKwGif; ....................................................................................... 22
wDuspfausmufrD;aoG;owWKwGif;ESifh puf&kHpDrHudef;jyajrykH .......................................................... 25
&if;ESD;jrSyfESHolrsm; .......................................................................................................... 25
wDuspfausmufrD;aoG; avmifpmokH;a&aEG;aiG@ v#yfppf"gwftm;ay;puf&kH ...................................... 26
a'ocHjynfolrsm;twGuf avmifpmpGrf;tiftajctae ........................................................... 27
wDuspfv#yfppfpuf&kHrS "gwftm;udk yif;yufoH&nf}udKpuf&kHodk@ ay;ydk@&ef&Sdjcif; ................................. 27
tydkif; (3) a'ocHjynfolrsm;ESifh obm0ywf0ef;usiftay: qdk;usKd;oufa&mufapr_rsm; ................................. 29
t"rR a&$@ajymif;apjcif; .................................................................................................. 30
ajrodrf;,ljcif; ............................................................................................................. 34
a'ocHvlxktwGuf tEW&m,f&Sdapaom v#yfppfpufcg;ywfóu; .................................................. 35
ajr,mrsm;wGif pdkufysKd;&ef jy\emjzpfvmjcif; ..................................................................... 36
tvkyfvufrJh rsm;jym;vmjcif; .......................................................................................... 37
avxknpfnrf;r_a=umifh usef;rma&;udk xdckdufapjcif; ............................................................. 39
ausmufrD;aoG;jymqdkonfrSmtb,fenf;? ............................................................ 41
puf&kHrsm;rD;cdk;aiG@rsm;a=umifh tufqpfrdk;jzpfay:apjcif; .............................................. 42
ta&S@awmiftm&S&Sd t}uD;rm;qHk; ausmufrD;aoG;avmifpmoHk; v#yfppfxkwfpuf&HkrS oifcef;pm ........... 43
a&npfnrf;jcif;ESifh a&&Sm;yg;vmjcif; .................................................................................. 44
toHqlnHr_rsm; ............................................................................................................ 46
,Ofaus;r_ zsufqD;cH&jcif;rsm; .......................................................................................... 46
ed*Hk;ESifh t}uHðycsufrsm; ................................................................................................................. 49
usrf;udk; .................................................................................................................. 50
aemufqufwJG (1) ........................................................................................................ 53
aemufqufwJG (2) ........................................................................................................ 54
4
ed'gef;
jrefrmEdkifiHwGif txifu&jzpfaom tif;av;uef. a&a0a&vJ a'owGif wnf&Sdaeonfh wDuspfaus;&Gmonf
Edik if .
H t}uD;qH;k ajrrsuEf mS jyiftyGihf ausmufr;D aoG;wGi;f }uD;ESihf t}uD;qH;k ausmufr;D aoG;oH;k v#ypf pfxw k pf uf&kH
wnf&Sdaeygonf? ,cktcg ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rS xGufvmonfh ajrpmyHk}uD;onf &Gm&Sd vlaetdrfrsm;xuf
jrifhrm;ae+yD;/ ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rS azmufcGJr_ t&Sdefrsm;a=umifh &Gm&Sd apwDwpfqlvnf; òyusysufpD;cJh&+yD
jzpfygonf? &Gm&Sd a&acsmif;rsm;rSmvnf; npfax;vmae+yD; oHk;Ir&Edkifonfh tajctaewGif &Sdaeygonf? &Gm&Sd
pdu
k yf sK;d ajr {u&maygi;f rsm;pGmudvk nf; odr;f qnf;cHc&hJ +yD;/ ausmufr;D aoG;wGi;f teD;&Sd &Gm (2)&GmrSm avsmaf =u;[lI
vkHavmufpGm &&Sdjcif; r&SdbJ twif;tusyf ESifxkwfajymif;a&$@apjcif; cHcJh&ygonf? aus;&Gmvlxkrsm; onf olwdk@
b0tay: t}uD;tus,f xdcu kd yf supf ;D aponfw
h ikd f TpDruH ed ;f ESihf ywfoufI wpHw
k &mr# ajymqdk ydik cf iG hf r&S=d ubJ/
olwkd@a&&Snf }uKHawG@&rnfh usef;rma&; xdcdkufoufa&mufr_rsm;ESifh ywfoufI rod&SdEdkif=ubJ &Sdaeygonf?

jrefrmEdkifiHonf emwm&Snf avmifpmpGrf;tif csKd@wJhr_ESifh }uHKawG@ae&aomfvnf;/ ,ckwdkif tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiH


rsm;odk@ avmifpmpGrf;tif tajrmuftrsm; xkwfvkyfa&mif;csaeqJ jzpfygonf? vuf&SdwGif EdkifiH. v#yfppf
pGrf;tifxkwfvkyfr_ 3μ r#udk ausmufrD;aoG;rS xkwfvkyfae+yD;/ Todk@ xkwfvkyfvdkufonfh v#yfppfpGrf;tif
trsm;pkudk tjcm;owWKwGif; vkyfief;rsm;/ pufr_Zkefrsm;wGif toHk;csae=uaeygaomfvnf; vlaetdrfrsm;wGif
toHk;csEdkifjcif; r&Sd=uyg? &Srf;jynfe,f ta&S@ydkif;rS ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;udk xdkif;EdkifiHodk@ wifydk@&ef vsmxm;
aqmif&Gufae+yD;/ Tvsmxm;csufrsm;t& jrefrmEdkifiH awmifydkif;wGif xdkif;EdkifiHu OD;aqmifvkyfudkifrnfh t}uD;
qHk;pufr_Zkefwckudk wnfaqmuf&ef&Sd+yD;/ ta&S@ awmiftm&SwGif t}uD;qHk; ausmufrD;aoG;oHk; v#yfppfpuf&Hk}uD;
rSaeI v#yfppfpGrf;tif axmufyHh&ef jyifqifr_rsm;vnf; &Sdaeygonf?
5
jrefrmEdkifiHonf EdkifiHwGif;&Sd tjcm;aom ausmufrD;aoG;odkufrsm;udk wl;azmfxkwfvkyf&efvnf; jyifqifae+yD;/
tjcm;ausmufr;D aoG;oH;k v#ypf pfpuf&rkH sm;vnf; wnfaqmuf&ef tpDtpOf&adS eum wDuspaf usmufr;D aoG;wGi;f
a=umifh cHpm;ae&onfh tawG@t}uHKudk rD;armif;xdk;wifjy today;&ef ta&;}uD;vmygonf? ausmufrD;aoG;
wGi;f rsm;tEW&m,fukd }uHKawG@&rnfh &yf&mG vlr_ todu k t
f 0ef;wd@k taeESihf ausmufr;D aoG;rdik ;f rsm; oabmobm0
udk em;vnfoabmaygufapEdkif+yD;/ ‚wdk@bmom rdrdudk,fudk rdrdwdk@ umuG,fr_rsm; aqmif&GufEdkif=uap&ef
&nf&G,fygonf? wcsdefwnf;rSmyif jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rsm;wGif &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_rsm; vkyfudkif=urnfh/
tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHrsm;rS pD;yGm;a&;ukr`%Drsm;taeESifhvnf; jrefrmjynfolrsm; Todk@pDrHudef;rsm;a=umifh cHpm;epfem
&rnfh vlr_a&;/ obm0ywf0ef;usif xdcdkufepfem&r_rsm;udk od&Sdvmaprnf jzpfonf?
ࠍࠢߺࠎࠪ࡟ࠍࠟࠥࡴ

ࠐࠞࠩࠏࡨࠟࠩ࡟ࠍࠟࠥࡴ


ࠒࠧࠐ࠭߸ࠪࠬࠍ߹
ࠏ࠮ࠍࠪࠩࠬࠉ߾ࠪ
ࠏࠍࠪ ߾ࠈ ࠈ
ࠈࠎࠪ ߴࠫࠥࠟ߸ࠪࠩࠅࠧࠡ࡟ࠍࠟࠥࡴ

ࠕ࡯ࡕࠟࠎ࡯ࠟࠡ߸ࠪ߸ࠧ
ࠣࠄࠞ߸ࠪࡠߴࠠࠩ࡟ࠍࠟࠥࡴ
ߴࠣࠐࠞ࡟ࠍࠟࠥࡴ ࠐࠞࠕࠟࠡ࡯ࠟࠡ߸߸
ࠪ ࠧ
ࠬࠍ߹

) ࠕ߸ࠪࠩࠣ
ࠕ ࠣࠐࠩߴࠈࠪ ࠍࠟࠡ߸ࠪࠩࠄࠧࠡ࡟ࠍࠟࠥࡴ
࠭߸ࠪࠩ

ࠄࠠߴࠫ߹ࠪ
ࠪࠩ ࠄ

ߺࠠߺࠟࠡ߸ࠪ࡟ࠍࠟࠥࡴ
ߵࠫ߸

ࠉ߸ࠪࠣࠐࠞ߸ࠪࠩ࡟ࠍࠟࠥࡴ

ࠅࠟࠡ߸ࠪࠩ࡯ࠟࠡ߸ࠪ߸ࠧ
ࠐ࠭ࠎࠪ߶ࠫࠎࠪ
ࠇࠝࠩࠣࠒ࠭ࠩࠣߴࠫࠞߴࠪ
ࡠߴࠟࠥࡴࠉ߸ࠪ
࠵࠯࠯ࠍ߶ࡂࠝ࠯ࠉࠪ
ࠉࠐࠢ߻ࠑࠝ
)
ࠄࠏࠡࠄࠪ࡯ࠡ߸
ࠟ ࠪ߸ࠧ
ߴࠣࠐࠩࠑ
ࠈࠍ࡜
ࠒ߸ࠪࠩࠣࠉࠝ߸ࠪ
ߺࠈࠪࠣࠐࠞ߸ࠪࠩ
ࠍࠓࠢࠣࠄࠞ߸ࠪ

ࠣ࡞ߴࠩࠒࠠࠩࠍࠧ߹ࠧ
ࠣߴࠫࠞߴࠪࠄߵࠝࠩ
ࠍࠟࠡ߸ࠪࠩߵࠡࠄࠪ
ࠬࠍࠈࠪࠈࠠ ࠕ߸ࠪࠩࠉ߸ࠪ ࠐࠞࠕࠟࠡ࡯ࠟࠡ߸ࠪ߸ࠧ
)
)

ࠄࠠߴࠫ߹ࠪ ࠭߸ࠬࠪ ࠍ߹
ࠒࠧࠐ
6 ࠲࠵࠸ࠍ߶ࡂࠝ࠯ࠉࠪ
ࠚࠏࠞ࠯ࠄࠠࠬࠍ߹

߹ࠪ
ࠞ߸ࠪࠩࠬࠍ

࠰࠱࠯ࠍ߶ࡂࠝ࠯ࠉࠪ
߹߹ࠪࠣࠄ

ࠅࠟ߸
ࠡ ࠪࠩ࡯ࠟࠡ߸ࠪ߸ࠧ

ࠅࠈࠪࠩࠄࠉ߸ࠪ
)
)

ࠏࠈࠪߴࠡࠈࠪࠄࠟࠡ߸ࠪࠩ
࠱î࠴࠳࠯ࠍ߶ࡂࠝ࠯ࠉࠪ

࠱࠶࠯ࠍ߶ࡂࠝ࠯ࠉࠪ

࠳࠯࠯࠯ࠍ߶ࡂࠝ࠯ࠉࠪ
)
ࠅࠞࠩ࠯ࠎࠪ

ࠣࠬࠍࠉࠡࠧࠕ߾ࡪࠈࠪࠩ

ࠣߴࠫࠞߴࠪࠍࠠࠩࠣࠒ࠭ࠩࠒࠟࠡߴࠪ ࠒࠟࠍࠪࠣࠄࠞࠪ
ࠣࠍࠞࠨࠣࠄࠞ߸ࠪ
ࠄࠢࠩࠣࠊࠞࠪࠒ߾ࠪࠨࠣߴࠫࠞߴࠪࠍࠠࠩࠣࠒ࠭ࠩࠄ࠭߸ࠪࠩ

) ࠄ߾ࠪࠣߺࠞߴࠪ࡟ࠉࠠࠩࠣߴࠫࠞߴࠪࠍࠠࠩࠣࠒ࠭ࠩ߹ߴࠪࠏࠧࠡ

) ࠄ߾ࠪࠣߺࠞߴࠪߺࠤࠣߴࠫࠞߴࠪࠍࠠࠩࠣࠒ࠭ࠩ߹ߴࠪࠏࠧࠡ

) ࠄ߾ࠪࠣߺࠞߴࠪࠏࠈࠪ߹ࠠ߹࠘ࠪࠅࠞࠩࠒ߾ࠪࠨࠣߴࠫࠞߴࠪࠍࠠࠩࠣࠒ࠭ࠩ߹ߴࠪࠏࠧࠡ ࠵ࠍ߶ࡂࠝ࠯ࠉࠪ
)
ࠬࠍ߹ࠪࠣߵࠫࠞ߸ࠪࠩ ࠣߴࠞࠨࠣࠒࠞ߸ࠪࠩ
tusOf;csKyf
(1) jrefrmEdkifiHonf avmifpmpGrf;tif &if;jrpf aygºu,f0aomfvnf;/ tkyfcsKyfaeonfh ppftpdk;&onf Tt&if;
tjrpfrsm;udk xkwf,la&mif;xkwfae+yD;/ jynfolrsm;rSrl emwm&Snf avmifpmpGrf;tif csKd@wJhr_ cHpm;ae=u&yg
onf? Todk@aom ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rsm;tygt0if obm0t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk tjrwfxkwf toHk;csae
r_a=umifh }uD;pGmaom a'ocHvlxk &yf&Gmrsm;tay: vlr_a&;/ obm0ywf0ef;usifxdcdkufepfemr_rsm; &Sdae+yD;/
Todk@aom pDrHudef;rsm;wGif &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESH vkyfudkifae=uonfh ukr`%Drsm;rSmvnf; xdcdkufepfem&onfh
&yf&Gm vlxkrsm;tay: wm0ef,l wm0efcHr_ vHk;0r&Sdoavmuf jzpfaeygonf?

(2) jrefrmEdkifiHwGif t}uD;pm; ausmufrD;aoG;odkuf (16)ck &Sdygonf? 4if. pkpkaygif; ausmufrD;aoG;


wefoef;aygif; (270) ausmf&Sdygonf? wDuspf ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;onf jrefrmEdkifiH. t}uD;qHk; tyGifhpepf
ausmufrD;aoG;wGif; jzpf+yD;/ ae@pOf ausmufrD;aoG; wefcsdef 2˜000 cef@ xkwf,laeygonf?

(3) wDuspf ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;ESifh ausmufrD;aoG;avmifpmoHk; v#yfppfpuf&Hkonf jrefrmEdkifiHwGif txifu&


tif;av;uef. a&a0a&vJ a'owGif wnf&Sdaeygonf? tif;av;uefonf ta&S@awmiftm&SEdkifiHrsm;
toif;twGufyif wefzdk;xm;&rnfh ae&mwcktjzpf owfrSwfxm;&m jzpfygonf? ausmufrD;aoG;rdkif;ESifh
v#yfppfpuf&Hkwdk@rS xGufvmonfh tnpfta=u;rsm;onf bDvl;acsmif;twGif;odk@ pD;0ifaeaomfvnf;/
,ckwdkif tif;av;ueftay: TpDrHudef;rsm;a=umifh xdcdkufepfem&yHk avhvmr_rsm;udkvnf; vlod&Sif=um;
xkwfjyefjcif; r&Sdao;yg?

(4) ausmufr;D aoG;wGi;f rS &&Sv d monfh uke=f urf;rsm;udk jrefrmEdik if . H t}u;D qH;k wDuspaf usmufr;D aoG;avmifpmoH;k 7
v#yfppfpuf&Hkodk@ ydk@aqmifonf? Tv#yfppfpuf&HkrS wESpfv#if ausmufrD;aoG; 640˜000 wef toHk;ðyae+yD;/
v#yfppf 120 r*~g0yf tm;jzifh 600 *dkuf*g0yf em&Doef;aygif;udk (Gigawatts hour) xkwfvkyfEdkifygonf?
tqdyo f ifah ponfh ausmufr;D aoG;jymr_rH sm;onf ae@pOfEiS t hf r# wefcsed f 100-150 cef@ xkwv f yk af eygonf?
Tpuf&rkH S xkwv f yk v
f u
kd of nfh v#ypf pftrsm;pkukd &k&mS ;ESihf tDwvDurk % ` rD sm;u aqmif&uG v f nfywfaernfh
oH&dkif;puf&Hkodk@ ay;ydk@toHk;csaprnf jzpfonf?

(5) ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;ESifh puf&Hkudk w&kwfEdkifiH trsKd;om; t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief; aumfydka&;&Sif; (China


National Heavy Machinery Corporation - CHMC) u (2002 ckESpf) pwifI vnfywfaqmif&Guf
aecJh+yD;/ jrefrmEdkifiHrS {'iftkyfpk ukr`%DESifh &Srf;&dk;re*g; ukr`%Dwdk@u zufpyfaqmif&Gufae=uygonf?

(6) pDru
H ed ;f teD;wGif &Sad eonfh &Gm (2)&Gmjzpfaom vdik cf g;ESihf awmify@kd v aus;&Gmrsm;udk TpDru H ed ;f rsm;twGuf
twif;tusyf a&$@ajymif;apcJh+yD;/ pdkufysKd;ajr {u 500 ausmfudk odrf;,lcJhygonf? v,fpdkufysKd;vkyfudkif
ae=uonfh rdom;pkrsm;rSm ESix f wk cf cH =hJ u&+yD;/ ajr,mqH;k &_;H cJ&h onft
h wGuaf =umifh iwfrw G q f if;&Jvm=u&+yD;
vuf&SdrSm xif;ckwfa&mif;ae=u&onf? tcsKd@rSm tjcm;a'orsm;odk@ a&=unf&m jrufEk&modk@ a&$@ajymif;
xGucf mG oGm;=u&onf? ausmufr;D aoG;wGi;f rS azmufcrJG _ wkecf gonft h &Sed af =umifh a'o&Sd bk&m;apwDvnf;
òyusysufpD;cJh&onf?
(7) avxkESifh a&xknpfnrf;r_a=umifh pdkufysKd;a&;vkyfief;ESifh ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rS A[dkðy+yD; (5)rdkif ywf0ef;
usifwGif aexdkif=uol vlOD;a&aygif; 12˜000 ausmf. usef;rma&;udk xdcdkufapygonf? aemufqHk;
vltrsm;pkrSm Tae&mrS a&$@ajymif; xGufcGm=u&awmhrnf jzpfygonf? ,cktcg a'ocH 50μ ausmfrSm
ta&jym;,m;,Hr_ a0'emrsm; cHpm;ae=u&ygonf?

(8) ytdk0f;vli,ftzJG@ESifh csKdpGLtzJG@wdk@ taejzifh 2010 ckESpf azaz:0g&DvrS pwifI TpDrHudef;rsm;.


oufa&mufxdcdkuf epfemapr_udk pwifavhvmcJhygonf? TpDrHudef;}uD;rsm;wGif yg0ifvkyfudkifae=uonfh
tpdk;&rsm;ESifh ukr`%Drsm;udk vkyfief;rsm; &yfqdkif;ay;&efESifh bufpHk obm0ywf0ef;usif/ vlr_a&;ESifh
use;f rma&; xdcukd f epfemEdik rf t
_ ay: pHpk rf;ppfaq;r_rsm; ðyvkyyf g&ef awmif;qdt
k yfygonf? rdrw
d @kd tzG@J taejzifh
wdkufwGef;vdkonfrSm aus;&Gmvlxkrsm; taeESifhvnf; pmcsKyfpmwef;rsm;udk rdrdwdk@ od&Sdem;vnfjcif; r&SdbJ
vufrw S f ra&;xd;k ay;=uyg&efEiS hf &yf&mG vlx. k toufarG;0rf;ausmif; vkyif ef;rsm;ESihf obm0&if;jrpfrsm;udk
tEW&m,fjzpf xdcdkufaprnfh acgif;yHkjzwf tjrwfxkwfr_rsm;ESifh tusifhysufjcpm;r_rsm;udk qef@usifuef@
uGuf=uyg&ef wdkufwGef;vdkygonf?

8
tydkif; (1)
jrefrmEdkifiH. ausmufrD;aoG;okH; v#yfppf"gwftm;xkwfpuf&kHrsm;
obm0&if;jrpf ºu,f0aomfvnf; pGrf;tifcsKd@wJhqif;&Jaeonfh jrefrmEdkifiH

jrefrmEdkifiHonf wdkif;&if;om; vlrsKd;aygif;pHk rSDwif;aexdkifonfh EdkifiHwckjzpf+yD; vlOD;a& 59² 12 oef; &Sdygonf?1


vlOD;a& 70μ ausmfonf v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;vkyfief;udk rSDcdktm;xm;ae&onfh toufarG;0rf;ausmif;
vkyif ef;jzpfonf?2 jrefrmEdik if u
H kd 1962 ckEpS rf S pwifI ppftm%m&Sipf epfjzifh tkycf sKyfvmcJo
h nf? ,ckwikd f ppfwyfu
tm%mudk qufvufcsKyf udkifxm;qJ&Sd+yD;/ 2010 ckESpf Edk0ifbmv (7) &ufae@u usif;ycJhonfh a&G;aumufyGJwGif
ppfwyfudk ausmaxmufaemufcH ðyxm;onfh jynfaxmifpk}uHhcdkifa&;ESifh zGH@òz;a&;ygwD}uD;u tEdkif&cJhonf
qdkaomfvnf;/ rJrormr_rsm; tus,ftjyef@ &SdcJhonf[k pGyfpGJajymqdkae=uonf?

jrefrmEdkifiHonf pGrf;tifavmifpm aygºu,f0aomfvnf;/ EdkifiH.vlxkrsm;rSm =um&SnfpGm avmifpmpGrf;tif


qif;&JcsKd@wJhjcif;udk cHpm;ae&onf? t"dutm;jzifh xif;/ rD;aoG;ESifh obm0 avmifpmrsm;udkom pGrf;tiftwGuf
t"duxm; toHk;ðyae=u&onf? tkyfcsKyfaeonfh ppftpdk;&u EdkifiHwum ukr`%Drsm;ESifh avmifpmpGrf;tifrsm;
wifydk@a&mif;cs&ef pmcsKyfrsm; csKyfqdkcJh+yD;/ tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHrsm; jzpfonfh w&kwf/ b*Fvm;a'h&Sf/ xdkif;ESifh tdENd,
EdkifiHrsm;odk@ avmifpmpGrf;tif wifydk@a&mif;csaeonf?3 txl;ojzifh obm0"mwfaiG@ uJhodk@aom obm0t&if;
tjrpfrsm; wifydk@a&mif;csI wdkif;jynfb¾modk@ +yD;cJhonfh q,fpkESpftwGif; aiGtajrmuftrsm; 0ifaeapaomf
vnf;/ EdkifiHw0Srf;&Sd usef;rma&;ESifh ynma&; pepftwGuf aumif;pGm toHk;csjcif; r&Sdyg? urBmay:wGif usef;rma&;/
ynma&;yHhydk;r_ tedrfhusqHk;ESifh tqdk;qHk; tajctae wnf&Sdaeygonf?

owWKwGif;rsm; wl;azmfjcif;/ opfxkwfvkyfjcif;ESifh a&umwm a&tm;v#yfppf vkyfief;rsm; wnfaqmufjcif; pojzifh


10 obm0t&if;tjrpfrsm; xkwf,loHk;pGJaer_a=umifh a'ocH&yf&Gmvlxkrsm;tay: }uD;pGm xdcdkufepfem apygonf?
rlvuwnf;u rajyrvnfjzpfaeonfh wdkif;&if;om;a'orsm;wGif ydkI yÉdyuQrsm; }uD;xGm; vmapygonf?
jrefrmEdkifiHwGif w&m;Oya'enf;us tkyf csKyfr_uif;rJhaeonfhtwGufa=umifh Todk@aom pDrHudef;}uD;rsm;wGif
vma&muf&if;ES;D jr‡KyfE=HS uaom ukr%
` rD sm;rSm epfem&onfh a'ocHvxl rk sm;tay: wm0ef,l wm0efcrH t
_ vsO;f r&Sb
d J
pdwfwdkif;us aqmif&GufaeEdkif=uygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh TpDrHudef;}uD;rsm;rS }uD;rm;pGm vl@tcGifhta&;
csKd;azmufr_rsm;ESifh toufarG;0rf;ausmif; qHk;&_H;apr_rsm; jzpfapum/ 'kuQonfrsm; xGufajy;&r_/ jrefrmEdkifiH
e,fpyfudkjzwfausmfI tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHrsm;wGif tvkyftudkifrsm; vma&muf&SmazG&ef axmifaomif;ESifhcsDaom
vli,frsm; ajymif;a&$@tajccs&r_wdk@ESifhvnf; wdkuf&dkufywfoufaeygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh a'otwGif;wGif
vlukeful;r_ jzpfay:ap&efESifh vltrsm;tjym;ydkI xdcdkufepfemzG,f ta=umif;rsm; jzpfapygonf?

jrefrmjynf&Sd jynfoltrsm;pkonf
za,mif;wdkifrD;udkom tm;xm;ae&qJ
jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd ausmufrD;aoG;owWKwGif;rsm;

jrefrmEdkifiH owWKwGif;0ef}uD;Xme azmfjyxm;csuft& jrefrmEdkifiHwGif t"duausmufrD;aoG;odkuf}uD; xGuf&Sd


Edkifonfhae&m (16)ck &Sdonf? ‚ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;. pkpkaygif;ºu,f0r_ wefcsdefoef;aygif; 270 ausmf &Sdonf?
txl;ojzifh qyfbpfwrl ed yfpf (Sub-bituminous) tqif&h dS ausmufr;D aoG;rsm; jzpf+yD;/ Edik if .
H ajrmufyikd ;f a'orsm;wGif
txl;ojzifh wnf&Sdaeonf? (azmfjyyg Z,m;udk =unfhyg?)

ausmufr;D aoG;owWKwGi;f pDru H ed ;f rsm;udk owWKwGi;f 0ef}uD;Xme vufatmuf&dS trSwf (3)owWKwGi;f vkyif ef;Xmeu
pDrHaqmif&Guf+yD;/ jynfwGif;-EdkifiHjcm; ukr`%Drsm;ESifh zufpyfvkyfudkifonf? 2011 ckESpfwGif owWKwGif;0ef}uD;
Xme. azmfjycsuft& jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd ausmufrD;aoG; owWKwGif;vkyfief;rsm;udk EdkifiHawmfydkiftaejzifh 2²8 μ
vkyfudkifrnfjzpf+yD;/ zufpyfvkyfief;rsm;jzifh 43² 87μ udkaomfvnf;aumif;/ jynfwGif;ukr`%Drsm;u 53²32μ udk
aomfvnf;aumif; xkwfvkyfoGm;rnf jzpfonf?4 Tvkyfief;rsm;onf EdkifiHw0Srf;&Sd ausmufrD;aoG;odkuf 82
ae&mwGif cGJI vkyfudkifrnf jzpfonf?5

EdkifiHjcm;ukr`%Drsm;ESifh zufpyfvkyfudkifaeonfh vkyfief;rsm;wGif tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHrsm;odk@ ausmufrD;aoG; wifydk@


a&mif;cs jcif;rsm;vnf; wGJI yg0ifaeonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh- xdkif;EdkifiHonf jrefrmEdkifiHrS ausmufrD;aoG;
trsm;qHk; 0,f,lwifoGif;aom EdkifiHjzpfonf? xdkif;ukr`%Dwckjzpfonfh p&bl&D ausmufrD;aoG; ukr`%DvDrdwuf
(Saraburi Coal Co., Ltd.) onf weoFm&Dwdkif;&Sd armhawmif ausmufrD;aoG;odkufudk xkwfvkyfwl;azmf&efESifh
xdkif;EdkifiHodk@ wifydk@a&mif;cs&ef cGifhðycsuf &xm;onf? &Srf;jynfe,f ta&S@ydkif;&Sd rdkif;ckwf (rdk;ukwf) a'orS
ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;udkvnf; xdkif;EdkifiHodk@ wifydk@a&mif;csrnfyif jzpfonf? ausmufrD;aoG; t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk 11
wjcm;aomEdkifiHjcm;zufpyf &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_rsm;jzifh vnfywfvkyfudkifaeonfh pDrHudef;rsm; (Oyrm- rHk&Gma=u;pif
awmifowWKrdik ;f od@k r[kwf yif;yuf oHr%d&nfóupuf&)kH wd@k wiG f avmifpmtjzpf toH;k ðy&efvnf; xkw, f =l uonf?
(ausmufrD;aoG;avmifpmoHk; puf&kHrsm;tcef;wGif =unfhyg?) ausmufrD;aoG;udk pufr_Zkefrsm;odk@ wifydk@onfh
twGufa=umifhvnf; jrefrmEdkifiHrS xkwfcJh+yD;aom ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;udk omrefjynfolrsm; oHk;pGJEdkifrnfavm
rod&SdEdkifay? jrefrmjynfolwdk@rSm emwm&SnfozG,f avmifpmpGrf;tif csKd@wJh &Sm;yg;r_/ jywfawmufr_rsm; }uKHawG@
cHpm;ae=u&ygonf?
jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd t"du ausmufrD;aoG;odkuf}uD;rsm;6 (jrefrmtpdk;& azmfjyxm;csuft&)
ausmufrD;aoG;
pOf wnfae&m òrd@e,f jynfe,f-wdkif; wefoef;aygif;
trsKd;tpm;
1 yvlZm0g§ acsmif;qHk uav;0-armfvdkuf ppfudkif; 89² 00 qyf-bpfwlrdeyfpf
2 uav;0 uav;0 ppfudkif; 87² 78 qyf-bpfwlrdeyfpf

3 "g;aoG;ausmuf wrl; ppfudkif; 33² 91 qyf-bpfwlrdeyfpf


4 r[lawmif uEMD ppfudkif; 0² 80 vpf*Edkuf
5 ausmufwHcg; ewfarmuf rauG; 0² 54 qyf-bpfwlrdeyfpf
6 jrefeD aygif rauG; 0² 25 qyf-bpfwlrdeyfpf
7 oif;aygif cifOD; ppfudkif; 0² 08 vpf*Edkuf
8 óu@yif aumvif; ppfudkif; 0² 03 qyf-bpfwlrdeyfpf
9 vG,f*s,f rdk;armuf ucsif tajrmuf -
trsm;&Sdae

10 wDuspf yifavmif; &Srf; 20² 20 vpf*Edkuf

12 11 aus;oD;rHpH aus;oD;rHpH &Srf; 37² 007 qyf-bpfwlrdeyfpf


12 erR vm;&d_; &Srf; 2² 80 vpf*Edkuf
13 qefavmif oDayg &Srf; 1² 60 vpf*Edkuf
(qefavm)
14 tif;yif uavm &Srf; 0² 22 qyf-bpfwlrdeyfpf
15 armhawmif weoFm&D weoFm&D 3² 60 qyf-bpfwlrdeyfpf
16 odrfawm(aumhrjyif;) weoFm&D weoFm&D 2² 00 qyf-bpfwlrdeyfpf
pkpkaygif; 277³ 81
&Srf;jynfe,f ta&S@ydkif;&Sd rdkif;ckwf (rdk;ukwf) a'orS awG@&Sdonfh ausmufrD;aoG;odkufudk azmfjyxm;onfh t"du
ausmufrD;aoG;odkuf}uD; (16) ckwGif yg0ifazmfjyxm;jcif; r&Sdaomfvnf; jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd t"du ausmufrD;aoG;odkuf}uD;wck
jzpfonf[k od&Sd&ygonf?

ywf0ef;usif tnpfnrf;apqHk; jzpfonfh ausmufjzpf&kyfºuif; (ausmufrD;aoG;)


ausmufrD;aoG;onf vGefcJhonfh ESpfoef;ESifhcsDonfh umvu aygufzGm;&Sifoef+yD;/ aoqHk;cJhaom opfyiftºuif;
tusefrsm;rS jzpfay:vmonfh &kyfºuif;avmifpmjzpfonf?8 ausmufrD;aoG;onf umbGef"mwf trsm;qHk;
yg0ifaom &kyfºuif;avmifpmjzpf+yD;/ obm0"mwfaiG@ESifh,SOfv#if avmifpmpGrf;tif ,lepfcsif;twlwl
xkwfv$wfay;v#ifaomfrS umbGef'dkifatmufqdk'f"mwf (CO2) 70μ txd ydkI avmifu|rf;xkwfv$wfonf?9
TumbGef'dkifatmufqdk'f"mwf rsm;onf vlom;rsm;. usef;rma&;udk xdcdkufapEdkif+yD;/ obm0ywf0ef;usif
azmufjyefysufpD;ap&ef ta=umif;vnf; rsm;pGm jzpfapEdkifygonf?
owWKwGif; wl;azmfr_
vkyfief;§ukr`%D (od&Sd&or#)
tajctae

ࠬࠍ߹

xGef;oGif/ xl;opfESifh trSwf(3) wl;azmfxkwfvkyfae

࠭߸ࠪࠩ
ࠕ࡯ࡕࠟࠎ࡯ࠟࠡ߸ࠪ߸ࠧ

ࠪࠩ ࠄ
ߵࠫ߸
owWKwGif;0ef}uD; Xme
ࠄࠏࠡࠄࠪ࡯ࠟࠡ߸ࠪ߸ࠧ
ࠐ࠭ࠎࠪ߶ࠫࠎࠪ
trftD;pD wl;azmfxkwfvkyfae ࠇࠝࠩࠣࠒ࠭ࠩࠣߴࠫࠞߴࠪ
ࡠߴࠟࠥࡴࠉ߸ࠪ

ࠉࠐࠢ߻ࠑࠝ
ࠈࠍ࡜
ߴࠣࠐࠩࠑ
ࠒ߸ࠪࠩࠣࠉࠝ߸ࠪ
ߺࠈࠪࠣࠐࠞ߸ࠪࠩ
ࠍࠓࠢࠣࠄࠞ߸ࠪ

ࠣߴࠫࠞߴࠪࠄߵࠝࠩ ࠣ࡞ߴࠩࠒࠠࠩࠍࠧ߹ࠧ

ࠬࠍࠈࠪࠈࠠ ࠕ߸ࠪࠩࠉ߸ࠪ ࠐࠞࠕࠟࠡ࡯ࠟࠡ߸ࠪ߸ࠧ


ࠍࠟࠡ߸ࠪࠩߵࠡࠄࠪ
ࠄࠠߴࠫ߹ࠪ ࠪ
࠭߸ࠪࠬࠍ߹
ࠒࠧࠐ
trSwf(3)owWKwGif;0ef}uD;Xme/ wl;azmfxkwfvkyfae

ࠚࠏࠞ࠯ࠄࠠࠬࠍ߹

{&m0wD jrpfjym

߹ࠪ
ࠞ߸ࠪࠩࠬࠍ
Bamboo Result Co. Ltd.

߹߹ࠪࠣࠄ
ࠅࠟࠡ߸ࠪࠩ࡯ࠟࠡ߸ࠪ߸ࠧ
&Srf;&dk;re*g;/ at'iftkyfpk/ wl;azmfxkwfvkyfae
a&$oHvGif
13
trSwf (3)owWKwGif;0ef}uD; Xme
atoHk;vHk; wl;azmfxkwfvkyfae
tifwmae&Sife,f ࠣࠬࠍࠉࠡࠧࠕ߾ࡪࠈࠪࠩ

ࠣߴࠫࠞߴࠪࠍࠠࠩࠣࠒ࠭ࠩࠒࠟࠡߴࠪ
wl;azmfxkwfvkyfae ࠄࠢࠩࠣࠊࠞࠪࠒ߾ࠪࠨࠣߴࠫࠞߴࠪࠍࠠࠩࠣࠒ࠭ࠩࠄ࠭߸ࠪࠩ

p&bl&D/ trftD;pD ࠬࠍ߹ࠪࠣߵࠫࠞ߸ࠪࠩ

ࠒࠟࠍࠪࠣࠄࠞࠪ
ࠣࠍࠞࠨࠣࠄࠞ߸ࠪ

ywf0ef;usif tnpfnrf;apqHk; jzpfonfh ausmufrD;aoG; (vpf*Edkuf)


ausmufr;D aoG; t"dutm;jzifh (4)rsK;d &So
d nf? rmuspaf om teufa&mif tifo&mqdu k f ESihf bpfwrl ed yfpf (anthracite
and bituminous) rSonf aysmah om tndKa&mif ausmufr;D aoG;rsm; qyf-bpfwr l ed yfpf ESihf vpf*Edu
k f (bituminous
10
and lignite) txd &Sdonf? aysmhI tndKa&mif&Sd aom vpf*EdkufausmufrD;aoG;onf ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;
tm;vHk;teuf ywf0ef;usif tnpfnrf;apqHk; jzpfonf? avmifpmpGrf;tif w,lepfxkwfvkyfor#wGif
tjcm;ausmufr;D aoG;rsm;xuf umbGe'f ikd af tmufq'kd f trsm;qH;k xGuaf ponf? vpf*Edu k f ausmufr;D aoG;rsm;onf
tjcm;ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;xuf pmv#if tvdktavsmuf avmifu|rf; aygufuGJapwwfonf?
jrefrmEdkifiH. ausmufrD;aoG;okH; v#yfppf"gwftm;ay;puf&kHpDrHudef;jyajrykH

uav;0 (600 r*~g0yf)


+yD;pD;rnfhcsdef- w&m;0ifrxkwfjyefao;
vkyfief;&Sif- xGef;oGifowœKwGif;ukr`%DESifh
w&kwfukr`%Dwckjzpfonfh

ࠬࠍ߹

China Guodian Corporation12

࠭߸ࠪࠩ
ࠪࠩ ࠄ
v#yfppf"gwftm;- EdkifiHjcm;ukr`%D vkyfudkifonfh

ߵࠫ߸
rdkif;ckwf (369 r*~g0yf)
rHk&Gma=u;eDowWKwGif;vkyfief;odk@ +yD;pD;rnfhcsdef- w&m;0ifrxkwfjyefao;
ydk@aqmifrnf?13 vkyfief;&Sif- w&m;0ifrxkwfjyefao;
v#yfppf"gwftm;- xdkif;EdkifiHajrmufydkif;
)
csif;&dkifc&dkifodk@ ydk@
ߴࠣࠐࠩ࠯
aqmifrnf?17

xef;wyif (270 r*~g0yf) )


+yD;pD;rnfhcsdef- 201314 ࠍࠟࠡ߸ࠪࠩߵࠡࠄࠪ
) ࠪ
vkyfief;&Sif- xl;x&dwf'def;ukr`%DESifh ࠄࠠߴࠫ߹ࠪ ࠒࠧࠐ
࠭߸ࠬࠪ ࠍ߹
w&kwfukr`%Dwckjzpfonfh
xm;0,f (4000 rS 6000 r*~g0yf)18

߸ࠪࠩࠬࠍ߹

Huaneng Lancangjiang

Hydropower Co., Ltd +yD;pD;rnfhcsdef- w&m;0ifrxkwfjyefao;



߹߹ࠪࠣࠄ

v#yfppf"gwftm;- tenf;qHk; v#yfppf"gwftm; vkyfief;&Sif- xdkif;ukr`%Dwckjzpfonfh


200 r*~g0yfukd &efukefrSm tDwvH-xdkif;ukr`%D/
&Sdonfh pufr_Zkef (3)ckodk@ ࠅࠈࠪࠩࠄࠉ߸ࠪ
(w&kwf-udk;&D;,m;-*syefwdk@
ydk@aqmifrnf?15 )
vnf; pdwf0ifpm;aejcif;)
)
v#yfppf"gwftm;- oHr%dpuf&Hk/ pGrf;tif
taxmuftyHypPnf;
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ZkeftwGuf toHk;ðyrnf?

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avmifpmjzifh xkwfrnfh puf&Hkrsm;rS v#yfppfrsm;udk jynfwGif;&Sd EdkifiHjcm;ukr`%Drsm; &if;ESD;ðryfESHonfh pDrHudef;rsm;ESifh
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jrefrmEdkifiH. ta&S@awmiftm&S t}uD;qkH;ausmufrD;aoG;puf&kHpDrHudef;
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2010 ckESpf Edk0ifbmvwGif xm;0,fa&eufqdyfurf; aqmufvkyf&eftwGuf jrefrmtpdk;&ESifh oabmwlpmcsKyf
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v#yfppfpuf&Hk (4˜000 r*~g0yf) udk wnfaqmuf&ef tpDtpOf yg0ifygonf?
TtpDtpOfukd qENjyr_rsm;/ w&m;&H;k &ifqikd &f r_rsm;a=umifh tcsed =f umjrifh
zifhav;aecJh&onfh xdkif;EdkifiH qdyfurf;òr@jzpfonfh &ma,mif; (Rayong)
&Sd arwWmzGwf ausmufrD;aoG; avmifpmoHk; v#yfppfpuf&Hk. tr_&Sdae
onfh=um;rS taumiftxnfazmfvmjcif; jzpfonf? xm;0,fwGif
Tpuf&Hkwnfaqmufr_onf xdkif;wdk@twGuf ydkI oabmawG@p&m
jzpfonf? ta=umif;rSm obm0ywf0ef;usif apmif=h unfah vhvmaeolrsm;.
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vG,fulpGm ESifxkwfEdkifaoma=umifh jzpfygonf?19 v#yfppfpuf&HktwGuf pDrHudef; tpDtpOfjyZ,m;
tydkif; (2)
wDuspfausmufrD;aoG;pDrHudef;
wDuspfteD;wGif i&kwfoD;vSrf;ae=uyHk

wDuspf&Gmtjyifu i&kwfpdkufcif;
wDuspfaus;&GmESifh ywf0ef;usifa'orsm;
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(13) rdkiftuGm/ uavmòr@. awmifzuf (22) rdkiftuGmwGif wnf&Sdygonf? uavmESifhtif;av;uefonf
EdkifiHjcm;c&D;oGm;rsm;twGuf vnfywfp&m ae&mrsm; jzpfygonf? wDuspfaus;&Gmvlxk trsm;pkrSm &Srf;/ ytdk0f;/
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wDuspfESifh yifavmif;rS xkwfvkyfonfh vufzufonf jrefrmEdkifiHwGif emrnf}uD;ygonf? xdk@tjyif &efukef/ rEWav;


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txuf bDvl;acsmif;
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o,f,lydk@aqmifa&;twGufvnf; toHk;ðy=uonf?

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pDrHudef;udk eDtdk pGrf;tif tdkatppf wnfaqmufa&;ukr`%D (NEO Energy Oasis Development Company) ESifh
wnfaqmufaeonf?23 Tqnfonf a&S;a[mif; a&$tif;wdefbk&m;/ emrnf}uD; tif;av;azmifawmfOD;apwDESifh
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ywfoufI tuJjzwfpHkprf; ppfaq;r_rsm;vnf; ðyvkyfr_r&Sdao;yg?

wDuspfaps;wGif a&mif;csaeonfha'owGif; tif;av;uefodk@ t"dupD;0ifonfh


acsmif;ajrmif;rsm;rS zrf;qD;&rdonfhig;rsm txufbDvl;acsmif;
© Yuzo Uda

20 tif;av;uef
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wDuspfausmufrD;aoG; pDrHudef;ESifh tif;av;uefajrykH

ࠓࠟࠡࠉࠧࠡࠩ࡟ࠍࠟࠥࡴ

ࠣࠄࠞ߸ࠪࡠߴࠠࠩ࡟ࠍࠟࠥࡴ
߸ࠪ࡟ ࠍࠟࠥࡴ
ࡪࠣ ߾ࠞ
ࠣࠏ
ࠓࠤࠓࠟࠡࠩ࡟ࠍࠟࠥࡴ

ࠞ߸ࠪࠩ
ࠉ߸ࠪࠩࠉߴࠪ

ࠪࠣߵࠫ
ࠈࠍࠪࠩߴࠄ

ࠪࠩ
ࠫࠞ߸ ߵ
ߴࠪࠣ
ࠣ߾ࠞ߸ࠪࠣࠏࡪ࡟ࠍࠟࠥࡴ

ࠄࠊ
ࠣࠕࠞ߸ࠪࠋࠈࠪࠩ࡟ࠍࠟࠥࡴ
ߴࠣࠐࠞ࡟ࠍࠟࠥࡴ


ߴ ࠪࠩࠣࠄ
ࠣࠐ ࠞ߸
ࠞࠣ ࠪࠣߵ
ߵࠫࠞ ࠫࠞ߸
߸ࠪࠩ ࠪࠩ
ࠕ߸ࠪࠩࠣࠐࠩߴࠈࠪ

ࠕࠅߴࠪࠌࠠࠐࠢࠩ
ࠣࠏࠕࠞࠩࠐ࠮࠮ࠫࠉࠪ߹߹ࠪ߹ࠠࠍࠧߴࠟࠈࠪࠩ
ࠏ࠭ࠞࠍ
࠱࠸ ࠍ߶ࡂࠝ࠯ࠉࠪ

ࠕ߸ࠪࠩࠄࠟࠈࠪࠏ࠭ࠞ 21
ࠣࠊࠞ߸ࠪࠣࠄࠞࠪ࠘ࠠࠩࠌࠡࠏࠞࠩ
ࠌࠈࠪࠩࠎ࠘ࠪ

ࠣߴࠫࠞߴࠪࠍࠠࠩࠣࠒ࠭ࠩࠒࠧࠡࠩ
) ࠐ࠮ࠫࠉࠪ߹߹ࠪࠅࠡࠄࠪ߹ߴࠪࠏࠧࠡ
ࠪࠩ
ࠠࠐࠢࠩࠣߵࠫࠞ߸

ࠄࠠߴࠫ߹ࠪࠏ࠭ࠞ
ࠣߴࠫࠞߴࠪࠍࠠࠩࠣࠒ࠭ࠩࠄ࠭߸ࠪࠩ
ࠕࠅߴࠪࠌ

ࠒࠤࠡ߸ࠪࠣߵࠝ࠯ࠪ

ࠣࠈࠞ߸ࠪࠄࠏࠞࠩ

ࠣࠬࠍࠉࠧࠡࠕ߾ࡪࠈࠪࡳ

࡟ࠍࠟࠥࡴࠣߴࠫࠩࠏ࠭ࠞ ࠣࠏߴࠈࠪ ࠉ߸ࠪࠩࠉߴࠪࠒࠧࠍࠃࠟ߹ߴࠪࠏࠧࠡ

ࠣࠐࠎ࠘ࠪࠉࠫࠧߴ࠭߸ࠪࠩ ࠣ߹ࠄࠠ ࠣࠏߴࠞࠄࠞ

ࠬࠍ߹ࠪࠣߵࠫࠞ߸ࠪࠩ ) ࠣߴࠫࠞߴࠪࠍࠠࠩࠣࠒ࠭ࠩࠒࠧࠡࠩࠐ࠮ࠫࠉࠪ߹߹ࠪࠅࠡࠄࠪ߹ߴࠪࠏࠧࠡ ࠣࠏࠐࠤ࠭ࠉࠟࠡߴࠪࠐࠧࠡࠩ

ࠣߴࠫࠞߴࠪࠍࠠࠩࠣࠒ࠭ࠩࠒࠄࡑࠥࠄ࠭߸ࠪࠩ ࠣࠏࠅࠡ߾߹ࠪ߾ࠍࠪࠩࠍࡨ ߺࠠߺࠟࠡ߸ࠪ࡟ࠍࠟࠥࡴ


ࠍࠠࠩࠏࠅࠞࠩࠐࠍࠪࠩ

ߴࠞࠩࠐࠍࠪࠩ
wDuspf ausmufrD;aoG;owWKwGif;
wD u spf ausmuf r D ; aoG ; owW K wG i f ; onf jref r mEd k i f i H . t}uD ; qH k ; tyG i f h a usmuf r D ; aoG ; wG i f ; jzpf + yD ; ae@
pOf ausmufrD;aoG; wef 2˜000 cef@ xkwfvkyfaeygonf? t"du ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rSm ajray: tyGifh
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Tvd_%facgif;rsm;rSm pdkufcif;rsm;atmufwGif (4) rDwm tus,f wGif;rsm;jzihf wl;azmfxkwfvkyfaejcif; jzpfonf?

ajrrsufESmjyif tyGifhpepf ausmufrD;aoG;owWKwGif;


ajrrsufESmjyif tyGifhowWKwl;azmfjcif;
2002 ckESpfwGif wl;azmfr_udk ajrrsufESmjyiftyGifhpepfjzifh pwifpDpOfcJhonf? puf,EW,m;}uD;rsm;jzifh opfyifrsm;/
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wDuspf aus;&Gm&Sd tdrfrsm;/ taqmuftOD;rsm; tufuGJukef=u&onf?

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wDuspf ajray:tyGifh ausmufrD;aoG;wl;azmfjcif;
pwif &SmazGawG@&Sdr_ 1989 ckESpf
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2002 ckESpf
pwifjyifqifjcif;
xGuf&SdEdkifaom ausmufrD;aoG;yrm% 20² 7 wefoef;aygif;30
ausmufrD;aoG;zkH;vGrf;rl yrm% 544 {u
ausmufrD;aoG; trsKd;tpm; vpf*EdkufESifh qyf-bpfwlrdeyfpf31
ajrrsufESmjyif tyGifhowWKrdkif;ESifh ajratmuf
wl;azmfr_pepf
Orifvd_ifacgif;jzifh wl;azmfjcif;
wae@v#if ausmufrD;aoG; 1˜ 750 rSonf 2˜ 000
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wef
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ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rS wpfrdkifcJG tuGmwGif &Sdaom
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wifydk@onf? xdk@tjyif (6)uDvdkAdGK@ (conveyer belt)
pufcg;ywf}udK;jzifhvnf; wifydk@onf?
wl;azmfa&;wGif &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_ yrm% tar&duefa':vm 10 oef;
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Orifrsm;jzifh pwifI wl;=uonf? &Gmom;rsm;onf ppfom;rsm;udk a=umuf&@HG aoma=umifh
rnf o l w OD ; ur# apm'urwuf & J = uay? &G m om;rsm;onf Armppf o m;rsm;.
+cdrf;ajcmufrludk cH&onfhtjyif v,f,majrrsm;yg zsufpD;apjcif;udk cHcJh=u&onf?
xdk@aemuf jrefrmEdkifiHtv,fydkif;rS tvkyform;rsm; ac:aqmifvm+yD;/ Orifrsm;jzifh
ausmufrD;aoG;rsm; wl;azmfxkwfvkyf=uonf? vufzufcif;rsm;ESifh pyg;cif;rsm;
atmuf&dS ausmufr;D aoG;a=umrsm;udk ajratmufOrifpepfjzifh wl;azmf=u+yD; &vmonfh
ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;udk v,fuGif;,muGif;rsm; ab;ygwf0ef;usifwGif yHkxm;=uonf?
xd k @ a=umif h ajrqD " mwf ysuf p D ; ap+yD ; aemuf x yf oD ; ES H p d k u f y sKd ; a&;vk y f u d k i f & ef
tajctaevnf; ,dk,Gif;ysufpD;vmap awmhonf? ,ae@umvwGif ajratmuf
Orifjzifh ausmufr;D aoG;wl;azmf xkw, f al ejcif;udk ðyef;wefaus;&Gm apwD. ajrmufzuf/
z&mh+zdef;aus;&Gm ta&S@zuf/ aemifw&m;òr@. ta&S@zufESifh aqmif;ajymif;&GmteD;wGif
wl;azmf aqmif&Gufae =uonf?

ajratmuf v d _ i f * l o wW K rd k i f ; pepf o nf
v,fuGif;rsm;udk ysufpD;apjcif;
wDuspfausmufrD;aoG;owWKwGif;ESifh puf&kHpDrHudef;jyajrykH

&if;ESD;jr‡yfESHolrsm;
TausmufrD;aoG;wGif;udk rlvu w&kwfEdkifiH trsKd;om; t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief; aumfydka&;&Sif; (China National
Heavy Machinery Corporation - CHMC)ESifh &Srf;&dk;re*g; ukr`%D33/ trSwf(3) jrefrmhowWKvkyfief;Xme/ a&$oHvGif
ukr`%D/ ta&S@zsm;zGH@òz;a&;ukr`%D/ {'iftkyfpkukr`%D/ at0rf;ukr`%DESifh txl;a'o(6) pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;wdk@u
pmcsKyfcsKyfqdkcJhonf34? wl;azmfxkwfvkyfr_ (2)ESpf cef@t=umwGif/ a&$oHvGif/ at0rf;ESifh txl;a'o (6)
pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;wd@k u pDru
H ed ;f vkyif ef;rS tjrwfr&&Sad oma=umifh pmcsKyfrS jyefvnfEw _ x f u
G o
f mG ;=uonf? xd@k tjyif
2010 ckESpf {+yDvwGif &Srf;&dk;re*g;ukr`%Du ‚. tpk&S,f,mrsm;udk {'iftkyfpk ukr`%Dodk@ jyefvnf v$Jajymif;
a&mif;csonf[al om aumvm[vrsm;vnf;
&S d c J h o nf ? od k @ aomf v nf ; Towif ; ES i f h
ywf o uf I w&m;0if twnf ð ycsuf & ,l
Edkifjcif;r&Sdyg?35 w&kwfEdkifiH CHMCukr`%D
tifwmeufpmrsuEf mS wGiaf zmfjy xm;csurf sm;
t& Tukr% ` u D jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f ajray:tyGihf
rdkif;wl;azmfjcif; vkyfudkifaeonf[k azmfjy
xm;onf ? od k @ aomf v nf ; uk r ` % D p mcsKyf
oufwef;wd;k r_EiS hf aemufxyf tajctaersm;udk
twnfðyEdkifjcif; r&Sdyg?

wDuspfausmufrD;wGif; pDrHudef;twGuf {'ifukr`%Dqdkif;bkwf


wDuspf ausmufrD;aoG;avmifpmoHk; a&aEG;aiG@ v#yfppf"gwftm;xkwfpuf&kH
wDuspfpuf&Hkonf jrefrmEdkifiH. wpfckwnf;aom ausmufrD;aoG; avmifpmoHk; v#yfppf"gwftm;xkwfpuf&Hk
jzpfygonf? 2001 ckESpf pufwifbmvwGif ppftpdk;&. 'kwd,OuUÏ AdkvfcsKyfarmifat;u Ta'oodk@
a&muf&Sdvm+yD; puf&Hkwnfaqmuf&ef ae&ma&G;cs,fay;cJhygonf? a'ocH wyfz@GJ rsm;udkvnf; a'owGif; pdkufysKd;ajr
{u 100 ausmfudk odrf;,l&eftwGuf trdef@ay;cJhygonf? av#mfa=u; wjym;wusyfrS jyefvnfay;tyfcJhjcif;
r&Sdyg? w&kwfEdkifiH. (CHMC) ukr`%DESifh jrefrmEdkifiHrS {'iftkyfpk ukr`%Dwdk@u pGrf;tif0ef}uD;Xme.
26 }uD;=uyfr_atmufwGif puf&Hkudk pwifwnfaqmufcJh=uygonf? 2002 ckESpf pufwifbmvwGif puf&Hkudk
pwifwnfaqmufcJh+yD;/ 2005 ckESpf {+yDvwGif wnfaqmufr_ +yD;qHk;cJhyg onf?36

Tpuf&HkwGif 60 r*~g0yf&Sd wmbdkif (2)vHk; yg0if+yD;/ ESpfpOf v#yfppf"mwftm; 600 *sD*g0yf em&Doef;aygif; (Gwh)
xkwfay;Edkifygonf? ESpfpOfausmufrD;aoG; 640˜000 wefudk (1)rdkifcJGuGma0;onfh wDuspfvSsyfppf"gwftm;xkwf
puf&o kH @kd yd@k aqmifay;onf?37 xGu&f v
dS monfh v#ypf pf"mwftm;rsm;udk uavm&Sd r[m"mwftm;cGpJ uf&o kH @kd wify@kd
cJo
h nf? rZdÆrowif;Xme. tqdt k & v#ypf pf"mwftm; 65 r*~g0yfukd yif;yuf oH&nfóupufo@kd ay;yd@k rnf[k od&onf?
38
(Z,m;wGif =unfhyg)? Tv#yfppfpuf&HkrS xGuf&Sdvmonfh "mwftm;rsm;udk ‚.teD;&Sd e*g;bdvyfajrpuf&Hkodk@
wifydk@ay;aeonf[kvnf; od&Sd&onf?39 wDuspfv#yfppf"mwftm;ay;puf&HkrS xGuf&Sdvmonfh v#yfppfudk obm0
t&if;tjrpfrsm; ydkrdkxkwfvkyf toHk;cs zsufqD;rnfh ukr`%D rsm;xHodk@yif qufvufaxmufyHhay;OD;rnf jzpfonf?
wDuspf ausmufrD;aoG; avmifpmoHk; v#yfppf"gwftm;puf&kH tcsuftvufrsm;?
w&kwfEdkifiH trsKd;om; t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief; aumfydk
v#yfppf "mwftm;ay;puf&Hk
a&;&Sif; ukr`%D (CHMC)/ jrefrmEdkifiHrS at'iftkyfpk ukr`%D/
vkyfudkifaeolrsm;
jrefrmv#yfppfpGrf;tm; vkyfief; (MEPE)
&if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_wefzdk; yrm% tar&duefa':vm 42² 93 oef;40
120 r*~g0yf? ESpfpOf v#yfppf"mwftm; 600 *spf*g0yf
v#yfppfxkwfvkyfr_ yrm%
em&Doef;aygif;udk xkwfvkyfay;Edkifonf?
ESpfpOfokH;pGJaomausmufrD;aoG;yrm% wESpfv#if ausmufrD;aoG; 640˜000 wef41
ae@pOfausmufrD;aoG;jymxkwfvkyfr_yrm% 100 rS 150 wef42
a&aEG;aiG@twGuf&,lokH;pGJaoma& tif;av;uefxJodk@ pD;0ifaom txufbDvl;acsmif;/
a'ocH jynfolrsm;twGuf avmifpmpGrf;tif tajctae
Tv#yfppf pDrHudef;rSaeI wDuspfaus;&Gm jynfolrsm;twGuf v#yfppf"mwftm;wcsKd@ axmufyHhay;aomfvnf;/
aus;&Gmvlxkrsm;. ajr,mrsm;ESifh toufarG;0rf;ausmif; vkyfief;rsm; qHk;&_H;ysufpD;=u&ygonf? ,cktcg ‚wdk@.
usef;rma&;twGufyif tEW&m,f &Sdvm+yD jzpfonf? ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;u wjznf;jznf; csJ@xGifvmonfhtwGuf
a=umifh &Gmajymif;a&$@ay;&ef tajctae jzpfvmaeygonf? od@k twGuaf =umifh tcsed w f kd v#ypf pf"mwftm; axmufyhH
ay;r_rSm rnfodk@enf;ESifhr# toHk;0ifEdkifzG,f ta=umif; r&Sdawmhay?

[dyk ek ;f òr@&dS aq;&Hrk mS vnf; v#ypf pf tuef@towfEiS o hf m/ tcsed yf ikd ;f jcm;+yD; &&Syd gonf? awmif}uD;òr@&dS aq;&Hrk mS vnf;
cGJpdwfuko&eftwGuf udk,fydkifrD;pufudk oHk;ae&ygonf? Ttzdk;tcrsm;twGuf vlemrsm;u xyfrHI ay;aqmif
=u&jyefygonf? Ttcsed w f iG f yif;yuf oH&nfóupufEiS hf [dyk ek ;f -awmif}uD;t=um;&Sd Edik if jH cm;om;rsm;. pmcsKyfjzifh
vkyu f ikd af eonfh =uufarG;jrLa&; +cHrmS rl/ wDuspf v#ypf pfpuf&rkH x S u G v f maom "mwftm;udk uavm r[m"mwftm;
vdkif;puf&HkcGJrS wqifh ae@pOf (24) em&D v#yfppf &&Sdaeygonf?
wDuspf v#yfppfpuf&HkrS "mwftm;udk yif;yuf oH&nfóupufodk@ ay;ydk@&ef &Sdjcif;

jrefrmEdkifiH. 'kwd,t}uD;qHk; oH&dkif;odkufudk &Srf;jynfe,f òr@awmf awmif}uD;ESifh (10) uDvdkrDwmtuGm/


wDuspfESifh (40) rdkif tuGm&Sd yif;yufawmifwGif wl;azmfrnf jzpfygonf? ToH&dkif;wGif; wl;azmfxkwfvkyfr_
a=umifh vlaygif; 7˜000 ausmf tdk;tdrfajymif;a&$@ tajcysuf jzpf=u&rnf jzpf+yD;/ awmifwckvHk;vnf;
òzzsufypfI ysufpD;&rnf jzpfonf? yif;yufwGif {&mr oH&nfóupuf&Hk}uD;udk wnfaqmufae+yD;/ tus,ftjyef@
ajymqdkae=uonfh aumvm[vrsm;t& oH&dkif; omru/ ,la&eD,H owWK&dkif;yif awG@&Sdxm;onf[kvnf; 27
qdk=uygonf? puf&Hk wnfaqmufa&;pDrHudef;twGuf pdkufysKd;ajr{u 7˜000 cef@udk odrf;,lcJh+yD;/ puf&Hkudk w&m;0if
yif;yuf trSwf (5) oHr%dpuf&Hk[k ac:qdkygonf?
oHpuf&kHvkyfief;rsm; vnfywf&eftwGuf wDuspf
v#yf p pf " mwf t m; puf & H k r S xG u f & S d v maom
v#yfppf 65 r*~g0yfudk toHk;ðyrnf[k od&ygonf?
yif;yuf puf&kHwnf&Sd&mae&m. ta&S@awmifbuf
rd k i f t enf ; i,f w G i f vuf e uf u d k i f w d k u f y G J r sm;
quf v uf jzpf y G m ;aeqJ a'ovnf ; jzpf & m
puf&HkvHk+cHKa&;twGuf uif;vSnfh=uol jrefrm
ppfwyfrS ppfom;rsm;u 2009 ckESpfESifh 2010 ckESpf/
azaz:0g&DvESihf pufwifbmvwGif &Gmom;rsm;udk
ESdyfpufn‡Of;yrf;jcif;ESifh zrf;qD;owfjzwfjcif;rsm;
usL;vGecf =hJ uygonf? yif;yuf oHprD u H ed ;f onf &k&mS ;/
tDwvD ESifh jrefrmukr`%Drsm; zufpyfaqmif&Guf
ae=uygonf ? 43 &S r f ; jynf e ,f tv,f y d k i f ; &S d
aus;oD;rHpH ausmufr;D aoG;wGi;f u yif;yufpuf&. kH
vdktyfrnfh ae@pOfausmufrD;aoG; 13˜000 wefudk
(75) ESpf=um wifydk@ay;rnf jzpfonf?44

aqmufvkyfaeqJ yif;yufoH&nf}udKpuf&kH
v,form;rsm;ESifh uav;i,frsm;onf npfnrf;aoma&rskm;ESifh rjzpfraexdawG@ae&ykH
tydkif; (3)
a'ocHjynfolrsm;ESifh
obm0ywf0ef;usiftay:
qdk;usKd;oufa&mufapr_rsm;
“ukr`%D}uD;awG rvmcifwkef;u &Gmuvlwdkif;qDrSm EGm;vSnf;eJ@ u|JEGm;awG &Sd=uw,f? olwdk@udk au|;arG;
zdk@vnf; ylp&m rvdkbl;? olwdk@twGufvnf; tpm;taomufpm;usufawG aygw,f? usaemfwdk@ ae&ma&$@
ajymif;zdk@ cdkif;cH&awmh usaemfwdk@ pdkufysKd;ajrawG qHk;&_H;&ovdk/ tck u|JEGm;awG au|;arG;zdk@vnf; tpm
raygawmhbl;? ydk&Sm;vmw,f? usaemfwdk@vnf; &SdwJh u|JEGm;awG xkwfa&mif;ypf=u&w,f?”
(awG@qkHar;jrefjcif;trSwf-2)
30 t"rR a&$@ajymif;apjcif;
ausmufrD;aoG; pDrHudef;a=umifh aus;&Gm (2)&Gm a&$@ajymif;cH&+yD;/ ,cktcg tjcm;olrsm;rSmvnf; twif;tusyf
a&$@ajymif;ESifxkwfcH&rnfh +cdrf;ajcmufr_ESifh }uHKawG@ae&onf? ta=umif;rSm ausmufrD;aoG;rdkif;rS pGef@ypfypPnf;rsm;
pky&kH m ae&monf wjznf;jznf; us,jf yef@vmae+yD;/ ,ck owWKwGi;f u rnfr#txd qufvufcs@J xiG af ernfuv kd nf;
rnfolur# rod &SdEdkif=uay?

awmifydk@v aus;&Gm
tdrfajc (24)vHk;&Sdonfh awmifydk@vaus;&Gmudk ausmufrD;aoG;wGif; pwifwl;azmf&ef jyifqifonfh umv
2003 ckESpfwGif aus;&Gm tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@ (&,u) u twif;tusyf ajymif;a&$@ap&ef ESifxkwfcJhygonf?
xdkESifxkwfcH&olrsm;. jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;twGuf ulnDyHhydk;r_vkHavmufa&; wpHkwckr# axmufyHhay;jcif;
r&Sdyg? avsmfa=u;aiGvnf; rqdkpavmufom &ygonf? &&Sdxm;aom jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&; c&D;p&dwfrsm;udk
vkHavmufpGmjyefumrdap&ef/ tcsKd@&Gmom;rsm;u rlv&Gma[mif;ESifheD;onfh ae&mwGifyif aexdkif=uygonf?
a&$ajymif;cH&onfh &Gmom;trsm;pkonf ,cktcg &Gma[mif;. ta&S@zuf awmifukef;ay:wGif aexkdif=uygonf?
a'ocH tm%mydkifrsm;u ,ckaus;&Gmopfudk jrpdrf;awmif[k emrnfay;xm;=uaomfvnf;/ &Gmom;rsm;u
,ciftrnf awmifydk@v[kom qufvufwif;cHI ac:qdkae=uygonf? ,cktcg ausmufrD;aoG;rdkif;rS pGef@ypf
ypPnf;rsm;ESifhajrpmrsm; awmifvdkyHkI csJ@xGifvmae+yD; &GmopfESifh eD;vmaoma=umifh &Gmopfonfvnf; =um&Snf
rcHbJ xyfrHa&$@ajymif;&zG,f &Sdaeygonf?

“usaemfwdk@ ajymif;a&$@aewkef;u wcsKd@ trsKd;orD;awG idk&vGef;vdk@ arharsmukef=uw,f? ajymif;a&$@+yD;awmh


vaygif;tawmf=umawmh vlawGvnf; awGa0pdwf"mwfusukef=uw,f? olwdk@hajrawGvnf; qHk;+yD?
bmqufvkyf&rSef;vnf; rodawmhbl;?” (awG@qkHar;jrefjcif;trSwf-2)
'Dwcgawmh 'Dae&mu a&$@oGm;&wmxufpm&if usaemf aoyJ aovdkuf awmhr,f?
“tJ'w D ek ;f u rd;k &moDayg?h usaemfw@kd u olw@kd ukd arwWm&yfcw
H ,f? ajymif;a&$@&r,fh tpDtpOfukd aemufqwk f
ay;zdk@? 'gayr,fh olwdk@u usaemfwdk@tqdkðywmudk y,fcsw,f? ukr`%D ajymwmu tckpDrHudef;udk csufcsif;
taumiftxnfazmf&r,f? usaemfw@kd a&$@&r,fayg?h ajymif;a&$@tajccspOfumvrSm usaemfw@kd tcuftcJ jy\
emawG trsm;}uD; }uHK&w,f? rdk;&GmxJrSmyJ usaemfwdk@tdrfudk zsuf&w,f? vrf;awGuvnf; AGufxaeawmh
usaemfw@kd ypPn;f awG wae&muae wae&mudk a&$@&if odycf ufw,f? olw@kd ay;wJh avsmaf =u;u tdrw f tdruf kd
trsm;qHk; 150˜000 usyf (tar&duef a':vm 150) yJ? i,fwJhtdrfqdk&if &wmydkenf;w,f? tJ'DaiGu
ae&mopfudk a&$@zdk@ c&D;p&dwfeJ@awmif ravmufbl;? rdk;&moDxJrSm usaemfwdk@udk twif;tusyf a&$@cdkif;awmh
usaemfwdk@vnf; tdrfopfawG jyefraqmufEdkif=ubl;? wJavmufaqmuf+yD; tJonfwJrSmyJ ae=u&w,f?
ukr`%Duawmh aq;cef;/ pmoifausmif;eJ@ pm=unfhwdkuf aqmufay;r,fvdk@ uwday;w,f? 'gayr,fh
tJonfuwdawGu tcktcsdeftxdawmh jzpfrvmao;bl;? olwdk@u a&wGif;wl;ay;r,f ajymw,f? 'gayr,fh
vkyfay;wmu t&ifa&wGif;a[mif;udk jyefjyifay;&HkyJ? wcsKd@ajymwmuawmh usaemfhwdk@ ae&mxyfa&$@&OD;r,f
ajymw,f? 'gayr,fh 'Dwcgawmh 'Dae&mu a&$@oGm;&wmxufpm&if usaemf aoyJ aovdkuf awmhr,f?”
(awG@qkHar;jrefjcif;trSwf-4)

vdkifcg;aus;&Gm
2003 ckESpfwGif vlOD;a& 200 cef@&Sdonfh vdkifcg;aus;&Gmonfvnf; wDuspf ausmufrD;aoG;rdkif; xkwfvkyfonfh
ukr`%DrS a&$@ajymif;cdkif;jcif; cH&ygonf? Tukr`%Drsm;u &Gmom;rsm;udk ajymif;a&$@a&;twGuf rnfonfh
taxmuftyHhrS axmufyHhay;jcif; rðyyg? teD;tem; aus;&Gmrsm;jzpfonfh wDuspf/ jyifomaus;&Gmvlxkrsm;u 31
a&$@ajymif;&ef cdkif;apcH&onfh vdkifcg;aus;&GmrS vlxkrsm;udk wDuspfaus;&Gm.f bkef;}uD;ausmif;teD;wGif ae&mcsay;
ulnD=uygonf? wDuspfESifh om,mukef;aus;&Gm vlxkrsm;rS ydkifaomajr,mrsm;udk a'ocHtm%mydkifrsm;u
odrf;,l=u+yD; vdkifcg;aus;&Gm om;rsm;udk ae&mcsay;jcif;jzpfonf?

ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rsm;a=umifh wDuspfaus;&Gm epfjrKyf&awmhrnf jzpfaejcif;


wDuspfaus;&Gm&Sd ausmufrD;aoG;odkufudk rlvu tm%mydkifrsm; wdkif;wmpOfu wDuspfaus;&Gm. w0ufcef@
yg0ifaeygonf? odk@aomfvnf; wDuspfaus;&GmrS bkef;awmf}uD;u ta&S@ydkif;wdkif; ppfXmecsKyf (&wc) &Sd tm%mydkif
rsm;odk@arwWm &yfcHonfhtwGuf wDuspfaus;&Gmudkrl rajymif;a&$@apcJhyg? odk@aomfvnf; ,cktcg owWKwl;azmf
aeonfh ae&mrSm &GmESifh 40 rDwmr#om a0;ygawmhonf? &Gmvlxkrsm;rSm avxknpfnrf;jcif;/ a&xknpfnrf;jcif;/
toHqlnHjcif; '%frsm;udk ae@pOfESifhtr# cHpm;ae=u&um odk@twGufa=umifh r=umrDyif twif;tusyf ajymif;a&$@
cH&zG,f &Sdaeygonf?

tnpfta=u; pGef@ypfr_rsm;u wdk;csJ@vmaejcif;


ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rS pGef@ypfypPnf;rsm; awmifvdkyHkvmum/ vlOD;a& (400) cef@ aexdkifaom om,mukef;aus;&Gm
teD;odk@ wjznf;jznf; eD;uyfvmaeygonf? pGef@ypfypPnf;rsm;rSm xkxnf}uD;rm; rsm;jym;vGef;+yD; ,cktcg
awmifvdkyHkI &Gmxufyif jrifhrm;aeygonf? ("mwfyHkudk =unfhyg?) rdk;&moDwGif rdk;t}uD;tus,f &GmoGef;onfhtcg
TpGef@ypfypPnf; tyHk}uD;uòyusum &GmudkydEdkifonfh tEW&m,fvnf; &Sdaeygonf? a'ocHtm%mydkifrsm;u
&Gmom;rsm;udk ESifxkwf&ef t&ifuwnf;u t}udrfaygif;rsm;pGm óu;pm;cJhygonf? yxrwGif rdom;pk tenf;i,f
udkom a&G@ajymif;&eftrdef@ xkwfcJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; aus;&Gmu nD!Gwfaeaoma=umifh a&$@ajymif;ay;&ef
jiif;qefcJh=uonf?
ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rS pGef@ypfajrpmykH}uD;onf awmifydk@vaus;&Gm vlaetdrfrsm;xuf ydkjrifhrm;aejcif;/

vsyfppf"gwftm;xkwfpuf&kHudk om,mukef;&GmrSjrifawG@&ykH
ajrrsufESmjyiftyGifhpepfjzifh rdkif;wl;azmfrla=umifh wDuspf&Gm. v,f,majrrsm;ysufpD;&onfhykH

v,f,majrrsm;ay:wGif vGrf;rdk;vmonfhausmufrD;aoG;owWKrdkif;rS ajrpmykH. teD;wGif pdkufcif;udk


a&yufjzef;ay;aeonfh a'ocHwpfOd;
pdkufcif;.tpGef;wGif awG@&aom vsyfppf"gwftm;xkwfpuf&kH

“tck v#ypf pfpuf&w kH nfxm;wJh ae&muawmh t&ifwek ;f u usaemfw@kd wDusp&f mG om;awG&@J v,fajrae&mawG
jzpfw,f/tJ'D ajrawGu pdkufysKd;a&;twGuf odyfaumif;w,f? wESpfvHk; &moDpm oD;ESHawGudk óuufovdk
pdkufysKd;vdk@&w,f? tck v#yfppfxkwfwJh puf&Hkudk tpdk;&u ydkifawmh olwdk@u usaemfwdk@ajrawGudk
avsmaf =u;ray;bJ odr;f ,l=uw,f? tck awmh vkypf m;zd@k bmajruGurf S r&Sad wmhb;l ? usaemfrh ed ;f ru rdom;pkukd
34 au|;Edik af tmifq+kd yD; ajrmufyikd ;f aps;u [if;oD;[if;&Guaf wG 0,f+yD;/ awmifyikd ;f aps;rSm jyefa&mif;ae&w,f?”
(awG@qkHar;jrefjcif;trSwf-3)

ajrodrf;,ljcif;
ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;ESifh v#yfppfxkwfpuf&Hkonf wDuspf/ awmifydk@v/ jyifom/ vdkifcg;/ yifrSDukef; aus;&Gmrsm;rS
pdkufysKd;ajr {u 200 ausmfudk odrf;,lum toHk;jyKae=uygonf? &Srf;&dk;re*g;ESifh a&$oHvGifukr`%Drsm;u a'ocH
tm%mydkifrsm;ESifh yl;aygif;I v,form;rsm;udk zdtm;ay; +cdrf;ajcmufum/ olwdk@. v,fajrrsm;udk aps;aygaygESifh
0,f,cl =hJ uygonf? tcsK@d v,fajrrsm;udk owWKwGi;f 0ef}uD;Xmeu ajAmifyif &,lc=hJ uygonf? olw@kd . pdu
k yf sK;d ajrrsm;
r&Sd=uaoma=umifh/ v,form;rsm;rSm olwdk@. u|JEGm;rsm;udk a&mif;cs&um/ ,cktcg iwfrGwfae=u+yD jzpfygonf?

“usaemfw@kd u t&if (5){uavmuf yHrk eS pf u


kd w
f ,f? ukr%
` aD wG rvmcifwek ;f u ESppf Ofqo
kd vdk v,fuxGuw
f hJ
qefpyg; tydk&Sdw,f? tpm;taomuftwGufqdk&if ylp&mrvdkbl;? qef&dwfodrf;+yD;wJh tcsdefrSmqdk&if
usaemfwdk@u tmvl;/ c&rf;csOfoD;/ tjcm;[if;oD;[if;&GufawG pdkufw,f? usaemfwdk@ ESpfpOf usyf 300˜000
avmuf 0ifaiG (a':vm 300 cef@) &Sdw,f? olwdk@u usaemfwdk@udk avsmfa=u;ay;wmu w{u usyf 30˜000
yJ (a':vm 30 r#- &moDra&G;a&&&SdaomajruGuf) yJ? 'Davmuf aiGenf;enf;eJ@ usaemfwdk@ bmoGm;vkyfvdk@
&rSmvJ? tckawmh olwdk@u usaemfwdk@ajrawGudk ae@a&m nyg wl;ae=u+yD? usaemfhrSm ajr&Sdwmu 'Dae&m
rSmyJ? wjcm;ae&mvnf; r&Sdbl;? tckawmh usaemfwkd@rSm bmrSpm;p&m r&Sdawmhbl;? aemufESpfqdk&if usaemfh
v,fvnf; pdkufEdkifawmhrSm r[kwfbl;? tckv,fajrawGqDu ESifxkwfwJh rdef@ olwdk@ay;xm; +yD;+yD?”
(awG@qkHar;jrefjcif;trSwf-4)
tckawmh usaemfwkd@rSm bmrS pm;p&m r&Sdawmhbl;
“ukr`%Du usaemfwdk@ pdkufysKd;ajrawGudk ausmufrD;aoG;owWKwGif; pDrHudef;twGuf odrf;,lawmh olwdk@u
aus;&Gm tm%mydkifawGeJ@ aygif;vkyf=uw,f? olwdk@u &Gmom;awGudk twlpkcdkif;+yD;awmh vlwdkif;qDu
vufrSwfxdk;ay;zdk@ awmif;qdkw,f? vlawGu olwdk@bmtwGufa=umifh vufrSwfxdk;ay;vdkuf&w,f qdkwm
rod=ubl;? vlwikd ;f u vufrw
S x f ;kd +yD;wJt
h cgrmS awmh tck&mG om;awGyikd w f hJ ajrtm;vH;k [m ukr% ` uD ydik o
f mG ;+yD
ajymw,f? ajrw{uudk usyf 20˜000 (tar&duefa':vm 20 cef@-rdk;&moDom a&&aomajruGuf) yJ
jyefavsmaf y;r,f ajymw,f? vlawGu tifrwefwek v f y_ =f u+y;D wcsK@d q&kd if &ifbwfx+k yD id,
k kd atmf[pf =uw,f?
wcsKd@awGuawmh aiGu odyfenf;awmh bmrSvkyfvdk@r&bl;? r,lbl;vdk@ qHk;jzwf=uw,f? tm%mydkifawGu
awmh aysmf=uw,f? olwdk@uawmif ajymvdkufao;w,f? cifAsm;wdk@ ydkufqHr,l&if usaemfwdk@u ajrawmif
tvum; &ao;owJhAsm;? ” (awG@qkHar;jrefjcif;trSwf-4)

ajr,mrsm;twGuf rjzpfpavmuf avsmfa=u;aiGr#om ay;tyfaomfvnf;/ v,fajrrsm;rSm &dk;&mpOfvmt&


r#a0oHk;pGJae =uaoma=umifh &Gmom;rsm;rSm a0cGJr& jzpf=u&ygonf?

“yxr olwdk@usaemfwdk@udk avsmfa=u;ay;wkef;u usaemfwdk@u bmvkyf&rSef; rodbl;? bma=umifhvJqdkawmh


b,fajruGufu b,folydkifrSef; rod=ubl;? usaemfwdk@ ,Ofaus;r_rSmu usaemfwdk@u ajrawGudk uav;awGudk/
ajr;awGudk cGJa0ay;xm;wm? usaemfwdk@rSm ajrb,favmufqdkwm tuef@towf &Sdwmr[kwfbl;? ”
(awG@qkHar;jrefjcif;trSwf-9)

35
a'ocHvlxktwGuf tEW&m,f&Sdapaom v#yfppfpufcg;ywfóu;
ausmufr;D aoG;owWKwGi;f rS uke=f urf;rsm;udk v#ypf pfxw
k pf uf&o
kH @kd 1²5 rdik f &Snv
f sm;aom c&D;udk cg;ywfóu;pepfjzifh
ydkaqmifygonf? Tpufcg;ywfóu; vnfywf&ef v#yfppf 6 uDvdkAdk@vf v$wfxm;ygonf? tu,fI u|J-EGm;rsm;
a=umifh cg;ywfóu; ysufpD;/ rvnfywfEdkif jzpfvmygu wd&dp>mefydkif&Sifudk ta&;,lrnf[k a=unmxm;onf?
Txkwfjyefa=unmr_ ðycJhonfhtcsdefrSpI a'ocHjynfolrsm;rSm olwdk@. tdrfarG;wd&dp>mefrsm;jzpfonfh
u|J E G m ;rsm;ud k uG i f ; rsm;xJ o d k @
v$wI f rausmif;&Jawmhyg? ausmuf
rD;aoG;rsm; o,faqmifonfh puf
cg;ywf ó u;ud k trd k ; tk y f rd k ; xm;
aomfvnf; pdkpGwfaeaom ajrrsm;
o,faqmifonfh pufcg;ywfóu;udrk l
trdk;tkyfxm;jcif; r&Sdyg? v#yfppf
v$wx f m;onfh pufcg;ywfóu;onf
&yf&Gmvrf;rwav#muf tòyifoGm;
ae+yD;/ uav;rsm;/ c&D;oGm;rsm;ESifh
tdrfarG;wd&p>mefrsm;udk tEW&m,f&Sd
apygonf?
w&m;Oya' pdk;rdk;a&; r[kwfaom Oya'
jrefrmEdik if H owWKwGi;f Oya' (1994) wGif owWKwGi;f vkyu f ikd af qmif&u G of o
l nf ajr,mydik q f ikd o
f x
l rH S pDruH ed ;f
rpwifrDS cGifhðycsuf &,l&rnf[k azmfjyxm;onf? odk@aomfvnf; wDuspfwGifrl Ttwdkif; aqmif&GufcJhjcif;
r&Syd g? aus;&Gmvlxrk sm;udk rnfo@kd jzpfysurf nf[k vH;k 0today;cJjh cif; r&So
d vd/k rnfo@kd jzpfysuaf eonfuv kd nf;
em;vnfoabm aygufEdkifjcif; r&Sd=uyg? xdk@tjyif tm%mydkifrsm;. +cdrf;ajcmufr_udkvnf; }uHKawG@ae=u
&ygonf?

atmufazmfjyyg pmom;onf Oya' tcef; 5/ tydk'f 14 rS aumufE_wfxm;jcif; jzpfygonf?


“0ef}uD;Xme. tkycf sKyfprD rH a_ tmufwiG &f adS om {&d,mY od@k r[kwf wGi;f xGuo f wWK &if;jrpfou kd f r[kwo
f nfh
ae&m/ od@k r[kwf ausmufjrufausmrsm;wGif owWKwGi;f wl;azmfxw k vf yk &f ef cGiðhf ycsuf &&Sx
d m;aomolonf
pdkufysKd;xkwfvkyfa&;twGuf odk@r[kwf ydkifqdkifcGifh/ toHk;cscGifhESifh aexdkifcGifh cGifhðycsuf odk@r[kwf tvm;wl
tcGit hf a&;rsm; cHpm;&&S+d y;D aom woD;yk*v ~ vly*k Kd~ vfrsm;/ od@k r[kwf tzG@J tpnf;rsm;ESihf yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G I
f
odk@r[kwf oabmwlnDcsuf &+yD;rSom Tajrudk qufcH&,lcGifh/ odk@r[kwf v$Jajymif;vufcH,lcGifh &Sdonf?”
[k azmfjyxm;onf?45

wòyifeufwnf;rSmyif 1996 ckESpf/ jrefrmEdkifiH owWKwGif;Oya't& owWKwGif;wl;azmfxkwfvkyfcGifh &&Sda&;


twGuf obm0ywf0ef;usif umuG,fapmifha&Smufrnfhta&; tpDtpOfudk wifjy&rnf[k azmfjyxm;onf?
TOya'. tcef; (p) wGif atmufygtwdkif; azmfjyxm;onf?
36
“obm0ywf0ef;usifqdkif&m Oya'udk rjyXmef;&ao;aomfvnf; t}uD;pm;owWKwGif; wl;azmfr_ pDrHudef;rsm;
tm;vH;k taeESihf obm0ywf0ef;usif xdcu
kd rf q
_ ikd &f m tuJjzwfppfaq;r_ (EIA) udk olw@kd . vkyif ef;jzpfEikd af jc
avhvmr_rsm;Y wpdwfwydkif;taeESifh xnfhoGif;aqmif&Guf&ef vdktyf+yD;/ EdkifiHjcm;ukr`%Drsm;taeESifh
urBmhb%f. pHowfrSwfcsufrsm;jzpfap/ odk@r[kwf ‚wdk@. EdkifiHwGif vufcHusifhoHk;aeaom pHowfrSwf
csufrsm;xuf redrfhaom taetxm;jzifhjzpfap vdkufemaqmif&Guf&ef vdktyfygonf?46 ”

obm0ywf0ef;usif xdcu kd Ef ikd rf q


_ ikd &f m ppfaq;tuJjzwfcsuu
f kd vltrsm;od&EdS ikd af tmif rxkwjf yefaoma=umifh
wDuspf ausmufr;D aoG;owWKwGi;f vkyif ef;twGuf obm0ywf0ef;usiu f kd rnfo@kd umuG,w f m;qD;&rnf[o l nfh
tpDtpOfudk owWKwGif;0ef}uD;Xmeodk@ wifjyrnf- rwifjyrnfudk od&SdEdkif&ef ta=umif; r&Sdyg?

ajr,mrsm;wGif pdkufysKd;&ef jy\emjzpfvmjcif;

ausmufrD;aoG;owWKwGif;wGif ajrrsufESmjyiftyGifh wl;azmfxkwf,ljcif; enf;pepfudk toHk;ðyaoma=umifh


puf,EW,m;}uD;rsm;jzifh pdkufysKd;ajrrsm;udk (24)em&D umvywfvHk; zsufqD;ypfouJhodk@ &Sdaeygonf? ukr`%Drsm;u
ausmufr;D aoG;udk ajratmuf Orifpepfjzifv h nf; xkwv f yk af eaoma=umifh aemifw&m;aus;&GmwGif vufzufcif;rsm;
atmufrS wl;azmfxw k v
f yk af e=uygonf? olw@kd u (4)ayywfvnf usi;f rsm;udk ajratmufwiG f wl;I ausmufr;D aoG;
xkwf,laeaoma=umifh aus;&Gmvlxkrsm;rSm ajròyusrnfh ta&;udk pdk;&drfae=u&ygonf?
wl;azmuf&&Sdonfh ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;udk wGif;ab;ESifh v,fajruGufrsm;ay:wGif puf&Hkodk@ rydk@aqmifrDY jzpfovdk
yHkxm;=uygonf? ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;a=umifh ajrqD. t&nftaoG;udk ysufpD;ap+yD;/ ausmufrD;aoG;yHkrsm;u
v,fuGif;rsm;wGif;odk@ a&pD;0ifr_udk ydwfqdk@aeapygonf? a&vrf;a=umif;rsm;teD;wGif tnpfta=u;a&rsm;ESifh
jymrsm;/ pGef@ypfypPnf;rsm;udk pkyHkxm;=uonfhtwGuf/ tnpfta=u;rsm; yg0ifaeonfha&u ajrqDudk zsufqD;
ypfygonf?

“tckusaemfv
h ,fxrJ mS ajrawG xGe,
f ufz@kd odyrf mw,f? bmjzpfv@kd vq
J akd wmh ukr%
` u
D ausmufr;D aoG;wGi;f rS
xGufonfh a&awGudk wDuspfacsmif;xJ vJGxJvdk@ jzpf&w,f? rdk;&moDrSmawmh a&awGu v,fxJ 0ifvm+yD;/
ausmufrD;aoG; tenfawG v,fxJwifusefcJhw,f? tJovdk ausmufrD;aoG;tenfawGa=umifh ajrawGu
tifrwefrmvm+yD;/ xGuf,ufvdk@ rjzpfEdkifatmif jzpfvmw,f? (pyg;)txGufvnf; usqif;vmw,f?”
(awG@qkHar;jrefjcif;trSwf-7)

tvkyfvufrJh rsm;jym;vmjcif;
aus;&Gm (6)&Gm&Sd v,form;rsm;xHrS ajr,mrsm;udk odrf;qnf;&,lcJh+yD;aemuf olwdk@. toufarG;0rf;ausmif;
vkyfief;rsm;twGuf tjcm;enf;vrf;rsm;udk &SmazG=u&ygonf? tcsKd@aom v,form;rsm;udk owWKwl;azmfr_
ra&mufvmao;onfh odrf;,lxm;aom ajr,mrsm;ay:wGif qufI vkyfudkifcGifhay;aeqJ jzpfaomfvnf;/ olwdk@.
tem*wftwGuf pdk;&drfaomu jzpfae=u&ygonf?

ukr%
` rD sm;u Tausmufr;D aoG;owWKwGi;f a=umifh a'ocHjynforl sm;udk tvkyt f udik rf sm; zefw;D ay;rnf[k ºum;0g
ae=uygonf? od@k aomfvnf; pDru H ed ;f wckv;kH wGif vl 500 cef@uo kd m tvkyt f udik f cef@xm;ae&mcsxm;Edik jf cif; &S+d yD;/ 37
axmifEiS chf saD om v,form;rsm;rSm oufarG;0rf;ausmif;vkyif ef;rsm; aysmufq;kH uke&f ygonf? ausmufr;D aoG;wGi;f ESihf
v#ypf pf"gwt f m;xkwpf uf&&kH dS vkyof m;trsm;pkrmS a'ocHvx l rk sm; r[kw=f uyg? a'ocHtenf;pkonfom x&yfum;
armif;olrsm;tjzpf vkyfudkifcGifh &=uygonf?

qufvuf&SifoefEdkif&eftwGuf rdom;pkrsm;u opfyifrsm;udk ckwfvSJI xif;tjzpf a&mif;pm;ae=u&ygonf? odk@


twGufa=umifh usef&Sdaeao;onfh obm00ef;usifudk ydkI ysufpD;apygonf? trsKd;orD;rsm;u [if;oD;[if;&Guf
a&mif;I tvkyftudkif 0ifaiG&&Sdap&ef óu;pm;=uaomfvnf;/ i,f&G,fol vli,frsm;rSm tjcm;wyg; a'orsm;odk@
a&$@ajymif;I tvkyftudkif &SmazGae=u&ygonf?

v,fuGif;teD;wGifykHxm;aomausmufrD;aoG;
a'ocHvx l rk sm;rSm aiG0ifvrf; usqif;vmonft h wGuaf =umifh uav;rsm;udk ausmif;xm;Edik jf cif;vnf; r&Sad wmhyg?
olwdk@rdom;pkudk qufvufau|;arG;Edkifatmif uav;rsm;u rdbrsm;ESifhtwl tvkyfvkyfudkifae=u&ygonf?
od@k r[kwyf gu armifErS rsm;udk xde;f ausmif;ay;&jcif;/ tdrt
f vkyrf sm; ulnv
D yk u
f ikd af y;&jcif;rsm; aqmif&u
G af e=u&yg
onf?

“ukr% ` u D usaemfw@kd &mG (yifruDS ek ;f aus;&Gm) taemufzufrmS &Sad ewJh pdu


k yf sK;d ajrawGtm;vH;k udk odr;f ,lvu
kd f
w,f? 'gayr,fhvnf; &Gmom;awGudkawmh tJ'DajrawGay:rSm owWKwl;azmfr_ ra&mufvmciftxd tvkyf
vkyfcGifh qufðyxm;w,f? t&ift&m&Sdwkef;u b,f&Gmom;udkrS ajroHk;cGifh ay;wmr[kwfbl;? 'gayr,fh
t&m&St d opfuawmh ajr,mudk toH;k ðycGiahf y;w,f? olw@kd u ajrudk toH;k ðycGihf ay;ayr,fv h nf; tcsed rf a&G;
jyefzsufqD;Edkifwma=umifh usaemfwdk@u ajr=oZmawG bmawGxnfh+yD; roHk;csif=ubl;? ajr=oZmrygawmh
oD;ESHawGvnf; txGufusvmw,f? +yD;cJhwJhESpfu usaemfwdk@rSm qeftydktv#H t+rJ&SdaecJhw,f? usaemfwdk@
wcgwavqdk&if qefudkaiGydkaiGv#H&zdk@ jyefawmif xkwfa&mif;Edkifao;w,f? aemufESpfqdk&ifawmh tJ'DajrrSm
usaemfw@kd ukd olw@kd quf+yD;vkyuf ikd cf iG hf ay;awmhr,f rxifb;l ? tckawmh usaemfxif;ckwf a&mif;pm;ae&w,f?
a&S@av#muf ckwfp&m tyifawG r&Sdawmhbl;qdk&if bmqufvkyf&rSef;awmif rodawmhygbl;?”
(awG@qkHar;jrefjcif;trSwf-9)

“usaemfw@kd &Gm&d;k wav#muf (om,muke;f aus;&Gm)rSm a&aumif;a&oef@e@J a&ay;ajrmif;pepf aumif;aumif;


&SdcJhw,f? tckawmh toufarG;0rf;ausmif;r_ vkyfzdk@qdk&ifvnf; tckvkyfudkifp&m ajrqdkvdk@ r&Sdawmhbl;?
tJ'gtjyif ausmufrD;aoG;rS ajrpmyHkawGu wjznf;jznf;pkvmvdkufwm &Gmem;udk eD;eD;vmaew,f?
38 usaemfwkd@ bmqufvkyf&rSef;vnf; rodawmhbl;? usaemfwdk@ajrawGudkvnf; odrf;oGm;awmh usaemfwdk@
bmrS qufvkyfpm;p&m rusefawmhbl;? udk,fhudk,fudk b,fvdkquf&yfwnf&rSef;vnf; rodawmhbl;? wae@
xufwae@ ausmufrD;aoG;owWKwGif;u xGufvmwJh ajrpmawGeJ@ usaemfwdk@ajr,may:rSm zdk@xm;awmh
ajr,mukefawmhr,f? usaemfu pdkufysKd;zdk@ajrudk b,frSm oGm;&Sm&rSef;vnf; rodawmhbl;? tm;vHk;
ausmufr;D aoG; owWKwGi;f u ajrawGe@J zd@k uek +f y?D usaemfvyk pf &m tvkyw
f ckyJ useaf wmhw,f? awmifa&S@jcrf;rSm
xif;ckwf+yD; a&mif;pm;&HkyJ? usaemfh&GmrSm wjcm;tvkyfvnf; r&Sdbl;? usaemfvnf; tvkyfr&Smwwfawmhbl;?
” (awG@qkHar;jrefjcif;trSwf-5)

vuf&Sd&Gm;om;rsm;onf opfyifckwf+yD;
xif;acGa&mif;=u&jcif;
avxknpfnrf;r_a=umifh usef;rma&;udk xdckdufapjcif;
wae@wmvH;k x&yfum;rsm;jzifh ausmufr;D aoG; yd@k aqmifaeonfth wGuaf =umifh rD;cd;k / zkerf e_ @f rsm; xGu&f u
dS m a'ocH
jynforl sm;twGuf avxknpfnrf;r_ cHpm;&apygonf? Tzkerf e_ @f rsm;u a&t&if;tjrpfrsm; &S&d mae&mrsm;/ tdrrf sm;/
[if;oD;[if;&Gufcif;rsm;ay:wGif usI tenfxdkifapygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh vlwdk@. usef;rma&;twGufvnf;
tEW&m,f &Sad eygonf? awmify@kd vaus;&GmrS uav;rsm;onf wDusp&f mG wGif ausmif;wuf&eftwGuf ae@pOfEiS t hf r#
owWKwl;azmfaeonfah e&mudk jzwfoef;oGm;ae&ygonf? olw@kd u zkerf e_ @f awm}uD;udk jzwfoef;oGm;&+yD;/ rd;k &moDwiG f
AGufxaeaom vrf;a=umif;wav#muf jzwfoef;ausmif;wufae=u&ygonf?

ausmufrD;aoG;owWKwGif;rS xGuf&Sdvmaom ajrpmrsm;udk jyifomESifh awmifydk@v &GmESpfckt=um;/ puf&Hk. 39


ta&S@zufwGif pGef@ypfxm;ygonf? xdk&GmxufjrifhaomajrpmyHk}uD;rS zkefr_ef@rsm;onf avESifhtwl &GmxJodk@
usa&mufvmojzifh &Gmom;rsm;twGuf usef;rma&;xdcdkufapygonf? v#yfppfpuf&kHwGif pkyHkxm;aom
ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;u wcgw&Htvdktav#muf xaygufuI JG qdk;&Gm;aom "mwfaiG@rsm; avxkxJ xkwfv$wfwwf
ygao;onf? xdk@tjyif ausmufrD;aoG;avmifpmoHk; "mwftm;ay;puf&HkrS jy'g;/ q,fvDeD,rf/ tmqif;epf ponfh
"mwfrsm; avxJxw k v
f w$ w
f wfa=umif;vnf; avhvm od&&dS ygonf? T"mwfaiG@rsm;onf vlw@kd . use;f rma&;ESihf
obm0ywf0ef;usiftwGuf tvGefqdk;&Gm;pGm xdcdkufapygonf?

“wcgwavrSm puf&eHk m;u ausmufr;D aoG;awG odak vSmifxm;wJh ae&mrSm ausmufr;D aoG;awGu ol@bmom
x+yD; rD;xavmifwwfw,f? tJovdk rD;avmif&if "mwfaiG@awG xGuv f mwm tawmfteH@q;kd w,f? tJ't
D eH@
awGu um;wm,mudk rD;avmifwmxufawmif teH@qdk;ao;w,f? teD;tem;u &GmawGudk tJ'DtaiG@
awGu aveJ@o,fvm+yD; wcsK@d &mG awGq&kd if aevd@k r&avmufatmif
jzpf&w,f? tEW&m,fuif;r,fxifwJhae&m a&$@+yD;ae=u&w,f?”
(awG@qkHar;jrefjcif;trSwf-11)

+yD;cJhonfhESpfrSpI v#yfppfpuf&Hk teD;tem; w&Gm+yD;w&GmrS vlxk


rsm;onf ta&jym;,m;,H r _ ' %f cH p m;=u&ygonf ? ,ck t cg
teD;tem;&Gmrsm;rS vlO;D a& 50μ cef@onf ta&jym; ,m;,Hr_ jy\em
cHpm;ae=u&ygonf? ("mwfyHkudk =unfhyg) odk@aomfvnf; TpDrHudef;udk
vkyfudkifae=uonfh ukr`%Drsm;taejzifh jynfolrsm;cHpm;ae&onfudk
vSnfh =unfhjcif;/ ulnDay;jcif; r&Sdyg?
xdk@tjyif ausmufrD;aoG;owWKwGif;ESifh v#yfppfxkwfpuf&Hk teD;w0dkuf&Sd [if;oD;[if;&Guf pdkufcif;rsm;tay:
ausmufrD;aoG;zkefr_ef@rsm; usa&mufzHk;tkyfvmonf? aumfzDxkyfrsm; ysufpD;&onfhtwGuf v,form;rsm;u
ukr`%Dodk@ apm'u wufajymqdkonfhtcg/ ukr`%Du v,form;ESifh ajymqdk&ef jrefrmppfwyfrS Adkvf}uD;wOD;udk
apv$wfcJhygonf? olu “ydk;owfaq;awG [if;oD;[if;&GufawGtay: wifaeawmhvnf; aq;+yD; pm;=u&wmyJ?
tJovdyk J cifAsm;wd@k aumfzD xkyaf wGtay: ausmufr;D aoG; r_eaf wG wifaewm[mvnf; jy\em bmrS r&Syd gb;l ”[k
ajymqdkvmcJhonf?

ukr`%Du iSm;&rf;xm;onfh usef;rma&;0efxrf; wOD;om &SdyHk&+yD;/ Toluom teD;tem; &yf&Gmrsm;twGufyg


wm0efxrf;aqmif&ygonf? od@k aomfvnf; aus;&Gmvlxwk OD;u ajymqd&k mwGif T0efxrf;cef@tyfxm;jcif;rSmvnf;
40 [efjyom jzpfonf[k qdkygonf?

“'DrSm ppfwyfu usef;rma&;0efxrf; wa,mufyJ&Sdw,f? olu AdkvfrSL;vm;/ Adkvf}uD;vm; qdkwmawmh


usr arhae+yD? wcgwavrSm olu &GmawGudkoGm;+yD; usef;rma&; vdkufppfaq;ay;w,f? ukr`%Du
=unfhaumif;&Hkjzpfatmif iSm;xm;wmyJ? wu,fawmh tJ'Dolu bmrS usef;rma&;ukor_awG vkyfay;wm
r[kwfygbl;? olwdk@ ukr`%DtwGuf vuQ%mpHkatmif xm;&&Hkyg” [k qdkcJhonf? (awG@qkHar;jref;jcif;-15)

ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;ESifh v#yfppfxkwfpuf&Hka=umifh usef;rma&;tay: a&&Snf xdcdkufoufa&mufr_ rsm;pGm&SdEdkif+yD;/


vmrnfhESpf umvtenf;i,fwdkifatmif jy\ema&m*gvuQ%mrsm; azmfjyvdrfhOD;rnf r[kwfyg? odk@r[kwf
aemifrsKd;qufwdkifrSvnf; jy\emrsm; jzpfay:vmEdkifygonf? TtpD&ifcHpm a&;om;&eftwGuf csOf;uyfcJhaom
tpdk;&cef@ usef;rma&;0efxrf;url Ta'ocHrsm;. tajctaeudk azmfjyaqG;aEG;&ef olwdk@udk vkyfydkifcGifh
ray;xm;a=umif; ajymqdkygonf?

ausmufrD;aoG;owWKwGif;ESifh v#yfppfxkwfpuf&HkrS tvkyform;rsm;. usef;rma&; tajctaersm;


tvkyo f rm;rsm;taeeSihf xdcu kd 'f %f&m&r_EiS hf use;f rma&;twGuf tmrcHpepfrsm; rcHpm;Edik =f uyg? tvkyo f rm;rsm;u
olw@kd . ESmacgi;f ESihf yg;pyfrsm;udk tvkyv f yk af epOf &d;k &d;k t0wfjzifo
h m ydwq
f @kd umqD;=u&ygonf? touf&LS &cufcJ
aoma=umifh rwyfqifbJ xm;olrsm;vnf; &Sdygonf? olwdk@udk aoG;ppf&ef wvw}udrf vdktyf+yD;/ tu,fI
tvkyf orm;rsm;wGif tom;0g tonf;a&mifa&m*g awG@&Sdygu xdkolrsm;udk csufcsif; tvkyfðzwfypfwwfygonf?
ukr%
` u D aemufxyf tpm;xd;k 0efxrf;wOD; xyfrcH ef@tyfavh &So d nf? ytd0k ;f vli,frsm;tzG@J u avhvmawG@&&dS &mY
2000 ckESpfrSpI ajròyusr_a=umifhaomfvnf;aumif; vkyfief;cGifwGif rawmfwqr_ rsm;pGm&SdcJhygonf? z&mh+zdef;
aus;&GmteD;rS tvkyform; (5)OD;ESifh aemifw&maus;&GmrS ta&S@zufrS vl(7)OD;rSm Todk@jzifh aoqHk;cJh&ygonf?
ausmufrD;aoG;jymr_efrsm;jzifh a'ovrf;udk cif;jcif;
vkyfief;pwif vnfywfpOf yxrESpfwGif v#yfppfxkwfpuf&HkY xGuf&Sdvmaom tqdyfoifhaponfh
jymr_efrsm;ESifh tnpfta=u; pGef@ypfypPnf;rsm;udk ausmufrD;aoG;rdkif;rS pGef@ypfxm;onfh tyHkrsm;ESifh
twl a&maES m yH k y gonf ? TpG e f @ ypf y pP n f ; rsm;rS m vl a e&G m rsm;ES i f h tawmf e D ; uyf a eygonf ?
r=umao;cifESpfrsm;wGif Tjymr_efrsm;udk a'ocHvrf;rsm;ay:wGif cif;apygonf? ausmif;oGm;&onfh
uav;rsm;/ vkyfief;cGifoGm;&onfh v,form;rsm;/ aps;oGm;&olrsm;rSm ae@pOfESifhtr# Ttqdyfoifh
jymr_ef@rsm;rS jy'g;/ cJ/ tmqif;epf"mwfrsm;ESifh xdawG@ae&ygonf? Tjymr_efrsm;rS tqdyf"mwfonf ajr
atmufa&udkyg tqdyfoifhapEdkifygonf? (ausmufrD;aoG;jymr_efrsm;ta=umif;udk =unfhyg?)
41
ausmufrD;aoG;jymqdkonfrSmtb,fenf;?47
ausmufr;D aoG;jymr_e@f rsm;qdo k nfrmS v#ypf pfpuf&w kH iG f
ausmufr;D aoG;udk avmifu|r;f aponft h cg use&f pfae
onfh tnpfta=u;pGe@f ypfypPn;f jzpfonf? Tjymr_e@f
rsm;udk pkyIkH tyHvk u
kd af omfvnf;aumif;/ odak vSmif&m
uef r sm;wG i f a omf v nf ; aumif ; xnf h = uonf ?
Tausmuf r D ; aoG ; jymr_ e f @ rsm;wG i f tqd y f o if h
"mwfºuaeaom jy'g;"mwf/ cJ/ tmqif;epf"mwfrsm;
yg0ifae=uonf? tyGifhxm;aom jymr_eftyHkrsm;
od k @ r[k w f Tjymr_ e f r sm;ud k x&yf u m;jzif h yd k @
aqmifjcif;a=umifh avxkxJodk@ zkefr_ef@rsm;tjzpf
a&muf & S d o G m ;aponf ? Tjymr_ e f r sm;ud k vl .
tqk y f t wG i f ; od k @ vnf ; touf & S L rd E d k i f a p+yD ; /
yef;em&ifusyf a&m*g cHpm;&apEdik o f nf? jymr_erf sm;wGif
wnf a qmuf x m;onf h "mwf º uypP n f ; rsm;onf
a&ESifhvnf; xdawG@Edkif+yD;/ ajratmuf a&ausmrsm;ESifh
ausmufrD;aoG;wGif tnpfta=u;rsm; pkyHk&mESifh
eD;aom ae&mrsm;wGif aomufo;kH a& t&if;jrpfrsm;udk
tqdyfoifhapEdkifonf?
42

puf&kHrsm;. rD;cdk;aiG@rsm;a=umifh tufqpfrdk;jzpfay:apjcif;48

“tufqpfrdk;” qdkonfrSm tmumorSaeI tufqpfypPnf;rsm;udk enf;vrf;rsKd;pHkjzifh usqif;vmr_udk azmfjyonfh


+cKHiHk oHk;aom a0g[m& jzpfygonf? ausmufrD;aoG; avmifpmoHk; puf&Hkrsm;rS qmvzm'dkifatmufqdk'f (SO2)
ESifh Edkufx&dk*sifatmufqdk'frsm; (NOX) udk xkwfv$wfygonf? T"mwfaiG@rsm;onf tufqpfrdk;&Gmap&ef
t"dujzpfapaom tmedoif &So d nf? v#ypf pfxw
k pf uf&kH rD;cd;k acgi;f wdik rf S rD;cd;k rsm;ESit
hf wl qmvzm'dik af tmufq'kd f
(SO2) ESifh Edkufx&dk*sifatmufqdk'frsm; (NOX) rsm; xkwfv$wfvdkufonfhtcg T"mwfaiG@rsm;u tmumo&Sd
a&/ atmufqD*sif/ tjcm; "mwkypPnfrsm;ESifh xdawG@ "mwfðy=uygonf? xdk@aemuf tufqpfj'yfaygif; trsKd;rsKd;udk
jzpfapygonf? (yHkwGif azmfjyxm;onfudk =unfhyg?) T"mwfaygif;rsm;onf urBmajray:udk tufqpfrdk;tjzpf
jyef&Gmvmonfhtcg Tj'yfaygif;rsm;u a&uefrsm;ESifh acsmif;rsm;udkvnf; tufqpftjzpf ajymif;vJaponf?
tyifrsm;ESihf opfawmrsm;udk ysupf ;D aponf? vltrsm;. use;f rma&;udk txl;'kuQ jzpfaponf? rD;cd;k acgi;f wdik w f iG f
(Scrubber) [k ac:onfh avxk npfnrf;r_ xde;f odr;f a&;ypPn;f wyfqifxm;ygu puf&r kH S qmvzm 'dik af tmufq'kd f
xkwfv$wfr_ av#mhenf; usqif;aponf? odk@aomfvnf; wDuspf&Sd puf&HkwGif TypPnf;ud&d,m wyfqifxm;jcif;
&Sd-r&Sdudk rod&yg?
rJarmh (MaeMoh)
ta&S@awmiftm&S&Sd t}uD;rm;qHk; ausmufrD;aoG;avmifpmoHk; v#yfppfxkwfpuf&HkrS oifcef;pm49
xdkif;EdkifiH ajrmufydkif;&Sd rJarmh ausmufrD;aoG;avmifpmoHk; v#yfppfxkwfpuf&HkrSm ta&S@awmiftm&Sa'owGif
‚trsKd;tpm;xJY t}uD;rm;qHk; puf&Hkwck jzpfonf? Tpuf&HktwGuf ausmufrD;aoG;udk ajray:tyGifh
owWKwl;azmfpepfjzifh xkwfvkyf+yD;/ puf&HktwGuf wae@v#if wefcsdef 40˜000 axmufyHhay;&ygonf? puf&HkrS
pkpkaygif;pGrf;tif 2˜625 r*~g0yf (MW) xkwfvkyfEdkifygonf?

rJarmh v#yfppfxkwfpuf&HkrS avxkxJodk@ ae@pOf qmvzm"mwfaiG@rsm; 1² 6 wefudk xkwfv$wfaeygonf? Tpuf&Hk


wnfaqmufr_ESifh ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;a=umifh vlaygif; 30˜000 ausmf ae&majymif;a&$@cJh=u&+yD;/ vlaxmifaygif;
rsm;pGmrSm touf&SLvrf;a=umif;a&m*g cHpm;ae=u&ygonf? touf&SLvrf;a=umif;a&m*g/ tqkyfuifqm/
aoG;tqdyfoifhjcif; ponfjzifh aus;&Gmvlxk 300 cef@ touf qHk;&_H;cJh&+yD; jzpfygonf? puf&HkESifh (7)rdkif
ywf0ef;usifwGif aexdkif=uolrsm;rSm touf&SLvrf;a=umif;a&m*g cHpm;=u&+yD;/ ysKd@tHjcif;/ acgif;rl;acgif;udkufjcif;/
rsufapha,mif,rf;jcif;/ ESm¹yefa,mif,rf;jcif;rsm; cHpm;=u&ygonf?

v#ypf pfxw
k pf uf&rkH S yso
H ef;aeonfh jymr_erf sm;ESihf tufqpfr;kd &GmoGe;f jcif;a=umifh aus;&Gmvlxrk sm;. oD;EScH if;rsm;udk
vnf; tqdyfoifhapygonf? oD;ESHrsm; usKHvSDI aoqHk;apygonf? 2003 ckESpf atmufwdkbmvwGif EdkifiHawmf
obm0&if;jrpfESifh obm00ef;usifqdkif&m rl0g'ESifh tpDtpOfrsm; csrSwfa&;&Hk; (State Natural Resources and
Environmental Policy and Planning Office) rS avhvmawG@&& dS mwGif a&xGu&f &dS mae&mrsm;ESihf puf&t
kH eD;w0du k Yf
tmqif;epf/ c&dkrD,rf/ rif;*edpf"mwfrsm; tvGefjrifhrm;aeonfudk awG@&SdcJh&onf? 43
rJarmhaus;&Gmvlxrk sm;u tcuftcJaygi;f rsm;pGm }uHKcJ&h aomfvnf; olw@kd tcGit hf a&;twGuf wduk yf 0JG ifc=hJ uygonf?
2004 ckESpf arvwGif xdkif;EdkifiH c&dkifw&m;&Hk;wcku ausmufrD;aoG;avmifpmoHk; v#yfppfpuf&Hka=umifh olwdk@.
oD;ESHrsm; ysufpD;qHk;&_H;&r_twGuf aus;&Gmvlxkrsm;udk tar&duefa':vm 142˜ 500 ay;avsmf&ef qHk;jzwfcsuf
csrSwfcJhygonf? TqHk;jzwfcsufrSm qdk;&Gm;ysufpD;aponfh Tpuf&HkrS a'ocHjynfolrsm;. b0rsm;tay:
tEW&m,fusa&mufEikd yf u kH kd tenf;i,f todtrSwðf yr_yif jzpfygawmhonf? od@k aomfvnf; ysupf ;D cJ&h aom b0rsm;/
toufaoqHk;cJh&olrsm;udkrl jyefI tpm;xdk;ay;Edkifp&m r&Sdawmhyg? Image: Greenpeace

“tpydik ;f rSmawmh bmrS rjzpfb;l xifc=hJ uw,f?


'gayr,fh ESpt f enf;i,f =umvmawmh &Gmom;
awGrSm vnfacsmif;uifqm jzpfvm=uw,f?
u|JEGm;awGrSmawmifrS wcsKd@ jrufawGpm;+yD;
aoqHk;oGm;wm jrifawG@&w,f? wcgwav
tufqpfrdk;&Gm+yD; usrwdk@&J@ pdkufxm;wJh oD;ESH
awGudk zsufqD;ypfw,f? ” rJarmh vkyfief;cGif
usef;rma&;qdkif&m vlemrsm;uGef&uftzGJ@.
twGif;a&;rSL; rmvd0rf emhcsf0d&Gwf (Maliwan
Najwirot)

rJarmhwGif touf&_vrf;a=umif;a&m*g cHpm;ae&aom vlemwpfOD;


a&npfnrf;jcif;ESifh a&&Sm;yg;vmjcif;

ausmufrD;aoG;owWKwGif;rS pkyHkvmonfh ajrpmrsm;a=umifh awmif}uD;rsm;ozG,f jrifhwufvmaeonf?


xdkajrpmrsm;u a&pD;qif;r_udkvnf; t[ef@twm; jzpfvmaponf? rdk;&moDwGif pD;qif;vmonfh a&rsm;u
TajrpmyHk}uD;rsm; aemufwGif ydwfrdae=u+yD; a&uef}uD;rsm; jzpfvmonf? a&rsm;u pkyHkxm;onfh ajrpmrsm;ESifh
puf&HktwGif; odkavSmifxm;onfh ausmufrD;aoG;yHkrsm;udk jzwfI wdkufpm;um pD;qif;=ujyefonf? Todk@ESifh
wDuspfacsmif;xJodk@ tnpfta=u;rsm; ydk@v$wfonfhES,f &Sdvmawmhonf? ajrpmyHk}uD;rsm; aemufuG,fwGif
&Sdae=uonfh pdkufysKd;ajrrsm;rSmvnf; ESpfpOfqdkovdk npfax;aeonfh a&rsm;v$rf;cH=u&onf?

v#yfppf"mwftm;xkwfpuf&HkrS vGifhvmonfh tqdyfoifhjymr_efrsm;vnf; ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rS pGef@ypfypPnf;


yHk}uD;rsm;tay: odk@r[kwf a'owGif;vrf;rsm;ay: usa&mufonf? a'owGif; a&wGif; a&uefrsm;xJodk@
usa&mufpD;0if=uonf? ‚jymr_eftcsKd@u tif;av;uefxJodk@yif aemufqHk; pD;0ifvm=uonf?

ausmufrD;aoG;wGif; eufonfxuf eufatmif wl;vmonfESifhtr# ajratmuf a&a=umrsm;udk xdrdojzifh


ausmuf r D ; aoG ; owW K wG i f ; twG i f ; wG i f a&rsm;v#H x G u f v m=uonf ? Ta&rsm;ud k puf r sm;jzif h pk y f , l I
wDuspfacsmif;xJodk@ ydk@v$wf=ujyefonf? Todk@jzifh wDuspfacsmif;a&onf ajrpmykHrsm;/ tnpfta=u;rsm;rS
wdkufpm;pD;qif;vmaoma&rsm;/ ausmufrD;aoG;jymr_efrsm;jzifh/ owWKwGif;rsm;rS pkyfxkwfI oGefvmaom
a&rsm;jzifh t+rJwrf; npfax; aemufusdaeawmhonf? ,cifu acsmif;a&udk a&csKd;&ef oHk;pGJEdkif=uaomfvnf;/
,cktcg toHk;rðyEdkif=uawmhay? odk@aomfvnf; Todk@ npfnrf;aeaom a&rsm;udkyif pdkufysKd;a&;vkyfief;wGif
44 oHk;pGJae=u&ao;onf jzpf&m/ oD;ESHrsm;wGifvnf; tqdyftawmufrsm; oifh&ef ta=umif;&Sdaeawmhonf?

obm0r[kwfbJ ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rS pGef@ypfajrpmykH}uD;. zefwD;xm;aoma&uef


ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rS a&xGufvmojzifh a'ocHtokH;jyKaeonfh obm0a&uef}uD;crf;ajcmuf&onfhykH

a'owGi;f acsmif;rsm;wGif owWKwGi;f rS pGe@f xw


k o
f nfh tnpfta=u;rsm; jrifrh m;pGm tenfusae&m/ v,f,mpdu k yf sK;d
ajrrsm;rSmvnf; tvGerf mausmvmonf? xd@k tjyif Tajr,mrsm;rS oD;ESx H w k v
f yk Ef ikd pf rG ;f vnf; usqif;vmonf[k
&Gmom;rsm;u ajymqdk=uonf?

“ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;xJrSm a&awG xGufvmawmh/ jyKef;wef&Gmbkef;}uD;ausmif;aemufu a&uef crf;oGm;


w,f? tJ'D a&uef&J@ a&ausmu ausmufrD;aoG;wGif; wl;wJhae&meJ@ a&ausmwckwnf;qdkwm usaemfwdk@
rod=ubl;? wDuspf&GmxJu t0DpdwGif;awGvnf; a&crf;oGm;=uw,f? wDuspfbkef;}uD;ausmif; q&mawmfu
&Gmv,f&Sd a&uefudk awmifay:u prf;a&eJ@ jyefjznfhawmhrSyJ usaemfwdk@ a&oHk;zdk@&awmhw,f? ”
(awG@qkHar;jref;jcif;-6)

wDuspfausmufrD;aoG;wGif;onf tif;av;uef. a&a0a&vJ a'otwGif;wGif wnf&Sdygonf? wDuspfacsmif;ESifh


bDvl;acsmif;wdk@rSwqifh vltrsm; ravhvm rod&SdEdkifaom/ xdef;csKyfr_ rðyEdkifaom tenfrsm; pD;0ifv#uf
&Sdonf? r=umao;rDu tif;av;ueftwGif; a&jyifusqif;oGm;cJh&m Todk@ tenfusr_rsm;a=umifh ydkI
ap;jypfvm&ef ta=umif; &Sdaeonf? odk@twGufa=umifh wDuspfausmufrD;aoG;owWKwGif; a*[aA'pepf wckvHk;
usef;rm&Sifoefa&;udk +cdrf;ajcmufaev#uf &Sd+yD;/ tif;av;uefxJ&Sd obm0rsKd;pdwfrsm; &Sifoefa&;tay:wGifvnf;
+cdrf;ajcmuf tEW&m,f ay;aeonf?

bDvl;acsmif;twGif; pD;qif;vmonfh ausmufrD;aoG; tenfESpfrsm;ESifh tnpfta=u;rsm;onf rdk;+AJqnf aemufY


vnf; pkyHkvmrnf? TqnfrS atmufzuf&Sd rdk;+AJESifh vdGKifaumfòr@rsm;odk@ a&ydk@v$wfay;aeonf? bDvl;acsmif;
txufydkif;wGifvnf; 29 r*~g0yf xkwfEdkifonfh a&umwmwck wnfaqmufxm;&m wDuspfowWKwGif;rS
tenftESpfrsm;/ tnpfta=u;rsm; pkyHkrdvmaprnf jzpfonf? xdk@aemuf a&v$JwHcg; zGifhonfhtcg a&rsm;u
atmuft&yfodk@ qufI qif;oGm;=urnf jzpfonf?
toHqlnHr_rsm;

ae@pOfESifhtr# ae@a&mnyg ausmufrD;aoG; wl;azmfxkwfvkyf&m owWKwGif;rS qlnHoHrsm;a=umifh uav;rsm;a&m/


ouf}uD;&G,ftdkrsm;yg txl;taESmuft,Suf jzpf=u&onf? owWKwGif;ae&mrS azmufcGJonfh toHrsm;/ v#yfppf
puf&HkrS toHrsm;onf ausmif;om;rsm;udk taESmifht,Suf jzpfap+yD;/ toHa=umifh ausmif;pmavhvmr_udkvnf;
ajzmifhatmif tm&HkrpdkufEdkif=uawmhay?

“v#yfppfxkwfpuf&HkqDu toHawGu na&mufvmavav/ ydk+yD;us,favmifvmavavyJ? vlawGvdkyJ/


usaemfxifwmuawmh EGm;awG/ u|JawGawmif rtdyfEdkif=ubl;? olwdk@nawGrSmqdk&if xl;xl;jcm;jcm;
toHðyaewmawG &Sdw,f? v#yfppf"mwftm;ay;puf&Hk raqmufcifwkef;u tJonfvdk xl;xl;qef;qef;
toHvkyfwmawG r&Sd=ubl;?” (awG@qkHar;jref;jcif;-2)

ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;wGif azmufcGJr_a=umifh jzpfvmonfh wkefcgr_rsm;onf aus;&Gm&Sd tdrfrsm;/ ausmif;rsm;/


taqmuftOD;ESifh apwDrsm;udkyg tufuGJaponf? aygufuGJonfhae&mrS vGifhpifvmaom ausmufwHk;rsm;/
ausmufprsm;a=umifhvnf; tdrfacgifrdk;rsm;wGif pumayguf jzpfaponf? vGifhusvmaom ausmufprsm;u
&Gmom;rsm;udk xdrSef'%f&m &aponfvnf; &Sdonf?

,Ofaus;r_ zsufqD;cH&jcif;rsm;
46 “'Dbk&m;u usrrarG;cif uwnf;u 'DrSm &Sdaewm æ æ ”
ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rS aygufuGJr_rsm; t&Sdeft[kefa=umifh
ajr}uD ; wk e f v _ y f + yD ; wD u spf a us;&G m &S d a&S ; a[mif ; apwD r S m
tuf+yD; òyuscJh&onf? Todk@ apwDòyus ysufpD;r_a=umifh
aus;&Gmvlxkrsm; a'goxGuf=u&onf? aus;&Gmvlxkrsm;ESifh
ukr`%Dvkyfom;rsm;t=um; xdyfwdkuf&ifqdkifawG@r_udk a&Smif&Sm;
Edkifap&ef/ wDuspfbkef;awmf}uD;ausmif;rS q&mawmfu T
jy\emudk =um;0ifaphpyf jzefajzay;cJh&onf? aemufydkif;wGif
aus;&Gmvlxrk sm;u òyusysupf ;D oGm;onfh apwDrS tydik ;f tprsm;
udk aumuf,l=u+yD;/ ,cif ae&ma[mif;wGif pkyHkxm;=uonf? Tae&mudk +cHcwfI xm;=uonf?

“apwDvnf; òyusa&m &Gmom;awGeJ@ ukr`%Dvkyfom;awG=um;xJrSm &efjzpfawmhr,fh eD;yg; jzpfw,f? &Gmom;


trsm;pku odyfpdwfqdk;w,f? tcsKd@qdk&if idkawmifidkw,f? usaemfwdk@u bk&m;rSm ESpfpOfyGJvrf;usif;yvmwm?
vlawGvnf; trsm;}uD;eJ@ pnfpnfum;um;yJ? rdom;pk aqGrsKd;awG jyefqHkawG@=uwJh tcsdefaygh? tckawmh
yGJvrf;usif;yp&m bk&m;apwDvnf; r&Sdawmhbl;? bkef;}uD;wyg;uawmh apwDudk jyefwnfvdk@ &Edkifygw,fvdk@
ajymw,f? 'gayr,fh ajr}uD;u wckck wnfzdk@ rcdkifao;bl;? ” (awG@qkHar;jref;jcif;-10)

ukr`%Du ajr}uD;rsm; rmI ydktajcusvmonfhtcg TapwDudk jyefvnfwnfaqmufay;rnf[k uwday;onf?


odk@aomfvnf; ausmufrD;aoG;owWKwGif;rS t+rJwapvdkvdk azmufcGJaer_rsm; wkefv_yfr_rsm; quf&SdaeOD;rnf jzpf&m
ajr}uD;wnf+idr&f ef ta=umif; rnfo@kd r# r&SEd ikd af y? apwDukd jyefvnfwnfaqmufonf jzpfap/ rwnfaqmufonf
jzpfap/
aus;&Gmvlxrk sm;u ,H=k unfae=uonfrmS TpDru
H ed ;f a=umifh
a'oewfrsm; 0d^mOfrsm;udk taESmuft,Suf jzpfap+yD;/
wefjyef vufpm;acscH&rnf[k xifjrif,Hk=unfae=uonf?

“bk & m;òyysuf + yD ; wJ h tcgrS m awmh oH C m


wyg;u &G m at;csrf ; om,ma&;eJ @ zG H @ òz;a&;
aumif p D (&,u)u vl w a,muf a ,muf
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vlwa,mufaow,f? tckawmht'J D oHCmuyJ
tdyfruf xyfrufjyefw,f? vlESpfa,mufao
vdrfhr,fvdk@? tvkyform;awGu anmifyif}uD;
udk x&yfum;awGeJ@ qGJvSJzdk@ óu;pm;jyefawmh
x&yfum;u ra&G@jyefb;l ? 'gayr,fv h nf;olw@kd u
anmifyifudk jyefpdkufay;awmh olwdk@ um;u
vG , f v G , f u l u l y J jyef a &G @ vd k @ &oG m ;w,f ?
tckawmh anmifyifrSm a¹rwaumifu ae+yD;
anmifyifudkapmifhay;aew,f?”
(awG@qkHar;jref;jcif;-10)
48 xdkif;EdkifiH O'Gef;XmeDwGif aus;&Gmvlxkrsm;u olwdk@&GmxJodk@ ydkwuf&SfowWKwGif; ukr`%D0ifa&mufrvmap&ef olwdk@.
tdrfrsm;wGif qdkif;bkwfrsm;wifxm;=uyHk?

jynfolrsm; xkwfazmfajymqdkonfhtcg pDrHudef;rsm; &yfqdkif=u&onf?

2000 ckESpf arvwGif a&$}wd*H a&tm;v#yfppfpGrf;tif yk*~vduukr`%D vDrdwufu 12 r*~g0yfxkwfEdkifaom


ausmufr;D aoG; avmifpmoH;k a&aEG;aiG@ v#ypf pfpuf&w kH &Hu
k kd wmcsv
D w d òf r@. ajrmufzuf xdik ;f Edik if EH iS hf e,fpyfuyfv#uf
&Srf;jynfe,fxJwGif wnfaqmufcJhonf? xdkif;EdkifiHzufjcrf;ae jynfolrsm;u Tv#yfppfpuf&Hka=umifh jzpfvmrnfh
ywf0ef;usif npfnrf;r_rsm;udk txl;pdk;&drf=u+yD;/ olwdk@. &yf&Gmudk umuG,f&ef tzGJ@wck zGJ@pnf;cJh=uonf?
puf&Hkwnfaqmuf&ef ypPnf;ud&d,mrsm; o,faqmifvmonfh x&yfum;rsm;udk olwdk@pk&Hk;wm;qD;=uonf?
tpd;k &xH pma&;uef@uuG =f uonf? pDru H ed ;f udk qef@usiaf =umif; ydpk wmrsm; uyf=uonf? Tod@k vltrsm;v_y&f mS ;r_
a=umifh vltrsm;u ausmufrD;aoG;avmifpmoHk; v#yfppfpuf&Hk. qdk;usKd;rsm;udk ydkrdkod&Sdvm=uonf? Todk@
óu;yrf;aqmif&Guf=u+yD; aemufqHk;wGif v#yfppfpuf&Hkudk 2001 ckESpf {+yDvwGif &yfqdkif;cJh&onf?
ed*Hk;ESifh t}uHjyKcsufrsm;
tu,fI wDuspfausmufrD;aoG;wGif; pDrHudef;udk qufvufaqmif&Gufygu owWKwGif;ukd A[dkðy+yD; (5)rdkif
ywfvnfwGif aexdkifae=uonfh aus;&Gmvlxk 12˜000 ausmfESifh tvkyform;rsm;onf usef;rma&; jy\emESifh
}uKHawG@&rnfjzpf+yD;/ xdkif;EdkifiH ajrmufydkif;&Sd rJharmaus;&Gmvlxkrsm; cHpm;&ovdk touf&SL&cufcJonfh jy\em 49
ESifh &ifqdkif}uKHawG@&rnf jzpfayonf? aus;&Gmvlxkrsm;taejzifh olwdk@. &dk;&mpOfvm toufarG;0rf;ausmif;
vkyfief;rsm; qHk;&_H;=u&rnf jzpf+yD;/ ae@pOfESifhtr# pdkufysKd;ajrrsm; qHk;&_H;um qif;&JrGJaw=u&rnf jzpfonf? ae&mrS
a&$@ajymif;um tajccs=u&rnf jzpfonf? ausmufrD;aoG;owWKwGif;a=umifh npfnrf;aeonfh a&rsm;onf
bDv;l acsmif;twGi;f pD;0ifomG ;um jrefrmEdik if . H tzd;k rjzwf Edik o
f nfh tif;av;uefvnf; npfnrf;aprnf jzpfonf?
odk@twGufa=umifh atmufazmfjyyg t}uHðycsufrsm;udk vdkufemaqmif&Gufyg&ef wdkufwGef;vdkygonf?

ppftpdk;&ESifh ukr`%Drsm; taejzifh-


(1) ausmufrD;aoG; owWKwGif;wl;azmfr_udk &yfqdkif;I usef;rma&;/ vlr_a&;ESifh obm0ywf0ef;usifqdkif&m &dkufcwf
oufa&mufr_rsm;udk jyefvnfppfaq;yg&ef?
(2) wDuspf ausmufr;D aoG; owWKwGi;f ESihf tif;av;uef&dS a&xknpfnrf;r_ukd ppfaq;a&;twGuf obm0ywf0ef;usif
u|rf;usifolrsm;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufyg&ef?
(3) xdcdkufepfemcJh&aom rdom;pkrsm;udk vHkavmufonfh avsmfa=u;aiGESifh axmufyHhr_rsm; jyefay;yg&ef?

xdk@tjyif a'ocH &yf&Gmvlxkrsm;taejzifh-


(1) rdrdudk,fwdkif wdwdusus em;rvnfbJESifh oifhavsmfonfh avsmfa=u;aiGrsm; r&&SdbJESifh pmcsKyfrsm; vufrSwf
a&;xdk;ay;jcif;udk a&Smif&Sm;yg&ef?
(2) &yf&Gmvlxk. toufarG;0rf;ausmif;ESifh obm0ywf0ef;usif&if;jrpfrsm;udk xdcdkufysufpD;aponfh tusifhysuf
jcpm;r_rsm;ESifh acgif;yHkjzwf tjrwfxkwfr_rsm;udk uef@uGufqef@usif=uyg&ef æ wdkufwGef;tyfygonf?
usrf;udk;
1
“Myanmar population hits over 59 mln in 2009” July 1, 2010,http://english.peopledaily.com.
cn/90001/90777/90851/7049436.html, accessed on 15 September 2010.
2
Ibid.
3
jynfoltrsm;pk usyf (100) wefrD; tm;udk;ae&qJ (rsKd;0if;aZmf) 14 pufwifbm 2010? acwfòyif*sme,f? www.khitpyaing.
org/index.php?route=detail&id=4464 accessed on 15 September 2010.
4
Development in Myanmar Energy Sector, Energy Planning Department, Ministry of Energy,
Union of Myanmar, SEF-2, Ho Chi Minh City in Viet Nam, 22 October 2008 at http://www.adb.org/
Documents/Events/Mekong/Proceedings/SEF2-Annex6.4-Myanmar-Presentation.pdf, accessed on
June 28, 2010
5
“More private companies cooperate with Myanmar gov’t in mineral extraction,”http://news.
xinhuanet.com/english2010/business/2010-07/06/c_13385989_4.htm, accessed on August 27,
2010.
6
Coal Sub-sector accessed on 23 September 2010 at http://www.energy.gov.mm/coalsubsector.htm
7
“Iron and steel industry being improved….” NLM, pg.4, 22 March 2010.
8
Coal, the NEED project, http://www.need.org/needpdf/infobook_activities/SecInfo/CoalS.pdf
(accessed 28 July 2010)
9
Coal power is the biggest culprit, WWF, http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/aboutcc/cause/
coal/
10
What is Coal? World Coal Institute http://www.worldcoal.org/coal/what-is-coal/ (accessed 28 July
2010)
11
Country report: Progress of power development plans and transmission interconnection projects,
Myanmar, Greater Mekong sub-region, eighth of regional power trade coordination committee
50 (RPTCC-8), eighth meeting of focal group (FG-8), seventh meeting of planning working group
(PWG-7), Luang Prabang, Lao PDR, 25-27 November 2008.
12
“Chinese corporation, local company to implement Mawlaik hydropower, Kalewa coal-fi red
thermal power plant projects,” NLM, 28 May 2010, “Electric power projects to improve public
living status,” NLM, 28 October 2010.
13
Future project (Gas/Coal), http://www.aseanenergy.org/energy_sector/electricity/myanmar/
future_electricity_projects.htm accessed on November 12, 2010. In June 2010 Norinco, a major
Chinese weapons producer, signed a cooperation agreement with Burma’s regime for the Monywa
mining project just weeks after selling the dictatorship heavy military artillery. See rHk&Gm a=u;eDowWK
wl;azmfa&;twGufw&kwf-jrefrm vufrSwfxdk;yGJ (odef;vif;), Myanmar Times (Burmese Version) at http://www.
myanmar. mmtimes.com/2010/property/473/buss02.html, accessed on August 27, 2010 and
“Norinco sold Burma arms pre-copper deal,” Democratic Voice of Burma, 29 June 2010.
14
Improve Electricity for Yangon Industry at http://www.mmtimes.com/2010/news/515/n51501.
html, accessed on August 27, 2010.
15
The zones are Hlaing Tharyar, Shwe Pyi Thar and Shwe Lin Pan. Improve Electricity for Yangon
Industry at http://www.mmtimes.com/2010/news/515/n51501.html, accessed on August 27, 2010.
16
“Only when people rely on own strength will modern and developed nation emerge; achievements
of development projects will refl ect better inter-relationship among national people and contribute to
flourishing of Union Spirit,” Senior General Than Shwe addresses Special Projects Implementation
Committee Meeting, NLM, 7 March 2010 at http://myanmargeneva.org/10nlm/mar/n100307.htm,
accessed on August 27, 2010.
17
Summary of Thailand power development plan 2010-2030, http://www.egat.co.th/thai/fi les/
Report%20PDP2010-Apr2010_English.pdf, accessed on August 27, 2010.
18
“Thai company signs Myanmar port deal,” Agence France-Presse, 4 November 2010, Ital-Thai
project documents, and xm;0,f a&eufqdyfurf; pDrHudef;onf ta&S@ESifh taemufpD;yGm;a&; p=uFefY ta&;ygvmrnfjzpf&m
æw&kwf æ æ” (òz;armifarmif)? , The Myanmar post
19
“An Industrial Project That Could Change Myanmar,” New York Times, 26 November 2010.
20
NLM, 7 March 2010 at http://myanmargeneva.org/10nlm/mar/n100307.htm, accessed on August
27, 2010. 48
21
tif;av;uefESifh rdkif (20) 0ef;usif pdrf;vef;pdkjynfa&; jrifuGif;rsm; Kyaymon News (The Mirror), 30 September 2010
pg. 20.
22
At Indein village, the Balu creek diverges into two creeks. The south branch of the creek fl ows
west of Paw Daw Oo Pagoda and the north branch of the creek fl ows near Ywama village into the
Lake.
23
“Only when people rely on strength will modern and developed nation emerge,” New Light of
Myanmar (NLM), 7 March 2010, pg. 6.
24
tif;av;uefY urBmwGif rsKd;pdwfopf jzpfvmzG,f&Sdaom zm;oHk;rsKd; awG@&Sdxm; Weekly Eleven News Journal, Vol-3 No-
51, pg. 9, 2008.
25
http://birding.sstmyanmar.com/inle-wetland-bird-sanctuary-ecotourism-asean-heritage-
sitemyanmar-and-southeast-asia
26
tif;av;uefESifh rdkif (20) 0ef;usif pdrf;vef;pdkjynfa&; jrifuGif;rsm; Kyaymon News (The Mirror), pg. 11, 20,
September 30, 2010.
27
&Srf;jynfe,fawmifydkif;wGif ig;pm;oHk;r_ jrifhwufum tif;av;uefa'orS ig;zrf;,l&&Sdr_ av#mhenf; http://www.news-
eleven.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4495:2010-08-26-09-18-
43&catid=45:2009-11-10-07-45-41&Itemid=113eleven.com/index.php?option=com_content&vie
w=article&id=4495:2010-08-26-09-18-43&catid=45:2009-11-10-07-45-41&Itemid=113 accessed
on November 12, 2010.
28
During the 65-year period from 1935 to 2000, the net open water area of Inle Lake decreased from
69.10 km² to 46.69 km², a loss of 32.4%. Roy C. Sidle, Alan D. Ziegler and John B. Vogler (April
2007). “Contemporary changes in open water surface area of Lake Inle, Myanmar”. Sustainability
Science 2 (1): 55–65. doi:10.1007/s11625-006-0020-7. ISSN 1862-4065. http://www.springerlink. 51
com/content/a2t64l5768505464/.
29
“Water surface area of Inlay Lake shrunk from 40 square miles to 27 in summer,” Reported by
Nay Pyi Taw News Crew, Eleven Media Group, accessed on 16 September 2010 at http://eversion.
elevenmediagroup.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=674:water-surface-
area-of-inlaylake-shrunk-from-40-square-miles-to-27-in-summer&catid=43:biweekly-eleven-
eversion&Itemid-=110
30
“More Equipment arrives for Shan State coal mine,” Myanmar Times, 4 May 2004 at http://www.
myanmar.gov.mm/myanmartimes/no211/MyanmarTimes11-211/012.htm, accessed on August
2010.
31
“Construction project of Tikyit coal-fi re power station inspected in Pinlaung,” NLM, 20 July
2003, accessed on August 27, 2010 at http://mission.itu.ch/MISSIONS/Myanmar/03nlm/n030710.
htm,
32
Ibid.
33
“Tigyit coal-fi re power station that will fulfi ll the electricity needs,” NLM, 16 September 2003,
http://www.myanmar.gov.mm/Article/Article2003/sep/Sept16b.htm, About CHMC introduction
http://www.chmc2003.com:8640/gsjj.htm accessed on August 27, 2010.
34
“MEPE plans coal-fi red power station,” Myanmar Times, 24 September 2001. http://www.
myanmar.gov.mm/myanmartimes/no82/myanmartimes5-82/News/new.htm, accessed on August
27, 2010.
35
Interview # 12
36
“Of the two turbines of Tikyit coal-fi red power plant, one is generating electricity at full capacity
as it was completed in 2004, The other one will start generating power beginning April last week,”
NLM, April 16, 2005, accessed on 20 September 2010 at http://www.myanmar.gov.mm/NLM-
2005/April05/enlm/April16_h2.html
37
Country report: Progress of Power Development Plans and Transmission Interconnection Projects,
Myanmar, Greater Mekong Sub-region eighth meeting of regional power trade coordination
committee
(PRTCC-8), eighth meeting of focal group (FG-8) and seventh meeting of planning working group
(PWG-7), Luang Prabang, Lao PDR, 25-27 November 2008.
38
“Russian business presence becoming stronger in Burma,” Mizzima News at http://www.mizzima.
com/news/inside-burma/1422-russian-business-presence-becoming-stronger-in-burma-.html,
accessed on November 13, 2010.
39
“$21m Cement Factory Underway,” Myanmar Times, August 8-14, 2005 at http://www.myanmar.
gov.mm/myanmartimes/no278/MyanmarTimes14-278/b002.htm accessed August 28, 2010.
40
“Tigyit coal-fi re power plant station that will fulfi ll the electricity needs,” New Light of Myanmar,
16 September 2003 at http://www.myanmar.gov.mm/Article/Article2003/sep/Sept16b.htm, NLM,
16 April 2005 http://www.myanmar.gov.mm/NLM-2005/April05/enlm/April16_h2.html accessed
on August 27, 2010.
41
Country report: Progress of Power Development Plans and Transmission Interconnection Projects,
Myanmar, Greater Mekong Sub-region eighth meeting of regional power trade coordination
committee (PRTCC-8), eighth meeting of focal group (FG-8) and seventh meeting of planning
working group (PWG-7), Luang Prabang, Lao PDR, 25-27 November 2008.
42
“tif;av;uef rdkif (20) ywf0ef;usif pdrf;vef;odkajya&;twGuf opfawmrsm; xdef;odrf;a&;ESifh wDuspf ausmufrD;aoG;jym”owif;
aqmif;yg;? (&Jvif;atmif- tif;av;), NLM, 24 July 2008.
43
See PYO’s report Robbing the Future (June 2009) and update briefer Save our Mountain Save our
Future (October 2010) at http://pyo-org.blogspot.com
44
“Iron and steel industry being improved…”, NLM, 22 March, 2010, p#4: accessed 20 September
2010 at http://myanmargeneva.org/NLM2010/eng/3Mar/n100322.pdf
45
The Myanmar Mines Law, The State Law and Order Restoration Council (The State Law and
52 Order Restoration Council Law No 8/94), 6th September, 1994 accessed at http://www.mining.
com.mm/ on November 10, 2010.
46
Status and Current Issues of Mining Regulatory Regime in Myanmar, Soe Mra, Director General,
Department of Mines, Ministry of Mines at http://www.freewebs.com/myanmarmines/regulatory.
htm. Accessed November 30, 2010.
47
Bokoshe: The Toxic Truth accessed on September 25, 2010 at http://www.oklahomalovesgreen.
com/page.html, “Is coal ash poisoning Charlotte area drinking water? by Rhiannon Bowman
(published 09.07.10) assessed September 25, 2010 at http://charlotte.creativeloafi ng.com/
gyrobase/is_coal_ash_poisoning_charlotte_area_drinking_water_/Content?oid=1041443, “Coal
Ash Contaminates Groundwater and Drinking Water Sites in 21 States” http://current.com/
news/92665216_coal-ashcontaminates-groundwater-and-drinking-water-sites-in-21-states.htm
48
“What is acid rain and what causes it?” accessed on September 25, 2010 at http://www.
policyalmanac.ort/environment/archive/acid_rain.shtml
49
“The Grievous Mae Moh Coal Power Plant,” 2 February 2008 at http://developmentdebacles.
blogspot.com/2008/02/grievous-mae-moh-coal-power-plant.html
50
“Tachilek Power Plant: Skepticism over work halt,” The Nation, 20 December 2001. www.
burmalibrary.org/TinKyi/archives/2001-12/msg00008.html, accessed on June 28, 2010.
“Chronology of Thai Anti-power Plant Struggle Against Burma,” Bangkok Post, 24 June 2001.
aemufqufwGJ (1)
ausmufrD;aoG;owWKwGif;rS (5) rdkifywf0ef;usif&Sd vlae&yf&Gmrsm;

pOf aus;&Gm tdrfaxmifpk vlOD;a& wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;


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21 vdkifcg; 48 274 ytdk0f;/ Arm
22 vG,fwJh (awmif) 57 374 ytdk0f;/ awmif&dk;
23 vG,fwJh (ajrmuf) 36 218 ytdk0f;/ awmif&dk;
24 bef;rwf 23 124 ytdk0f;
25 rkef;yif 70 412 ytdk0f;/ awmif&dk;
pkpkaygif; 2085 11592
aemufqufwGJ (2)? 2003 ckESpfwGif wDuspfausmufrD;aoG; pDrHcsufa=umifh twif;tusyf a&$@
ajymif;cH&aom aus;&Gm vlxkrsm;?
avsmfa=u;&aomaiG
pOf trnf touf rdom;pk ta&twGuf aus;&Gm
(usyf)
1 *sefzmarmfzkef; 63 10 awmifykd@vs 170000
2 *sefzmarmifAGdKif; 48 7 awmifykd@v 120000
3 *sefzmarmifZGJ 52 10 awmifykd@v 120000
4 OD;[def 73 3 awmifykd@v 120000
5 OD;ukH 48 6 awmifykd@v 120000
6 OD;aAG 40 7 awmifykd@v 100000
7 OD;cspfarmif 41 3 awmifykd@v 120000
8 a':a&$v 62 1 awmifykd@v 120000
9 a':'kwf 61 1 awmifykd@v 50000
10 q&mxGufref 57 5 awmifykd@v 120000
11 vSusif 37 2 awmifykd@v 50000
12 OD;armif 63 6 awmifykd@v 100000
13 OD;b 48 9 awmifykd@v 120000
54 14 OD;ausmf 40 6 awmifykd@v 100000
15 OD;ausmfvS 45 6 awmifykd@v 100000
16 rGdK;jzm;wkwf 64 2 awmifykd@v 100000
17 oef;vS 27 1 awmifykd@v 50000
18 atmifom 42 7 awmifykd@v 50000
19 OD;bJ 75 2 awmifykd@v 100000
20 OD;cspfaumif; 42 4 awmifykd@v 100000
21 OD;ayG; 40 7 awmifykd@v 100000
22 watmif 45 3 awmifykd@v 50000
23 rtkH 50 6 awmifykd@v 50000
24 OD;zl; ? 4 awmifykd@v 120000
25 OD;acgif 75 5 vdkifcg; 120000
26 *sefzmvkyf 59 6 vdkifcg; 120000
27 *sefzmatmif=unf 58 10 vdkifcg; 120000
28 *sefzmzdk;axmif; 61 5 vdkifcg; 120000
29 *sefzmzdk;&D 36 5 vdkifcg; 120000
30 *sefzm0rf; 52 7 vdkifcg; 120000
31 *sefzm,dkif 60 11 vdkifcg; 120000
32 *sefrGdK;tkef;=unf 59 5 vdkifcg; 120000
33 *sefrGdK;Adk 70 5 vdkifcg; 120000
34 *sefzmxGef;atmif 34 5 vdkifcg; 120000
35 *sefzmxGufpdef 52 5 vdkifcg; 120000
36 *sefzmuH - 5 vdkifcg; -
37 *sefrGdK;yk uG,fvGef 7 vdkifcg; -
38 *sefzmzdk;rif uG,fvGef 4 vdkifcg; -
39 *sefrGdK;tkef;vGif - 8 vdkifcg; -
40 *sefzmabmf 62 5 vdkifcg; 120000
41 *sefzmatmifavmf 52 5 vdkifcg; 120000
42 *sefrGdK;AJ 47 5 vdkifcg; 120000
43 *sefzmiJ 60 9 vdkifcg; 120000
44 *sefzmxGef;wif 52 6 vdkifcg; 120000
45 *sefzmiJay 56 6 vdkifcg; 50000
46 *sefzmarmifuuf 61 7 vdkifcg; 120000
47 *sefzmarmifrsKd; 32 6 vdkifcg; 120000
48 *sefzmatmifcsrf; 39 6 vdkifcg; 120000
49 *sefzmodef;wefOD; 31 5 vdkifcg; 120000
50 *sefzmrsKd;+idrf; 31 4 vdkifcg; 120000
51 *sefzmausmfausmf 26 4 vdkifcg; 100000
55
52 *sefrGdK;ykvk 46 2 vdkifcg; 120000
53 *sefzmpdefxGef; 46 5 vdkifcg; 120000
54 *sefzmatmifausmf 53 6 vdkifcg; 120000
55 *sefzmpdkif;wl 54 5 vdkifcg; 120000
56 *sefzmxGef;&D 38 5 vdkifcg; 120000
57 *sefzm=uufawm 51 4 vdkifcg; 120000
58 *sefzmarmifEk 40 4 vdkifcg; 100000
59 *sefzmpdk;Edkif 33 3 vdkifcg; 100000
60 *sefzmwxGef; 36 3 vdkifcg; 120000
61 *sefzmqef;0if; 29 3 vdkifcg; 50000
62 *sefzm;pdefvG,f 47 1 vdkifcg; 120000
63 cGefarmif0if; 23 1 vdkifcg; 50000
pkpkaygif; 321 (tar&duefa':vm 6˜280) 6˜280˜000
tqdyfoifhwdrfrsm;
jrefrmEdkifiHwGif t}uD;qkH;jzpfaom wDuspfausmufrD;aoG; owWKwGif;pDrHudef;. oifcef;pmrsm;

© Yuzo Uda

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