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AP Chemistry - Equilibrium and LeChatelier's Principle Lab

AP Chemistry - Equilibrium and LeChatelier's Principle Lab

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Published by: Jonathan Chen on Jan 21, 2011
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Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to investigate the equilibrium of a saturated NaCl solution, an acid-base indicator using

HCl and NaOH, the complex ion FeSCN+2, and two different complex cobalt ions by adding "stress"to these systems by changing the concentration of one of the reactants or products or by changing the temperature of the system. Background: Le Chatelier's Principle states that if an equilibrium system is subjected to a stress, the system will react to remove the stress.To remove a stress, a system can only do one of two things: form more products using up reactants, or reverse the reaction and form more reactants, using up products. In this experiment you will form several equilibrium systems. Then, by putting different stresses on the systems, you will observe how equilibrium systems react to a stress. Acid-base indicators are large organic molecules that can gain and lose hydrogen ions to form substances that have different colors. The reaction of the indicator bromthymol blue can be illustrated as follows: HIn(aq) H+(aq) + In-(aq) Yellow Blue In this reaction, HIn is the neutral indicator molecule, and IN- is the indicator ion after the molecule has lost a hydrogen ion. Equilibrium reactions can easily be forced to go in either direction. An equilibrium solution can be formed in solution with the following ions: Fe+3(aq) + SCN-(aq) FeSCN+2(aq) Colorless Colorless Red-brown The iron ion (Fe+3) and the thiocyanate ion (SCN-) are both colorless; however, the ion that forms from their combination, the FeSCN+2 ion, is a dark redbrown. It is the color of this ion that will indicate how the equilibrium system is being affected. Phosphate ions have the ability to form complex ions with Fe+3, which has the same effect as removing Fe+ from solution. In Part 4, the equilibrium between two different complex ions of cobalt will be investigated. The reaction is endothermic: Co(H2O)6+2(aq) + 4Cl-(aq) CoCl4-2(aq) + 6H2O(l) ¨H = +50kJ/mol Pink Blue Solver and chloride ions combine to form a precipitate of AgCl. Safety Precautions: HCl is hazardous and should be handled with care. It also has strong vapors that should not be inhaled. Wash spills off with lots of water, and if

spilledneutralize with baking soda. NaOH is also hazardous. If spilled, neutralize with vinegar. Ethanol is flammable. Turn off all flames. Silver nitrate causes stains on skin and clothing. Wash spills off with soap and water immediately.Wear lab safety goggles &a chemical-resistant apron. Materials: y HCI, 12 M AND 0.1 M y NaCl(s) y KSCN, 0.002 M y KSCN(s) y Bromothymol blue indicator solution y NaOH, 0.1 M y Fe(NO3)3, 0.2 M y AgNO3, 0.1 M y Ethanol Procedure: Part 1 ± Equilibrium in a Saturated Solution 1) Pour some solid NaCl into a 13- X 100-mm test tube. 2) Fill the tube ¾ with distilled water. 3) Cork and shake to saturate solution. If all the NaCl dissolves, pour additional NaCl into the test tube and shake again until solution is saturated and excess solid can be seen at the bottom of the test tube. 4) Filter the solution into a second test tube. 5) To this saturated NaCl solution, add Cl-ions in the form of concentrated HCl. Record observations. Part 2 ± Acid-Base Indicator Equilibrium 1) Fill a small test tube about half-full of distilled water. Add several drops of bromthymol blue indicator solution. 2) Add 5 drops of HCl and stir. Notes the color of the indicator. 3) Add 0.1M NaOH drop by drop while stirring until no further color change occurs. Again, note the color. 4) See if you can add the right amount of acid to this test tube to cause the solution to be green in color after it is stirred (half of the indicator is blue and half is yellow). Part 3 ± A Complex Ion Equilibrium 1) Pour about 25mL of 0.0020M KSCN solution into a beaker.

y y y y y y y

Cobalt(II) chloride/ CoCl2*6H2O(s) Disodium hydrogen phosphate/ Na2HPO4(S) Test tubes, 13 x 150-mm Test tube rack Beaker, 100 mL Graduated cylinders Funnel, filter paper, and holder for funnel

2) Add 25mL of distilled water and 5 drops of Fe(NO3)3. Swirl the solution, and note the following: the color ofFe(NO3)3solution, the color of the KSCN solution, and the color of the resulting complex ion. 3) Pour equal amounts of the solution from the beaker into four test tubes. 4) Add 2-3 crystals of solid KSCN to the 2nd test tube. Observe. 5) Add 6 drops of Fe(NO3)3solutionto the 3rd test tube. Stir and observe. 6) Add small crystals of Na2HPO4, a few at a time, to the 4th test tube. Stir and observe. Part 4 ± Equilibrium with Cobalt Complex Ions 1) Measure10mL of ethanol into a beaker. 2) Examine solid cobalt(II) chloride and note its color. 3) Dissolve a small amount of cobalt(II) chloride (about half the size of a pea) in the beaker of ethanol. The solution should be purple. If it is pink, add a little concentrated HCl until the color is purple. 4) Put 2mL of alcoholic cobalt solution into each of the 3 test tubes. 5) To one of the test tubes, add 3 drops of distilled water, one drop at a time while stirring, noting what happens with each drop. 6) Add 3 drops of distilled water to each of the other 2 test tubes. Observe the effect of this stress on the system. 7) To the 2nd test tube, add 5 drops of concentrated HCl, 12M, one drop at a time while stirring. Observe. 8) To the 3rd test tube add a few crystals of solid NaCl. Stir and observe. 9) Put the remainder of the alcoholic cobalt solution from the beaker into a 4th test tube. Add 10 drops of 0.1M AgNO3, one drop at a time. Note the color of the solution as chloride ions precipitate. 10) Obtain a sealed Beral pipet containing some of the alcoholic cobalt chloride-water system. Note its color, andimmerse the large end of the pipet in hot water (about 60 C). Observe. 11) Chill the Beral pipet in an ice bath. Observe.

Analysis/Observations: Part 1 - The saturated solution of NaCl had a clear color, and some tiny salt particles were suspended throughout the test tube after shaking. Adding Cl- in the form of HCl turned the solution yellow by forcing the reaction to the left and the dissociated Cl- ions to recombine into HCL.Fumes were visibly seen. Part 2 ± Adding HCl to the bromothymol blue solution shifted the reaction to the left, thus turning the solution a yellow-orange. Adding NaOH shifted the

reaction to the right, thus turning the solution blue.After adding a few drops of HCl, the solution turned solution green, coinciding with the reach in equilibrium. Part 3 ± KCN solution was observed to have a clear color, as was Fe(NO3)3. The color of the complex ion was observed as a burnt orange. The color of the solution in test tube 1, the reference, was observed to have a burnt orange color. Adding SCN-to test tube 2 in the form of KSCNshifted the reaction to the right, which turned the solution a dark red. AddingFe(NO3)3 to test tube 3 also shifted the reaction to the right and turned the solution red, although not a dark a shade of red. The reason behind the different intensity of hue is that more SCN- dissociated than Fe+3.Test tube 4, which had NaPO4 added to it, turned clear. Part 4 ± Solid Cobalt(II) Chloride solution was observed to have a magenta color. The top ¾ of test tube 1 was purple in color, while the bottom ¼ of it was pink. This was the result of adding water, whichshifted the reaction to the left and turned the solution pink. Adding water and HCl to test tube 2 turned the solution blue, as adding Cl- in the form of HCl forced the reaction to the right. Test tube 3, which had water and NaCl added to it, turned a lighter blue. The color change was to a lighter shade of blue because NaCl does not dissociate as manyCl- ions as does the strong acid HCl. Test tube 4, which had silver nitrate added to it, turned dark blue on top and had a pink colored precipitate on the bottom. Alcoholic cobalt(II) chloride in the sealed Beral pipet that was plunged into hot water changed color from a light blue to dark blue. This is because increasing the temperature shifted the reaction to right and the solution to turn blue. Alcoholiccobalt(II) chloride in the sealed Beral pipet that was dunked into an ice bath changed color from a light blue to pink.This is because a decrease in heat shifted the reaction to the left.

Conclusion: Overall, the application of Le Châtelier's Principle explained the chemistry behind the colorchanges taking place inthe experiment. When adding reactant into a solution, thevolume of the solution (and as a result the concentration of thereactants in the solution) was immediately changed. LeChâtelier's Principle was then predicted which side the reaction would beshifted.Because the reactants and products were both of distinctly clear and yellow color (Part 1), yellow-orange, blue, and green color (Part 2), clear, burnt orange color, and light and dark shades or red (Part 3),purple and pink and shades of light and dark blue (Part 4), respectively, changein equilibrium could be easily observed through visible, qualitative color changes. Thesecolor changes were indications of Le Chatelier's Principle, which states that if a system is subjected to a stress, the system will react to remove the stress. To remove the stress,reactionseither: shifted to the right and formed more products, using up reactants; or shifted to the left and form more reactants, using up products.

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