“If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader” – John Adams Quincy

INTRODUCTION: From the traditional beurocratic organizational structures of the past, to the dramatically rreformed systems of health care of today, the resulting changes present many challenges to nursing leadership. Our society is becoming more complex. Although change is not pervasive, the pace of change is becoming more rapid. The challenges to leadership in nursing evolve from reforms in health care and impact on the practice and work life of nurses. While many different aspects are relevant, the issues are interrelated and influence leadership development. A consistent theme is the need for strong nursing leadership, in order to address the challenges in health care and achievement of quality outcomes. zzLeadership does not mean dominating the subordinates. The leader’s job is t get work done by other work done by other people,, and make people willingly want to accomplish something. So effective leadership means effective and productive group performance. Leadership is the inspiration for decided response and getting work done through others. Leader focus on purpose and doing the right thing. They are future oriented changed by change and able to plan strategies and facilitate human potential. A leader need good stress and time management to meet the challenges of leadership they need to use good communication and decision making skills. Leaders needs to use their knowledge of leadership theories help leaders to know how to adjust their leadership style to fits on different situations Leaders focus on doing the right thing but may also be manage who help do the thing right way.


MEANING AND DEFINITIONS LEADER A leader is an influential person has the ability to lead a group or department without having a formal appointment. A leader is the person who influences and guides direction, opinion and course of action. Arieu, A. defines a leader as "a person capable of inspiring and associate others with a dream." It is therefore important that organizations have a mission high transcendent, since it is a powerful way to strengthen the leadership of its directors.  L – LEAD, LOVE, LEARN  E – ENTHUSIASTIC, ENERGETIC  A – ASSERTIVE, ACHIEVER  D – DEDICATED, DESIROUS  E – EFFICIENT AND EFFECTIVE  R – RESPONSIBLE, RESPECTFUL LEADERSHIP Origin of the word is from the word “lead” meaning “to go” Leader ship is the process of influencing people to accomplish goals; that is, it is the ability to influence the behavior of others, towards the achievement of a mutually established goal. Leadership is the art of getting others to want to do something you are convinced should be done. Leadership is management skills that focus on the development and employment of vision, mission and strategy as well as the creation of a motivated work force. Leadership is a style or a process whereby a person called a nurse leader will influence a group of people known as the followers for the purpose of attaining a single goal or objective

1. Leadership is defined as the process of influencing others towards a goal.


Bennine&Nanas 2. Leadership is a special quality which enabls people to stand up and pull the rest of us over the horizon John.F. Kennedy
3. The act of guiding or influencing people to achieve desired outcomes; occurs any

4. 5. 6.


time a person attempts to influence the beliefs, openions or behaviors of an individual or group Hersey and Blanchard. Leadership is the special quality which enables people to stand up and pull the rest of us over the horizon. Jamse L Fisher. Leadership is getting people to work for you when they are obligated. Fred Smith. Leadership is lifting a person’s vision to higher sight, the raising of a person’s performance to a higher standard, the building of a personality beyond its limitations. Peter F Druckes A process of influencing the behavior of either an individual or a group, regardless of the reason, in an effort to achieve goals in a given situation. Hersey and colleagues.

8. Leadership is the process of influence the thoughts and action of the other people (a person or a group) to attain the desired objectives.

LEADER: Leaders typically are the ones who “go first”. They have a vision and they influence othersby their actions and their comments. This ability is the essence of leadership like the word “Lead”. The verb “to lead” is also defined in several ways to guide, to run in a special direction, to direct, to go at the head of, to be first, to open play, to tend towards a definite result. As far as Nursing is concerned all of these actions are expected by a Nurse Leader.the leader and follower roles are determined by people’s interaction within groups. An effective leader is a catalyst who facilitates effective interaction among manpower, material and time. A skilful leader is a synergist, who co-ordinates the efforts of multiple workers with diverse skills.


LEADERSHIP OVERVIEW: Leadership is a unique function. It can be a part of formal organizational managerial position, or it can arise spontaneously in any group. Leadership is a natural element of nursing practice because the majority of nurses practice in work groups or units. It can be seen as the ability to inspire confidence and support among followers. Especially in organization where leadership is followed towards those whose competence and commitment produce performance. TYPE OF LEADERS: a) Natural leader: Here the person becomes the leader inspite of himself. He does not seek the goal, it is trusted upon him by the group and by the tide of events. Eg. Abraham Lincon,Mahatma Gandhi b) Charismatic leader: Here the person is an authentic hero in the eyes of his followersfor he can do no wrong. He/she inspires people to make any sacrifice even their lives for the cause. Eg. Asoka, Akbar, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru etc. c) Rational leader: Here the person is consistent and persistant. Eg. Karl Marx, Lenin, Mao etc. d) Consensus leader: The leader is perceived as acceptable to all. He/she rises in the absence of the above three and this leader is in a tenous position of walking a tight rope for existence. Eg. President of India, Speakers, Members of the Parliament etc. e) Leader by force: Here the leaders power speaks through the nozzle of gun. He/she dominates others through fear. He is ruthless in suppressing opposition. He does not reign as long as this type of leadership contaiiiins with in itself the seeds of its own destruction. Eg. Napolean, Hitler, Stalin etc.


ROLES OF A LEADER Service provider Team builder Recourse manager Decision maker and problem solver Change agent Clinical consultant mentor




Managerial abilities Plans, organize makes decisions effectively encourages cooperation and participation. Assists nurse or subordinate in solving the problems and provides consistent feedback. Provides rationale for difficult decisions. Assess abilities of the workers guides them to develop new skill
Knows his or her job and does it well and has confidence in self and others.

Welcomes different opinions and is more interested in giving than receiving. Provide the workers with adequate facilities. Inter personal relationships Shows supportive and caring behavior towards subordinates. Is good listens and sensitive to others need. Guides and motivate to act and work together. Establish relationship between all type of workers and able to work with others harmoniously. Temperament (nature of person) Reliable ,open ,honest and sincere Shows a sense of humor fact full, friendly and loyal. Calm and charismatic modest neat and patient. Positive energetic hard worker happy and enthusiastic. Shows a balance between work and home life or personal life. Credibility and forward thinking Act as a role model and influence others Acts an activist, challenger, creative thinker, change agent, innovator risk taker and courageous Act as facilitator and solution seeker. Professionalism Committed to the profession and maintains confidentiality.


Instills hope and pride in the profession. Standards for rights while considering others rights. Advocacy Acts as an advocate for others specially for nursing profession and for nursing staff Acts as an advocate with physician Acts as patient advocate Acts as an advocate for nursing education and students for the right and standards. SKILLS NEEDED FOR LEADING Diagnosing: Diagnosing involves being able to understand the situation and the problem to be solved or resolved .this is a cognitive competency. Adapting: Adapting involves being able to adapt behaviors and other resources to match the situation. This is a behavioral competency. Communicating; Communicating is employed to advance the process in a way that individuals can understand and accept. This is a process competency. SKILL SETS NEEDED BY GOOD LEADERS Self-awareness: Ability to read one’s own emotional state and be aware of one’s own mood and how this affects staff relationships. Self-management: ability to take corrective action so as not to transfer negative moods to staff relationship. Social awareness: An intuitive skill of empathy and expressiveness in being sensitive and aware of the emotions and mood of others. Relationship management: effective communication with others that disarms conflict and the ability to develop the emotional maturity of team members. PERSONALITY OF THE LEADER
♦ Firm personality, insistent, self assured, highly directive, dominating, with or with out

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

intention. Has high concern for work than fir the people who perform the task. Uses the efforts of the workers to the best possible shows no regard to the interests of the employees. Sets rigid standards and methods of performance and expects the subordinates to obey the rules and follow the same. Makes all decisions by him or her related to the work and pass orders to the workers and expect them carry out the orders. There is minimal group participation or none from the workers. Thinks that what he or she plans does is the best. May listen to them by not influenced by their suggestions.


♦ Has no trust or confidence in the subordinates in turn they fear and feel they have nothing much in common. ♦ Exercise power, manipulate the subordinates to act according to his goals, plans and keeps at the center of attention. LEADERSHIP: ATTRIBUTES ESSENTAIL FOR LEADERSHIP: Identity Independence Authenticity Responsibility Courage Integrity



From a review of leadership theories, there is no best leadership style. Leaders are rarely totally people oriented or task oriented. Intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, cultural, physical, mental, emotional and spiritual perspectives are all important. The leader, the follower, the situation – al influence the leadership effectiveness. Consequently an integration of leadership theories seems appropriate. Leaders need to be aware of their own behaviour and influence on others, individual differences of followers, group characteristics, motivation, task structure, environmental factors and situational variables and situational variables adjust their leadership styles accordingly. Integrative leadership is a holistic approach to oneself and others that requires adaptive behaviour. LEADERSHIP SKILLS: To be an effective leader, the individual needs the primary leadership 1. Skills of personal behavior Is sensitive to the feelings of the group Identifies self with the needs of the group Does not ridicule or criticise another’s suggestions Helps others feel important and needed Does not argue 1. Skills of communication Listen attentively Make sure everyone understands what is needed and the reason why? Establishes positive communication with the group as a routine part of that job Recognizes that everyone’s contributions are important 1. Skills of organization- the eefctive leader helps the group to Develop long and short range objectives Break big problems into small ones Share responsibilities and oppurtunities Plan, act, follow up and evaluate Be attentive to details 1. Skills olf self-examination Is aware of personal motivations Is aware of the group members; Helps the group to be awareof their attitudes and values S = Self Reliant E = Enthusiastic L = loyal F = Factual


Leadership is purposeful ○ Leadership always has a goal(Bleich 1999) No act of leadership exist without a reason. Leadership is interpersonal. ○ Leadership always involves a social exchange, a relationship between the two parties of leader and followers (cherry & Jacob 2002). These parties mutually agree on roles and share information in a variety of patterns. Leadership is influential Leadership is influential that is it motivates others to change their behaviors and achieve a goal. (shinitzky& kub ,2001). Leaders are creative problem – solvers, who use their imagination to visualize new connections between ordinary events; they continually analyze the efficiency of the status quo and ask “What if” question. LEADERSHIP FUNCTIONS There are 5 essential functions are required for effective leadership at any level The creative function The initiative function The risk taking function The integrative function The instrumental function Creative function Leader must be creative and must envision and better ways to solve problems. This first step involves creative thinking about problems, which includes developing methods and activities for carrying out their solutions. This function requires knowledge to stimulate sensory perception, curiosity, openness, sensitivity to problem, and flexibility. The creative leadership function includes generating ideas and developing design for action. It also involves risk taking and inventive problem solving when buffering resisting forces. Finally it includes empowering others to use their own creativity to accomplish goals. Initiating function A leader introduces changes and sets its process in motion. For a nurse, the initiating function includes convincing clients or followers of the need for change, starting the problem solving process, and launching the activities needed to carry out the plan. Like all of the other leadership function it requires decision –making skills. The initiating function begins the process toward goal accomplishment. It is the stimulus that starts clients or followers on their way to meet personal or agency goals.


Risk taking function Every leader is faced with uncertainty, and to proceed under uncertain condition is to be a risk-taker, leaders cannot guarantee outcomes. The leadership process requires careful planning based on all available data and the creation of scenarios to predict all possible obstacles and outcomes. It requires preparation of alternative course of action, should earlier plans fail. Nevertheless, some variables cannot be predicted beyond a certain point, and leaders must be willing to take risk and expose themselves to possible failure and embarrassment. Taking risks also means that they may expose clients or followers to potential negative outcomes. Effective leaders, however take calculated risks, they weigh the potential consequences, pro and con of each action before proceeding. Their concern is to minimize perceived barriers and harmful consequences and maximize positive outcome for followers. The integrative functions The integrative aspect of the leadership role focuses on strengthening collective ties and uniting clients or followers through a strong sense of purpose. The leader remains the followers of their goals. Encourages pride in their group identity. Stabilizers intra group relations, and meditates interpersonal conflict (kouzer&posner 2003) Individuals in any group setting tend to have their own agendas and separate needs. One job of the nurse leader is to keep the client group on target by clarifying and reinforcing the goals that they mutually identified. The integrative function requires good inter personal skills for establishing positive relationship with as well as between followers. The function supports the aim of promoting member commitment and cooperation. Instrumental Leaders also must keep followers moving in the right directions; this is the purpose of the instrumental or facilitative function inspired by vision and goals, the leader serves as an enabler to move followers to act (Kouzs & Posner,2003 Sullivan Decker & Jamerson 2001) For nurse leaders, this function involves good communication. They must keep in constant touch with clients or followers to make certain that goals and activities are understood and agreed on and to encourage both positive and negative feedback. Leaders further stimulate followers to progress toward achievement of goals by reinforcing desired behavior and by setting the pace themselves. The letter is particularly important for gaining follower’s respect and sustained commitment to set pace means that nurse leaders must demonstrate competence, practice what they preach, and demonstrate their belief in the followers and in what the followers are being asked to accomplish.

Hersey and colleagues noted that the leadership process is a function of the leader, the followers, and other situational variables. The leadership process includes five interwoven aspects:


Process part 1: The leader The values, skills, and style of leaders are important. The leader must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and what you can do. Also note that it is the followers, not the leader or someone else who determines if the leader is successful. you have to convince your followers, not yourself or yours superiors, that you are worthy of being followed. Process part 2: The follower Followership is the flip side of relationship. followers are vital because they accept or reject the leader and determine the leader’s power. Process 3: The situation The specific circumstances surrounding any given leadership situation will vary. Elements such as work demands ,control systems, amount of task structure, degree of interaction , amount of time available for decision making, and external environment shapes the differences among situations .the personality styles of both superiors and subordinates have an influence on the situation. What you do in one situation will not always work in another. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action, and the leadership style needed for each situation. Process part 4: communication Communication process varies among groups as to the patterns and channels used and in regard to how open or closed the communication flow is. Communicating is basic to the process of influencing. Through communication the leader’s vision and messages are received by the followers. Communication is transmitted through both verbal and non verbal modes. Process part 5: Goals Organizations have goals, and individuals working in organization is also have goal. These goals may or may not be congruent. Key leadership behaviors: Traits are characteristics that an individual possess. Traits may or may not lead to the actions that are required for successful leadership. It is also possible to lack leadership traits yet be able to carry out successful leadership behaviours. Critical thinking: The ability to think critically is a multistep process similar to the nursing process. Critical thinkers must be able to analyse data, organise and plan, and use creativity in the resolution of problems. Leaders must often make important decisions on the basis of incomplete data.


Problem solving: Being able to use problem solving process effectively is essential to effective l eadership. Leadersin the health care settings, face problems that arise from many sources, including staffing and personnel, scheduling, and administrative budget and client demands. Acknowledgement and respect for individual difference; Personality is the sum total of people’s experiences. Because no two people have identical experiences. Because no two people have identical experiences, each one has different needs, feelings and orientations. The effective leader recognises these differences and is able tto direct the people to their highest level of achievement given their highest level of achievement given their varying orientations. Active listening: To be effective, leaders must be able to not only hear the words that the person is saying but also observe the body language and its underlying emotions and meaning. The experts tells that 7% of communication, 93% is all the other non verbal content. Leaders often fail in their leadership roles when they do not listen to the full message of the individuals they are attempting to lead. Skillful communication: Communication is a complex process that involves and exchange of information and feed back. Mistakes happen on both sides when the information being shared is incomplete or confusing. Providing frequent and positive feed back is one of the best methods for leaders to determine how well they are communicating and how open the communication channels remain. Establishment of clear goals and outcomes: Groups who lack clear goals often feel frustrated and lost. Initially, leaders must clearly identify the goals shared by the group and use them to motivate the group. Successful outcome is often a thoughtful melding of the vision of the leader and the group. Continued personal and professional development: One of the most valuable lessons that nursing students can learn while in nursing school is that education does not end when they graduate-it begins. One of the primary goal of nursing education process should be to teach the students how to learn. Life long learning is a goal that effective leaders seek not only for themselves but also for those whom they are leading. Ways to develop leadership qualities: ➢ ➢ Think of problems as opportunities Dream big and define the goal


Put community before self Reduce Over confidence Never give up attitude Make the best of limited resources

➢ ➢

➢ Team spirit ELEMENTS OF LEADERSHIP:  VISION  INFLUENCE  POWER  AUTHORITY  RESPONSIBILITY  ACCOUNTABILITY VISION:  Provides direction to the influence process.  For leadership to occur, leaders must communicate the vision the their followers in such a way that the followers adopt the vision as their own  It is essential for organizational effectiveness and success INFLUENCE:  Ability to obtain followers, compliance or request  It is a skill that can be developed , and is one of a major components of the power triangle KINDS OF INFLUENCE:

 Assertiveness  Ingratiation  Rationality  Blocking  Coalition  Sanction


 Exchange  Upward appeal
POWER:  Ability to efficiently and effectively exercise authority and control through personal, organizational and social strength  Ability to impose the will of one person or group to bring about certain behaviors in other groups or persons

DIFFERENT TYPES OF LEADER POWER: Power is the ability to obtain retain and motivate people and to organize resources to accomplish a task.
REWARD POWER: - The positive part on the leader to compensate or remunerates staff members by reward, incentives, promotion, commendation etc. COERCIVE POWER: - The negative power of a leader to implement sanction suspension and or termination as a form of disciplinary power. LEGITIMATE POWER: - Power is based on an official poison in the organization. Through legitimate power; the manager has the right to influence staff members, and staff members have an obligation to accept that influence. REFERENT POWER : - Admiration and respect, the staff feels towards a leader. Personal qualities influence charisma. EXPERT POWER: - Power is based on knowledge skills and information nurses who have expertise in areas such as physical assessment of technical skills gain respect and complain from others. INFORMAL POWER: - Is based on personal characteristics. Informal power may result from personal relationship being in the right place at right time or unique personal characteristics such as attractiveness, education experience. AUTHORITY:  Represents the right to expect or secure compliance Authority is backed by legitimacy FORMS OF AUTHORITY:

 Line Authority – is direct supervisory authority from superior to subordinate.
a. Chain of Command b. Unity of Command c. Span of Control


 Staff Authority  Team Authority
RESPONSIBILITY:  Corresponding obligation and accountability for all actions done  Ability to do assigned task  Responsibilities fall into 2 categories: individual and organizational ACCOUNTABILITY:  Is answering for the result of one’s actions or omissions.  It is a form of reckoning, where one accepts the consequences of their decisions, good or bad LEADERSHIP STYLES: a) Style: Style is a particular form of a behavior directly associated wioth an individual. Or The way in which a leader uses interpersonal influences to acheivet he objective of an organization. One should ask why the style of functioning of a leader need to be understood? The reasons are; ➢ The style of leadership affect the health care delivery system. ➢ A style allows the nurse to interact more productively and more harmoniously to achieve personal and organizational goals. a) Leadership style: Leadership style is how a leader uses interpersonal influence to accomplish goals of an organization. Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Kurt Lewin (1939) led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership. This early study has been very influential and established three major leadership styles. The three major styles of leadership are; ○ Authoritarian or autocratic ○ Participative or democratic ○ Delegative or Free Reign or Laissez-Faire style of leadership ○ Bureaucratic style of leadership ○ Paternalistic style of leadership


AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP: Autocratic leadership is described as • • • Authoritarian leadership Directive leadership The leader is referred to as “dictator”

I want both of you to. . . The leader assumes complete control over the decisions and activities of the group. The authority for decision making is not delegated to persond in lower level positions (centralized organization). In this style, leader takes all decisions and assigns all responsibilities to himself, he is firm, insistent, self-assured and dominating (eg. Tipu, Asoka, Shajahan). Such a leader stresses prompt, orderly and predictable performance from employees or followers.the authoritarian leader may also be “Benevolent Autocratic” says often by –‘You do what I say, I know that is best for you’. This style of leadership is always present in nursing, where nurse manager manages by giving orders and expecting staff members to accept them. It is also called as directive leadership, where leader has to take immediate action or giving direction without consulting subordinates. However autocratic syle of leadership is task oriented. Leader uses positional and personal power in asn authoritarian manner, retaining authority for all goal setting and, decision making and motivation subordinated through praise blame and reward. Leaders of this kinbd makes decision without the participation of the people concerned. In autocratic style the leader is charecterised by the following behaviour: a) Strong control is maintained over the group b) Others are motivated by coercion. c) Communication flows downwards.

18 d) Decision making does not involves others.

e) Emphasis on difference and status. f) Criticism is punitive. When is the Autocratic Leadership Style Effective? Following on from the merits and drawbacks listed above, the autocratic leadership style is useful in the following work situations: 1. Short term projects with a highly technical, complex or risky element. 2. Work environments where spans of control are wide and hence the manager has little time to devote to each employee. 3. Industries where employees need to perform low-skilled, monotonous and repetitive tasks and generally have low levels of motivation. 4. Projects where the work performed needs to be completed to exact specifications and/or with a tight deadline. 5. Companies that suffer from a high employee turnover, i.e. where time and resources devoted to leadership development would be largely wasted. Although one could argue that a lack of leadership development in the first place caused the high turnover. ADVANTAGES: ✔ Efficient in times of crisis, easy to make decision by one person than by group and less time consuming. ✔ It is useful when there is only one leader who is experienced, having new and essential information while the subordinates are in-experienced and new. ✔ It is useful when the workers are unsure of takin gdcision and expect the leader to tell them what to do. ✔ A more productive group ‘while the leader is watching’. ✔ Improved logistics of operations. ✔ Faster decision making.
✔ Reduced stress due to increased control.

✔ Does not encourage the individuals growth and does not recognize the potentials,

initiativeness and creates less co-operation among members. ✔ The leader lacks supportive owet that results in decisions made with consultation although he may be correct. ✔ Inhibits group participation which results in lack of growth, less job satisfaction can lead to less commitment to the goals of organization. ✔ Short-termistic approach to management. ✔ Manager perceived as having poor leadership skills. ✔ Increased workload for the manager. ✔ People dislike being ordered around. ✔ Teams become dependent upon their leader.


DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP: It is also referred to as participative or consultative style of leadership.

Let's work together to solve this. . . In the democratic leadership, the leader values the individual characteristics and abilities of each subordinate. Here a leader is a catalyst for group decision making and shared responsibility. This style is a people centered approach and allows greater individual participation in decision making process. The democratic leader uses personal and positional power and co-operative decision methods to draw out ideasfrom employees and motivate them to set their own work goals, develops their own plans, control their own practice. It is a creative leadership, here leader delegates authority to sub-ordinates. The leader is people oriented, which focus on the human aspect and builds effective work group. Togetherness is emphasized. CHARACTERISTICS:
1. This style is characterized by a sense of ‘equality’ among leaders and followers.

♦ The leader is people oriented ♦ focuses on the human aspect ♦ Builds effective work group ♦ Togetherness is emphasized 1. Open system of communication prevails ♦ The group participated in work related decision 1. The interaction between the leader and the group is friendly and trusting ♦ The leader brings the subject to be discussed to the group ♦ Consults ♦ Decision of the majority is made and implemented by the entire group ♦ Makes final decision after seeking input from the total group


♦ There for, the group feels they have important contribution to make, freedomideas drawn develop sense of, responsibility for the good of the whole. 1. Leader’s works through people not by domination but by suggestions and persuasions ♦ The leader motivates the workers to set their own goals, makes their own work plans and evaluates their own performance. ♦ Informs the overall performance purpose and the progress of the organization. 1. Performance standards exist to provide guidelines and permit appraisal of workers thus result in high productivity Behaviour of a leader in democratic leadership: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Less control is maintained. Economic and ego awards are used to motivate. Others are directive through suggestions and guidance. Communication flows up to down Decision making involves others. Emphasis in “We” rather than I and You. Criticism is constructive.

When Is The Democratic Leadership Style Effective? 1. Democratic leadership is applied to an extent in the manufacturing industry, to allow employees to give their ideas on how processes can become leaner and more efficient. While ‘Fordism’ is still applied in some factories across the country, truth is that production managers are now really starting to harness the motivational bonuses associated with not treating employees like robots anymore.

2. Democratic leadership is effective in professional organisations where the emphasis is clearly on training, professional & leadership development and quality of work performed. Democratic procedures are simply just one cog in the effective leadership mechanisms firms like The Big Four have created over the years. 3. Non profit organisations also tremendously benefit from drawing upon the creative energies of all their staff to bring about cost cutting techniques or fund raising ideas. As previously mentioned, creative industries such as advertising and television enjoy alot of benefits from the free flow of ideas that democratic leadership brings.


ADVANTAGES: ✔ It permits and encourages all employees to practice decision making skills. ✔ It promotes personal involvement. Suggestions are welcomed, this results in greater commitment to work and enhanced job satisfaction. ✔ Decision made by the group are more effective than by the leader alone. Members may have more information than the leader.

21 ✔ Positive work environment. ✔ Successful initiatives. ✔ Creative thinking. ✔ Reduction of friction and office politics. ✔ Reduced employee turnover.

DISADVANTAGES: ✔ It takes more time for making the decisions by the group than the leader alone. However the advantages overweigh the negative outcomes. ✔ Lengthy and ‘boring’ decision making. ✔ Danger of pseudo participation. DELEGATIVE OR FREE REIGN or LAISSEZ-FAIRE STYLE OF LEADERSHIP

You two take care of the problem while I go. . . In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything! You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks. This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and confidence in the people below you. Do not be afraid to use it, however, use it wisely! NOTE: This is also known as laissez faire (or lais·ser faire), which is the non interference in the affairs of others. [French : laissez, second person pl. imperative of laisser, to let, allow + faire, to do.] This style is also referred to as the “freedom style” or permissive leadership. This type of leader denies responsibilities and abdicates authority to the group, ie; the leader


leaves all decision making and decision making to the group. Here he leader chooses not to adopt a leadership roles and actually abdicates the leadership positions. It may be due to lack of self confidence and fear of failure. The leader may think that subordinates will perform better if a great deal of freedom is given. This style is effective where the subordinates are highly motivated and experienced. Characteristics features
1. This leadership encourages independent activity by the group members.





• An outsider would not be able to identify the leader in such a group. • The leader exerts little or no influence on the group members. • There is lack of central direction, supervision, coordination and control. Group members are free to set their own goals determine their own activities and allowed to do almost what they desire to do. • A variety of goals may be set by every individual and it will be difficult to carry out to accomplish the task by the group easily. This style may be chon by the leader or it may evolve because; • The leader is too weak to exert influence on the group. • Attempting to please everyone to feel good. • Fails to function as an effective leader. This style is effective in highly professional group. For e/g. research projects are independent thinking is rewarded or when the leader feels that the problem must be solved by the group alone This style is not useful in a highly structured health care system or any institution.

The group where there is no appointed leader will fall in this category Behaviour of the leader in laissez faire type of leadership: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) He/she is permissive with little or no control. Motivates by support when requested by the group or individual. Little or no direction is provided. Communication is between members of the group and upward and downward. Decision making is dispersed throughout the group. Emphasis on the group. Criticism not given

✔ In limited situations creativity may be encouraged for specific purposes. Eg. Highly

qualified people plan a new approach to a problem that need freedom of action. ✔ To try new method of actions. DISADVANTAGES: ✔ May lead to instability, disorganization, inefficiency, no unity of actions.

23 ✔ Neither the group, nor any one in the group will feel to be responsible to solve the

problems that may arise. The individual members will lose the interest, initiative and desire for achievement.

COMPARISION OF LEADERSHIP STYLES: PARAMETERS AUTHORITARIAN DEMOCRATIC Less Economic/ego awrds Suggestion/guidance Participative We Constructive LAISSEZ-FAIRE Little or none By support Little, upwards & downwards dispersed The group none

a. Control over Strong the group a. Motivation a. Direction b. Decision making c. Status difference d. criticism By coercion By command Self I and You punitive


BUREAUCRATIC STYLE OF LEADERSHIP: In this kind of leadership the leader functions only on lines with rules and regulations. The leader cannot be flexible and does not like to take any risks out of the rules. The bureaucratic leadership style is concerned with ensuring workers, follow rules and procedures accurately and consistently. Bureaucratic leadership normally has the following characteristics. 1. Leaders expect an employee to display a formal, business like attitude in the workplace and between each other. 2. Managers gain instant authority with their position because rules demands that employees pay them certain privileges, such as being able to sign off on all major decisions. As a result, leader suffer from ‘position power’. Leadership development becomes pointless, because only titles and roles provide any real control or power. 3. Employees are rewarded for their ability to adhere to the rules and follow procedures perfectly. 4. Bureaucratic systems usually, gradually develop over a long period of time and hence more commonly found in large and old buiseness. ADVANTAGES: ✔ Increased safety In dangerous work places where procedures saves lives, a bureaucratic management styles can help enforce health and safety rules. ✔ Quality work Some tasks such as, completing professional works or medical examinations, need to be done in a meticulous fashion. Laziness can result in poor work, and hence one solution is to enforce the rules via bureaucratic leadership style. ✔ Ultimate control An environment where by employes are intrinsically motivated to follow rules in order to be promoted and succeed results in the tightest control management can ever assume over a company. This control can be used to cut costs or improve productivity. DISADVANTAGES: ✔ Dehumanizes the business Bureaucratic companies tend to remove as much potential for human error, out of the picture as possible. Unfortunately this also has the effect of removing all the enjoyment and reward that comes from deciding how to do a task and accomplishing it. ✔ Lack of self fulfilment: The bureaucratic way of working hampers employees efforts to become successful and independent, because the system becomes too constraining. ✔ Position power obsession ✔ Lack of creativity


✔ Poor communication When is the bureaucratic style effective? It is found in extremely large corporations such as General Electric, Daimler and General Motors.
1. Government bodies often have bureaucratic systems, and while these are often

despised by the public, they ensure accountability to the tax payer and fair treatment for all. Excessive form filling also serves the purpose oof passing effort from the government authority (with a tight budget) onto the individual, helping to save costs. 2. Dangerous workplaces such as, mines, oil riges, construction sites and film sets, all benefits from the tight control over health and safety that rules over. PATERNALISTIC STYLE OF LEADERSHIP: Paternalism has at times been equated with leadership styles. Yet most definitions of leadership normally state or imply that one of the actions within leadership is that of influencing. Leadership is influencing people — by providing purpose, direction, and motivation — while operating to accomplish the mission and improving the organization. “Paternalism” is defined as (Webster): “a system under which an authority undertakes to supply needs or regulate conduct of those under its control in matters affecting them as individuals as well as in their relationships to authority and to each other”. Thus paternalism supplies needs for those under its protection or control, while leadership gets things done. The first is directed inwards, while the latter is directed outwards.

TRANSACTIONAL AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP A transactional leader is defined as a leader or manager who functions in a care taker role and is focused on day to day operations. Such leaders survey their followers needs and set goals for them based on what can be done expected from the followers. A transactional leader is focused on the maintenance and management or ongoing and routine work.


In transactional leadership, leader and followers engage in a reciprocal transaction. Bearing this transaction, the roles and tasks of the follower are clarified and assigned as the group towards accomplish goal. The approach emphasizes getting things done within the umbrella of the status quo; almost in opposition to the goals of the transformational leadership. It's considered to be a "by the book" approach in which the person works within the rules. As such, it's commonly seen in large, bureaucratic organizations.

The transactional leader is more common. This type of leader approaches follower in an exchange posture, with the purpose of exchanging one thing for another. Such as politician who promises jobs for votes. Burns said that transactional leadership occurs when the leader taken the initiative in contacting others for the exchange of valuable things.

27 this leader causes the followers to rise above their own needs, and thus changing the culture, obtains higher


ansformational Leader

culture. Tr Performance beyond expectation and altered institutional culture.

ds of followers and provides rewards to meet those needs in exchange for expected performance Institutional culture.

Transactional Leader

Effort produced and performance obtained is as expected.

Transformational leadership A transformational leader is defined as a leader who motivates followers to perform to their full potential over time by influencing a change in persons and by providing a sense of direction. Transformational leaders use charisma, individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation to provide greater effort, effectiveness, and satisfaction in followers. The primary focus of the transformational leadership style is to make change happen in: • • • • Our Self, Others, Groups, and Organizations

The transformational style requires a number of different skills and is closely associated with two other leadership styles: charismatic and visionary leadership. Transformational leadership encompasses the intuitive and emotional nature of people and inspire followers to high levels of commitment and effort to achieve group goals which emphasizing interpersonal relationship trans formational leaders gain the respect and trust of their followers; instill in them a sense of pride and ,mission, communicate high expectations promote intelligent, rational problem solving; and give followers individualized consideration it is leadership that creates purposes for institutions.


 The Emergent Leadership Style
Contrary to the belief of many, groups do not automatically accept a new "boss" as leader. We see a number of ineffective managers who didn't know the behaviors to use when one taking over a new group.  Charisma is a special leadership style commonly associated with transformational leadership. While extremely powerful, it is extremely hard to teach.  Visionary Leadership, The leadership style focuses on how the leader defines the future for followers and moves them toward it.  Strategic Leadership: This is practiced by the military services such as the US Army, US Air Force, and many large corporations. It stresses the competitive nature of running an organization and being able to out fox and out witH the competition.  Team Leadership A few years ago, a large corporation decided that supervisors were no longer needed and those in charge were suddenly made "team leaders." Today, companies have gotten smarter about how to exert effective team leadership, but it still takes leadership to transition a group into a team.  Facilitative Leadership This is a special style that anyone who runs a meeting can employ. Rather than being directive, one uses a number of indirect communication patterns to help the group reach consensus.  Cross-Cultural Leadership Not all individuals can adapt to the leadership styles expected in a different culture whether that culture is organizational or national. In fact, there is some evidence that American and Asian Leadership Styles are very different, primarily due to cultural factors. Leadership Grid It is the graphical tool for evaluating leader behaviour along two basic attributes concern for results and concern for people. Effective leadership styles exhibit high levels of both attributes.

The Grid itself is a framework for understanding various approaches to leadership, and how those different approaches can harness or impede potential. It has two components: Concern for Production and Concern for People, which are measured on a scale from 1 to 9.


How it works. Concern for Production refers to commitment to expected outcome, such as number of units produced, time expended, sales volume, quality level - whatever a team is responsible for producing. Concern for People refers to attitude towards superiors, peers or subordinates, and include concerns about job satisfaction, quality of work life, training/development, working conditions, salary structure, fringe benefits, job security etc.


LEADERSHIP THEORIES HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF LEADERSHIP THEORY Because strong management skills are historically valued more than strong leadership skills, the scientific study of leadership did not begin until the 20th century. Early works focused on the broad conceptualization of leadership, such as the traits or behaviours of the leader. Contemporary research focuses more on leadership as a process oof influencing others within an organizational culture and the interactive relationship of the leader nad the follower. To better understand the newer views about leadership, it is necessary to look at how leadership theory has evolved over the last century.

SL NO 1.





FOCUSES ON CERTAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LEADER Promotes the concept that certain peopke were born to be leaders, because they inherited a certain set of special


characteristics qualifying them for such responsibilities. Because leaders are “born” , this theory suggest that leadership cannot be developed. a. Attribution theory Suggesta that the leadership relates to personal attributes people tend to characterize leaders as having such as height, social background, creativity, assertiveness, initiative, integrity, ability, intelligence etc Often listed as a quality of other theories, this theory relates to a special charm or assure possessed by the leader that inspires others to follow and give allegiance. Sometimes this type of leadership is said to emerge in times of crisis and change. THEORIZES THAT ATTITUDES OF THE LEADER RESULTS IN THE LEADER’S BEHAVIOUR leadership Describes leadership behaviour as related to initiating structure and consideration of employees. leadership Describes leader behaviour as employee oriented or producton oriented. Identifies five management styles best described on a grid, in which each style combines element of concern for production and concern for people. SUGGESTS, BASIS OF LEADERSHIP IS THE SITUATION OR ENVIRONMENT AND THE BEHAVIOUR OF LEADERS IIN RESPONDS TO THE SITUATION. Examines factors in the situation, particularly the skills of the leader and that individual’s position of power in the organization, as determinants of leader effectiveness. Relataes effective leadership to the leader’s ability to minimize obstruction to goals, identifies outcomes that workers want to achieve, and reward the followers for high performance and achievement, thereby increasing worker satisfaction and productivity.

b .

Charismatic theory


ATTITUDINAL a. Ohio state studies b . Michigan studies

c. Managerial grid



a. Contingency theory

b .

Path-Goal thoery

c. Transactional leadership Examines leadership in terms of striking a bargain in (sometimes referred to as which there is a mutual exchange between leaders and Exchange leadership) followers of benefits for work. Leader diagnoses problems int the organization, work group or situation


and is a caretaker who facilitates workers motivation, ssatisfaction, and performance. 4 . CONTEMPORARY THEORIES INDUCES THEORIES MOST COMMONLY IN USE AT THE PRESENT TIME. Places emphasis on the collective purpose and mutual growth of both the leader and the follower and deemphasises differences in the roles of a leader and followers. Leader activities include creating a vision, building relationships, developing trust, and building self-esteem. Leader makes sub-ordinates aware of how important their jobs are, helps them build skills, and motivates them to work for the good of the organization.

a. Transformational leadership

THE TRAIT THEORY : This theory attempts to classify what personality characteristics sucha s physical, personality and mental are assosciated with leadership success. Trait theory has a belief that leadrs are born with certain wualities that determine leadership ability and success and relies on research that relates various traits to the success of a leader. A broad classification of six categories of traits are as follows. 1. Physical characteristics of a leader such as age, height, weight etc. 2. Background characteristics sucha s education, social status, mobility and experience. 3. Intelligence – ability, judgement, knowledge. 4. Personality, aggressiveness, alertness, dominance, enthusiasm, extroversion, independence, self-confidence, authoritarianism. 5. Task oriented characteristics- achievement need, responsibility, initiativeness, persistence 6. Social characteristics – supervisory ability, co-operativeness, popularity, prestige, tact, diplomacy. According to this theory, the leader is gifted with or develops certain physical, intellectual, or personality characteristics. THE GREAT MAN THEORY (1900-1940): The Great Man Theory and trait theories were the basis for most of the leadership research until the mid 1940s. Focuses on certain characteristics of the leader until mid 1940s, the trait theory was the basis for leadership research. Early work in this area maintained that traits are inherited, but later theories suggest that traits could be obtained through learning and experiences. The Great Man theory, from Aristotelian philosophy, asserts what some people are born to lead whereas others are born to be led. It also suggests that great leaders will arise when the situation demands it.


Trait theories assumes that some people have certain characteristics or personality traits make them better leaders than others. To determine the traits that distinguish great leaders, researchers studied the lives of prominent people throughout history. The effect of followers and the impact of the situation were ignored. Contemporary opponents of these theories argue, however that leadership skills can be developed, not just inherited. In the trait approach, theorists have sought to understand leadership by examining the characteristics of leaders. The trait list has generated multiple lists of traits proposed to be essential for leadership. Researchers identified the leadership traits as; energy, drive, enthusiasm, ambition, aggressiveness, decisiveness, self- assurance, friendliness, affection, honesty, fairness, loyalty, dependability, technical mastery teaching skills. Later researches arrived at some common leadership traits.

They are; Intelligence: leaders need to be more intelligent than the group. Initiative: leaders must be initiative and have the ability to perceive and start courses of acting which are not considered by others. Creative: creativity is an asset, having originality; the ability to think of new solutions to problems and ideas of new ways to be productive is helpful for a leader. Emotional maturity with integrity: Emotional maturity is very much essential trait of a leader. Other trait is persistence dependability and objectivity. Mature leaders do what they say and are consistent in their action which is referred to integrity. Communication: Communication skills are important. The leader needs to understand others speak and write clearly. Persuasion: Communication is used by leaders to gain the consent of followers’ .The leader makes suggestions, supply supportive data, ask penetrating or exploring questions, make compromise and request action to persuade others. CHARISMATIC THEORY: People may be leaders because they are charismatic, but relatively little is known about this intangible characteristics. What constitutes charisma? It is an inspirational quality possessed by some people that makes others feel better in their presence. The charismatic leader inspires others by obtaining emotional commitment from followers and by arousing stron feelings of loyality and enthusiasm. Under charismatic leadership, one may overcome obstacles not thought possible. Howver, because charisma is so elusive, some ,ay sense it while others do not.


Charismatic leaders have a strong conviction in their own beliefs, high self confidence, and a need for power. They are likely to set an example, by their behaviour, commun icate high expectationsto followers and express confidence in them, and arouse motives for the group’s miossion. Charisma is more likely attributed to a leader aho advocates a vision discrepent from the status quo, emerges during a crisis, accurately assess the situation, communicate selfconfidence, uses personal power, makes self sacrifices, and uses unconventional strategies. Followers may idolize and worship charismatic leaders as spiritual figures or super-humans. This blind obedience can lead to good or bad outcomes, such as group suicide. Both Mahatma Gandhi and Adolf Hitler can be classified as charismatic leaders. Transformational leaders use charisma for good things only. ATTITUDINAL THEORY: Ohio State Studies • Initiating Structure – The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainment

Consideration – The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinates’ ideas, and regard for their feelings

University of Michigan Studies • Employee Oriented • • A leader who emphasizes interpersonal relations, takes a personal interest in the needs of employees, and accepts individual differences among members.

Production Oriented • A leader who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the Job

MANAGERIAL GRID: The managerial grid model (1957) is a behavioral leadership model developed by Robert R. Blake and Jane Mouton. This model originally identified five different leadership styles based on the concern for people and the concern for production. The optimal leadership style in this model is based on Theory Y. The Managerial Grid focuses on task (production) and employee (people) orientations of managers, as well as combinations of concerns between the two extremes. A grid with concern for production on the horizontal axis and concern for people on the vertical axis and


plots five basic leadership styles. The first number refers to a leader's production or task orientation; the second, to people or employee orientation. The Blake Mouton Managerial Grid (Blake & Mouton, 1964) Blake and Mouton propose that “Team Management” - a high concern for both employees and production - is the most effective type of leadership behaviour. • Leaders may be concerned for their people and they also must also have some concern for the work to be done. The question is, how much attention to they pay to one or the other? The managerial grid model (1957) is a behavioral leadership model developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. This model originally identified five different leadership styles based on the concern for people and the concern for production. The Managerial Grid was the original name. It later changed to the Leadership Grid.

Behavioural Elements Grid theory breaks behaviour down into seven key elements: Element Description Taking action, driving and supporting Questioning, researching and verifying understanding Expressing convictions and championing ideas Evaluating resources, choices and consequences Confronting and resolving disagreements Dealing with problems, setbacks and failures Delivering objective, candid feedback

➢ Initiative ➢ Inquiry ➢ Advocacy ➢ Decision Making ➢ Conflict Resolution ➢ Resilience ➢ Critique

SITUATIONAL THEORY: Situational theories become popular during 1950s. The idea that leadership style should vary according to the situation or the individuals involved was first suggested almost 100 years ago by Mary Parker Follett, on eof the earliest management consultants and among the first to view an organization as a social system of contingencies. Situational theories focuses on the frequency of the observed behaviours to make predictions. The leader observes abilities and motives in the followers. One choice of a leader has is to


alter his or her own behaviour and the leadership style used. A leader would choose to alter his or her behaviour and style. Among the variables that determine the effectiveness of leadership such as; • • • • • • • • • The personality of a leader The performance requirements of both the leader and followers The degree of interpersonal contact possible Time pressures Physical environment Organizational structure The nature of the organization The state of the organizations development The influence of the leader outside the group

A person may be a leader in one situation and a follower in other situations, because the types of leadership required depends on the situation. A leader would choose hios or her behaviour and style if the needs and motives of the followers varied. Personal flexibility and leadership skills are needed to vary one’s style when the followers needs and motives are different. The ability to diagnose, choose and alter behaviour to implement a leadership style best matched to the situation is a critical skill needed for effective leadership. Thus no, one leadership is optimal in all situations. The nature of the situation need to be considered. Styles can be chosen to match the situation. Important Features of Situational Leadership: • • Situational leadership is new addition to the existing styles of leadership. An ideal leader (according to this theory) studies the overall situation, draws conclusions and adopts the leadership style which is most appropriate to the prevailing situation. This is the essence of situational leadership theory. The best leadership style according to this theory is situational. An ideal leader is one who can adjust his style of functioning as per the situation within which he has to operate. This means the internal and external environment to the enterprise. A leader may act as a dictator at one time and also as a democratic leader on some other occasion. A good leader is one who studies the situation around him and adopts the most suitable leadership style. A situational leadership is a combination of all types of leadership. A situational leader knows different leadership styles but selects one particular style, which is most, appropriate to a given situation/environment.

• •

• •


A situational leader adopts flexible approach in his style of functioning. This makes his leadership effective and result-oriented. A situational leader knows when to use autocratic style and when to use democratic style. He makes corresponding adjustment in his style. This makes him effective/successful as a leader.

Merits of Situational Leadership: • •

The situational leadership theory is a practical one and is based on real facts of life. The best leadership style is situational. The situational theory has universal acceptance. It focuses attention not on the personality of the leader, but on the personality of the Organisation as a whole. The situational leadership theory is flexible and adaptable. It can operate in any style (autocratic, democratic, etc.) as per the need of the situation.

Limitations of Situational Leadership. • In situational leadership, more importance is given to the situation and less to personal traits. Leadership should involve both traits and situations. However, the theory gives importance to situation only. The theory offers an incomplete explanation of the leadership process.

CONTIGENCY LEADRESHIP THEORY: Fred Fielder introduced the contingency model of leadership in 1960s. He argued that a leadership style will be effective or ineffective, dependent on the situation. He identified three aspects of a situation that structures the leaders role. 1. Leader – member relations 2. Task structure 3. Position power Leader member relations involve the amount the amount of confidence and loyality the followers have in their leader. Task structure is high if it is easy to define and measure a task. The structure is low if it is difficult to define the task and to measure progress towards its completion. Fielder used four criteria to determine the degree of task structure. 1. Goal clarity and goal understood by the followers. 2. Extend to which a decision can be verified, know who is responsible for that. 3. Multiplicity of a goal paths, number of solutions.


4. Specificity of a solution: number of correct answers. Technical nursing which focus on procedures may have numerous solutions involving human relations and value judgments may have numerous solutions with no specific correct answer and consequently have low task structure. Position power refers to the authority inherent in a position Tthe power to use the rewards and punishments and the organizations support of one’s decisions. Directors of nursing, managers, and sometimes patient care coordinators have high position, or be subjected to removal by peer group or subordinators. Elected committee, chair persons, team leaders and staff nurses usually have low position power. These theories suggest that the traits required of a leader differ according to varying situations. Among the variables that determine the effectiveness of leadership such as;

PATH GOAL THEORY Robert J House derived path-goal theory from expectancy theory. • • The expectancy theory argues that the people act as they do because they expect their behavior to produce satisfactory results. In the path-goal relationship, the leader facilitates task accomplishment by minimizing obstructions to the goals and by rewarding followers for completing their tasks. The leader helps the staff to assess the needs, explore alternatives. Helps them to make the most beneficial decisions Rewards personal for task achievements. Provides additional opportunities for satisfying goal accomplishments.

• • • •

The path-goal theory intrinsically rests on the expectancy theory which states that an individual cognitively determines his motivation based on amount of effort required, the rewards or returns of the effort and the importance the individual gives to the rewards. Leaders who practiced structured activities have more productive work groups and got higher performance evaluations from the superiors. Structure includes planning, organizing, directing and controlling through activities such as clarifying expectations, scheduling work, making assignments, determining procedures and setting standards. Path-Goal theory defines the role of a leader as one who defines the goal and lays down the path for the subordinate that facilitates completion of goal.

Clarifies the task scope, boundaries and the process.

39 • •

Clarifies the role and responsibilities of the subordinates. Clarifies the criteria on which accomplishments will be judged. Provides guidance and coaching. Removes obstacles that might affect the task completion. Provide psychological support and rewards as way to complement the work environment. both the task success and subordinates

• • •

Components of Path-Goal Leadership: • •

Leadership Style Subordinate Preference Task Structure

Here are 4 types of leadership behaviors as per the path-goal theory of leadership which effective project leaders use time to time knowingly or unknowingly.

Achievement-oriented Leadership – Such project leaders set challenging goals, expects them to perform at highest level, Shows confidence in their ability to meet the expectation. Directive Leadership – Such project leaders let followers know what is expected and tells them how to perform their tasks. Participative Leadership – Such project leaders consult the followers, asks for their suggestions before making a decision. Supportive Leadership – Such project leaders are friendly and approachable and shows concern for the follower’s well being.

Strengths of Path-Goal: • • • It is the first attempt to provide an expanded framework which combines the previous works of situational, contingent leadership and expectancy theory. It is also the first theory to emphasize the importance of motivational factors from the subordinate perspective. It defines very practical and clear roles for a leader.

Criticism of Path-Goal:


• • •

It is very complex theory since it considers more parameters and requires analysis of those parameters to effectively choose leadership style. It is challenging to evaluate and analyze various components of the theory in real organizational situations. It is also criticized for placing a great deal of responsibilities on the leader and less on the subordinates, thus it might make the subordinates more dependent on leadership and inhibit their independent growth.

TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP: Transactional leadership focuses on management tasks and trade-offs to meet tha goals. It is an exchange posture that identifies the needs of followers and provides rewards to meet these needs in exchange for expected performance. It is a contract for mutual benefits that has contingent rewards. The leader or manager is a care taker who sets goals for employees, focuses on day-to-day operations, and uses management by exception. It is a competitive, task focused approach that takes place in the hierarchy. It tends to maintain the status quo through policies, procedures routinized performances, self interest and interpersonal dependence. Burns (1978) said that transactional leadership occurs when the leader takes the initiative in contacting others for the exchange of valued things. Therefore transactional leadership is comparable to a bargain or contract for mutual benefits that aids the individual differences of both the leader and the follower. Key characteristics are contingent rewards and management by exception. Expected effort and expected performance are the outcomes. The transactional leader works within the existing organizational culture and is an essential component of effective leadership. Eg. In Nursing, exchange of salary for the services of a nurse to provide care. CONTEMPORARY THEORY: TRANSFORMATONAL LEADER: A transformational leader is defined as a leader who motivates followers to perform their full potential over time by influencing a change in perceptions and by providing a sense of direction. They use charisma, individualized consideration and individual stimulation to produce greater effort, effectiveness and satisfaction in followers. Transformational leadership occurs when person engages with others to higher levels f motivation and ethical decision making. Instead of emphasising difference between the leader and followers, transformational leadership focuses on collective purpose and mutual growth and development. This type of leadership is used for higher order change and to change the organizations culture.


Eg. In Nursing, “magnet Hospitals” where the nursing organizations facilitates the best efforts in their staff. Transformational leadership I a concept that is useful dn applicable to nnursing. Organizations with a transformational leader would exhibit characteristics such as pride and satisfaction in tej work, enthusiasm, team spirit, a sense of accomplishment, and satisfaction. Factors underlying the effectiveness o transformational leadership; Individual consideration Charisma Intellectual stimulation Transformational leadership qualities appear to be better suited to the work of professionals. BEHAVIOURAL THEORIES (1940-1980) During the human relations era, many behavioural and social scientists studying management also studied leadership. As leadership theory developed, researchers moved away from studying ehat traits the leader had and placed emphasis on what he or she did – the leader’s style of leadership. A major breakthrough occurred when Lewin (1951) and White and zLippitt (1960) isolate common leadership styles. The four styles of leadership based on the behavioural theory. According to the theory, a leader bhaves according to the role expectations of the group. This theorists believe that leadership style, like other behaviours can be learned., regulated and developed. The effectiveness of each leadership style depends upon the situation. As the situation changes, the effective manager adapts by changing leadership behaviour. HUMAN RELATIONS THEORY: This theory was developed dby Elton Mayo and Fritz Roethlisberger after conducting series of studies from 1924 to 1932 at Howthrone Western electric plan, Chicago to test several assumption of scientific management. They believe that real power centres within the organization are the interpersonal relationship established within the wok organization these studies aimed at finding out if changes in illumination, rest period and lunch breaks can affect the productivity of the workers. It was found that less light, shorter and fewer rest periods and shorter lunch breaks resulted in increased productivity. Increased in productivity was attributed to the attitude of the workers towards each other and their feeling of togetherness. In addition attention paid to the workers by researcher made them feel important which resulted in improvement in their work performance. It suggest that organization should be developed around human relationship including those between leaders, managers and employees. These finding of the study concluded that a leader not only should plan, decide, organise and lead and control but also consider the human element.


Mc GREGOR THEORY: Dougla sMc Gregor (1960) categorised leadership style into two categories in his theory, ie. Theory X and theory Y., having two different beliefs and assumptions about subordinates. Manager, who believes in theory X and assumes that people inherently dislike work and will avoid it when possible and the average individual prefers to be directed, wants to avoid responsibility and is more interested in financial incentives than personal achievement. Therefore the style of leadership exercises strong controls and directions and wherever necessary punish people if they do not do the work of people do the work as desired, they may even get monetary or other rewards. In contrast to the theory X, the theory Y provides a more accurate assessment of human nature, one that encourages workers to develop their full potential. This theory Y assumes that employees can enjoy physical and mental work just as they enjoy play and rest. employees are capable of self motivation and job satisfaction, if they are happy in the organization and committed to its goals. Under proper condition the average person learns both to seek and accept responsibility. The capacity to apply creativity in solving organizational problems is widely, not narrowly distribute d among the workers. Theory Y leader assumes that people will work hard and assume responsibility if they can satisfy their personal needs and the objectives or goals of their organizations. It is suggested that theory Y organization will satisfy higher human needs, resulting in greater employee responsibility and in turn , higher productivity. An effective leader need to examine carefully his own ideas about the motivation and behaviour of the subordinates and others, as well as situation, before adapting any particular leadership.

LEADERSHIP Vs MANAGEMENT "Leaders manage and managers lead, but the two activities are not synonymous…. Management functions can potentially provide leadership; leadership activities can contribute to managing. Nevertheless, some managers do not lead, and some leaders do not manage". • • Leadership is setting a new direction or vision for a group that they follow, ie: a leader is the spearhead for that new direction Management controls or directs people/resources in a group according to principles or values that have already been established.



Managers have subordinates

By definition, managers have subordinates - unless their title is honorary and given as a mark of seniority, in which case the title is a misnomer and their power over others is other than formal authority. Authoritarian, transactional style Managers have a position of authority vested in them by the company, and their subordinates work for them and largely do as they are told. Management style is transactional, in that the manager tells the subordinate what to do, and the subordinate does this not because they are a blind robot, but because they have been promised a reward (at minimum their salary) for doing so. Work focus Managers are paid to get things done (they are subordinates too), often within tight constraints of time and money. They thus naturally pass on this work focus to their subordinates. Seek comfort An interesting research finding about managers is that they tend to come from stable home backgrounds and led relatively normal and comfortable lives. This leads them to be relatively risk-averse and they will seek to avoid conflict where possible. In terms of people, they generally like to run a 'happy ship'. b) Leaders have followers Leaders do not have subordinates - at least not when they are leading. Many organizational leaders do have subordinates, but only because they are also managers. But when they want to lead, they have to give up formal authoritarian control, because to lead is to have followers, and following is always a voluntary activity. Charismatic, transformational style Telling people what to do does not inspire them to follow you. You have to appeal to them, showing how following them will lead to their hearts' desire. They must want to follow you enough to stop what they are doing and perhaps walk into danger and situations that they would not normally consider risking. Leaders with a stronger charisma find it easier to attract people to their cause. As a part of their persuasion they typically promise transformational benefits, such that their followers will not just receive extrinsic rewards but will somehow become better people. People focus Although many leaders have a charismatic style to some extent, this does not require a loud personality. They are always good with people, and quiet styles that give credit to others (and takes blame on themselves) are very effective at creating the loyalty that great leaders


engender. Although leaders are good with people, this does not mean they are friendly with them. In order to keep the mystique of leadership, they often retain a degree of separation and aloofness. This does not mean that leaders do not pay attention to tasks - in fact they are often very achievement-focused. What they do realize, however, is the importance of enthusing others to work towards their vision. Seek risk In the same study that showed managers as risk-averse, leaders appeared as risk-seeking, although they are not blind thrill-seekers. When pursuing their vision, they consider it natural to encounter problems and hurdles that must be overcome along the way. They are thus comfortable with risk and will see routes that others avoid as potential opportunities for advantage and will happily break rules in order to get things done. A surprising number of these leaders had some form of handicap in their lives which they had to overcome. Some had traumatic childhoods, some had problems such as dyslexia, others were shorter than average. This perhaps taught them the independence of mind that is needed to go out on a limb and not worry about what others are thinking about you.

Subject Essence Focus Have Horizon Seeks Approach Decision Power Appeal to Energy Culture Dynamic

Leader Change Leading people Followers Long-term Vision Sets direction Facilitates Personal charisma Heart Passion Shapes Proactive

Manager Stability Managing work Subordinates Short-term Objectives Plans detail Makes Formal authority Head Control Enacts Reactive


Persuasion Style Exchange Likes Wants Risk Rules Conflict Direction Truth Concern Credit Blame

Sell Transformational Excitement for work Striving Achievement Takes Breaks Uses New roads Seeks What is right Gives Takes

Tell Transactional Money for work Action Results Minimizes Makes Avoids Existing roads Establishes Being right Takes Blames

Difference between managers and leaders: Leaders and Managers Do Managers Working in the system react controlrisks Enforce organizational rules Seek and then follow direction Leaders Working on the system Create oppurtunities Seek oppurtunities Change organizational rules Provide a vision to believe in and strategic alignment Motivate people by satisfying basic human needs

Control people by pushing them in the right direction


Coordinate effort Provide instructions

Inspire achievement and energize people Coach followers, create self-leaders, and empower them

The manager administers; the leader innovates. The manager maintains; the leader develops. The manager accepts reality; the leader investigates it. The manager focuses on systems and structures; the leader focuses on people. The manager relies on control; the leader inspires trust. The manager has a short-range view; the leader has a long-range perspective. The manager asks how and when; the leader asks what and why. The manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line; the leader has his or her eye on the horizon. ➢ The manager imitates; the leader originates. ➢ The manager accepts the status quo; the leader challenges it. ➢ The manager is the classic good soldier; the leader is his or her own person. ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢

Conclusion: In examining leadership, it is clear that it is essential in influencing people to accomplish their goals. It is a social relationship in which one party has greater ability to influence the behaviour of another. The style of leadership depends upon the the type of power, relationship, profession, human relations etc. there is no any type of leadership that dominates the other. While examining leadership and management, it becomes cklear that these two concepts are having a symbolic or synergestic relationship. Every nurse is a leader and manager at some level, ad the nursing role requires leadership and management skills.

1. Bessie. L Marquis, Carol. J Huston. Leadership Roles And Management

Functions In Nursing. Lippincott Williams And Wilkins. 6th Edition. 2009.P:37-45 2. Janice Ridder Ellis,Celia Love Hartley. Nursing In Today’s World. Trends, Issues And Management. Lippincott Williams And Wilkins. 9th Edition. 2008. P: 475-486 3. Diane L Huber. Leadership And Nursing Care Management. Elsevier Publications. 3rd Edition. 2000. P: 4-29 4. B T Basvanthappa. Nursing Administration. Jaypee Publications. 1st Edition, 2007. P: 112-119

47 5. Russell C Swansburg, Richard J Swansburg. Introductory Management And

Leadership Fornurses. Jones And Barlett Publications. 2nd Edition, 1998. P: 456-476 6. Barbara Cerry, Susan K Jacob. Textbook Of Contemporary Nursing. Mosby’s Publications. 2nd Edition. P: 302-324 7. Sovenier 2010. XXIII TNAI Binneal Conference. P: 65-68 8. www.scribd .com 9. www.currentnursing.com 10. http://people.leadership.co.in

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