Purpose

:
The purpose of this lab is to determine the mole ratio of the reactants sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3)when reacted in a chemical reaction.

Background:
A balanced chemical equation gives the mole ratios of the reactants and products involved in the chemical reaction. However, when the formulas of the products are not known, experimental measurements can be made to determine those ratios. This experiment uses the method of continuous variations to determine the mole ratio of the two reactants. First, solutions of the reactants are prepared in which the concentrations are known. Second, the solutions are mixed a number of times using different ratios of reactants. Third, the change of temperature is the property to be measured. The reactions are all exothermic, so the heat produced will be directly proportional to the amount of reaction that occurs. Since the experiment is designed so that the volume of solution is a constant for all measurements, the temperature change will also be proportional to the quantity of reactants consumed. The total number of moles of reactants is also kept a constant for the series of measurements. Each measurement is made with a different mole ratio of reactants. The optimum ratio (determined after the results of the trials are graphed) is the stoichiometric ratio in the equation, which means that it should consume the greatest amount of reactants, form the greatest amount of products, and generate the most heat and maximum temperature change.

Materials:
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0.50M sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) 0.50M sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) as ³Solution B´ Styrofoam cup Graduated cylinders, 10mL, 25mL, and 50mL Thermometer Wash bottle filled with distilled water

Procedure:
1) Measure the temperature of the NaCLO solution and of ³Solution B,´ and record the data in a table. Use the same thermometer, rinsing with distilled water when switching solutions. The solutions should be the same temperature. If they are not, a correction must be made for the temperature difference after every trial by adding the products of the volume of each of the solutions by their respective initial temperatures and dividing that product by the total volume of solution, 50mL. 2) Mix varying volumes of each solution (measured using appropriate graduated cylinders) in the Styrofoam cup, covering the closed system each time with a lid made by cutting off the top of another Styrofoam cup. Stir the solution with the thermometer, and record the highest temperature reached by the mixture.

3) Pour the solution down the sink, and repeat the process using a different ratio of the two substances, always keeping the total volume at 50.0mL. Continue testing various ratios until you have obtained at least 3 measurements on each side of the one that gave the maximum temperature. 4) Plot the data. Draw two straight lines of best fit. The stoichiometric mole ratio of the reactants is the point of intersection on the graph.

Lab Questions:
1) Explain how this method allows you to find the mole ratio of reactants.
Mixing different volumes of the two reactants resulted in different temperature changes. The temperature change was directly proportional to the quantity of reactants consumed because the experiment was designed so that the volume of solution and the total number of moles of reactants was a constant for the series of experiments. Thus, the optimum ratio(determined after the results of the trials are graphed) is the ratio of the volume of reactants that consumed the greatest amount of reactants, formed the greatest amount of products, and generated the most heat and maximum temperature change.

2) Why must you keep a constant volume of reactants?
A constant volume of reactants must be kept so that the resulting changes in temperature can be directly compared because they are directly proportional to the quantity of reactants consumed in the reaction.

3) Is it necessary that the concentrations of the two solutions be the
same? Yes; in order to for the stoichiometric mole ratio of the reactants to be accurate after the results of the trial are graphed, the concentrations of the two solutions must be the same. This is because molar concentrationis moles of solute divided by liter of solution.

4) What is meant by the term limiting reagent?
A substance described as a limiting reagent is a reactant in a chemical reaction that will be completely reacted before all other reactants in the reaction are used up, causing the reaction to stop.

5) Does the measurement of temperature or the measurement of volume
limit the precision of your data? Explain. The measurement of temperature limits the precision of the data to 3 significant figures, and the thermometer used was capable of measuring temperature to the tenths of a degree. The measurement of volume limits the precision of the data to 2 significant figures because the graduated cylinders used were only capable of measuring volume to the nearest mL.

6) Which reactant is the limited reagent along the upward and downward
sloping lines of your graph? Na2S2O3 and NaCLO, respectively

7) What physical properties, other than temperature change, could use
the method of continuous variations? Color intensity of a reactant or product, the mass of a precipitate that forms, or the volume of a gas evolved

8) Why is it more accurate to use the point of intersection of the two lines
to find the mole ratio rather than the ratio associated with the greatest temperature change? Unless the optimum ratio was actually tested as a trial, the only way it can be found is by using linear regression to accurately calculate the proportion of volumes of reactants that would form the optimum ratio. The ratio associated with the greatest temperature change in the experiment cannot be assumed to be the optimum ratio because minute variations to it will result in a higher temperature change.

9) If the two solutions used are not at the same initial temperature, a
correction must be made to find the correct change in temperature. How should this be done? Add the products of the volume used of each of the solutions by their respective initial temperatures and dividing that product by the total volume of solution, 50mL.This quotient is the initial temperature of each of the varying solutions.

Conclusion:
The stoichiometric mole ratio of NaCLO to Na2S2O3 is 3:1. Graphing the data obtained through the trials showed a optimum volumetric ratio of the reactants to be approx.37mL of NaCLO to 13mL of Na2S2O3, which rounds to a 3:1 ratio. The stoichiometric mole ratio of the reactants means that 3 moles of NaClO will react with 1 mole of Na2S2O3 so that the reaction proceeds to completion, all reagent is consumed, and no residues remain. Also, this ratio of reactants will consume the greatest amount of reactants, form the greatest amount of products, and generate the most heat and maximum temperature change.

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