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finalexamsession1_2010

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THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES

SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS

ECON 1203/ECON 2292 (ARTS)

FINAL EXAMINATION

SESSION 1, 2010

1. TIME ALLOWED – 3 Hours.

2. TOTAL NUMBER OF QUESTIONS – 5.

3. PLEASE ATTEMPT ALL 5 QUESTIONS.

4. ALL QUESTIONS ARE NOT OF EQUAL VALUE. THE VALUE OF EACH
SUB-SECTION IS INDICATED IN BRACKETS. TOTAL NUMBER OF
MARKS IS 60.

5. ON THE FRONT OF YOUR ANSWER BOOK, WRITE THE NUMBER OF
EACH QUESTION YOU HAVE ATTEMPTED.

6. THIS PAPER MAY BE RETAINED BY THE CANDIDATE.

7. CANDIDATES MAY BRING THEIR OWN NON-PROGAMMABLE
CALCULATOR TO THE EXAM.

8. STATISTICAL TABLES AND USEFUL FORMULAE ARE PROVIDED AT
THE END OF THE EXAMINATION PAPER.

9. ALL ANSWERS MUST BE WRITTEN IN PEN. PENCILS MAY BE USED
ONLY FOR DRAWING, SKETCHING OR GRAPHICAL WORK.

2
Question 1 [12 marks in total]
A large number of people worldwide take the GMAT exam each year as they apply for
MBA programs. Administrators of the test know from past experience that the
distribution of GMAT exam scores is closely approximated by a normal distribution with
mean µ=525 and standard deviation o =100.

(i) What would be the key features of the distribution of GMAT scores that led
administrators of the test to assert that the normal distribution provides a close
approximation? [1 mark]
(ii) What is the probability that a person randomly drawn from those taking the test
would have a test score between 510 and 550? [1 mark]
(iii) If an MBA program requires you to get a score that puts you in the top 10% of the
distribution, what score is required? [1 mark]
(iv) In a random sample of 25, what is the probability that the average of their test
scores is between 510 and 550? [2 marks]
(v) Suppose 100 students go through a rigorous training program designed to raise
their GMAT score. What would be the null and alternative hypotheses in order to
test the claim that the training program actually works. If the average test score is
541.4, conduct the test using a significance level of o = 0.05. [4 marks]
(vi) In general, what is the motivation for choosing small significance (o ) levels? [1
mark]
(vii) Is it necessary to assume the underlying distribution of test scores was normal in
order to undertake the test in part (v)? Explain your answer. [2 marks]

3
Question 2 [8 marks in total]
Table 1 provides a summary of responses obtained from a random sample of Australian
whether they had been to hospital in the last 12 months or not and if they had been to
hospital whether they were admitted as a private patient (and used their private health
insurance) or as a public patient (and relied on Medicare).

Table 1: Survey responses on private health insurance and hospital use

Admission to hospital in last 12 months
public patient
private patient
Totals
Have PHI 400 20 50 470
No PHI 450 70 10 530
Totals 850 90 60 1000

(i) What is the probability that a survey respondent chosen at random has private
health insurance? [1 mark]
(ii) Suppose a survey respondent chosen at random was admitted to hospital as a
private patient in the last 12 months. What is the probability that they have private
health insurance? [1 mark]
(iii) Are the events “admitted to hospital as a public patient” and “having private
mark]
(iv) Test the hypothesis that a person’s hospital use is independent of having private
health insurance or not? Use a significance level of 1%. Be sure to state clearly
your hypothesis, decision rule and conclusion. [5 marks]

4
Question 3 [13 marks in total]
(i) A random sample of 200 NSW voters reveals 94 in support of a plan to introduce
a new light rail system from Central Station to UNSW.

a) Construct a 98% confidence interval for the true proportion of NSW
voters who support the plan. Make clear all assumptions that are needed to
justify this calculation. Use this confidence interval to test the null
hypothesis that the true proportion is 0.5. [5 marks]
b) Suppose a second random sample of 300 NSW voters were asked if they
supported the plan. What would you expect to find if a new 98%
confidence interval were calculated and again used to test whether the true
proportion is 0.5? [2 marks]

(ii) The Federal government periodically tests packaged products to check that the
manufacturer is not short-weighting the product (i.e. underfilling). To allow for
variation in the filling process, the Federal government takes a sample of 16
bottles of beer with nominal capacity of 343 ml, and if the mean volume in the
bottles is less than 340 ml, the manufacturer is fined. Assume the amount
dispensed by the machine is approximately normal with a standard deviation of 4
ml.

a) What is the implied significance level of this test? [2 marks]
b) Suppose an unscrupulous brewer sets the machine to fill, on average, 342
ml. Find the probability that a Type II error will be made in this testing
process. [2 marks]
c) What would be the impact on Type II errors of using a fixed decision rule
(i.e. fine if the mean volume is less than 340 ml) even when samples
greater than 16 are used? Does your answer depend on what value is
chosen from the alternative hypothesis? [2 marks]

5
Question 4 [14 marks in total]
The Australian Government's Energy Efficiency Opportunities program encourages large
energy-using businesses to improve their energy efficiency. It does this by requiring
businesses to identify, evaluate and report publicly on cost effective energy savings
opportunities. As part of a process of identifying factors impacting on electricity
consumption, a large supermarket chain took a sample of 30 stores and investigated the
relationship between electricity consumption and store size. Consider the simple linear
regression model:

cons
i
= |
0
+ |
1
size
i
+ u
i

where: cons
i
is annual electricity consumption measured in megawatt hours for store i;
size
i
is the size of store i measured in square meters; u
i
is the disturbance term; and |
0
and
|
1
are unknown parameters. The regression model was estimated by ordinary least
squares and a portion of the resultant EXCEL output is reproduced below.

Table 2: EXCEL output for the simple linear regression of consumption on size

Regression Statistics
R Square 0.809
Standard Error 329.2
Observations 30

Coefficients
Standard
Error t Stat P-value
Intercept 860.2 210.0 A 0.0003
size 0.672 B 7.305 0.0000

(i) What does the regression estimate for |
1
provided in Table 2 imply about the
sample covariance between consumption and size? Is this result what you would
expect? Why? [2 marks]
(ii) The t Stat for the estimated intercept (A) and the Standard Error for the estimated
coefficient for size (B) are missing. Determine their values. [2 marks]
(iii) How would you interpret the regression estimate for |
1
provided in Table 2? Test
the null hypothesis that |
1
= 0 against the alternative that |
1
≠ 0. [2 marks]
(iv) Explain the meaning of “P-value” in the output and interpret the calculated “P-
value” reported for the intercept. [2 marks]
(v) Consider a store that is 2200 square meters which is the sample average. What is
the forecast for the electricity consumption of such a store? Consider a much
bigger store that is 3000 square meters. What is this store’s forecast consumption
and which of the associated forecast intervals will be wider? [3 marks]
(vi) What does it mean to say the least squares estimator of |
1
is unbiased? [1 mark]
(vii) Give an example of another variable that might impact on store electricity
consumption and hence should be in the regression model. Does the existence of
such variables have implications for the OLS estimate of |
1
reported in Table 2?
[2 marks]
6
Question 5 [13 marks in total]
A real estate agent is looking at methods to provide initial valuations of houses in her
area. She has a sample of 88 recent house sales where in addition to the sale price she has
information on the size of the land, size of the house and the number of bedrooms.
Consider the following pricing model represented as a linear regression model:

price
i
= |
0
+ |
1
land
i
+ |
2
hsize
i
+|
3
bedrooms
i
+ u
i

where: price
i
is a selling price of the i
th
house expressed in dollars, land
i
is the land size
in square meters, hsize
i
is the house size in square meters and bedrooms
i
is the number of
bedrooms; u
i
is the disturbance term; and |
0
, |
1,
|
2
and |
3
are unknown parameters. The
linear regression model was estimated by least squares and a portion of the EXCEL
output is reproduced in Table 3.

Table 3: EXCEL output for the house price model
Regression Statistics
R Square 0.820
Standard Error 59883
Observations 88

Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value
Intercept -21770 29475 -0.739 0.462
land 22.257 6.912 3.220 0.002
hsize 1321.617 142.491 9.275 0.000
bedrooms 13852.5 9010.1 1.537 0.128

(i) How would you interpret the estimates for the regression parameters |
1
and |
2
?
[2 marks]
(ii) Test the null hypothesis that land has no impact on house prices. Use a 1%
significance level and be explicit in terms of the assumptions you make. [2 marks]
(iii) Construct the 90% confidence interval for |
3
and interpret the result. [2 marks]
(iv) As a “model” of house prices are you worried about the negative intercept
estimate? [1 mark]
(v) What are the “Standard Error” and “R Square” statistics reported amongst the
“Regression Statistics” in the EXCEL output? Interpret the R Square result for
this regression model. [3 marks]
(vi) Consider houses with varying numbers of bedrooms but with land=500 and
hsize=170. (These are close to the median values for land and hsize.) Calculate
the predicted house prices (with the given land and hsize values) when bedrooms
takes on values of 2, 4 and 6. Use these predicted values to sketch the predicted
price and bedrooms relationship and interpret the result. [3 marks]
7
USEFUL FORMULAE

Sample Mean:
¿
=
=
n
i
i
X
n
X
1
1

Sample Variance:
2
1
2
) (
1
1
X X
n
s
n
i
i ¿
=
÷
÷
=
Population Variance:
2
1
2
) (
1
µ o
¿
=
÷ =
N
i
i
X
N
Population Mean:
¿
=
=
N
i
i
X
N
1
1
µ

Additive Law of Probability: P A B P A P B P A B ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) = + ÷ ·
or
P(A or B) =P(A) +P(B) – P(A and B)

Multiplicative Law of Probability: P A B P A B P B P B A P A ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) · = =
or
P(A and B) =P(A|B) P(B) =P(B| A)P(A)

Binomial Distribution:
x n x
x n
q p C x X P
÷
= = ) (
;
E(X) = np; Var(X) = npq

Standardising transformations:
o
µ) ( ÷
=
X
Z ,
n
X
Z
/
) (
o
µ ÷
= ,
n s
X
t
/
) ( µ ÷
= ,

( )
2
2
2
1
o
_
s n ÷
=
Confidence intervals for µ:
n
z X
n
z X
o
µ
o
o o
2 2
+ < < ÷ , o known

n
s
t X
n
s
t X
n n 1 ,
2
1 ,
2
÷ ÷
+ < < ÷
o o
µ , o unknown
Confidence interval for p:
n
q p
z p p
n
q p
z p
ˆ ˆ
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ
2 2
o o
+ < < ÷ , where ( ) p q
ˆ
1
ˆ
÷ =

Confidence interval for σ
2
:
2
1 , 2 / 1
2
2
2
1 , 2 /
2
) 1 ( ) 1 (
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
< <
÷
n n
s n s n
o o
_
o
_

Goodness of Fit Test:
¿
=
÷
=
K
i i
i i
e
e o
1
2
2
) (
_ , df = K-1

Independence Test:
¿¿
= =
÷
=
K
i
H
j ij
ij ij
e
e o
1 1
2
2
) (
_ , df = (K-1)(H-1)

8
Sample Correlation Coefficient:

¿ ¿
¿
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= =
2 2
) ( ) (
) )( (
Y Y X X
Y Y X X
s s
s
r
i i
i i
Y X
XY

Least Squares Estimators of |
1
and |
0
in the equation:
i i i
e X Y + + =
1 0
| |

( )( )
( )
X Y
X X
Y Y X X
s
s
i
i i
X
XY
1 0
2 2
1
ˆ ˆ
;
ˆ
| | | ÷ =
÷ ¿
÷ ÷ ¿
= =

CueIIt¢tent uI Determtnattun:
R
2
= 1 -
SSE
SSI
= 1 -
∑c
i
¯
2
∑(¥
ì

)
2

Forecast Intervals:

( )
¿
÷
÷
+ ±
.
2
2
,
2
) (
1
X X
X X
n
s t Y
i
p
e p
v
o
for E(Y
p
X
p
)

( )
2
2
,
2
) (
1
1
¿
÷
÷
+ + ±
.
X X
X X
n
s t Y
i
p
e p
v
o
for Y
p

where ( ) 2 ÷ = n v and
) 2 (
1
2
÷
=
¿
=
.
n
e
s
n
i
i
e
is the estimated standard error of the
regression.

Distribution of
0
ˆ
| and
1
ˆ
| :

0
ˆ
| ~
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
¿
¿
2
2
2
0
) (
,
X X
X
n
N
i
i
e
o
| and
1
ˆ
| ~
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
¿
2
2
1
) (
,
X X
N
i
e
o
| .

9
Table 1:
Binomial Probability: P(X = k)
p
n k 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95
2 0 0. 9025 0. 8100 0. 7225 0. 6400 0. 5625 0. 4900 0. 4225 0. 3600 0. 3025 0. 2500 0. 2025 0. 1600 0. 1225 0. 0900 0. 0625 0. 0400 0. 0225 0. 0100 0. 0025
1 0. 0950 0. 1800 0. 2550 0. 3200 0. 3750 0. 4200 0. 4550 0. 4800 0. 4950 0. 5000 0. 4950 0. 4800 0. 4550 0. 4200 0. 3750 0. 3200 0. 2550 0. 1800 0. 0950
2 0. 0025 0. 0100 0. 0225 0. 0400 0. 0625 0. 0900 0. 1225 0. 1600 0. 2025 0. 2500 0. 3025 0. 3600 0. 4225 0. 4900 0. 5625 0. 6400 0. 7225 0. 8100 0. 9025
3 0 0. 8574 0. 7290 0. 6141 0. 5120 0. 4219 0. 3430 0. 2746 0. 2160 0. 1664 0. 1250 0. 0911 0. 0640 0. 0429 0. 0270 0. 0156 0. 0080 0. 0034 0. 0010 0. 0001
1 0. 1354 0. 2430 0. 3251 0. 3840 0. 4219 0. 4410 0. 4436 0. 4320 0. 4084 0. 3750 0. 3341 0. 2880 0. 2389 0. 1890 0. 1406 0. 0960 0. 0574 0. 0270 0. 0071
2 0. 0071 0. 0270 0. 0574 0. 0960 0. 1406 0. 1890 0. 2389 0. 2880 0. 3341 0. 3750 0. 4084 0. 4320 0. 4436 0. 4410 0. 4219 0. 3840 0. 3251 0. 2430 0. 1354
3 0. 0001 0. 0010 0. 0034 0. 0080 0. 0156 0. 0270 0. 0429 0. 0640 0. 0911 0. 1250 0. 1664 0. 2160 0. 2746 0. 3430 0. 4219 0. 5120 0. 6141 0. 7290 0. 8574
4 0 0. 8145 0. 6561 0. 5220 0. 4096 0. 3164 0. 2401 0. 1785 0. 1296 0. 0915 0. 0625 0. 0410 0. 0256 0. 0150 0. 0081 0. 0039 0. 0016 0. 0005 0. 0001 0. 0000
1 0. 1715 0. 2916 0. 3685 0. 4096 0. 4219 0. 4116 0. 3845 0. 3456 0. 2995 0. 2500 0. 2005 0. 1536 0. 1115 0. 0756 0. 0469 0. 0256 0. 0115 0. 0036 0. 0005
2 0. 0135 0. 0486 0. 0975 0. 1536 0. 2109 0. 2646 0. 3105 0. 3456 0. 3675 0. 3750 0. 3675 0. 3456 0. 3105 0. 2646 0. 2109 0. 1536 0. 0975 0. 0486 0. 0135
3 0. 0005 0. 0036 0. 0115 0. 0256 0. 0469 0. 0756 0. 1115 0. 1536 0. 2005 0. 2500 0. 2995 0. 3456 0. 3845 0. 4116 0. 4219 0. 4096 0. 3685 0. 2916 0. 1715
4 0. 0000 0. 0001 0. 0005 0. 0016 0. 0039 0. 0081 0. 0150 0. 0256 0. 0410 0. 0625 0. 0915 0. 1296 0. 1785 0. 2401 0. 3164 0. 4096 0. 5220 0. 6561 0. 8145
5 0 0. 7738 0. 5905 0. 4437 0. 3277 0. 2373 0. 1681 0. 1160 0. 0778 0. 0503 0. 0313 0. 0185 0. 0102 0. 0053 0. 0024 0. 0010 0. 0003 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000
1 0. 2036 0. 3281 0. 3915 0. 4096 0. 3955 0. 3602 0. 3124 0. 2592 0. 2059 0. 1563 0. 1128 0. 0768 0. 0488 0. 0284 0. 0146 0. 0064 0. 0022 0. 0004 0. 0000
2 0. 0214 0. 0729 0. 1382 0. 2048 0. 2637 0. 3087 0. 3364 0. 3456 0. 3369 0. 3125 0. 2757 0. 2304 0. 1811 0. 1323 0. 0879 0. 0512 0. 0244 0. 0081 0. 0011
3 0. 0011 0. 0081 0. 0244 0. 0512 0. 0879 0. 1323 0. 1811 0. 2304 0. 2757 0. 3125 0. 3369 0. 3456 0. 3364 0. 3087 0. 2637 0. 2048 0. 1382 0. 0729 0. 0214
4 0. 0000 0. 0005 0. 0022 0. 0064 0. 0146 0. 0284 0. 0488 0. 0768 0. 1128 0. 1563 0. 2059 0. 2592 0. 3124 0. 3602 0. 3955 0. 4096 0. 3915 0. 3281 0. 2036
5 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0001 0. 0003 0. 0010 0. 0024 0. 0053 0. 0102 0. 0185 0. 0313 0. 0503 0. 0778 0. 1160 0. 1681 0. 2373 0. 3277 0. 4437 0. 5905 0. 7738
6 0 0. 7351 0. 5314 0. 3771 0. 2621 0. 1780 0. 1176 0. 0754 0. 0467 0. 0277 0. 0156 0. 0083 0. 0041 0. 0018 0. 0007 0. 0002 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000
1 0. 2321 0. 3543 0. 3993 0. 3932 0. 3560 0. 3025 0. 2437 0. 1866 0. 1359 0. 0938 0. 0609 0. 0369 0. 0205 0. 0102 0. 0044 0. 0015 0. 0004 0. 0001 0. 0000
2 0. 0305 0. 0984 0. 1762 0. 2458 0. 2966 0. 3241 0. 3280 0. 3110 0. 2780 0. 2344 0. 1861 0. 1382 0. 0951 0. 0595 0. 0330 0. 0154 0. 0055 0. 0012 0. 0001
3 0. 0021 0. 0146 0. 0415 0. 0819 0. 1318 0. 1852 0. 2355 0. 2765 0. 3032 0. 3125 0. 3032 0. 2765 0. 2355 0. 1852 0. 1318 0. 0819 0. 0415 0. 0146 0. 0021
4 0. 0001 0. 0012 0. 0055 0. 0154 0. 0330 0. 0595 0. 0951 0. 1382 0. 1861 0. 2344 0. 2780 0. 3110 0. 3280 0. 3241 0. 2966 0. 2458 0. 1762 0. 0984 0. 0305
5 0. 0000 0. 0001 0. 0004 0. 0015 0. 0044 0. 0102 0. 0205 0. 0369 0. 0609 0. 0937 0. 1359 0. 1866 0. 2437 0. 3025 0. 3560 0. 3932 0. 3993 0. 3543 0. 2321
6 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0001 0. 0002 0. 0007 0. 0018 0. 0041 0. 0083 0. 0156 0. 0277 0. 0467 0. 0754 0. 1176 0. 1780 0. 2621 0. 3771 0. 5314 0. 7351
7 0 0. 6983 0. 4783 0. 3206 0. 2097 0. 1335 0. 0824 0. 0490 0. 0280 0. 0152 0. 0078 0. 0037 0. 0016 0. 0006 0. 0002 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000
1 0. 2573 0. 3720 0. 3960 0. 3670 0. 3115 0. 2471 0. 1848 0. 1306 0. 0872 0. 0547 0. 0320 0. 0172 0. 0084 0. 0036 0. 0013 0. 0004 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000
2 0. 0406 0. 1240 0. 2097 0. 2753 0. 3115 0. 3177 0. 2985 0. 2613 0. 2140 0. 1641 0. 1172 0. 0774 0. 0466 0. 0250 0. 0115 0. 0043 0. 0012 0. 0002 0. 0000
3 0. 0036 0. 0230 0. 0617 0. 1147 0. 1730 0. 2269 0. 2679 0. 2903 0. 2918 0. 2734 0. 2388 0. 1935 0. 1442 0. 0972 0. 0577 0. 0287 0. 0109 0. 0026 0. 0002
4 0. 0002 0. 0026 0. 0109 0. 0287 0. 0577 0. 0972 0. 1442 0. 1935 0. 2388 0. 2734 0. 2918 0. 2903 0. 2679 0. 2269 0. 1730 0. 1147 0. 0617 0. 0230 0. 0036
5 0. 0000 0. 0002 0. 0012 0. 0043 0. 0115 0. 0250 0. 0466 0. 0774 0. 1172 0. 1641 0. 2140 0. 2613 0. 2985 0. 3177 0. 3115 0. 2753 0. 2097 0. 1240 0. 0406
6 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0001 0. 0004 0. 0013 0. 0036 0. 0084 0. 0172 0. 0320 0. 0547 0. 0872 0. 1306 0. 1848 0. 2471 0. 3115 0. 3670 0. 3960 0. 3720 0. 2573
7 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0001 0. 0002 0. 0006 0. 0016 0. 0037 0. 0078 0. 0152 0. 0280 0. 0490 0. 0824 0. 1335 0. 2097 0. 3206 0. 4783 0. 6983
8 0 0. 6634 0. 4305 0. 2725 0. 1678 0. 1001 0. 0576 0. 0319 0. 0168 0. 0084 0. 0039 0. 0017 0. 0007 0. 0002 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000
1 0. 2793 0. 3826 0. 3847 0. 3355 0. 2670 0. 1977 0. 1373 0. 0896 0. 0548 0. 0313 0. 0164 0. 0079 0. 0033 0. 0012 0. 0004 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000
2 0. 0515 0. 1488 0. 2376 0. 2936 0. 3115 0. 2965 0. 2587 0. 2090 0. 1569 0. 1094 0. 0703 0. 0413 0. 0217 0. 0100 0. 0038 0. 0011 0. 0002 0. 0000 0. 0000
3 0. 0054 0. 0331 0. 0839 0. 1468 0. 2076 0. 2541 0. 2786 0. 2787 0. 2568 0. 2188 0. 1719 0. 1239 0. 0808 0. 0467 0. 0231 0. 0092 0. 0026 0. 0004 0. 0000
4 0. 0004 0. 0046 0. 0185 0. 0459 0. 0865 0. 1361 0. 1875 0. 2322 0. 2627 0. 2734 0. 2627 0. 2322 0. 1875 0. 1361 0. 0865 0. 0459 0. 0185 0. 0046 0. 0004
5 0. 0000 0. 0004 0. 0026 0. 0092 0. 0231 0. 0467 0. 0808 0. 1239 0. 1719 0. 2188 0. 2568 0. 2787 0. 2786 0. 2541 0. 2076 0. 1468 0. 0839 0. 0331 0. 0054
6 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0002 0. 0011 0. 0038 0. 0100 0. 0217 0. 0413 0. 0703 0. 1094 0. 1569 0. 2090 0. 2587 0. 2965 0. 3115 0. 2936 0. 2376 0. 1488 0. 0515
7 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0001 0. 0004 0. 0012 0. 0033 0. 0079 0. 0164 0. 0313 0. 0548 0. 0896 0. 1373 0. 1977 0. 2670 0. 3355 0. 3847 0. 3826 0. 2793
8 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0001 0. 0002 0. 0007 0. 0017 0. 0039 0. 0084 0. 0168 0. 0319 0. 0576 0. 1001 0. 1678 0. 2725 0. 4305 0. 6634
9 0 0. 6302 0. 3874 0. 2316 0. 1342 0. 0751 0. 0404 0. 0207 0. 0101 0. 0046 0. 0020 0. 0008 0. 0003 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000
1 0. 2985 0. 3874 0. 3679 0. 3020 0. 2253 0. 1556 0. 1004 0. 0605 0. 0339 0. 0176 0. 0083 0. 0035 0. 0013 0. 0004 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000
2 0. 0629 0. 1722 0. 2597 0. 3020 0. 3003 0. 2668 0. 2162 0. 1612 0. 1110 0. 0703 0. 0407 0. 0212 0. 0098 0. 0039 0. 0012 0. 0003 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000
3 0. 0077 0. 0446 0. 1069 0. 1762 0. 2336 0. 2668 0. 2716 0. 2508 0. 2119 0. 1641 0. 1160 0. 0743 0. 0424 0. 0210 0. 0087 0. 0028 0. 0006 0. 0001 0. 0000
4 0. 0006 0. 0074 0. 0283 0. 0661 0. 1168 0. 1715 0. 2194 0. 2508 0. 2600 0. 2461 0. 2128 0. 1672 0. 1181 0. 0735 0. 0389 0. 0165 0. 0050 0. 0008 0. 0000
5 0. 0000 0. 0008 0. 0050 0. 0165 0. 0389 0. 0735 0. 1181 0. 1672 0. 2128 0. 2461 0. 2600 0. 2508 0. 2194 0. 1715 0. 1168 0. 0661 0. 0283 0. 0074 0. 0006
6 0. 0000 0. 0001 0. 0006 0. 0028 0. 0087 0. 0210 0. 0424 0. 0743 0. 1160 0. 1641 0. 2119 0. 2508 0. 2716 0. 2668 0. 2336 0. 1762 0. 1069 0. 0446 0. 0077
7 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0003 0. 0012 0. 0039 0. 0098 0. 0212 0. 0407 0. 0703 0. 1110 0. 1612 0. 2162 0. 2668 0. 3003 0. 3020 0. 2597 0. 1722 0. 0629
8 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0001 0. 0004 0. 0013 0. 0035 0. 0083 0. 0176 0. 0339 0. 0605 0. 1004 0. 1556 0. 2253 0. 3020 0. 3679 0. 3874 0. 2985
9 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0001 0. 0003 0. 0008 0. 0020 0. 0046 0. 0101 0. 0207 0. 0404 0. 0751 0. 1342 0. 2316 0. 3874 0. 6302
10 0 0. 5987 0. 3487 0. 1969 0. 1074 0. 0563 0. 0282 0. 0135 0. 0060 0. 0025 0. 0010 0. 0003 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000
1 0. 3151 0. 3874 0. 3474 0. 2684 0. 1877 0. 1211 0. 0725 0. 0403 0. 0207 0. 0098 0. 0042 0. 0016 0. 0005 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000
2 0. 0746 0. 1937 0. 2759 0. 3020 0. 2816 0. 2335 0. 1757 0. 1209 0. 0763 0. 0439 0. 0229 0. 0106 0. 0043 0. 0014 0. 0004 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000
3 0. 0105 0. 0574 0. 1298 0. 2013 0. 2503 0. 2668 0. 2522 0. 2150 0. 1665 0. 1172 0. 0746 0. 0425 0. 0212 0. 0090 0. 0031 0. 0008 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000
4 0. 0010 0. 0112 0. 0401 0. 0881 0. 1460 0. 2001 0. 2377 0. 2508 0. 2384 0. 2051 0. 1596 0. 1115 0. 0689 0. 0368 0. 0162 0. 0055 0. 0012 0. 0001 0. 0000
5 0. 0001 0. 0015 0. 0085 0. 0264 0. 0584 0. 1029 0. 1536 0. 2007 0. 2340 0. 2461 0. 2340 0. 2007 0. 1536 0. 1029 0. 0584 0. 0264 0. 0085 0. 0015 0. 0001
6 0. 0000 0. 0001 0. 0012 0. 0055 0. 0162 0. 0368 0. 0689 0. 1115 0. 1596 0. 2051 0. 2384 0. 2508 0. 2377 0. 2001 0. 1460 0. 0881 0. 0401 0. 0112 0. 0010
7 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0001 0. 0008 0. 0031 0. 0090 0. 0212 0. 0425 0. 0746 0. 1172 0. 1665 0. 2150 0. 2522 0. 2668 0. 2503 0. 2013 0. 1298 0. 0574 0. 0105
8 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0001 0. 0004 0. 0014 0. 0043 0. 0106 0. 0229 0. 0439 0. 0763 0. 1209 0. 1757 0. 2335 0. 2816 0. 3020 0. 2759 0. 1937 0. 0746
9 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0001 0. 0005 0. 0016 0. 0042 0. 0098 0. 0207 0. 0403 0. 0725 0. 1211 0. 1877 0. 2684 0. 3474 0. 3874 0. 3151
10 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0001 0. 0003 0. 0010 0. 0025 0. 0060 0. 0135 0. 0282 0. 0563 0. 1074 0. 1969 0. 3487 0. 5987

10
Table 2:
Binomial Probability: P(X ≤ k)
p
n k 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95
2 0 0. 9025 0. 8100 0. 7225 0. 6400 0. 5625 0. 4900 0. 4225 0. 3600 0. 3025 0. 2500 0. 2025 0. 1600 0. 1225 0. 0900 0. 0625 0. 0400 0. 0225 0. 0100 0. 0025
1 0. 9975 0. 9900 0. 9775 0. 9600 0. 9375 0. 9100 0. 8775 0. 8400 0. 7975 0. 7500 0. 6975 0. 6400 0. 5775 0. 5100 0. 4375 0. 3600 0. 2775 0. 1900 0. 0975
3 0 0. 8574 0. 7290 0. 6141 0. 5120 0. 4219 0. 3430 0. 2746 0. 2160 0. 1664 0. 1250 0. 0911 0. 0640 0. 0429 0. 0270 0. 0156 0. 0080 0. 0034 0. 0010 0. 0001
1 0. 9928 0. 9720 0. 9393 0. 8960 0. 8438 0. 7840 0. 7183 0. 6480 0. 5748 0. 5000 0. 4253 0. 3520 0. 2818 0. 2160 0. 1563 0. 1040 0. 0607 0. 0280 0. 0072
2 0. 9999 0. 9990 0. 9966 0. 9920 0. 9844 0. 9730 0. 9571 0. 9360 0. 9089 0. 8750 0. 8336 0. 7840 0. 7254 0. 6570 0. 5781 0. 4880 0. 3859 0. 2710 0. 1426
4 0 0. 8145 0. 6561 0. 5220 0. 4096 0. 3164 0. 2401 0. 1785 0. 1296 0. 0915 0. 0625 0. 0410 0. 0256 0. 0150 0. 0081 0. 0039 0. 0016 0. 0005 0. 0001 0. 0000
1 0. 9860 0. 9477 0. 8905 0. 8192 0. 7383 0. 6517 0. 5630 0. 4752 0. 3910 0. 3125 0. 2415 0. 1792 0. 1265 0. 0837 0. 0508 0. 0272 0. 0120 0. 0037 0. 0005
2 0. 9995 0. 9963 0. 9880 0. 9728 0. 9492 0. 9163 0. 8735 0. 8208 0. 7585 0. 6875 0. 6090 0. 5248 0. 4370 0. 3483 0. 2617 0. 1808 0. 1095 0. 0523 0. 0140
3 1. 0000 0. 9999 0. 9995 0. 9984 0. 9961 0. 9919 0. 9850 0. 9744 0. 9590 0. 9375 0. 9085 0. 8704 0. 8215 0. 7599 0. 6836 0. 5904 0. 4780 0. 3439 0. 1855
5 0 0. 7738 0. 5905 0. 4437 0. 3277 0. 2373 0. 1681 0. 1160 0. 0778 0. 0503 0. 0313 0. 0185 0. 0102 0. 0053 0. 0024 0. 0010 0. 0003 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000
1 0. 9774 0. 9185 0. 8352 0. 7373 0. 6328 0. 5282 0. 4284 0. 3370 0. 2562 0. 1875 0. 1312 0. 0870 0. 0540 0. 0308 0. 0156 0. 0067 0. 0022 0. 0005 0. 0000
2 0. 9988 0. 9914 0. 9734 0. 9421 0. 8965 0. 8369 0. 7648 0. 6826 0. 5931 0. 5000 0. 4069 0. 3174 0. 2352 0. 1631 0. 1035 0. 0579 0. 0266 0. 0086 0. 0012
3 1. 0000 0. 9995 0. 9978 0. 9933 0. 9844 0. 9692 0. 9460 0. 9130 0. 8688 0. 8125 0. 7438 0. 6630 0. 5716 0. 4718 0. 3672 0. 2627 0. 1648 0. 0815 0. 0226
4 1. 0000 1. 0000 0. 9999 0. 9997 0. 9990 0. 9976 0. 9947 0. 9898 0. 9815 0. 9688 0. 9497 0. 9222 0. 8840 0. 8319 0. 7627 0. 6723 0. 5563 0. 4095 0. 2262
6 0 0. 7351 0. 5314 0. 3771 0. 2621 0. 1780 0. 1176 0. 0754 0. 0467 0. 0277 0. 0156 0. 0083 0. 0041 0. 0018 0. 0007 0. 0002 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000
1 0. 9672 0. 8857 0. 7765 0. 6554 0. 5339 0. 4202 0. 3191 0. 2333 0. 1636 0. 1094 0. 0692 0. 0410 0. 0223 0. 0109 0. 0046 0. 0016 0. 0004 0. 0001 0. 0000
2 0. 9978 0. 9842 0. 9527 0. 9011 0. 8306 0. 7443 0. 6471 0. 5443 0. 4415 0. 3438 0. 2553 0. 1792 0. 1174 0. 0705 0. 0376 0. 0170 0. 0059 0. 0013 0. 0001
3 0. 9999 0. 9987 0. 9941 0. 9830 0. 9624 0. 9295 0. 8826 0. 8208 0. 7447 0. 6563 0. 5585 0. 4557 0. 3529 0. 2557 0. 1694 0. 0989 0. 0473 0. 0158 0. 0022
4 1. 0000 0. 9999 0. 9996 0. 9984 0. 9954 0. 9891 0. 9777 0. 9590 0. 9308 0. 8906 0. 8364 0. 7667 0. 6809 0. 5798 0. 4661 0. 3446 0. 2235 0. 1143 0. 0328
5 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 0. 9999 0. 9998 0. 9993 0. 9982 0. 9959 0. 9917 0. 9844 0. 9723 0. 9533 0. 9246 0. 8824 0. 8220 0. 7379 0. 6229 0. 4686 0. 2649
7 0 0. 6983 0. 4783 0. 3206 0. 2097 0. 1335 0. 0824 0. 0490 0. 0280 0. 0152 0. 0078 0. 0037 0. 0016 0. 0006 0. 0002 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000
1 0. 9556 0. 8503 0. 7166 0. 5767 0. 4449 0. 3294 0. 2338 0. 1586 0. 1024 0. 0625 0. 0357 0. 0188 0. 0090 0. 0038 0. 0013 0. 0004 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000
2 0. 9962 0. 9743 0. 9262 0. 8520 0. 7564 0. 6471 0. 5323 0. 4199 0. 3164 0. 2266 0. 1529 0. 0963 0. 0556 0. 0288 0. 0129 0. 0047 0. 0012 0. 0002 0. 0000
3 0. 9998 0. 9973 0. 9879 0. 9667 0. 9294 0. 8740 0. 8002 0. 7102 0. 6083 0. 5000 0. 3917 0. 2898 0. 1998 0. 1260 0. 0706 0. 0333 0. 0121 0. 0027 0. 0002
4 1. 0000 0. 9998 0. 9988 0. 9953 0. 9871 0. 9712 0. 9444 0. 9037 0. 8471 0. 7734 0. 6836 0. 5801 0. 4677 0. 3529 0. 2436 0. 1480 0. 0738 0. 0257 0. 0038
5 1. 0000 1. 0000 0. 9999 0. 9996 0. 9987 0. 9962 0. 9910 0. 9812 0. 9643 0. 9375 0. 8976 0. 8414 0. 7662 0. 6706 0. 5551 0. 4233 0. 2834 0. 1497 0. 0444
6 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 0. 9999 0. 9998 0. 9994 0. 9984 0. 9963 0. 9922 0. 9848 0. 9720 0. 9510 0. 9176 0. 8665 0. 7903 0. 6794 0. 5217 0. 3017
8 0 0. 6634 0. 4305 0. 2725 0. 1678 0. 1001 0. 0576 0. 0319 0. 0168 0. 0084 0. 0039 0. 0017 0. 0007 0. 0002 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000
1 0. 9428 0. 8131 0. 6572 0. 5033 0. 3671 0. 2553 0. 1691 0. 1064 0. 0632 0. 0352 0. 0181 0. 0085 0. 0036 0. 0013 0. 0004 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000
2 0. 9942 0. 9619 0. 8948 0. 7969 0. 6785 0. 5518 0. 4278 0. 3154 0. 2201 0. 1445 0. 0885 0. 0498 0. 0253 0. 0113 0. 0042 0. 0012 0. 0002 0. 0000 0. 0000
3 0. 9996 0. 9950 0. 9786 0. 9437 0. 8862 0. 8059 0. 7064 0. 5941 0. 4770 0. 3633 0. 2604 0. 1737 0. 1061 0. 0580 0. 0273 0. 0104 0. 0029 0. 0004 0. 0000
4 1. 0000 0. 9996 0. 9971 0. 9896 0. 9727 0. 9420 0. 8939 0. 8263 0. 7396 0. 6367 0. 5230 0. 4059 0. 2936 0. 1941 0. 1138 0. 0563 0. 0214 0. 0050 0. 0004
5 1. 0000 1. 0000 0. 9998 0. 9988 0. 9958 0. 9887 0. 9747 0. 9502 0. 9115 0. 8555 0. 7799 0. 6846 0. 5722 0. 4482 0. 3215 0. 2031 0. 1052 0. 0381 0. 0058
6 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 0. 9999 0. 9996 0. 9987 0. 9964 0. 9915 0. 9819 0. 9648 0. 9368 0. 8936 0. 8309 0. 7447 0. 6329 0. 4967 0. 3428 0. 1869 0. 0572
7 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 0. 9999 0. 9998 0. 9993 0. 9983 0. 9961 0. 9916 0. 9832 0. 9681 0. 9424 0. 8999 0. 8322 0. 7275 0. 5695 0. 3366
9 0 0. 6302 0. 3874 0. 2316 0. 1342 0. 0751 0. 0404 0. 0207 0. 0101 0. 0046 0. 0020 0. 0008 0. 0003 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000
1 0. 9288 0. 7748 0. 5995 0. 4362 0. 3003 0. 1960 0. 1211 0. 0705 0. 0385 0. 0195 0. 0091 0. 0038 0. 0014 0. 0004 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000
2 0. 9916 0. 9470 0. 8591 0. 7382 0. 6007 0. 4628 0. 3373 0. 2318 0. 1495 0. 0898 0. 0498 0. 0250 0. 0112 0. 0043 0. 0013 0. 0003 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000
3 0. 9994 0. 9917 0. 9661 0. 9144 0. 8343 0. 7297 0. 6089 0. 4826 0. 3614 0. 2539 0. 1658 0. 0994 0. 0536 0. 0253 0. 0100 0. 0031 0. 0006 0. 0001 0. 0000
4 1. 0000 0. 9991 0. 9944 0. 9804 0. 9511 0. 9012 0. 8283 0. 7334 0. 6214 0. 5000 0. 3786 0. 2666 0. 1717 0. 0988 0. 0489 0. 0196 0. 0056 0. 0009 0. 0000
5 1. 0000 0. 9999 0. 9994 0. 9969 0. 9900 0. 9747 0. 9464 0. 9006 0. 8342 0. 7461 0. 6386 0. 5174 0. 3911 0. 2703 0. 1657 0. 0856 0. 0339 0. 0083 0. 0006
6 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 0. 9997 0. 9987 0. 9957 0. 9888 0. 9750 0. 9502 0. 9102 0. 8505 0. 7682 0. 6627 0. 5372 0. 3993 0. 2618 0. 1409 0. 0530 0. 0084
7 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 0. 9999 0. 9996 0. 9986 0. 9962 0. 9909 0. 9805 0. 9615 0. 9295 0. 8789 0. 8040 0. 6997 0. 5638 0. 4005 0. 2252 0. 0712
8 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 0. 9999 0. 9997 0. 9992 0. 9980 0. 9954 0. 9899 0. 9793 0. 9596 0. 9249 0. 8658 0. 7684 0. 6126 0. 3698
10 0 0. 5987 0. 3487 0. 1969 0. 1074 0. 0563 0. 0282 0. 0135 0. 0060 0. 0025 0. 0010 0. 0003 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000
1 0. 9139 0. 7361 0. 5443 0. 3758 0. 2440 0. 1493 0. 0860 0. 0464 0. 0233 0. 0107 0. 0045 0. 0017 0. 0005 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000
2 0. 9885 0. 9298 0. 8202 0. 6778 0. 5256 0. 3828 0. 2616 0. 1673 0. 0996 0. 0547 0. 0274 0. 0123 0. 0048 0. 0016 0. 0004 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0000
3 0. 9990 0. 9872 0. 9500 0. 8791 0. 7759 0. 6496 0. 5138 0. 3823 0. 2660 0. 1719 0. 1020 0. 0548 0. 0260 0. 0106 0. 0035 0. 0009 0. 0001 0. 0000 0. 0000
4 0. 9999 0. 9984 0. 9901 0. 9672 0. 9219 0. 8497 0. 7515 0. 6331 0. 5044 0. 3770 0. 2616 0. 1662 0. 0949 0. 0473 0. 0197 0. 0064 0. 0014 0. 0001 0. 0000
5 1. 0000 0. 9999 0. 9986 0. 9936 0. 9803 0. 9527 0. 9051 0. 8338 0. 7384 0. 6230 0. 4956 0. 3669 0. 2485 0. 1503 0. 0781 0. 0328 0. 0099 0. 0016 0. 0001
6 1. 0000 1. 0000 0. 9999 0. 9991 0. 9965 0. 9894 0. 9740 0. 9452 0. 8980 0. 8281 0. 7340 0. 6177 0. 4862 0. 3504 0. 2241 0. 1209 0. 0500 0. 0128 0. 0010
7 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 0. 9999 0. 9996 0. 9984 0. 9952 0. 9877 0. 9726 0. 9453 0. 9004 0. 8327 0. 7384 0. 6172 0. 4744 0. 3222 0. 1798 0. 0702 0. 0115
8 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 0. 9999 0. 9995 0. 9983 0. 9955 0. 9893 0. 9767 0. 9536 0. 9140 0. 8507 0. 7560 0. 6242 0. 4557 0. 2639 0. 0861
9 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 0. 9999 0. 9997 0. 9990 0. 9975 0. 9940 0. 9865 0. 9718 0. 9437 0. 8926 0. 8031 0. 6513 0. 4013

Table 3: Standard Normal Probabilities: P(0 ≤ Z ≤ z)

z 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0.0 0.0000 0.0040 0.0080 0.0120 0.0160 0.0199 0.0239 0.0279 0.0319 0.0359
0.1 0.0398 0.0438 0.0478 0.0517 0.0557 0.0596 0.0636 0.0675 0.0714 0.0753
0.2 0.0793 0.0832 0.0871 0.0910 0.0948 0.0987 0.1026 0.1064 0.1103 0.1141
0.3 0.1179 0.1217 0.1255 0.1293 0.1331 0.1368 0.1406 0.1443 0.1480 0.1517
0.4 0.1554 0.1591 0.1628 0.1664 0.1700 0.1736 0.1772 0.1808 0.1844 0.1879
0.5 0.1915 0.1950 0.1985 0.2019 0.2054 0.2088 0.2123 0.2157 0.2190 0.2224
0.6 0.2257 0.2291 0.2324 0.2357 0.2389 0.2422 0.2454 0.2486 0.2517 0.2549
0.7 0.2580 0.2611 0.2642 0.2673 0.2704 0.2734 0.2764 0.2794 0.2823 0.2852
0.8 0.2881 0.2910 0.2939 0.2967 0.2995 0.3023 0.3051 0.3078 0.3106 0.3133
0.9 0.3159 0.3186 0.3212 0.3238 0.3264 0.3289 0.3315 0.3340 0.3365 0.3389
1.0 0.3413 0.3438 0.3461 0.3485 0.3508 0.3531 0.3554 0.3577 0.3599 0.3621
1.1 0.3643 0.3665 0.3686 0.3708 0.3729 0.3749 0.3770 0.3790 0.3810 0.3830
1.2 0.3849 0.3869 0.3888 0.3907 0.3925 0.3944 0.3962 0.3980 0.3997 0.4015
1.3 0.4032 0.4049 0.4066 0.4082 0.4099 0.4115 0.4131 0.4147 0.4162 0.4177
1.4 0.4192 0.4207 0.4222 0.4236 0.4251 0.4265 0.4279 0.4292 0.4306 0.4319
1.5 0.4332 0.4345 0.4357 0.4370 0.4382 0.4394 0.4406 0.4418 0.4429 0.4441
1.6 0.4452 0.4463 0.4474 0.4484 0.4495 0.4505 0.4515 0.4525 0.4535 0.4545
1.7 0.4554 0.4564 0.4573 0.4582 0.4591 0.4599 0.4608 0.4616 0.4625 0.4633
1.8 0.4641 0.4649 0.4656 0.4664 0.4671 0.4678 0.4686 0.4693 0.4699 0.4706
1.9 0.4713 0.4719 0.4726 0.4732 0.4738 0.4744 0.4750 0.4756 0.4761 0.4767
2.0 0.4772 0.4778 0.4783 0.4788 0.4793 0.4798 0.4803 0.4808 0.4812 0.4817
2.1 0.4821 0.4826 0.4830 0.4834 0.4838 0.4842 0.4846 0.4850 0.4854 0.4857
2.2 0.4861 0.4864 0.4868 0.4871 0.4875 0.4878 0.4881 0.4884 0.4887 0.4890
2.3 0.4893 0.4896 0.4898 0.4901 0.4904 0.4906 0.4909 0.4911 0.4913 0.4916
2.4 0.4918 0.4920 0.4922 0.4925 0.4927 0.4929 0.4931 0.4932 0.4934 0.4936
2.5 0.4938 0.4940 0.4941 0.4943 0.4945 0.4946 0.4948 0.4949 0.4951 0.4952
2.6 0.4953 0.4955 0.4956 0.4957 0.4959 0.4960 0.4961 0.4962 0.4963 0.4964
2.7 0.4965 0.4966 0.4967 0.4968 0.4969 0.4970 0.4971 0.4972 0.4973 0.4974
2.8 0.4974 0.4975 0.4976 0.4977 0.4977 0.4978 0.4979 0.4979 0.4980 0.4981
2.9 0.4981 0.4982 0.4982 0.4983 0.4984 0.4984 0.4985 0.4985 0.4986 0.4986
3.0 0.4987 0.4987 0.4987 0.4988 0.4988 0.4989 0.4989 0.4989 0.4990 0.4990
3.1 0.4990 0.4991 0.4991 0.4991 0.4992 0.4992 0.4992 0.4992 0.4993 0.4993
3.2 0.4993 0.4993 0.4994 0.4994 0.4994 0.4994 0.4994 0.4995 0.4995 0.4995
3.3 0.4995 0.4995 0.4995 0.4996 0.4996 0.4996 0.4996 0.4996 0.4996 0.4997
3.4 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4997 0.4998
3.5 0.4998 0.4998 0.4998 0.4998 0.4998 0.4998 0.4998 0.4998 0.4998 0.4998
3.6 0.4998 0.4998 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999
3.7 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999
3.8 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999 0.4999
3.9 0.5000 0.5000 0.5000 0.5000 0.5000 0.5000 0.5000 0.5000 0.5000 0.5000
0 z
12
Table 4: Upper-tail Critical Values of t-Distribution: t(α, ν)

α
ν 0.100 0.050 0.025 0.010 0.005
1 3.078 6.314 12.706 31.821 63.657
2 1.886 2.920 4.303 6.965 9.925
3 1.638 2.353 3.182 4.541 5.841
4 1.533 2.132 2.776 3.747 4.604
5 1.476 2.015 2.571 3.365 4.032
6 1.440 1.943 2.447 3.143 3.707
7 1.415 1.895 2.365 2.998 3.499
8 1.397 1.860 2.306 2.896 3.355
9 1.383 1.833 2.262 2.821 3.250
10 1.372 1.812 2.228 2.764 3.169
11 1.363 1.796 2.201 2.718 3.106
12 1.356 1.782 2.179 2.681 3.055
13 1.350 1.771 2.160 2.650 3.012
14 1.345 1.761 2.145 2.624 2.977
15 1.341 1.753 2.131 2.602 2.947
16 1.337 1.746 2.120 2.583 2.921
17 1.333 1.740 2.110 2.567 2.898
18 1.330 1.734 2.101 2.552 2.878
19 1.328 1.729 2.093 2.539 2.861
20 1.325 1.725 2.086 2.528 2.845
21 1.323 1.721 2.080 2.518 2.831
22 1.321 1.717 2.074 2.508 2.819
23 1.319 1.714 2.069 2.500 2.807
24 1.318 1.711 2.064 2.492 2.797
25 1.316 1.708 2.060 2.485 2.787
26 1.315 1.706 2.056 2.479 2.779
27 1.314 1.703 2.052 2.473 2.771
28 1.313 1.701 2.048 2.467 2.763
29 1.311 1.699 2.045 2.462 2.756
30 1.310 1.697 2.042 2.457 2.750
40 1.303 1.684 2.021 2.423 2.704
60 1.296 1.671 2.000 2.390 2.660
120 1.289 1.658 1.980 2.358 2.617
∞ 1.282 1.645 1.960 2.326 2.576

0 t
13
Table 5: Upper-tail Chi-square Critical Values: χ2(α,ν)

α
ν 0.995 0.99 0.975 0.95 0.9 0.1 0.05 0.025 0.01 0.005
1 3.93E-05 0.0002 0.0010 0.0039 0.0158 2.7055 3.8415 5.0239 6.6349 7.8794
2 0.0100 0.0201 0.0506 0.1026 0.2107 4.6052 5.9915 7.3778 9.2103 10.5966
3 0.0717 0.1148 0.2158 0.3518 0.5844 6.2514 7.8147 9.3484 11.3449 12.8382
4 0.2070 0.2971 0.4844 0.7107 1.0636 7.7794 9.4877 11.1433 13.2767 14.8603
5 0.4117 0.5543 0.8312 1.1455 1.6103 9.2364 11.0705 12.8325 15.0863 16.7496
6 0.6757 0.8721 1.2373 1.6354 2.2041 10.6446 12.5916 14.4494 16.8119 18.5476
7 0.9893 1.2390 1.6899 2.1673 2.8331 12.0170 14.0671 16.0128 18.4753 20.2777
8 1.3444 1.6465 2.1797 2.7326 3.4895 13.3616 15.5073 17.5345 20.0902 21.9550
9 1.7349 2.0879 2.7004 3.3251 4.1682 14.6837 16.9190 19.0228 21.6660 23.5894
10 2.1559 2.5582 3.2470 3.9403 4.8652 15.9872 18.3070 20.4832 23.2093 25.1882
11 2.6032 3.0535 3.8157 4.5748 5.5778 17.2750 19.6751 21.9200 24.7250 26.7568
12 3.0738 3.5706 4.4038 5.2260 6.3038 18.5493 21.0261 23.3367 26.2170 28.2995
13 3.5650 4.1069 5.0088 5.8919 7.0415 19.8119 22.3620 24.7356 27.6882 29.8195
14 4.0747 4.6604 5.6287 6.5706 7.7895 21.0641 23.6848 26.1189 29.1412 31.3193
15 4.6009 5.2293 6.2621 7.2609 8.5468 22.3071 24.9958 27.4884 30.5779 32.8013
16 5.1422 5.8122 6.9077 7.9616 9.3122 23.5418 26.2962 28.8454 31.9999 34.2672
17 5.6972 6.4078 7.5642 8.6718 10.0852 24.7690 27.5871 30.1910 33.4087 35.7185
18 6.2648 7.0149 8.2307 9.3905 10.8649 25.9894 28.8693 31.5264 34.8053 37.1565
19 6.8440 7.6327 8.9065 10.1170 11.6509 27.2036 30.1435 32.8523 36.1909 38.5823
20 7.4338 8.2604 9.5908 10.8508 12.4426 28.4120 31.4104 34.1696 37.5662 39.9968
21 8.0337 8.8972 10.2829 11.5913 13.2396 29.6151 32.6706 35.4789 38.9322 41.4011
22 8.6427 9.5425 10.9823 12.3380 14.0415 30.8133 33.9244 36.7807 40.2894 42.7957
23 9.2604 10.1957 11.6886 13.0905 14.8480 32.0069 35.1725 38.0756 41.6384 44.1813
24 9.8862 10.8564 12.4012 13.8484 15.6587 33.1962 36.4150 39.3641 42.9798 45.5585
25 10.5197 11.5240 13.1197 14.6114 16.4734 34.3816 37.6525 40.6465 44.3141 46.9279
26 11.1602 12.1981 13.8439 15.3792 17.2919 35.5632 38.8851 41.9232 45.6417 48.2899
27 11.8076 12.8785 14.5734 16.1514 18.1139 36.7412 40.1133 43.1945 46.9629 49.6449
28 12.4613 13.5647 15.3079 16.9279 18.9392 37.9159 41.3371 44.4608 48.2782 50.9934
29 13.1211 14.2565 16.0471 17.7084 19.7677 39.0875 42.5570 45.7223 49.5879 52.3356
30 13.7867 14.9535 16.7908 18.4927 20.5992 40.2560 43.7730 46.9792 50.8922 53.6720
40 20.7065 22.1643 24.4330 26.5093 29.0505 51.8051 55.7585 59.3417 63.6907 66.7660
50 27.9907 29.7067 32.3574 34.7643 37.6886 63.1671 67.5048 71.4202 76.1539 79.4900
60 35.5345 37.4849 40.4817 43.1880 46.4589 74.3970 79.0819 83.2977 88.3794 91.9517
70 43.2752 45.4417 48.7576 51.7393 55.3289 85.5270 90.5312 95.0232 100.4252 104.2149
80 51.1719 53.5401 57.1532 60.3915 64.2778 96.5782 101.8795 106.6286 112.3288 116.3211
90 59.1963 61.7541 65.6466 69.1260 73.2911 107.5650 113.1453 118.1359 124.1163 128.2989
100 67.3276 70.0649 74.2219 77.9295 82.3581 118.4980 124.3421 129.5612 135.8067 140.1695

0 Chi2

[2 marks] (vi) (vii) 2 .4. [4 marks] In general. what is the probability that the average of their test scores is between 510 and 550? [2 marks] Suppose 100 students go through a rigorous training program designed to raise their GMAT score. What would be the null and alternative hypotheses in order to test the claim that the training program actually works.Question 1 [12 marks in total] A large number of people worldwide take the GMAT exam each year as they apply for MBA programs. what score is required? [1 mark] In a random sample of 25. Administrators of the test know from past experience that the distribution of GMAT exam scores is closely approximated by a normal distribution with mean =525 and standard deviation =100. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) What would be the key features of the distribution of GMAT scores that led administrators of the test to assert that the normal distribution provides a close approximation? [1 mark] What is the probability that a person randomly drawn from those taking the test would have a test score between 510 and 550? [1 mark] If an MBA program requires you to get a score that puts you in the top 10% of the distribution. conduct the test using a significance level of  = 0. If the average test score is 541. what is the motivation for choosing small significance ( ) levels? [1 mark] Is it necessary to assume the underlying distribution of test scores was normal in order to undertake the test in part (v)? Explain your answer.05.

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