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Cardiology Mnemonics
Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes "Do Block AV": Digoxin B-blockers Adenosine Verapamil Aortic regurgitation: causes CREAM: Congenital Rheumatic damage Endocarditis Aortic dissection/ Aortic root dilatation Marfan’s Aortic stenosis characteristics SAD: Syncope Angina Dyspnoea

Apex beat: abnormalities found on palpation, causes of impalpable

causes are COPD: COPD Obesity Pleural. Pericardial effusion Dextrocardia Apex beat: differential for impalpable apex beat DOPES: Dextrocardia Obesity Pericarditis/ Pericardial tamponade/ Pneumothorax Emphysema Sinus inversus/ Student incompetence/ Scoliosis/ Skeletal abnormalities (eg pectus excavatum) Atrial fibrillation: causes A SHIT: .HILT: Heaving Impalpable Laterally displaced Thrusting/ Tapping _ If it is impalpable.

COPD Iatrogenic Rheumatic heart: mirtral regurgitation Atherosclerotic: MI.Alcohol Stenosis (mitral valve) Hypertension Infarction/ Ischaemia Thyrotoxicosis Atrial fibrillation: causes PIRATES: Pulmonary: PE. CAD Thyroid: hyperthyroid Endocarditis Sick sinus syndrome Atrial fibrillation: management ABCD: Anti-coagulate Beta-block to control rate Cardiovert Digoxin Beck's triad (cardiac tamponade) 3 D's: .

Distant heart sounds Distended jugular veins Decreased arterial pressure Betablockers: cardioselective betablockers "Betablockers Acting Exclusively At Myocardium" _ Cardioselective betablockers are: Betaxolol Acebutelol Esmolol Atenolol Metoprolol CHF: causes of exacerbation FAILURE: Forgot medication Arrhythmia/ Anaemia Ischemia/ Infarction/ Infection Lifestyle: taken too much salt Upregulation of CO: pregnancy. hyperthyroidism Renal failure Embolism: pulmonary CHF: causes of exacerbation A SMITH PEAR: .

etc) Coronary artery bypass graft: indications DUST: Depressed ventricular function Unstable angina Stenosis of the left main stem Triple vessel disease Coronary artery bypass graft: indications DUST: Depressed ventricular function Unstable angina Stenosis of the left main stem Triple vessel disease Depressed ST-segment: causes DEPRESSED ST: Drooping valve (MVP) .Anemia Salt/ Stress/ Stopping meds MI Infection/ Ischemia Thyroid (high/low) HTN Pericarditis Endocarditis (valve disease) Arrhythmia Rx (beta blocker.

Enlargement of LV with strain Potassium loss (hypokalemia) Reciprocal ST.depression (in I/W AMI) Embolism in lungs (pulmonary embolism) Subendocardial ischemia Subendocardial infarct Encephalon haemorrhage (intracranial haemorrhage) Dilated cardiomyopathy Shock Toxicity of digitalis. _ Note: consider bundle branch blocks when QRS complex is wide. young. LBBB Treatments [digoxin] . black] Ventricular hypertrophy Ectopic foci [eg calcified plaques] RBBB. ECG: T wave inversion causes INVERT: Ischemia Normality [esp. right bundle block "WiLLiaM MaRRoW": W pattern in V1-V2 and M pattern in V3-V6 is Left bundle block. quinidine ECG: left vs. M pattern in V1-V2 and W in V3-V6 is Right bundle block.

Exercise ramp ECG: contraindications RAMP: Recent MI Aortic stenosis MI in the last 7 days Pulmonary hypertension Heart compensatory mechanisms that 'save' organ blood flow during shock "Heart SAVER": Symphatoadrenal system Atrial natriuretic factor Vasopressin Endogenous digitalis-like factor Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system _ In all 5. system is activated/factor is released Heart failure: signs TAPED TORCH: Tachycardia Ascites Pulsus alternans Elevated jugular venous pressure Displaced apex beat .

Third heart sound Oedema Right ventricular heave Crepitations or wheeze Hepatomegaly (tender) Heart murmurs "hARD ASS MRS. so atrial filling . MSD": hARD: Aortic Regurg = Diastolic ASS: Aortic Stenosis = Systolic MRS: Mitral Regurg = Systolic MSD: Mitral Stenosis = Diastolic Jugular venous pressure (JVP) elevation: causes HOLT: Grab Harold Holt around the neck and throw him in the ocean: Heart failure Obstruction of venea cava Lymphatic enlargement .supraclavicular Intra-Thoracic pressure increase JVP: wave form ASK ME: Atrial contraction Systole (ventricular contraction) Klosure (closure) of tricusps.

Maximal atrial filling Emptying of atrium _ See diagram. MI: basic management BOOMAR: Bed rest Oxygen Opiate Monitor Anticoagulate Reduce clot size MI: signs and symptoms PULSE: Persistent chest pains Upset stomach Lightheadedness Shortness of breath Excessive sweating MI: therapeutic treatment ROAMBAL: Reassure Oxygen Aspirin .

Morphine (diamorphine) Beta blocker Arthroplasty Lignocaine MI: therapeutic treatment "O BATMAN!": Oxygen Beta blocker ASA Thrombolytics (eg heparin) Morphine Ace prn Nitroglycerin MI: therapeutic treatment MONAH: Morphine Oxygen Nitrogen Aspirin Heparin MI: treatment of acute MI COAG: Cyclomorph Oxygen Aspirin .

think "MRTHEM ARE holosystolic murmurs".) and it is male predominant. regurgitation (MR): epidemiology MS is a female title (Ms.Glycerol trinitrate Mitral regurgitation When you hear holosystolic murmurs. MR is a male title (Mr. Mitral stenosis (MS) vs.) and it is female predominant. Murmur attributes "IL PQRST" (person has ill PQRST heart waves): Intensity Location Pitch Quality Radiation Shape Timing Murmurs: innocent murmur features 8 S's: Soft Systolic Short Sounds (S1 & S2) normal .

Murmurs: louder with inspiration vs expiration LEft sided murmurs louder with Expiration RIght sided murmurs louder with Inspiration. soft. Mitral stenosis and Aortic regurgitation. blowing) Radiation . EKG) Standing/ Sitting (vary with position) Sternal depression Murmurs: locations and descriptions "MRS A$$": MRS: Mitral Regurgitation--Systolic A$$: Aortic Stenosis--Systolic _ The other two murmurs.Symptomless Special tests normal (X-ray. Murmurs: questions to ask SCRIPT: Site Character (eg harsh. are obviously diastolic.

Left sided heart murmurs are loudest on Expiration. Murmurs: systolic MR PV TRAPS: Mitral Regurgitation and Prolaspe VSD Tricupsid Regurgitation Aortic and Pulmonary Stenosis Murmurs: systolic types SAPS: Systolic Aortic Pulmonic Stenosis . left loudness "RILE": Right sided heart murmurs are louder on Inspiration.Intensity Pitch Timing Murmurs: right vs.

Ed Asner and Ms. diastolic Systolic murmurs: MR AS: "MR. diastolic PASS: Pulmonic & Aortic Stenosis=Systolic. Myocardial infarctions: treatment INFARCTIONS: IV access Narcotic analgesics (eg morphine. PA-C New Life Medical Clinic Murmurs: systolic vs. _ Similarly._ Systolic murmurs include aortic and pulmonary stenosis. pethidine) Facilities for defibrillation (DF) Aspirin/ Anticoagulant (heparin) . PAID: Pulmonic & Aortic Insufficiency=Diastolic. ASner". Diastolic murmurs: MS AR: "MS. Ciulla. Knowledge Level 1. ARden". Murmurs: systolic vs. System: Cardiovascular W. RN. it's common sense that if it is aortic and pulmonary stenosis it could also be mitral and tricusp regurgitation]. _ The famous people with those surnames are Mr. Jane Arden.

Rest Converting enzyme inhibitor Thrombolysis IV beta blocker Oxygen 60% Nitrates Stool Softeners Pericarditis: causes CARDIAC RIND: Collagen vascular disease Aortic aneurysm Radiation Drugs (such as hydralazine) Infections Acute renal failure Cardiac infarction Rheumatic fever Injury Neoplasms Dressler's syndrome Pericarditis: EKG "PericarditiS": PR depression in precordial leads. ST elevation. .

Peripheral vascular insufficiency: inspection criteria SICVD: Symmetry of leg musculature Integrity of skin Color of toenails Varicose veins Distribution of hair Pulseless electrical activity: causes PATCH MED: Pulmonary embolus Acidosis Tension pneumothorax Cardiac tamponade Hypokalemia/ Hyperkalemia/ Hypoxia/ Hypothermia/ Hypovolemia Myocardial infarction Electrolyte derangements Drugs Rheumatic fever: Jones 5 major criteria STREP: Sydenhams chorea Transient migratory arthritis Rheumatic subcutaneous nodules Erythema marginatum .

Pancarditis (endocarditis. since Rheumatic fever is caused by group A strep. Rheumatic fever: Jones criteria _ Major criteria: CANCER: Carditis Arthritis Nodules Chorea Erythema Rheumatic anamnesis _ Minor criteria: CAFE PAL: CRP increased Arthralgia Fever Elevated ESR Prolonged PR interval Anamnesis of rheumatism Leucocytosis Rheumatic fever: Jones major criteria JONES: Joints (migrating polyarthritis) Obvious. pancarditis. the heart (carditis. pericarditis. myocarditis. endocarditis or valvulits) Nodes (subcutaneous nodules) Erythema marginatum . pericarditis) _ STREP.

Sydenham's chorea Rheumatic fever: Revised Jones criteria JONES PEACE: _ Major criteria: Joints: migratory O (heart shaped) Carditis: new onset murmur Nodules. Rheumatic fever: Revised Jones' criteria JONES crITERIA: _ Major criteria: Joint (arthritis) Obvious (Cardiac) Nodule (Rheumatic) Erythema marginatum . or rising strep antibody titer). rapid antigen test. subcutaneous: extensor surfaces Erythema marginatum Sydenham's chorea _ Minor criteria: PR interval. plus evidence of recent GAS infection (throat cx. prolonged ESR elevated Arthralgias CRP elevated Elevated temperature (fever) _ Need 2 major or 1 major and 2 minor criteria.

Sinus bradycardia: aetiology "SINUS BRADICARDIA" (sinus bradycardia): Sleep Infections (myocarditis) Neap thyroid (hypothyroid) Unconsciousness (vasovagal syncope) Subnormal temperatures (hypothermia) Biliary obstruction Raised CO2 (hypercapnia) Acidosis Deficient blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Imbalance of electrolytes Cushing's reflex (raised ICP) Aging . Parasympathetic acts on Potassium channels (PS).Sydenham chorea _ Minor criteria: Inflammatory cells (leukocytosis) Temperature (fever) ESR/CRP elevated Raised PR interval Itself (previous Hx of Rheumatic fever) Arthralgia Sino-atrial node: innervation Sympathetic acts on Sodium channels (SS).

Rx (drugs. Dopa. etc) ST elevation causes in ECG] ELEVATION: Electrolytes LBBB Early repolarization Ventricular hypertrophy Aneurysm Treatment (eg pericardiocentesis) . such as high-dose atropine) Deep anaesthesia Ischemic heart disease Athletes Sinus tachycardia TACH FEVER: Tamponade/ Thyrotoxicosis Anemia CHF Hypotension Fever Excrutiating pain Volume depletion Exercise Rx (Theo. Epi.

Injury (AMI. contusion) Osborne waves (hypothermia) Non-occlusive vasospasm Supraventricular tachycardia: treatment ABCDE: Adenosine Beta-blocker Calcium channel antagonist Digoxin Excitation (vagal stimulation) Ventricular tachycardia: treatment LAMB: Lidocaine Amiodarone Mexiltene/ Magnesium Beta-blocker CHEMISTRY .

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