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17.1 Vector Fields
D ET16
ET 16.1
1. F(x,y) = ~(i+j)
All vectors in this field are identical, with length ~ and direction parallel to the line y = x.
2. F(x,y) = i+xj
The length of the vector i + x j is VI + x2. Vectors are tangent to parabolas opening about the yaxis.
3. F(x, y) = y i + ~ j.
The length of the vector y i + ~ j is V y2 + ~. Vectors are tangent to parabolas opening about the xaxis.
4. F(x,y) = (xy)i+xj
The length of the vector (x  y) i + x j is
j(x  y)2 + x2. Vectors along the line y = x are
vertical.
y
/
y
y
x
x
x
563
564 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
5 F( ) _ y i + xj
. x.y
. Jx2 + y2
The length of the vector ~ is I. x2 + y2
7.F(x,y,z)=j
All vectors in this field are parallel to the yaxis and have length 1.



 
0 

  y
x   9. F(x, y, z) = yj
The length of F(x, y, z) is Iyl. No vectors emanate from the xzplane since y = ° there. In each plane y = b, all the vectors are identical.



o +



y
x

yi  xj 6.F(x,y)= ~ yx2 + y2
All the vectors F(x, y) are unit vectors tangent to circles centered at the origin with radius J x2 + y2.
y
x
8. F(x, y, z) = zj
At each point (x, y, z), F(x, y, z) is a vector of length I z]. For z > 0, all point in the direction of the positive yaxis while for z < 0, all are in the direction of the negative yaxis.
x 2
10. F(x,y,z) =j  i
All vectors in this field have length V2 and point in the same direction, parallel to the xyplane.
y
x
11. F(x, y) = (y, x) corresponds to graph II. In the first quadrant all the vectors have positive x and ycomponents, in the second quadrant all vectors have positive xcomponents and negative ycomponents, in the third quadrant all vectors have negative x and ycomponents, and in the fourth quadrant all vectors have negative xcomponents and positive ycomponents. In addition, the vectors get shorter as we approach the origin.
SECTION 17.1 VECTOR FIELDS ET SECTION 16.1 0 565
12. F(x, y) = (1, sin y) corresponds to graph IV since the xcomponent of each vector is constant, the vectors are independent of x (vectors along horizontal lines are identical), and the vector field appears to repeat the same pattern vertically.
13. F(x, y) = (x ~ 2, x + 1) corresponds to graph I since the vectors are independent of y (vectors along vertical lines are identical) and, as we move to the right, both the x and the ycomponents get larger.
14. F(x, y) = (y, l/x) corresponds to graph III. As in Exercise II, all the vectors in the first quadrant have positive xand ycomponents, in the second quadrant all vectors have positive xcomponents and negative ycomponents, in the third quadrant all vectors have negative x and ycomponents, and in the fourth quadrant all vectors have negative xcomponents and positive ycomponents. Also, the vectors become longer as we approach the yaxis.
15. F(x, y, z) = i + 2j + 3 k corresponds to graph IV, since all vectors have identical length and direction.
16. F(x, y, z) = i + 2j + z k corresponds to graph I, since the horizontal vector components remain constant, but the vectors above the xyplane point generally upward while the vectors below the xyplane point generally downward.
11. F (x, y, z) = x i + y j + 3 k corresponds to graph III; the projection of each vector onto the xyplane is x i + y j, which points away from the origin, and the vectors point generally upward because their zcomponents are all 3.
18. F(x, y, z) = xi + yj + z k corresponds to graph II; each vector F(x, y, z) has the same length and direction as the position vector of the point (x, y, z), and therefore the vectors all point directly away from the origin.
19.
4.5
.~ ~ \ I
\ I
\ \ , , I
1 1 , I J
I j I j
j I 1 I
J I , 1 I
I , , \ \
I \ \ \
I \ \ \ 4.5
20.
4.5
2.2
", \
"' , .
, ,. /' , /'
2.2 1:,,'fl2.2
. , ...
, '\,~
2.2
4.5
The vector field seems to have very short vectors near the line y = 2x. For F(x, y) = (0,0) we must have y2 ~ 2xy = 0 and 3xy ~ 6x2 = O. The first equation holds if y = 0 or y = 2x, and the second holds if
x = 0 or y = 2x. So both equations hold [and thus F(x, y) = 0] along the line y = 2x.
From the graph, it appears that all of the vectors in the field lie on lines through the origin, and that the vectors have very small magnitudes near the circle [x] = 2 and near the origin. Note that F(x) = 0 ¢}
rir ~ 2) = 0 ¢} r = 0 or 2, so as we suspected, F(x) = 0 for
[x] = 2 and for [x] = O. Note that where r2 ~ r < 0, the vectors point towards the origin, and where r2 ~ r > 0, they point away from the origin.
21. 'Vf(x,y) = fx(x,y)i + fy (x,y)j = _1_ i + _2_j
x + 2y x + 2y
22. 'V f(x, y) = fx (x, y)i + fy(x, y)j = [x'" (~,Be,BX) + o:x",le,BX] i + OJ = (0: ~ ,Bx )x",le,Bx i
23. 'V f(x, y, z) = fx(x, y, z) i + fy(x, y, z)j + fz(x, y, z) k
x i+ y j+ z k
...; x2 + y2 + Z2 ...; x2 + y2 + Z2 ...; x2 + y2 + Z2
566 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
24. 'V f(x, y, z) = fx(x, y, z) i + fy(x, y, z)j + fz(x, y, z) k
= (COS;) ix (Sin;) G) j  x ( Sin;) (  ;2) k
( y) . x (. y). xy (. Y) k
= cos ; 1  ; sin ; J + ~ sm;
25. f(x, y) = xy  2x => 'Vf(x,y) = (y  2) i +xj.
The length of'Vf(x,y) is J(y  2)2 + x2 and 'V f (x, y) terminates on the line y = x + 2 at the point (x + y  2, x + y).
27. We graph 'V f along with a contour map of f. 6
6
The graph shows that the gradient vectors are perpendicular to the level curves. Also, the gradient vectors point in the direction in which f is increasing and are longer where the level curves are closer together.
26. f(x,y) = ~(X+y)2 =>
'Vf(x,y) = ~(x + y) i + ~(x + y)j. The length of 'V f(x, y) is
V~(x + y)2 = h Ix + yl· The vectors are perpendicular to the line y = x and point away from the line. with length that increases as the distance from the line y = x increases.
28. We graph 'V f along with a contour map of l 4
4
The graph shows that the gradient vectors are perpendicular to the level curves. Also. the gradient vectors point in the direction in which f is increasing and are longer where the level curves are closer together.
SECTION 17.1 VECTOR FIELDS ET SECTION 16.1 0 567
29. I (x, y) = xy =} V I (x, y) = y i + x j. In the first quadrant, both components of each vector are positive, while in the third quadrant both components are negative. However, in the second quadrant each vector's xcomponent is positive while its ycomponent is negative (and vice versa in the fourth quadrant). Thus, V I is graph IV.
30. I(x, y) = x2  y2 =} V I(x, y) = 2x i  2yj. In the first quadrant, the xcomponent of each vector is positive while the ycomponent is negative. The other three quadrants are similar. where the xcomponent of each vector has the same sign as the xvalue of its initial point, and the ycomponent has sign opposite that of the yvalue of the initial point. Thus. V I is graph III.
31. I(x, y) = x2 + y2 =} V I(x, y) = 2x i + 2yj. Thus, each vector V I(x, y) has the same direction and twice the length of the position vector of the point (x, y), so the vectors all point directly away from the origin and their lengths increase as we move away from the origin. Hence, V I is graph II.
32. I(x,y) = vlx2 +y2 =}
1
IV I (x, y) I = ..fX2+il vi x2 + y2 = 1, so all vectors are unit vectors. In addition. each vector V I (x, y) has the x2 +y2
same direction as the position vector of the point (x, y), so the vectors all point directly away from the origin. Hence, V I is graph I.
33. (a) We sketch the vector field F (x, y) = x i  y j along with several approximate flow lines.The flow lines appear to be hyperbolas with shape similar to the graph of y = ± 1 / x, so we might guess that the flow lines have equations
y = c/x.
(b) If x = x(t) and y = yet) are parametric equations of a flow line, then the velocity vector of the flow line at the point (x, y) is x' (t) i + y' (t) j. Since the velocity vectors coincide with the vectors in the vector field, we have x' (t) i + y' (t) j = x i  y j =} dx / dt = x, dy / dt = y. To solve these differential equations. we know dx/dt=x =} dx/x=dt =} Inlxl=t+C =} x=±et+c=AetforsomeconstantA,and dy/dt=y =} dy/y=dt =} Inlyl=t+K =} y=±et+K=BetforsomeconstantB. Therefore xy = Aet Bet = AB = constant. If the flow line passes through (1,1) then
(1) (1) = constant = 1 =} xy = 1 =} Y = l/x, x> o.
34. (a) We sketch the vector field F(x, y) = i + xj along with several approximate flow lines.The flow lines appear to be parabolas.
568 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
(b) If x = x(t) and y = y(t) are parametric equations of a flow line, then the velocity vector of the flow line at the point (x, y) is x' (t) i + y' (t) j. Since the velocity vectors coincide with the vectors in the vector field, we have
I ( ). I ( ) • • • dx 1 dy dy dy / dt x
x t 1 + y t J = 1 + z j => dt = 'dt = x. Thus dx = dx/dt = 1 = x.
(c) From part (b), dy/dx = x. Integrating, we have y = ~X2 + c. Since the particle starts at the origin, we know (0,0) is on the curve, so 0 = 0 + c => c = 0 and the path the particle follows is y = ~X2.
17.2 Line Integrals
ET 16.2
1. x = t2 and y = t, 0 ::; t ::; 2, so by Formula 3
icYdS = 12 t (~~) 2 + (~;) 2 dt = 12 t J(2t)2 + (1)2 dt
= I~tv4t2 + Idt = f2 (4e + 1)3/2]: = f2(17v'i7 1)
2, Ie ~ ds = 111/2 ~ J (4t3)2 + (3t2)2 dt = 111/2 + V16t6 + 9t4 dt = 111/2 t V16t2 + 9 dt = ...!... (16e + 9)3/2] 1 =...!... (253/2 _ 133/2) = ...!... (125  13 v'13)
48 1/2 48 48
3. Parametric equations for C are x = 4 cos i; Y = 4 sin t,  ~ ::; t ::; ~. Then
Ie xy4 ds = I:~~2( 4 cos t)( 4 sin t)4 J (4 sin t)2 + (4 cos t)2dt
= I:~~2 45 costsin4tV16 (sin2 t + cos2t)dt
= 45 fr~~2 (sin4tcost)(4)dt = (4)6[i sin'' t]:~/2 = 2t = 1638.4
4. Parametric equations for C are x = 1 + 3t, y = 2 + 5t, 0 ::; t ::; 1. Then
I . b . h 2 + 5t d 5 dt d 1+3t __.._ v  31 e1+3t dt gives
ntegratmg y parts Wit u = => u = ,v = e r
Ie yeX ds = v'34 [i (2 + 5t) e1+3t  ~e1+3tl ~
= v'34 [(~  ~) e4  (~  ~) e] = ~ (16e4  e)
5. If we choose x as the parameter, parametric equations for C are x = x, y = x2 for 1 ::; x ::; 3 and
Ie (xy + In x) dy = 113 (x . x2 + In x) 2x dx = 113 2 (x 4 + x In x) dx
= 2 [i x5 + ~ x2 In x  ~ x2] ~ (by integrating by parts in the second term) _ 2 (243 + g In 3  g  ! + !) = 464 + 9 In 3
 5 24545
6. Choosing y as the parameter, we have x = e", y = y, 0 ::; y ::; 1. Then Ie xe" dx = I; eY(eY)eY dy = I; e3y dy = ~e3Y]~ = ~(e3  1).
7.
y
(3,2)
o (2,0)
8.
y
SECTION 17.2 LINE INTEGRALS ET SECTION 162 D 569
x
c = C1 +C2
OnC1:x=x,y=0 =? dy=Odx,0~x~2.
On C2: x = z, y = 2x  4 =? dy = 2 dx, 2 ~ x ~ 3.
Then
I c xy dx + (x  y) dy = I c! xy dx + (x  y) dy + J C2 xy dx + (x  y) dy
= J: (0 + 0) dx + J: [(2X2  4x) + (x + 4)(2)] dx = I: (2X2  6x + 8) dx = ¥
C= C1 +C2
OnC1:x=cost =? dx=sintdt,y=sint =? dy = cos t dt, 0 ~ t ~ tt .
On C2: x = 1  t =? dx = dt, Y = 3t =? dy = 3 dt, 0 ~ t ~ 1.
x
Then Jcsinxdx+ cosydy = Ic! sinxdx+cosydy+ Ic2sinxdx+cosydy
= Jo" sine cos t)(  sin t dt) + cos (sin t) cos t dt
+ J01 sine 1  t)( dt) + cos(3t)(3 dt)
= [ cos(cos t) + sin(sint)l~ + [ cos( 1  t) + sin(3t)l~ =  cos( cos 7r) + sin(sin 7r) + cos (cos 0)  sin(sin 0)
 cos ( 2) + sin(3) + cos( 1)  sin(O)
=  cos( 1) + sinO + cos(l)  sin 0  cos( 2) + sin3 + cos( 1)
where we have used the identity cos( 0) = cos O.
=  cos 1 + cos 1  cos 2 + sin 3 + cos 1 = cos 1  cos 2 + sin 3
9. x = 4sint, y = 4cost, z = 3t, 0 ~ t ~ ~. Then by Formula 9,
j 1,,/2
c xy3ds= a (4sint)(4cost)3
(dx)2 (dy)2 (dz)2
dt + dt + dt dt
= 1"/2 256cos3tsintV16(cos2t+sin2t) +9dt = 1280 fa" /2 cos:' t sin t dt = 320 cos" t 1 ~ /2 = 320
570 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
10. Parametric equations for 0 are x = 4t, Y = 6  5t, z = 1 + 6t, 0 ~ t ~ 1. Then
[ t4 t3]1
=J77 96·  16·  = §2J77
4 3 0 3
11. Parametric equations for 0 are x = i; Y = 2t, z = 3t, 0 ~ t ~ 1. Then
Ie xeYZ ds = 101 te(2t)(3t) v12 + 22 + 32 dt = v'14 101 te6t2 dt = v'14 [..l..e6t2] 1 = .YM(e6 _ 1)
12 0 12
12. J(dx/dt)2 + (dy/dt)2 + (dz/dt)2 = J12 + (2t)2 + (3t2)2 = VI + 4t2 + 9t4. Then Ie(2x+9z)ds=I01(2t+9t3)V1+4t2+9t4dt [let u=1+4e+9t4 =? 1du=(2t+9t3)dt]
14. Ie zdx + xdy + ydz = 101 e . 2tdt + t2 . 3e dt + t3. 2tdt = 101 (2t3 + 5t4) dt = [lt4 + t5]1 = 1 + 1 = 2.
202 2
15.
On 01: x = 1 + t =? dx = di, Y = 3t =? dy = 3 dt, z = 1 =? dz = 0 dt, 0 ~ t ~ 1.
On 02: x = 2 =? dx = Odt, Y = 3 + 2t =?
dy = 2 di; z = 1 + t =? dz = dt, 0 ~ t ~ 1.
0,0.1)
(2,5,2)
y
x
Then Ie(x+yz)dx+2xdy+xyzdz
= Ie, (x + yz) dx + 2xdy + xyzdz + Ie2(x + yz) dx + 2xdy + xyzdz
= I; (1 + t + (3t)(1)) dt + 2(1 + t)· 3dt + (1 + t)(3t)(1)' Odt
+ I~ (2 + (3 + 2t)(1 + t))· Odt + 2(2)' 2dt + (2)(3 + 2t)(1 + t)dt
= I; (lOt + 7) dt + I~ (4t2 + lOt + 14) dt
= [5t2 + 7t]1 + [!t3 + 5t2 + 14t] 1 = 12 + §.! = !IT
o 3 0 3 3
16.
On 01: x = t =? dx = di; Y = 2t =? dy = 2 dt, z = t =? dz = =dt, 0 ~ t ~ 1.
On O2: x = 1 + 2t =? dx = 2 dt, Y = 2 =?
dy = 0 dt, z = 1 + t =? dz = di, 0 ~ t ~ 1.
a
x
SECTION 17.2 LINE INTEGRALS ET SECTION 16.2 0 571
Then I c x2 dx + y2 dy + Z2 dz
= ICI x2 dx + y2 dy + Z2 dz + IC2 x2 dx + y2 dy + Z2 dz
= 101 t2 dt + (2t)2. 2dt + (t?(dt) + 101(1 + 2t? 2dt + 22. Odt + (1 + t? dt = I018t2 dt + 101 (9t2 + 6t + 3) dt = [~t3]~ + [3t3 + 3t2 + 3t]~ = ~
17. (a) Along the line x = 3. the vectors of F have positive ycomponents. so since the path goes upward. the integrand F . T is always positive. Therefore J~1 F . dr = I Cl F . T ds is positive.
(b) All of the (nonzero) field vectors along the circle with radius 3 are pointed in the clockwise direction. that is, opposite the direction to the path. So F . T is negative, and therefore IC2 F . dr = IC2 F . T ds is negative.
18. Vectors starting on C1 point in roughly the same direction as C1, so the tangential component F . T is positive.
Then ICI F . dr = ICI F . T ds is positive. On the other hand, no vectors starting on C2 point in the same direction
as C2, while some vectors point in roughly the opposite direction, so we would expect IC2 F . dr = IC2 F . T ds to be negative.
19. r(t) = t2 i  t3j, so F( r( t)) = (e) 2 ( _t3) 3 i  (_t3) y't2 j = _t13 i + t4 j and r' (t) = 2t i  3t2 j.
Thus Ic F . dr = I; F(r(t)) . r' (t) dt = 101 (_2t14  3t6) dt = [ftt15  ¥t1] ~ = 15~5'
20. F(r(t)) = (t2)(t3)i+(t)(t3)j+(t)(t2)k=t5i+t4j+ek.r'(t) =i+2tj+3t2k.
Thus Ic F· dr = 102 F(r(t))· r'(t) dt = I; (t5 + 2t5 + 3t5) dt = t6]~ = 64.
21. I c F . dr = 101 (sin t3, cos (  t2) , t4) . (3t2,  2t, 1) dt
22. Ic F . dr = 1011" (cos t, sin t, t) . (1, cos t,  sin t) dt = 1011" (cos t + sin t cos t + tsint) dt = [sin t + ~ sin 2 t + (sin t  t cos t) ] u = Jr
23. We graph F( x, y) = (x  y) i + xy j and the curve C. We see that most of the vectors starting on C point in roughly the same direction as C, so for these portions of C the tangential component F . T is positive. Although some vectors in the third quadrant which start on C point in roughly the opposite direction. and hence give negative tangential components, it seems reasonable that the effect of these portions of C is outweighed by the positive tangential components. Thus, we would expect I c F . dr = I c F . T ds to be positive.
To verify, we evaluate fc F . dr. The curve C can be represented by ret) = 2 cos t i + 2 sin tj, 0 :s: t :s: 3211". so F ( r ( t)) = (2 cos t  2 sin t) i + 4 cos t sin t j and r' ( t) =  2 sin t i + 2 cos t j. Then
fc F· dr = 10311"/2 F(r(t)) . r'(t) dt
I I
r t I
= f0311"/2 [2 sin t(2 cos t  2 sin t) + 2cos t(4cos t sin t)] dt = 4 f0311"/2(sin2 t  sin teas t + 2 sin t cos2 t) dt
= 3Jr + ~ [using a CAS]
2.5
572 D CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
24. We graph F(x, y) = Ai + Y j and the curve C.
X2+y2 Jx2+y2
In the first quadrant. each vector starting on C points in roughly the same direction as C, so the tangential component F . T is positive. In the second quadrant. each vector starting on C points in roughly the direction opposite to C. so F . T is negative. Here. it appears that the tangential components in the first and second quadrants
counteract each other. so it seems reasonable to guess that Ie F . dr = Ie F . T ds is zero. To verify, we evaluate Ie F· dr. The curve C can be represented by r(t) = t i + (1 + t2) j, 1 <::: t <::: 1, so
( ( )) _ t . 1 + e . , . .
F r t  V 1 + V J and r (t) = 1 + 2tJ. Then
t2 + (1 + t2)2 t2 + (1 + t2)2
{" F. dr = jl F(r(t)) . r' (t) dt
Je 1
jl t(3 + 2t2) .. . .
= V 4 2 dt = 0 [since the Integrand IS an odd function]
1 t + 3t + 1
(b) r(O) = O. F(r(O)) = (e1, 0);
(_l_) _ h. _1 ) F( (_l_)) _ / 1/2 _1 ).
r V2  \ 2' 2V2' r V2  \ e '4V2'
r(l) = (1.1). F(r(l)) = (1,1).
In order to generate the graph with Maple. we use the PLOT command (not to be confused with the plot command) to define
each of the vectors. For example,
0.2
v l : =PLOT (CURVES ( [[0,0] , [evalf (l/exp (1)) ,0]] ) ) ;
generates the vector from the vector field at the point (0,0) (but without an arrowhead) and gives it the name vl. To show everything on the same screen, we use the display command. In Mathematica, we use ListPlot (with the PlotJoined  > True option) to generate the vectors, and then Show to show
everything on the same screen.
26. (a) Ie F· dr= fl (2U2,3t)· (2,3, 2t) dt = r, (4t + 3t2  6e) dt = [2e  t3]~1 =2
SECTION 17.2 LINE INTEGRALS ET SECTION 16.2 D 573
(b) Now F(r(t)) = (2t, t2, 3t), so F(r( 1)) = (2,1, 3). F( r( !)) = (1, ~,  ~). F(r( D) = (1, ~, ~), and F(r(I)) = (2,1,3).
y
27. The part of the astroid that lies in the quadrant is parametrized by x = cos" t; Y = sin" t; 0 ::; t ::; % .
Now dx = 3 cos2 t (  sin t) and dy = 3 sin2 t cos t, so
dt dt
1. 3 5 d {'IT /2 9 . 15 (3 t' t) dt _ 945
Therefore eX y S = Jo cos t sin t cos sin  16.777.2167l'·
28. We parametrize the line as r(t) = (1,2,1) + t ((6,4,5)  (1,2,1)) = (1 + 5t) i + (2 + 2t)j + (1 + 4t) k. o ::; t ::; 1. Using a CAS, we calculate
L F . dr = 11 \(1 + 5t)4 e2+2t, In (1 + 4t) , j (2 + 2t)2 + (1 + 4t)2 ) . (5,2,4) dt
5235e4 6285e2 9V5sinh1 (11) 9V5sinh1 (~) 51n5 14v'41 4V5
= 4  4 + 25  25 + 2 + 5  5  2
5235e4 6285e2 18V5ln3 9V5ln(14+J205) 51n5 14v'414V5
4  4  25 + 25 + 2 + 5  2
The first answer is the one given by Maple. The two answers are equivalent by Equation 7.6.3 [ET 3.9.3].
29. A calculator or CAS gives Ie x siny ds = I12ln t sin (et) J(I/t)2 + (et)2 dt :::0 0.052.
30. (a) We parametrize the circle C as r(t) = 2 cos t i + 2 sin tj, 0 ::; t ::; 27l'. So F(r(t)) = (4 cos2 t, 4 cos t sin t), r'(t) = (2 sin t, 2 cos t), and W = Ie F . dr = I;'IT (8cos2 tsin t + 8cos2 t sint) dt = o.
(b)
From the graph, we see that all of the vectors in the field are perpendicular to the path. This indicates that the field does no work
on the particle, since the field never pulls the particle in the direction
in which it is going. In other words, at any point along C, F . T = 0,
and so certainly Ie F . dr = 0 .
514 0 CHAPTER 11 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
31. We use the parametrization x = 2 cos t, Y = 2 sin t;  ~ S t S ~.
(dx)2 (dy)2
Thends= dt + dt dt=v(2sint)2+(2cost)2dt=2dt,so
m = Ie kds = 2k I::'~~2 dt = 2k(7r), x = 2;k Ie xkds = 2~ I::'~~2(2cost)2dt = 2~ [4sint] :~/2 = ~, y = 2;k Ie yk ds = 21" I::'~~2(2 sin t)2 dt = O. Hence (x, y) = (~, 0).
32. We use the parametrization x = r cos t, y = r sin t, 0 S t S ~.
(dx)2 (dy)2
Thends= dt + dt dt=v(rsint)2+(rcost)2dt=rdt,so
m = Ie (x + y) ds = 10"/2 (r cos t + rsint) rdt = r2 [sint  cost]~/2 = 2r2,
 1 J. ( ) 1 1"/2 2 2 2. r [t sin2t cOS2t] ,,/2
x = 22 e x x + y ds = 22 (r cos t + r cos tsm t)r dt =   +   
r r 0 22 4 40
_ r(7r+2) d
 8 ,an
 1 J. ( ) 1 J." /2 2 . 2 . 2
Y = 2r2 e y x + y ds = 2r2 0 ( r sm t cos t + r sm t)r dt
=:_ [_ cos2t +! _ sin2t] ,,/2 = r(7r+2)
24240 8'
_ _ (r(7r + 2) r(7r + 2))
Therefore (x, y) = 8' 8 .
33. (a) x = _!_ 1 xp(x, y, z) ds ,y = _!_ 1 yp(x, y, z) ds, z = _!_ 1 zp(x, u, z) ds where m = Ie p(x, y, z) ds.
m e m e m e
(b) m = Ie kds = k I~" vi 4sin2 t + 4cos2 t + 9 dt = k vT3 I~" dt = 27rk vT3.
1 12" 1 12"
X = vT3 k2 Ji3 sin t dt = 0, y = vT3 k2 Ji3 cos t dt = 0,
27rk 13 0 27rk 13 0
z = 1vT3 {2" (kJi3)(3t)dt = l_(27r2) = 37r. Hence (x,y,z) = (0,0, 37r).
27rk 13 10 27r
3 12" ( .) 2 _ _ _ (37r(27r2 + 1) )
z= V2 V2smt (t +l)dt=O.Hence(x,y,z)= 42+3 ,0,0 .
2 27r( 47r2 + 3) 0 7r
SECTION 17.2 LINE INTEGRALS ET SECTION 162 0 575
35. From Example 3, p(x, y) = k(1  y), x = cos t, Y = sin t, and ds = dt, 0 :::: t :::: 7r ~
Ix = fe y2 p(x, y) ds = fo" sin2 t [k(1  sin t)] dt = k fo" (sin2 t  sirr' t) dt
= !k fo" (1  cos 2t) dt  k fo" (1  cos2 t) sin t dt
[Let u = cos t, du =  sin t dt ] in the second integral
= k (~  ~) , using the same substitution as above.
36. The wire is given as x = 2 sin t, y = 2 cos t, z = 3t, 0 :::: t :::: 27r with p(x, y, z) = k. Then ds = y'(2cost)2 + (2sint)2 + 32 = y'4(cos2t + sin2t) + 9 = V13 and
Ix = fe(y2 + Z2)p(X, y, z) ds = f~" (4 cos2 t + 9t2) (k)V13 dt = V13 k [4(!t + ~ sin 2t) + 3t3]~" = V13 k( 47r + 247r3) = 4 V13 7rk(1 + 67r2)
Iy = fe(x2 + Z2)p(X, y, z) ds = f~" (4 sin2 t + 9t2) (k)V13 dt = V13 k [4(!t  ~ sin 2t) + 3t3]~" = V13 k(47r + 247r3) = 4 V137rk(1 + 67r2)
L, = fe(x2 + y2)p(x,y,z)ds = f~"(4sin2t +4cos2t)(k)V13dt = 4V13kf~" dt = 87rV13k
37. W = fe F· dr = f;" (t  sint, 3  cost) . (1  cost,sint) dt = f~" (t  t cos t  sin t + sin t cos t + 3 sin t  sin t cos t) dt
= f;"(t  tcost + 2sint) dt = [!t2  (tsint + cost)  2cost]~" = 27r2
[by integrating by parts] in the second term
38. x = x, y = x2, 1:::: x:::: 2,
W = f~1 (x sin x2, x2) . (1, 2x) dx = s: (xsinx2 + 2x3) dx = [! cos z'' + !X4] ~1 = !(15 + cos 1 cos 4)
39. r(t) = (1 + 2t, 4t, 2t), 0 :::: t :::: 1,
W = Ie F . d r = fOI (6t, 1 + 4t, 1 + 6t) . (2,4,2) dt = fOI (12t + 4(1 + 4t) + 2(1 + 6t)) dt = fOI (40t + 6)dt = [20t2 + 6tl~ = 26
40. r(t) = 2i + tj + 5tk, 0:::: t:::: 1. Therefore
W = r F. dr = r K (2, t, 5t) . ( ) _ t 26t
le 10 (4 + 26t2)3/2 0,1,5 dt  K 10 (4 + 26t2)3/2 dt
= K[(4 + 26t2)1/2] 1 = K(.! __ 1_)
o 2 v'3O
576 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
41. Let F = 185 k. To parametrize the staircase, let
x = 20 cos t, Y = 20 sin i; z = ~~ t = l! t, 0 .;::: t .;::: 671" =>
W = fe F· dr = f06" (0,0, 185)· (20sint,20cost, l!) dt = (185)l! f06" dt = (185)(90) ~ 1.67 x 104 ftlb
42. This time m is a function oft: m = 185  69 t = 185  JLt. So let F = (185  JLt)k To parametrize the
~ 2~ 2~ .
staircase. let x = 20 cos t, Y = 20 sin t, z = ~~ t = l! t, 0 .;::: t .;::: 671". Therefore
W = fe F . dr = f~" (0,0,185  23" t) . (20sin t, 20 cos t, l!) dt = l! f06" (185  23" t) dt = l! [185t  4: t2]~" = 90 (185  ¥) ~ 1.62 X 104 ftlb
43. (a) r(t) = (cos t, sin t), 0';::: t .;::: 271". and let F = (a, b). Then
W = fe F· dr = f:" (a, b)· (sint,cost) dt
= f:"(asint+bcost)dt = [acost+bsint]~" =a+Oa+O=O
(b) Yes. F (x, y) = k x = (kx, ky) and
W = fe F . d r = s: (k cos t, k sin t) . ( sin t, cos t) dt
= I:" (k sin t cos t + k sin tcost) dt = I02" Odt = 0
44. Consider the base of the fence in the xyplane. centered at the origin, with the height given by z = h (x, y). The fence can be graphed using the parametric equations
x = 10cosu. Y = 10sinu.
y
z = v[4 + 0.01((10cosu?  (10sinu)2)] = v(4 + cos2 u  sin2 u)
=v(4+cos2u), 0';:::u';:::271". O';:::v';:::1.
The area of the fence is Ie h( x, y) ds where C, the base of the fence, is given by x = 10 cos t; y = 10sint. 0';::: t.;::: 271". Then
Ie h(x, y) ds = I:" [4 + O.OI((lOcos t?  (10sin t)2)] J( lOsint)2 + (lOcos t)2 dt = I:" (4 + cos 2t) v'lOO dt = 1O[4t + ~ sin 2t]~"
= 10(871") = 8011" m2
If we paint both sides of the fence, the total surface area to cover is 16071" m2, and since I L of paint covers 100 m2, we require 1 ;g; = 1. 671" ~ 5.03 L of paint.
45. The work done in moving the object is Ie F . dr = Ie F . T ds. We can approximate this integral by dividing C into 7 segments of equal1ength ~s = 2 and approximating F . T, that is, the tangential component of force, at a
SECTION 17.3 THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM FOR LINE INTEGRALS ET SECTION 16.3 0 577
point (xT, y~) on each segment. Since C is composed of straight line segments. F . T is the scalar projection of each force vector onto C. If we choose (x; , yT) to be the point on the segment closest to the origin. then the work 7
done is IeF. Tds ~ I: [F(xT,yn· T(x;,yZ)] ~s = [2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 1 + 1 + 1](2) = 22. Thus. we
i, = 1
estimate the work done to be approximately 221.
46. Use the orientation pictured in the figure. Then since B is tangent to any circle that lies in the plane perpendicular to the wire. B = IBI T where T is the unit tangent to the circle C: x = T cos B. y = T sin B. Thus
B = IBI (~sinB,cosB). Then
Ie B . dr = 10271" IBI (~sin B, cos B) . (~T sin B, T cos B) dB = 10271" IBI T dB = 27fT IBI. (Note that IBI here is the magnitude of the field at a distance T from the wire's center.) But by Ampere's Law Ie B . dr = P,oI. Hence
17.3 The Fundamental Theorem for line Integrals
ET 16.3
1. C appears to be a smooth curve, and since \7 f is continuous, we know f is differentiable. Then Theorem 2 says that the value of Ie \7 f . dr is simply the difference of the values of f at the terminal and initial points of C. From the graph, this is 50 ~ 10 = 40.
2. C is represented by the vector function ret) = (t2 + 1) i + (t3 + t)j, 0 s: t s: I, so r'(t) = 2ti + (3t2 + 1)j.
Since 3t2 + 1 i= 0, we have r' (t) i= 0, thus C is a smooth curve. \7 f is continuous. and hence f is differentiable, so by Theorem 2 we have Ie \7 f· dr = f(r(l)) ~ f(r(O)) = f(2, 2) ~ f(l, 0) = 9 ~ 3 = 6.
3. a(6x + 5y)/ay = 5 = a(5x + 4y)/ax and the domain of F is]R2 which is open and simplyconnected. so by Theorem 6 F is conservative. Thus, there exists a function f such that \7 f = F. that is. f x (x, y) = 6x + 5y and fy(x, y) = 5x + 4y. But fx(x, y) = 6x + 5y implies f(x, y) = 3x2 + 5xy + g(y) and differentiating both sides of this equation with respect to y gives fy (x, y) = 5x + g' (y). Thus 5x + 4y = 5x + g' (y) so g' (y) = 4yand g(y) = 2y2 + K where K is a constant. Hence f(x, y) = 3x2 + 5xy + 2y2 + K is a potential function for F.
4. a(x3 + 4xy)/ay = 4x, a(4xy ~ y3)/ax = 4y. Since these are not equal. F is not conservative.
5. a(xeY)/ ay = xe", a(yeX)/ ax = yex. Since these are not equal. F is not conservative.
6. a( eY) / ay = eY = a( xeY) / ax and the domain of F is ]R2. Hence F is conservative so there exists a function f such that \7f = F. Then fx(x,y) = eY implies f(x,y) = xe" + g(y) and fy(x,y) = xe" + g'(y). But fy(x.y) = xe" so g' (y) = 0 =? g(y) = K. Then f (x, y) = xe" + K is a potential function for F.
7. a(2xcosy ~ ycosx)/ay = ~2xsiny ~ cosx = a( ~X2 siny ~ sinx)/ax and the domain ofF is ]R2. Hence F is conservative so there exists a function f such that \7 f = F. Then f x (x, y) = 2x cos y ~ y cos x implies
f(x, y) = x2 cosy ~ ysinx + g(y) and fy(x, y) = ~X2 siny ~ sinx + g'(y). But fy(x, y) = ~X2 siny ~ sin x so g' (y) = 0 =? 9 (y) = K. Then f(x, y) = x2 cos Y ~ ysinx + K is a potential function for F.
8. a(1 + 2xy + Inx)/ay = 2x = a(x2)/ax and the domain of F is {(x. y) I x > O} which is open and simplyconnected. Hence F is conservative, so there exists a function f such that \7 f = F. Then
fx(x,y) = 1 + 2xy + Inx implies f(x,y) = x + x2y + xlnx ~ x + g(y) and fy(x,y) = x2 + g'(y). But fy(x, y) = x2 so g'(y) = 0 =? g(y) = K. Then f(x, y) = x2y + x lnx + K is a potential function for F.
578 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
9. a(yeX + sin y) / ay = eX + cos y = a( eX + x cos y) / ax and the domain of F is ]R2. Hence F is conservative so there exists a function f such that \1 f = F. Then fx (x, y) = yeX + sin y implies f (x, y) = yeX + x sin y + g(y) and fy(x, y) = e" + xcos y + g' (y). But fy(x, y) = eX + x cos y so g(y) = K and f(x, y) = yeX + x sin y + K is a potential function for F.
a(xy cosh xy + sinhxy) 2 2 a(x2 coshxy)
10. ay = x y sinh xy + x cosh xy + x cosh xy = x y sinh xy + 2x cosh xy = ax
and the domain of F is ]R2. Thus F is conservative, so there exists a function f such that \1 f = F. Then
fx(x. y) = xy cosh xy + sinhxy implies f(x, y) = x sinhxy + g(y) =} fy(x, y) = x2 cosh xy + g' (y). But fy(x, y) = x2 coshxy so g(y) = K and f(x, y) = x sinhxy + K is a potential function for F.
11. (a) F has continuous firstorder partial derivatives and .!!_ 2xy = 2x = .!!_ (x2) on ]R2, which is open and
ay ax
simplyconnected. Thus, F is conservative by Theorem 6. Then we know that the line integral of F is independent of path; in particular, the value of fe F . dr depends only on the endpoints of C. Since all three curves have the same initial and terminal points, f e F . dr will have the same value for each curve.
(b) We first find a potential function f, so that \1 f = F. We know fx (x, y) = 2xy and fy (x, y) = x2. Integrating fx(x. y) with respect to x, we have f(x, y) = x2y + g(y). Differentiating both sides with respect to y gives fy(x, y) = x2 + g' (y), so we must have x2 + g' (y) = x2 =} g' (y) = 0 =} g(y) = K, a constant. Thus f(x. y) = x2y + K. All three curves start at (1,2) and end at (3,2), so by Theorem 2,
fe F . dr = f(3, 2)  f(l, 2) = 18  2 = 16 for each curve.
12. (a) fx(x. y) = y implies f(x, y) = xy + g(y) and fy(x, y) = x + g' (y). But fy(x, y) = x + 2y so g'(y)=2y =} g(y)=y2+K.WecantakeK=0,sof(x,y)=xy+y2.
(b) fe F· dr = f(2, 1)  j(0, 1) = 3  1 = 2.
13. (a) fx (x, y) = x3y4 implies f(x, y) = ~x4y4 + g(y) and fy(x, y) = X4y3 + g' (y). But fy(x, y) = X4y3 so g' (y) = 0 =} g(y) = K, a constant. We can take K = 0, so f(x, y) = ~x4y4.
(b) The initial point of Cis r(O) = (0,1) and the terminal point is r(l) = (1,2), so
fe F· dr = f(l, 2)  f(O, 1) = 4  0 = 4.
14. (a) fx(x, y) = y2/(1 + x2) implies f(x, y) = y2 arctan x + g(y) =} fy(x, y) = 2y arctan x + g' (y). But fy(x, y) = 2y arctan x so g'(y) = 0 =} g(y) = K. We can take K = 0, so f(x, y) = y2 arctanx.
(b) The initial point of Cis r(O) = (0,0) and the terminal point is r(l) = (1,2), so
fe F· dr = f(l, 2)  f(O, 0) = 4 arctan 1  0 = 4· ~ = ir,
15. (a) fx(x, y, z) = yz implies f(x, y, z) = xyz + g(y, z) and so fy(x, y, z) = xz + gy(y, z). But fy(x, y, z) = xz so gy(y. z) = 0 =} g(y, z) = h(z). Thus f(x, y, z) = xyz + h(z) and fz(x, y, z) = xy + h'(z). But
i. (x, y. z) = xy + 2z, so h' (z) = 2z =} h(z) = Z2 + K. Hence f(x, y, z) = xyz + Z2 (taking K = 0).
(b) Ie F· dr = f(4. 6. 3)  f(l, 0, 2) = 81  4 = 77.
16. (a) fx(x, y. z) = 2xz + y2 implies f(x, y, z) = x2z + xy2 + g(y, z) and so fy(x, y, z) = 2xy + gy(y, z). But fy(x. y. z) = 2xy so gy(y, z) = 0 =} g(y, z) = h (z). Thus f(x, y, z) = x2z + xy2 + h(z) and
fz(x, y. z) = x2 + h' (z). But fz(x, y, z) = x2 + 3z2, so h'(z) = 3z2 =} h(z) = Z3 + K. Hence
f(x, y, z) = x2 Z + xy2 + z3 (taking K = 0).
(b) t = 0 corresponds to the point (0,1, 1) and t = 1 corresponds to (1,2,1), so Ie F· dr = f(I, 2,1)  f(O, 1, 1) = 6  (1) = 7.
SECTION 17.3 THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM FOR LINE INTEGRALS ET SECTION 16.3 0 579
17. (a) fx (x, y, z) = y2 cos z implies f(x, y, z) = xy2 cos Z + g(y, z) and so fy(x, y, z) = 2xy cos z + gy(y, z). But fy(x, y, z) = 2xy cos z so gy(y, z) = 0 '* g(y, z) = h(z). Thus f(x, y, z) = xy2 cos Z + h(z) and
fz(x, y, z) = _xy2 sinz + h' (z). But fz(x, y, z) = _xy2 sin z, so h' (z) = 0 '* h(z) = K. Hence
f(x, y, z) = xy2 cos z (taking K = 0).
(b) reO) = (0,0,0), r(rr) = \7r2,0,1l,) so Ie F· dr = f(7r2,0,7r)  f(O,O,O) = 0  0 = O.
18. (a) fx(X, y, z) = eY implies f(x, y, z) = xe" + g(y, z) and so fy(x, y, z) = xe" + gy(y, z). But
fy(x, y, z) = xe" so gy(y, z) = 0 '* g(y, z) = h(z). Thus f(x, y, z) = xe" + h(z) and fz(x,y,z) = 0 + h'(z). But fz(x,y,z) = (z + l)eZ, so h'(z) = (z + l)eZ '* h(z) = ze" + K (using integration by parts). Hence f(x, y, z) = xe" + zeZ (taking K = 0).
(b) reO) = (0,0,0), r (1) = (1,1,1) so Ie F . dr = f(l, 1, 1)  f(O, 0, 0) = 2e  0 = 2e.
19. Here F( x, y) = tan y i + x sec2 y j. Then f (x, y) = x tan y is a potential function for F, that is, V' f = F so F is conservative and thus its line integral is independent of path. Hence
Ie tanydx + xsec2 ydy = Ie F· dr =f(2,~)  f(l, 0) = 2 tan ~  tanO = 2.
20. Here F(x, y) = (1  yeX) i + ex j. Then f(x, y) = x + yeX is a potential function for F, that is, V' f = F so F is conservative and thus its line integral is independent of path. Hence
Ie (1  yeX) dx + ex dy = Ie F· dr = f(l, 2)  f(O, 1) = (1 + 2e1)  1 = 2/e.
21. F(x, y) = 2y3/2 i + 3x y'yj, W = Ie F· dr. Since 8(2y3/2)/8y = 3 y'y = 8(3x y'y)/8x, there exists a function f such that V' f = F. In fact, fx(x, y) = 2y3/2 '* f(x, y) = 2xy3/2 + g(y) '*
fy(x, y) = 3xyl/2 + g'(y). But fy (x, y) = 3x y'y so g'(y) = 0 or g(y) = K. We can take K = 0 '* f(x, y) = 2xy3/2. Thus W = Ie F· dr = f(2, 4)  f(l, 1) = 2(2)(8)  2(1) = 30.
22. F(x, y) = y: i  2y J. W = Ie F . dr. Since :; (y:) = 2; = :; ( 2Y), there exists a function f such
x x uy X X ox x
that V' f = F. In fact, fx = y2/X2 '* f(x, y) = _y2/X + g(y) '* fy = 2y/x + g' (y) '* g' (y) = 0, so we can take f(x, y) = _y2/X as a potential function for F. Thus
W = Ie F· dr = f(4, 2)  f(l, 1) =  [( 2?/4] + (1/1) = O.
23. We know that if the vector field (call it F) is conservative, then around any closed path C, Ie F . dr = O. But take C to be some circle centered at the origin, oriented counterclockwise. All of the field vectors along C oppose motion along C, so the integral around C will be negative. Therefore the field is not conservative.
24.
3
3
From the graph, it appears that F is conservative, since around all closed paths, the number and size of the field vectors pointing in directions similar to that of the path seem to be roughly the same as the number and size of the vectors pointing in the opposite direction. To check, we calculate
:y (2xy + siny) = 2x + cosy, ! (x2 + x cosy) = 2x + cosy Thus F is conservative, by Theorem 6.
580 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
25. From the graph. it appears that F is not conservative. For example,
3
vectors pointing counterclockwise along it, and none pointing
any closed curve containing the point (2, 1) seems to have many field
clockwise. So along this path the integral IF. dr I O. To confirm
our guess, we calculate
2 2  2X2  xy
VI + x2 + y2 (1 + x2 + y2)3/2'
.!!_ ( x  2 ) = (x _ 2) [ x ] + 1 = 1 + y2 + 2x
8x VI + x2 + y2 (1 + x2 + y2)3/2 VI + x2 + y2 (1 + x2 + y2)3/2 .
These are not equal, so the field is not conservative, by Theorem 5.
8 ( x  2Y) [y]
8y VI +x2 +y2 = (x  2y) (1 +x2 +y2)3/2
26. 'Vf(x, y) = cos(x  2y) i  2cos(x  2y)j
(a) We use Theorem 2: Ic! F . dr = ICI 'V f . dr = f(r(b))  f(r(a)) where 01 starts at t = a and ends at t = b.
So because f (0, 0) = sin 0 = 0 and f (w, w) = sin( w  2w) = 0, one possible curve 01 is the straight line from (0,0) to (w,w); that is, r(t) = wti + wtj, 0:::; t:::; 1.
(b) From (a), IC2 F . dr = f(r(b))  f(r(a)). So because f(O, 0) = sin 0 = 0 and f( ~, 0) = I, one possible curve 02 isr(t) = ~ti, 0:::; t:::; I, the straight line from (0,0) to (~,O).
27. Since F is conservative, there exists a function f such that F = 'V f, that is, P = fx, Q = fy , and R = fz. Since P, Q and R have continuous first order partial derivatives, Clairaut's Theorem says that
8P/8y = fxy = fyx = 8Q/8x, 8P/8z = fxz = fzx = 8R/8x, and 8Q/8z = fyz = fzy = 8R/ay.
28. Here F(x, y, z) = y i + xj + xyz k. Then using the notation of Exercise 27, ap/8z = 0 while aR/ax = yz.
Since these aren't equal, F is not conservative. Thus by Theorem 4. the line integral of F is not independent of path.
29. D = {(x, y) I x > 0, y > O} = the first quadrant (excluding the axes).
(a) D is open because around every point in D we can put a disk that lies in D.
(b) D is connected because the straight line segment joining any two points in D lies in D. (c) D is simplyconnected because it's connected and has no holes.
30. D = {(x, y) I x I O} consists of all points in the xyplane except for those on the yaxis. (a) D is open.
(b) Points on opposite sides of the yaxis cannot be joined by a path that lies in D, so D is not connected. (c) D is not simplyconnected because it is not connected.
31. D = {(x, y) 11 < x2 + y2 < 4} = the annular region between the circles with center (0,0) and radii 1 and 2. (a) D is open.
(b) D is connected.
(c) D is not simplyconnected. For example, x2 + y2 = (1.5)2 is simple and closed and lies within D but encloses points that are not in D. (Or we can say, D has a hole, so is not simplyconnected.)
SECTION 17.4 GREEN'S THEOREM ET SECTION 16.4 D 581
32. D = {(x, y) I x2 + y2 :::; lor 4:::; x2 + y2 :::; 9} = the points on or inside the circle x2 + y2 = 1, together with the points on or between the circles x2 + y2 = 4 and x2 + y2 = 9.
(a) D is not open because, for instance, no disk with center (0, 2) lies entirely within D.
(b) D is not connected because, for example, (0,0) and (0,2.5) lie in D but cannot be joined by a path that lies entirely in D.
(c) D is not simplyconnected because, for example, x2 + y2 = 9 is a simple closed curve in D but encloses points that are not in D.
33. (a) P = __ y_ oP = y2  x2 and Q = _x_ oQ = y2  x2 Thus oP = oQ
x2 + y2' oy (x2 + y2)2 x2 + y2' ax (x2 + y2)2' oy ax·
(b) c1: x = cost, Y = sint, 0:::; t:::; tt , C2: x = cost, Y = sint, t = 2Jr tot = Jr. Then
j F·d 111' (sint)(sint)+(cost)(cost)d 111'd  dj F·d 111'd
r 2 t tJran r t Jr
Cl ° cos t + sin t ° C2 211'
Since these aren't equal, the line integral of F isn't independent of path. (Or notice that
fC3 F· dr = f~1I' dt = 2Jr where C3 is the circle x2 + y2 = 1, and apply the contrapositive of Theorem 3.) This doesn't contradict Theorem 6, since the domain of F, which is ]R2 except the origin, isn't simplyconnected.
34. (a) Here F (r) = cr IIrl3 and r = xi + yj + z k. Then f(r) = c/lrl is a potential function for F. that is,
'V f = F. (See the discussion of gradient fields in Section 17.1 [ET 16.1J.) Hence F is conservative and its line integral is independent of path. Let P1 = (Xl, Y1, Zl) and P2 = (X2, Y2, Z2).
W=fcF.dr=f(P2)f(Pt}=( 2 2C 2)1/2 + (2 2C 2)1/2 =c(:  :).
x2 + Y2 + Z2 Xl + Y1 + Zl 1 2
(b) In this case, c = (mMG) =?
w=mMG( 1 _ 1 )
1.52 X 108 1.47 X 108
=  (5.97 X 1024) (1.99 x 1030) (6.67 X 1011) (2.2377 x 101°) ::::;; 1.77 x 1035 1 (c) In this case, c = EqQ =?
W = EqQ(1O~12  5X1~13) = (8.985 x 101°)(1)(1.6 x 1019)(_1012)::::;; 1.4 X 1041.
17.4 Green's Theorem
ET 16.4
1. (a)
C1: x = t =? dx = dt, Y = 0 =? dy = ~dt, 0:::; t:::; 2.
C2: x = 2 =? dx = 0 dt, Y = t =? dy = dt, 0 :::; t :::; 3.
C3: x = 2  t =? dx = =dt, Y = 3 =? dy = ~dt, 0:::; t :::; 2.
C4: x = 0 =? dx = 0 di, Y = 3  t =? dy = =dt, 0 :::; t :::; 3.
Thus fc xy2 dx + x3 dy = f xy2 dx + x3 dy
Cl + C2 + C3 + C4
= f~Odt + f03 8dt + f02 9(2  t) dt + f; Odt = 0 + 24  18 + 0 = 6
582 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
(b) fc xy2 dx + x3 dy = II D [:x (x3)  :y (Xy2)] dA = I: 103 (3x2  2xy) dydx = I: (9x2  9x) dx = 24  18 = 6
2. (a) x = cost, Y = sint, as t S 211". Then
fc ydx  x dy = I:7r [sin t(  sin t)  cos t(cos t)] dt =  I:7r dt = 211".
(b) fc ydx  x dy = lID [:x (x)  tv (y)] dA = 2 lID dA = 2A(D) = 211"(1)2 = 211"
3. (a)
(1,2)
y
c2: x = 1 =? dx = adt, y = t =? dy = dt, as t S 2.
C2 C3:x=lt =? dx=dt,y=22t =? dy=2dt,astsl.
x
Thus fc xy dx + x2y3 dy = f xy dx + x2y3 dy
C1 +C2 +C3
= 101 a dt + I: t3 dt + 101 [(1  t)(2  2t)  2(1  t?(2  2t?1 dt = a + [:tt41~ + [~(1 t)3 + ~(1  t)61~ = 4  ~ = ~
(b) fc xydx + X2y3 dy = II D [:x(X2y3)  :y (xy)] dA = I; I:X(2xy3  x) dydx
= 101 [4xy4  xYl~:~x dx = 101 (8x5  2X2)dx = ~  ~ = ~
4. (a) C1 : x = a =? dx = a dt, y = 1  t =? dy = dt, a S t S 1
C2 : x = t =? dx = dt, Y = a =? dy = a dt, a S t S 1
C3 : x = 1  t =? dx = dt, y = 1  (1  t)2 = 2t  t2 =? dy = (2  2t) dt, as t S 1
Thus
fcxdx+ydy = f xdx+ydy
C1+C2+C3
= I; (adt + (1 t)(dt)) + 101 (tdt + adt) + I; «(1  t)(dt) + (2t  e)(2  2t) dt) = [lt2 _ t]l + [le]l + [lt4 _ 2t3 + !2t2  t]l
20202 20
= ~ + ~ + (~  2 + ~  1) = a
(b) fcxdx+ydy = lID [;x (y)  ;y (x)] dA = lID adA = a
5. We can parametrize C as x = cos B, y = sin B, a S B S 211". Then the line integral is
fc P dx + Q dy = I:7r cos" B sin'' B (  sin B) dB + I:7r (  cos 7 B sin6 B) cos B dB =  ;~~, according to a CAS. The double integral is
If (8Q 8P) 11 J~ 6 6 4 4) 297r
   dA = (7x y  5x Y dy dx =  1024'
D 8x 8y 1 ~
verifying Green's Theorem in this case.
SECTION 17.4 GREEN'S THEOREM ET SECTION 16.4 0 583
6. Since y = x2 along the first part of C and y = x along the second part, the line integral is
fe Pdx + Qdy = 101 [X4 sinx + x2 sin(x2)(2x)] dx + Il°(x2 sinx + x2 sinx) dx = 16 cos 1  23 sin 1 + 28
according to a CAS. The double integral is
II R (~  ~n dA = 101 I:2(2xsiny  2ysinx) dydx = 16cos 1  23sin 1 + 28
7. The region D enclosed by C is [0,1] x [0,1], so
Ie eY dx + 2xeY dy = II D [tx (2xeY)  ty (eY)] dA = 101 101 (2eY  eY) dydx = 101 dx 101 eY dy = (1)(e1  eO) = e1
8. The region D enclosed by C is given by {(x, y) 10:::; x:::; 1, 3x :::; y :::; 3}, so
Ie x2y2 dx + 4xy3 dy = II D [tx (4xy3)  ty (x2y2)] dA = 101 I:x(4y3  2x2y) dydx
= r1 [y4 _ x2y2] y=3 dx = r1 (81 _ 9x2 _ 72x4) dx = 81 _ 3 _ TI = 318
Jo y=3x Jo 5 5
9. Ie (y + eVx) dx + (2x + cosy2) dy = IID [tx (2x + cosy2)  ty (y + eVx)] dA = 101 Iyf' (2  1) dx dy = Io\yl/2  y2) dy = ~
10. Ie xe2x dx + (x4 + 2x2y2) dy = II D [tx (x4 + 2x2y2)  ty (xe2X)] dA = II D(4x3 + 4xy2  0) dA = 4 II D x(x2 + y2) dA = 4102" 112 (r cosB)(r2) r drdB
= 4102" cosBdB I12r4dr = 4[sinB]~" [tr5]~ = 0
11. Iey3dx  x3dy = lID [tx (_x3)  ty (y3)] dA = II D(3x2  3y2)dA = 102" I;(3r2)rdrdB = 3102" dB 102 r3 dr = 3(27r)(4) = 247r
12. Ie sinydx + xcosydy = lID [tx (xcosy)  ty (siny)] dA = IID(cosy  cosy) dA = lID OdA = 0
13. F( x, y) = (Vx + y3, x2 + v'Y) and the region D enclosed by C is given by
{(x, y) I 0 ::::: x ::::: 7r, 0 ::::: y ::::: sin x}. C is traversed clockwise, so C gives the positive orientation.
Ie F . d r =  Le (Vx + y3) dx + (x2 + v'Y) dy =  lID [tx (x2 + v'Y)  ;y (Vx + y3) ] dA
 r= rSinx(2 3 2)d d t= [2 3]y=sinxd
  Jo Jo x  Y Y x =  Jo xy  Y y=o x
=  10" (2x sin x  sin 3 x) dx =  10" (2x sin x  (1  cos2 x) sin x) dx
=  [2 sin x  2x cos x + cos x  1 cos" x] ~
[integrate by parts in the first term]
584 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
14. F (x, y) = (y2 cos x, x2 + 2y sin x) and the region D enclosed by C is given by
{( x, y) I 0 :::; x :::; 2, 0 :::; Y :::; 3x}. C is traversed clockwise, so C gives the positive orientation.
Ie F· dr =  Ldy2 cos x) dx + (x2 + 2ysinx) dy
=  II D [tx (x2 + 2ysinx)  ty (y2 cos x)] dA
=  II D(2x + 2ycosx  2y cos x) dA =  102 I03x 2xdy dx =  102 2x [Yl~:~x dx =  I~ 6x2 dx =  2x31~ = 16
15. F (x, y) = (eX + x2y, eY  xy2) and the region D enclosed by C is the disk x2 + y2 :::; 25.
C is traversed clockwise, so C gives the positive orientation.
Ie F· dr =  Le(eX + x2y) dx + (eY  xy2) dy
=  II D [tx (e"  xy2)  ty (e" + x2 y )] dA =  II D (  y2  x2) dA
= II D(X2 + y2) dA = I~1I' I;(r2) rdrdB = I~1I' dB I; r3 dr = 27r[~r41~ = 6;57r
16. F (x, y) = (y  In( x2 + y2), 2 tan 1 (~) ) and the region D enclosed by C is the disk with radius 1 centered at (2,3). C is oriented positively, so
Ie F· dr = Ie(Y In(x2 + y2)) dx + (2tan1 (~)) dy
= 11 [:x (2tan1 (~))  :y (y In(x2 + l))] dA
If [ ( 2) ( 2)] If [2 2]
 2 yx _ 1  y dA   y  1 + y dA
 D 1 + (Y/X)2 X2+y2  D X2+y2 X2+y2
=  IIDdA = (area of D) =7r
17. By Green's Theorem, W = Ie F· dr = Ie x{x + y) dx + xy2 dy = II D(y2  x) dydx where C is the path described in the question and D is the triangle bounded by C. So
W = f01 f01X(y2  x) dy dx = f01 [h3  xYl~:~x dx = f01 (~(1  X)3  x(l  x)) dx = [iz{1 X)4  !x2 + ~x31~ = (! +~)  (iz) =iz
18. By Green's Theorem, W = fe F· dr = fe xdx + (x3 + 3xy2) dy = ff D(3x2 + 3y2  0) dA, where D is the semicircular region bounded by C. Converting to polar coordinates, we have
W = 3 f~ f01l' r2. rdBdr = 37r[~r4l~ = 127r.
19. Let C1 be the arch of the cycloid from (0,0) to (27r, 0), which corresponds to 0:::; t :::; 27r, and let C2 be the segment from (27r, 0) to (0,0), so C2 is given by x = 27r  t, Y = 0, 0 :::; t :::; 27r. Then C = C1 U C2 is traversed
SECTION 17.4 GREEN'S THEOREM ET SECTION 16.4 0 585
clockwise, so C is oriented positively. Thus C encloses the area under one arch of the cycloid and from (5) we have
A =  i_cydx = Ic! ydx + IC2 ydx = 1;"(1  cost)(l  cost) dt + I;" 0 (dt)
= 102" (1  2 cos t + cos2 t) dt + 0 = [t  2 sin t + 4 t + ~ sin 2t l~" = 37r
y
A = ic x dy = I;" (5 cos t  cos 5t)(5 cos t  5 cos 5t) dt
= 102" (25 cos2 t  30 cos t cos 5t + 5 cos2 5t) dt
= [25( 4t + ~ sin 2t)  30U sin4t + 12 sin6t) + 5( 4t + fa sin lOt) l~"
20.
x
[Use Formula 80 in the Table of Integrals]
= 307r
21. (a) Using Equation 17.2.8 [ET 16.2.8], we write parametric equations of the line segment as x = (1  t)X1 + tX2, y = (1  t)Y1 + tY2, 0 ::::: t ::::: 1. Then dx = (X2  Xl) dt and dy = (Y2  yI) dt, so
Icxdy  ydx = I~ [(1  t)X1 + tX2](Y2  Y1) dt + [(1 t)Y1 + tY2](X2  Xl) dt
= 101 (X1(Y2  Y1)  Y1 (X2  xI) + t[(Y2  Y1)(X2  xI)  (X2  XI)(Y2  yI)J) dt = 101 (X1Y2  X2Y1) dt = X1Y2  X2Y1
(b) We apply Green's Theorem to the path C = C1 U C2 u··· U Cn, where C: is the line segment that joins (Xi, Vi) to (Xi+1, Yi+1) for i = 1,2, ... , n  1, and C« is the line segmentthatjoins (Xn' Yn) to (Xl, Y1). From (5), ~ Ic X dy  y dx = II D dA, where D is the polygon bounded by C. Therefore
area of polygon = A(D) = II D dA = 4 Ic xdy  ydx
= ~ (IC! xdy  ydx + IC2 xdy  ydx + ... + Icn_! xdy  ydx + ICn xdy  ydx)
To evaluate these integrals we use the formula from (a) to get
A(D) = ~[(X1Y2  X2yI) + (X2Y3  X3Y2) + ... + (Xn1Yn  XnYnI) + (XnYl  X1Yn)].
(c) A = 4[(0·1  2·0) + (2·3  1 ·1) + (1·2  0·3) + (0 ·1 (1)·2) + (1·0  0·1)] = 4(0+5+2+2) = ~
22. By Green's Theorem, 2~ ic x2 dy = 2~ lID 2x dA = i lID X dA = x and  2~ ic y2 dx =  2~ lID ( 2y)dA = i lID ydA = y.
23. Here A = %(1)(1) = % and C = C1 + C2 + C3, where C1: X = X, Y = 0,0::::: x::::: 1; C2: X = X, Y = 1  x, X = 1 to X = 0; and C3: x = 0, y = 1 to Y = O. Then
x = 2~ Ic x2 dy = ICI x2 dy + IC2 x2 dy + IC3 x2 dy = 0 + Ilo(x2)( dx) + 0 = ~. Similarly, y = 2~ Icy2dx = Ic! y2 dx + IC2 y2dx + IC3 y2dx = 0+ 11°(1 x)2(dx) + 0 =~. Therefore (x, Y) = (~, ~).
586 D CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
2
24. A = "~ so X = faz fc x2 dy and y = faz fc y2dx.
Orienting the semicircular region as in the figure,
 1.t: 2 d
x = ~ :rcl + C2 X Y
= faz[O+ Io"(a2cos2t)(acost)dt] =0 and
y = faz [I~a Odx + Io"(a2 sin2 t)( asin t) dt] = ; 10" sin3 tdt = ; [ cost + ~(COS3 t)l~ = i~. Thus (x, y) = (0, i~).
25. By Green's Theorem, ~P fc y3 dx = ~p lID ( _3y2) dA = lID y2pdA = t; and ~p fc x3 dy = ~p II D(3x2) dA = lID x2pdA = Iy.
26. By symmetry the moments of inertia about any two diameters are equal. Centering the disk at the origin, the moment of inertia about a diameter equals
1 4 3(2,,) 1 4
= sa p. 8 = 47ra p
27. Since C is a simple closed path which doesn't pass through or enclose the origin, there exists an open region that doesn't contain the origin but does contain D. Thus P = _y/(x2 + y2) and Q = x/(x2 + y2) have continuous partial derivatives on this open region containing D and we can apply Green's Theorem. But by Exercise 17.3.33(a)
[ET 16.3.33(a)], oP/oy = oQ/ox, so fc F· dr = II D OdA = O.
28. We express D as a type II region: D = {(x, y) I h (y) :::; x :::; h (y), c :::; y :::; d} where hand h are continuous
1f oQ jd1h(Y) oQ jd
functions. Then a dA= a dxdy= [Q(h(y),y)Q(h(y),y)]dyby
D x c h(Y) x c
the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. But referring to the figure, y
C4 x= f2(Y)
fcQdy= f Qdy.ThenIc,Qdy=I;Q(h(y),y)dy, d
Cl + C2 + C3 + C4
IC2 Qdy = IC4 Qdy = 0, and IC3 Qdy = t Q(h(y), y) dy. Hence c
X=fl(Y) Cz
fc Q dy = I: [Q(h(y), y)  Q(JI(y), y) 1 dy = II D(aQ/ax) dA.
0 x 29. Using the first part of (5), we have that IIR dx dy = A(R) = IaR x dy. But x = g(u, v), and
dy = ah du + ah dv, and we orient as by taking the positive direction to be that which corresponds, under the
au av
SECTION 17.5 CURL AND DIVERGENCE ET SECTION 16.5 0 587
mapping, to the positive direction along 8R, so
1 1 ( 8h 8h) 1 8h 8h
xdy= g(u,v) 8 dU+8 dv = g(u,v)8 du+g(u,v)8 dv
aR as u v as u v
= ± lis [:u (g(u, v) ~~)  :v (g(u, v) ~~) ] dA [using Green's Theorem in the uvplane]
[using the Chain Rule]
= ± lis (~: ~~  ~: ~~) dA [by the equality of mixed partials] = ± lis ~~:: ~ ~ du dv
The sign is chosen to be positive if the orientation that we gave to 8S corresponds to the usual positive orientation, and it is negative otherwise. In either case, since A(R) is positive, the sign chosen must be the same as the sign of
8(x,y) fer J"r 18(x'Y)1
8(u, v)' ThereforeA(R) = iR dxdy= is 8(u,v) dudv.
17.5 Curl and Divergence
ET 16.5
j k
1. (a)curIF=V'xF= 8/8x 8/8y 8/8z =(x2O)i(2xyxy)j+(0xz)k
xyz 0 _x2y
= _x2 i + 3xy j  xz k
. 8( 8 8( 2
(b) div F = V' . F = 8 xyz) + 8 (0) +  x y) = yz + 0 + 0 = yz
x y 8z
j k
2. (a) curl F = V' x F = 8/8x 8/8y 8/8z = (xz2  xy2) i  (yz2  x2y)j + (y2z  x2z) k x2yz xy2z xyz2
= X(z2  y2) i + y(x2 _ Z2)j + Z(y2 _ x2) k
(b) div F = V'. F = ! (x2yz) + :y (xy2Z) + ! (xyz2) = 2xyz + 2xyz + 2xyz = 6xyz
j
3. (a) curl F = V' x F = 8/ax a/ay
1 x + yz xy  viz
= (xy)iyj+ k
. a a a 1
(b) div F = V'. F =  (1) +  (x + yz) +  (xy  viz) = z  
& ~ fu 2 viz
k
a/az = (x  y) i  (y  O)j + (1  0) k
588 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
j k
4. (a) curl F = V' x F = %x %y %z
o cos xz  sin xy
= (x cos xy + xsinxz) i  (ycosxy  O)j + (zsinxz  0) k = x(sinxz  cosxy) i + ycos xyj  z sinxz k
(b) div F = V'. F = :x (0) + :y (cosxz) + :z ( sinxy) = 0 + 0 + 0 = 0
j k
5. (a) curl F = V' x F = %x %y %z = (0  0) i  (0  O)j + (e" cosy  eX cosy) k = 0
eX siny eX cosy z
6. (a) curl F = V' x F =
j %y
k %z
%x
x y z
~+~+~ ~+~+~ ~+~+~
1 2 [( 2yz + 2yz) i  (2xz + 2xz)j + (2xy + 2xy) k] = 0
(x2 + yZ + Z2)
. o( x ) o( y ) o( z )
(b) div F = V' . F =  +  + 
fu ~+~+~ ~ ~+~+~ fu ~+~+~
x2 + y2 + Z2 _ 2X2 x2 + y2 + Z2 _ 2y2 x2 + y2 + ZZ _ 2Z2
___;;,;z + 2 + Z
(x2 + y2 + Z2) (xZ + y2 + Z2) (x2 + y2 + Z2)
_ x2 + yZ + Z2 1
 (x2 + y2 + ZZ) Z  XZ + y2 + Z2
j k
7. (a) curl F = V' x F = a/ax a/ay a/az
lnx In(xy) In(xyz)
=(~,~,~)
a a a 1 x xy 1 1 1
(b) div F = V" F =  (lnx) + a (In(xy)) + a (In(xyz)) =  +  +  =  +  +
ax y z x xy xyz x y z
= (~  0) i  (.Jf!_  0) j + (JL  0) k
xyz xyz xy
j k
8. (a)curIF=V'xF= a/ax a/ay a/az =(zeYx)i(OO)j+(zxe~Y(l))k
xe~Y xz ze"
= (zeY  x; 0, z + xe~Y)
(b) div F = V' . F = ~ (xe~Y) + .!!_ (xz) + aO (zeY) = e~Y + 0 + eY = eY + e~Y
ax ay z
SECTION 17.5 CURL AND DIVERGENCE ET SECTION 16.5 0 589
9. If the vector field is F = Pi + Q j + R k, then we know R = O. In addition, the xcomponent of each vector of F
· aP aP aP oR oR oR . aQ
IS 0, so P = 0, hence ax = ay = az = ax = ay = az = o. Q decreases as y Increases, so ay < 0, but
Q doesn't change in the x or zdirections, so ~~ = ~~ = O.
(a) div F = aP + aQ + oR = 0 + aQ + 0 < 0
ax ay az ay
(b) curlF = (OR _ aQ) i + (aP _ OR) j + (aQ _ aP) k = (0 _ 0) i + (0  O)j + (0  0) k = 0
ay az az ax ax ay
10. If the vector field is F = Pi + Q j + R k, then we know R = O. In addition, P and Q don't vary in the zdirection,
oR oR oR aP aQ 0 A' h f h f F . hil h
so ax = ay = az = az = az = . s x Increases, t excomponent 0 eac vector 0 Increases w let e
ycomponent remains constant, so ~: > 0 and ~~ = O. Similarly, as y increases, the ycomponent of each vector
· hil h . aQ 0 d aP
Increases w let e xcomponent remains constant, so ay > an ay = o.
· aP aQ on aP oo
(a) div F =  +  +  =  +  + 0 > 0
ax ay az ax ay
(b) curlF = (OR _ aQ) i + (aP _ OR) j + (aQ _ aP) k = (0  0) i + (0  O)j + (0  0) k = 0
ay az az ax ax ay
11. If the vector field is F = Pi + Q j + R k, then we know R = O. In addition, the ycomponent of each vector of F
· aQ aQ aQ en en oR. . aP
IS 0, so Q = 0, hence ax = ay = 8z = ax = ay = az = o. P Increases as y Increases, so ay > 0, but P
d 't ch . h di aP aP
oesn t c ange In t e x or z irectrons, so ax = az = o.
· aP aQ oR
(a) div F = ax + ay + az = 0 + 0 + 0 = 0
(b) curlF = (OR _ aQ) i + (aP _ OR) j + (aQ _ aP) k
ay az az ax ax ay
= (0  0) i + (0  O)j + (0 _ aP) k = _ aP k
ay ay
· aP aP
Since  > 0,   k is a vector pointing in the negative zdirection.
ay ay
12. (a) curl f = V' x f is meaningless because f is a scalar field. (b) grad f is a vector field.
( c) div F is a scalar field.
(d) curl (grad 1) is a vector field.
(e) grad F is meaningless because F is not a scalar field. (f) grad (div F) is a vector field.
(g) div(grad 1) is a scalar field.
(h) grad (div 1) is meaningless because f is a scalar field.
590 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
(i) curl (curl F) is a vector field.
(j) div( div F) is meaningless because div F is a scalar field.
(k) (grad f) x (div F) is meaningless because div F is a scalar field. (I) div( curl (grad f)) is a scalar field.
j k
13. curl F = \7 x F = fJ/fJx fJ/fJy fJ/fJz = (x  x) i  (y  y)j + (z  z) k = 0
yz xz xy
and F is defined on all of R3 with component functions which have continuous partial derivatives, so by Theorem 4, F is conservative. Thus, there exists a function f such that F = \7 f. Then fx(x, y, z) = yz implies
f(x, y, z) = xyz + g(y, z) and fy(x, y, z) = xz + gy(y, z). But fy(x, y, z) = xz, so g(y, z) = h(z) and f(x,y, z) = xyz + h(z). Thus fz(x,y,z) = xy+ h'(z) but fz(x,y,z) = xy so h(z) = K, a constant. Hence a potential function for F is f(x, y, z) = xyz + K.
j k
14. curl F = \7 x F = fJ/fJx fJ/fJy fJ/fJz = (0  0) i  (2z  6z)j + (0  0) k = 4zj # 0,
3z2 cosy 2xz
so F is not conservative.
j k
15. curl F = \7 x F = fJ/fJx fJ/fJy fJ/fJz = (2y  2y) i  (0  O)j + (2x  2x) k = 0, F is defined on all
2xy x2 + 2yz y2
of R3. and the partial derivatives of the component functions are continuous, so F is conservative. Thus there exists
a function f such that \7 f = F. Then fx (x, y, z) = 2xy implies f(x, y, z) = x2y + g(y, z) and fy(x, y, z) = x2 + gy(y, z). But fy(x, y, z) = x2 + 2yz, so g(y, z) = y2z + h(z) and
f(x,y,z) = x2y + y2z + h(z). Thus fz(x,y,z) = y2 + h'(z) but fz(x,y,z) = y2 so h(z) = K and f(x, y, z) = x2y + y2z + K.
j k
16. curl F = \7 x F = fJ/8x 8/8y 8/8z = (0  0) i  (eZ  eZ)j + (0  0) k = ° and F is defined on all of
eZ 1 xez
R3 with component functions that have continuous partial deriatives, so F is conservative. Thus there exists a function f such that \7 f = F. Then fx(x, y, z) = eZ implies f(x, y, z) = xez + g(y, z) '*
fy(x, y, z) = gy(y, z). But fy(x, y, z) = 1, so g(y, z) = y + h(z) and f(x, y, z) = xez + y + h(z). Thus
fz (x, y, z) = xez + h' (z) but I, (x, y, z) = ze", so h(z) = K, a constant. Hence a potential function for F is
f(x, y, z) = xez + y + K.
SECTION 17.5 CURL AND DIVERGENCE ET SECTION 16.5 0 591
j k
17. curl F = V' x F = a/ax a/ay a/az = (0  0) i  (0  O)j + (_eX  eX) k = 2ex k i o.
so F is not conservative.
y cosxy xcosxy  sin z
= (0  0) i  (0  0) j + [(  xy sin xy + cos xy)  ( xy sin xy + cos xy) 1 k = 0
F is defined on all of]!t3. and the partial derivatives of the component functions are continuous. so F is conservative, Thus there exists a function f such that V' f = F. Then fx(x, y, z) = y cos xy implies f(x, y, z) = sinxy + g(y, z) =? fy(x, y, z) = x cosxy + gy(y, z). But fy(x, y, z) = x cos xy, so g(y, z) = h(z) and f(x,y, z) = sinxy + h(z). Thus fz(x, y, z) = h'(z) but fz(x,y,z) =  sinz so h(z) = cos z + K and a potential function for F is f(x, y, z) = sin xy + cos z + K.
j k
a/ay a/oz
18. curl F = V' x F = a/ox
19. No. Assume there is such a G. Then divtcurl G) = y2 + Z2 + x2 i O. which contradicts Theorem I L
20. No. Assume there is such a G. Then div] curl G) = xz i 0 which contradicts Theorem I L
j k
21. curlF = a/ax a/ay a/oz = (0  0) i + (0  O)j + (0  0) k = O. f(x) g(y) h(z)
Hence F = f(x) i + g(y)j + h(z) k is irrotational.
22. div F' e. a(f(y,z)) + o(g(x,z)) + a(h(x,y)) = OsoF is incompressible.
ax oy az
For Exercises 2329, let F(x, y, z) = P, i + Qd + R: k and G(x, y, z ) = P2 i + Q2j + R2 k.
(aPr aQI aRI) (ap2 aQ2 aR3). _
= fu + ay + az + ox + oy + oz = div F + div G
24. curlF+curlG = [(aRI _ aQ1) i } (aPr _ aRI)j+ (aQ1 _ apI) k]
EJy EJz EJz ax EJx EJy
+ [(aR2 _ aQ2) i } (OP2 _ aR2)j+ (aQ2 _ OP2) k]
ay az az ox ox ay
592 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
25. div(fF) = o(fH) + O(fQl) + O(fRl)
ax oy oz
26. curl (fF) = [o(f Rd _ o(fQd] i + [o(f Pd _ o(f RI)] j + [o(fQd _ o(f PI)] k
~ fu fu & & ~
= [f oRl + ti, of _ f OQl _ o. Of] i + [f oH + PI of _ f oRl _ n, Of] .
oy oy oz oz oz oz ax ax J
= f [ORI _ OQl] i + f [OPI _ ORl] j + f [OQl _ OH] k
oy oz oz ax ax oy
[of of]. [of Of]. [Of Of]
+ Rl   Ql  1 + H   Rl  J + Ql   H  k
oy oz oz ax ax oy
= f curl F + (\7 f) x F
a/ax %y %z
P2 Q2 R2
= [Ql OR2 + R2 OQl _ Q2 ORI _ n, OQ2]
aX ax ax ax
= !!_ I o, n, I a I H n, I a I H c. I
aX Q2 R2  oy P2 R2 + oz P2 Q2
27. div(F x G) = \7 . (F x G) =
_ [PI OR2 + R2 oH _ P2 oRl _ u, OP2]
oy oy oy oy
+ [H OQ2 + Q2 oPl _ P2 OQl _ o, OP2]
oz oz oz oz
= [P2(ORI _ OQl) +Q2(oH _ ORl) +R2(OQl _ OH)]
oy oz oz ax ax oy
_ [PI (OR2 _ OQ2) + Ql(OP2 _ OR2) +Rl(OQ2 _ OP2)]
oy oz oz ax ax oy
= G . curl F  F . curl G
28. div(\7 f x \7 g) = \7 9 . curl (\7 f)  \7 f . curl (\7 g) [by Exercise 27] = 0 (by Theorem 3)
SECTION 17.5 CURL AND DIVERGENCE ET SECTION 16.5 D 593
29. curlcurlF = V' x (V' x F) =
{J/ox
j {J/oy
k o/8z
{JHl/oy  {JQl/{Jz {JH/{Jz  oHl/{Jx oQl/ox  {JPl/{Jy
Now let's consider grad div F  V'2 F and compare with the above. (Note that V'2F is defined on page 1130 [ET 1094].)
( {J2 HI 82 HI {J2 HI) k]
+ {Jx2 + oy2 + {JZ2
Then applying Clairaut's Theorem to reverse the order of differentiation in the second partial derivatives as needed and comparing, we have curl curl F = grad div F  V'2F as desired.
30. (a)V'·r= (:xi+~j+t;k) ·(xi+yj+zk)=1+1+1=3 (b) V' . (rr) = V' . J x2 + y2 + z2 (x i + y j + z k)
= ( x2 + Jx2 + y2 + Z2) + ( y2 + Jx2 + y2 + Z2)
/ x2 + y2 + Z2 J x2 + y2 + Z2
+( Z2 +/X2+y2+Z2)
/x2 +y2 + Z2
1 (4x2 + 4y2 + 4Z2) = 4/ x2 + y2 + z2 = 4r
/x2 + y2 + Z2
Another method:
By Exercise 25, V'. (rr) = div(rr) = rdivr+ r· V'r = 3r + r· ~ [see Exercise 31(a) below] = 4r. r
594 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
(c) V21"3 = V2 (x2 + y2 + Z2) 3/2
= 3[!(x2 + y2 + z2)1/2(2x)(x) + (x2 + y2 + Z2)1/2]
+3[!(x2 +y2 +Z2)1/2(2y)(y) + (x2 +y2 +Z2)1/2]
+ 3 [! (x2 + y2 + z2)1/2(2z)(z) + (x2 + y2 + z2)1/2] = 3(x2 + y2 + Z2)1/2(4x2 + 4y2 + 4Z2) = 12(x2 + y2 + Z2)1/2
= 121"
Another method: :x (x2 + y2 + Z2)3/2 = 3x lX2 + y2 + Z2 =? \71"3 = 31"(x i + yj + z k) = 31" r, so V21"3 = \7. \71"3 = V· (31"r) = 3(41") = 121" by part (b).
xi+yj+zk r
lx2 + y2 + Z2 1"
j k
(b)Vxr= a a a
ax ay az
x y z (1) ( 1 )
(c) V  = \7
1" ';X2 +y2 + Z2
111
(2x) r======:o:====::o (2y) (2z )
2 J x2 + y2 + Z2 2 l x2 + y2 + Z2 . 2 l x2 + y2 + z2
'::'::= i  J  k
x2 + y2 + Z2 x2 + y2 + Z2 x2 + y2 + Z2
xi+yj+zk (x2 + y2 + Z2)3/2
(d) Vin1" = Vin(x2 +y2 +z2)1/2 = ~Vin(x2 +y2 +z2)
x . Y . z k xi + yj + z k
::;:0: 1 + J + =
x2 + y2 + Z2 x2 + y2 + Z2 x2 + y2 + Z2 x2 + y2 + z2
SECTION 17.5 CURL AND DIVERGENCE ET SECTION 16.5 0 595
32.r=xi+yj+zk =? r=lrl=Jx2+y2+z2.so
. r2 _ px2 r2 _ py2 r2 _ pZ2 3r2 _ px2 _ py2 _ pZ2
div F = \7. F = rP+2 + rP+2 + rP+2 rP+2
_ 3r2 _ p(x2 + y2 + Z2) _ 3r2 _ pr2 _ 3 _ p
rp + 2  rP + 2 rP
Consequently, if p = 3 we have div F = O.
33. By (13), fc f(\7g) . nds = II D div(f\7g) dA = II D[f div(\7g) + \7g. \7f] dA by Exercise 25. But div(\7g) = \72g. Hence II D f\72gdA = fc f(\7g) . nds  II D \7g. \7 fdA.
34. By Exercise 33, II D f\72g dA = fc f(\7g) . n ds  II D \7g . \7 fdA and II D g\72f dA = fc g(\7f) . nds  II D \7 f· \7gdA. Hence
JJ D (J\72g  g\72f) dA = fc [f(\7g) . n  g(\7f) . n] ds + II D (\7 f· \7g  \7g. \7f) dA = fc [f\7g  g\7f]· nds
35. (a) We know that w = v / d, and from the diagram sin () = d/r =? v = dw = (sin ())rw = [w X r]. But v is perpendicular to both wand r, so that v = w x r.
j k
(b)From(a),v=wxr= 0 0 w =(O·zwy)i+(wxO·z)j+(O·yx·O)k=wyi+wxj
x y z
j k (c) curl v = \7 x v = a/ax a/ay a/az
wy wx 0
= [~ (0)  :z (WX)] i + [:z (wy)  ! (0)] j + [! (wx)  :y (wY)] k
= [w  (w) 1 k = 2w k = 2w
596 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
( 1 aH) 1
(a) \7 x (\7 x E) = \7 x (curlE) = \7 x  =
c at c
j k
a/ax
a/ay
a/az
= _ ~ [( a2 h3 _ a2 h2 ) i + (a2 hI _ a2 h3 ). ( a2 h2 _ a2 hI) k]
c ayOt azat azat axOt J + ax at ayOt
= _ ~ _Q_ [( ah3 _ ah2) i + (ahl _ ah3) j + (ah2 _ ahl) k]
cOt ~ & & & & ~
[assuming that the partial derivatives are continuous so that the order of differentiation does not matter]
(laE) 1
(b)\7x(\7xH)=\7x(curlH)=\7x  =
c at c
j k
a/ax
a/ay
Ojaz
= ~ _Q_ [( aE3 _ aE2) i + (aEI _ aE3) j + (aE2 _ aEI) k]
c Ot ay az az ax ax ay
[assuming that the partial derivatives are continuous so that the order of differentiation does not matter]
(c) Using Exercise 29, we have that curl curl E = grad div E  \72E =}
1 a2E 1 a2E
'\,72E = graddivE  curlcurlE = grad 0 + 2 2 [from part (a)] = 2~'
C at c ut
. 2. 1 a2H 1 o2H
(d) As in part (c). \7 H=graddlvHcurlcurlH=gradO+ c2 at2 [using part (b)] = c2 Ot2'
37. For any continuous function Jon :lR3• define a vector field G(x, y, z) = (g(x, y, z), 0, 0) where
g(x,y,z) = fox J(t,y,z)dt. Then
div G = ~ (g(x, y, z)) + ~ (0) + ~ (0) = ~ f; J(t, y, z) dt = J(x, y, z) by the Fundamental Theorem of
ox oy oz uX
Calculus. Thus every continuous function J on :lR3 is the divergence of some vector field.
17.6 Parametric Surfaces and Their Areas
SECTION 17.6 PARAMETRIC SURFACES AND THEIR AREAS ET SECTION 16.6 0 597
ET 16.6
1. r( u, v) = u cos v i + u sin v j + u2 k. so the corresponding parametric equations for the surface are x = u cos v, y = u sin v, z = u2. For any point (x, y, z) on the surface. we have
x2 + y2 = u2 cos'' V + u2 sirr' v = u2 = z. Since no restrictions are placed on the parameters, the surface is z = x2 + y2, which we recognize as a circular paraboloid opening upward whose axis is the zaxis.
2. r(u, v) = (1 + 2u) i + (u + 3v)j + (2 + 4u + 5v) k = (1,0,2) + u(2, 1,4) + v(O, 3, 5). From Example 3, we recognize this as a vector equation of a plane through the point (1,0,2) and containing vectors a = (2, 1,4) and b = (0,3,5). If we wish to find a more conventional equation for the plane, a normal vector to the plane is
j k
axb= 2 1 4 =17ilOj+6k o 3 5
and an equation of the plane is 17(x  1)  10(y  0) + 6(z  2) = 0 or 17x  lOy + 6z = 5.
3. r(x, e) = (x, cos e, sin e), so the corresponding parametric equations for the surface are
x = x, y = cos e, z = sin e. For any point (x, y, z) on the surface, we have y2 + Z2 = cos2 e + sin2 e = 1, so any vertical trace in x = k is the circle y2 + Z2 = 1. x = k. Since x = x with no restriction, the surface is a circular cylinder with radius 1 whose axis is the zaxis,
4. r( x, e) = (x, x cos e, x sin e), so the corresponding parametric equations for the surface are x = z, y = x cos e,
z = x sine. For any point (x, y, z) on the surface, we have y2 + Z2 = x2 cos2 e + x2 sirr' e = x2. With x = x and no restrictions on the parameters, the surface is x2 = y2 + Z2, which we recognize as a circular cone whose axis is the zaxis.
5. r(u,v) = (u2 + 1,v3 + 1,'u,+v), 1:<:: u:<:: I, 1:<:: v:<:: 1.
The surface has parametric equations x = u2 + 1. y = v3 + 1,
z = u + v, 1:<:: u:<:: 1, 1:<:: v :<:: 1. If we keep u constant at uo, x = U6 + 1, a constant, so the corresponding grid curves must be the curves parallel to the yzplane. If v is constant, we have
y = v5 + 1, a constant, so these grid curves are the curves parallel to the xzplane.
6. r(u,v) = (u+V,U2,V2), 1:<:: u:<:: 1, 1:<:: v:<:: 1.
The surface has parametric equations x = u + u. y = u2, Z = v2, 1 :<:: u :<:: 1, 1 :<:: v :<:: 1. If u = Uo is constant,
y = u6 = constant, so the corresponding grid curves are the curves parallel to the xzplane. If v = Vo is constant,
z = v5 = constant, so the corresponding grid curves are the curves parallel to the xyplane.
598 0 CHAPTER 11 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
1. r(u,v) = (cos3ucos3v,sin3ucos3v,sin3v).
The surface has parametric equations x = cos" U cos" v,
Y = sin3ucos3v, z = sin3v, 0::::; u::::; tt , 0::::; v::::; 27r. Note that if v = Vo is constant then z = sin" Vo is constant, so the corresponding grid curves must be the curves parallel to the xyplane. The vertically oriented grid curves, then, correspond to u = Uo being held constant, giving x = cos" Uo cos" v,
Y = sin:' Uo cos" v, Z = sin ' v. These curves lie in vertical planes that contain the zaxis.
8. r(u, v) = (cos u sin v, sin u sin v, cos v + In tan( v /2)).
The surface has parametric equations x = cos u sin v,
y = sinusinv, z = cos v + Intan(v/2), 0::::; u::::; 27r,
0.1 ::::; v ::::; 6.2. Note that if v = Vo is constant, the parametric equations become x = cos u sin vo, y = sin u sin vo,
z = cos Vo + In tan( vo/2) which represent a circle of radius sin vo in the plane z = cos vo + In tan( vo/2). So the circular grid curves we see lying horizontally are the grid curves with v constant. The vertically oriented grid curves correspond to
u = Uo being held constant, giving x = cos Uo sin v,
y = sin Uo sin v, z = cos v + In tan(v/2). These curves lie in vertical planes that contain the zaxis.
9. x = cos u sin 2v, y = sin usin2v, z = sin v.
The complete graph of the surface is given by the parametric domain 0::::; u ::::; tt , 0::::; V ::::; 27r. Note that if v = Vo is constant. the parametric equations become x = cos u sin 2vo,
y = sin u sin 2va, z = sin Va which represent a circle of radius sin 2vo in the plane z = sin Vo. So the circular grid curves we see lying horizontally are the grid curves which have
v constant. The vertical grid curves, then, correspond to u = Ua being held constant, giving x = cos Uo sin 2v and
y = sin Uo sin 2v with z = sin v which has a "figureeight" shape.
u constant
)
uconstant
SECTION 17.6 PARAMETRIC SURFACES AND THEIR AREAS ET SECTION 16.6 0 599
10. x = U sin U cos v, y = U cos U cos v, z = u sin v.
We graph the portion of the surface with parametric domain
o ::::; U ::::; 411',0 ::::; V ::::; 211'. Note that if v = vo is constant, the parametric equations become x = U sin U cos Va, Y = U cos U cos Va, Z = U sin Va. The equations for x and y show that the projections onto the xyplane give a spiral shape, so the corresponding grid curves are the almosthorizontal spiral curves we see. The vertical grid curves, which look approximately circular, correspond to
U = Ua being held constant, giving x = Ua sin 'Ua cos v,
y = Ua COSUa cos u, Z = Ua sin v.
11. r( u, v) = cos vi + sin V j + uk. The parametric equations for the surface are x = cos V, y = sin v. z = u. Then x2 + y2 = cos'' V + sin2 V = 1 and z = U with no restriction on u, so we have a circular cylinder, graph IV. The grid curves with U constant are the horizontal circles we see in the plane z = u. If V is constant, both x and yare constant with z free to vary, so the corresponding grid curves are the lines on the cylinder parallel to the zaxis.
12. r( u, v) = U cos vi + U sin v j + uk. The parametric equations for the surface are x = U cos u, y = U sin v, z = u, Then x2 + y2 = u2 cos'' V + u2 sin2 v = u2 = Z2. which represents the equation of a cone with axis the zaxis, graph V. The grid curves with u constant are the horizontal circles we see, corresponding to the equations
x2 + y2 = u2 in the plane z = u. If v is constant, x, y, z are each scalar multiples of u; corresponding to the straight line grid curves through the origin.
13. r( u, v) = u cos v i + u sin v j + v k. The parametric equations for the surface are x = u cos v, y = u sin v, z = v.
We look at the grid curves first; if we fix v, then x and y parametrize a straight line in the plane z = v which intersects the zaxis. If u is held constant, the projection onto the xyplane is circular; with z = v, each grid curve is a helix. The surface is a spiraling ramp. graph I.
14. x = u3, Y = u sin v. z = u cos v. Then y2 + z2 = u2 sin v2 + u2 cos v2 = u2, so if u is held constant, each grid curve is a circle of radius u in the plane x = u3. The graph then must be graph III. If v is held constant, so v = vc, we have y = u sin Va and z = u cos Va. Then y = (tan Va )z, so the grid curves we see running lengthwise along the surface in the planes y = kz correspond to keeping v constant.
15. x = (u  sin u) cos v, y = (1  cos u) sin v, z = u. If u is held constant, x and y give an equation of an ellipse in the plane z = u, thus the grid curves are horizontally oriented ellipses. Note that when u = 0, the "ellipse" is the single point (0,0,0), and when u = 11', we have y = 0 while x ranges from 11' to 11', a line segment parallel to the xaxis in the plane z = 11'. This is the upper "seam" we see in graph II. When v is held constant, z = u is free to vary, so the corresponding grid curves are the curves we see running up and down along the surface.
16. x = (1  u)(3 + cos v) cos 411'u, Y = (1  u)(3 + cosv) sin 411'u, z = 3u + (1  u) sinv. These equations correspond to graph VI: when u = 0, then x = 3 + cos v, y = 0, and z = sin u, which are equations of a circle with radius 1 in the xzplane centered at (3,0,0). When u = ~, then x = ~ + ~ cos v, y = 0, and z = ~ + ! sin v, which are equations of a circle with radius ~ in the xzplane centered at (~, 0, ~). When u = 1, then x = y = ° and z = 3, giving the topmost point shown in the graph. This suggests that the grid curves with u constant are the vertically oriented circles visible on the surface. The spiralling grid curves correspond to keeping v constant.
600 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
17. From Example 3. parametric equations for the plane through the point (1,2, 3) that contains the vectors
a = (1,1, 1) and b = (1, 1, 1) are x = 1 + u(l) + v(l) = 1 + u + v. y = 2 + u(l) + v( 1) = 2 + u  v, z = 3 + u( 1) + v(l) = 3  u + v.
18. Solving the equation for z gives z2 = 1  2X2  4y2 =:> z = VI  2x2  4y2 (since we want the lower half of the ellipsoid). If we let x and y be the parameters, parametric equations are x = x, y = u.
z =  VI  2X2  4y2.
x2 2 1
Alternate solution: The equation can be rewritten as (1/ v'2) 2 + (1/2)2 + Z2 = 1, and if we let x = v'2 u cos v
and y = ~usin u. then z = VI  2X2  4y2 = VI  u2 cos V  u2 sirr' v = ,11 u2, where 0::; u ::; 1 and 0 ::; v ::; 271".
19. Solving the equation for y gives y2 = 1  x2 + Z2 =:> y = VI  x2 + Z2. (We choose the positive root since we want the part of the hyperboloid that corresponds to y :=:: 0.) If we let x and z be the parameters, parametric
equations are x = x. z = z, y = VI  x2 + Z2.
20. x = 4  y2  2Z2. Y = y. z = z where y2 + 2Z2 ::; 4 since x :=:: O. Then the associated vector equation is r(y, z) = (4  y2  2Z2) i + y j + z k.
21. Since the cone intersects the sphere in the circle x2 + y2 = 2, z = v'2 and we want the portion of the sphere above this. we can parametrize the surface as x = x. y = y, z = V 4  x2  y2 where x2 + y2 ::; 2.
Alternate solution: Using spherical coordinates. x = 2 sin ¢ cos e, y = 2 sin ¢ sin e, z = 2 cos ¢ where 0 ::; ¢ ::; ~ and 0 ::; e ::; 271".
22. In spherical coordinates, parametric equations are x = 4 sin ¢ cos e, y = 4 sin ¢ sin e, z = 4 cos ¢. The intersection of the sphere with the plane z = 2 corresponds to z = 4 cos ¢ = 2 =:> cos ¢ = ~ =:> ¢ = i· By symmetry, the intersection of the sphere with the plane z =  2 corresponds to ¢ = 71"  i = 2;. Thus the surface is described by 0 < e ::; 271". i ::; ¢ < 2;.
23. Parametric equations are x = x, y = 4 cos e, z = 4 sin e, 0 ::; x ::; 5,0 ::; e ::; 271".
24. Using x and y as the parameters. x = x, y = y, z = x + 3 where 0 ::; x2 + y2 ::; 1. Also, since the plane intersects the cylinder in an ellipse, the surface is a planar ellipse in the plane z = x + 3. Thus, parametrizing with respect to s and e, we have x = s cos e, y = s sin e, z = 3 + s cos e where 0 ::; s ::; 1 and 0 ::; e ::; 271".
25. The surface appears to be a portion of a circular cylinder of radius 3 with axis the xaxis. An equation of the cylinder is y2 + Z2 = 9, and we can impose the restrictions 0 ::; x ::; 5, y ::; 0 to obtain the portion shown.
To graph the surface on a CAS, we can use parametric equations x = u, y = 3 cos v, z = 3 sin v with the parameter
SECTION 17.6 PARAMETRIC SURFACES AND THEIR AREAS ET SECTION 16.6 0 601
domain 0 :::; u :::; 5, ~ :::; v :::; 3;. Alternatively, we can regard x and z as parameters. Then parametric equations are x = x, z = z, y =  V9  Z2, where 0 :::; x :::; 5 and 3 :::; z :::; 3.
26. The surface appears to be a portion of a sphere of radius 1 centered at the origin. In spherical coordinates, the sphere has equation p = 1, and imposing the restrictions ~ :::; e :::; 211', ~ :::; ¢ :::; 11' will give only the portion of the sphere shown. Thus, to graph the surface on a CAS we can either use spherical coordinates with the stated restrictions, or we can use parametric equations: x = sin ¢ cos e, y = sin ¢sin e. z = cos ¢, ~ :::; e :::; 211', ~ :::; ¢ :::; 11'.
27. Using Equations 3. we have the parametrization x = x, y = ex cos e, Z = ex sin e, 0:::; x :::; 3,0:::; e :::; 211'.
28. Letting e be the angle of rotation about the yaxis. we have the parametrization x = (4y2  y4) cose, y = y, z = (4y2  y4)sine. 2:::; y:::; 2,0:::; e:::; 211'.
29. (a) Replacing cos u by sin u and sin u by cos u gives parametric equations
x = (2 + sin v) sin u, y = (2 + sin v) cos u, z = u + cos v. From the graph, it appears that the direction of the spiral is reversed. We can verify this observation by noting that the projection of the spiral grid curves onto the xyplane. given by
x = (2 + sin v) sin u, y = (2 + sin v) cos u, z = 0, draws a circle in the clockwise direction for each value of v. The original equations, on the other hand, give circular projections drawn in the counterclockwise direction. The equation for z is identical in both surfaces, so as z increases, these grid curves spiral up in opposite directions for the two surfaces.
602 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
(b) Replacing cos u by cos 2u and sin u by sin 2u gives parametric equations
x = (2 + sin v) cos 2u, y = (2 + sin v) sin 2u, z = u + cos v. From the graph, it
appears that the number of coils in the surface doubles within the same parametric
grid curves onto the xyplane, given by x = (2 + sin v) cos 2u,
domain. We can verify this observation by noting that the projection of the spiral
y = (2 + sin v) sin 2u, Z = 0 (where v is constant), complete circular revolutions
for 0 ::; u ::; 7f while the original surface requires 0 ::; u ::; 27f for a complete
revolution. Thus, the new surface winds around twice as fast as the original
as many circular coils in the same zinterval.
surface, and since the equation for z is identical in both surfaces. we observe twice
30. First we graph the surface as viewed from the front, then from two additional viewpoints.
The surface appears as a twisted sheet, and is unusual because it has only one side. (The Mobius strip is discussed in more detail in Section 17.7 [ET 16.7].)
31. r(u, v) = (u + v) i + 3u2 j + (u  v) k.
ru = i + 6uj + k and r , = i  k. so
ru x r , = 6u i + 2j  6u k. Since the point (2,3,0) corresponds to u = 1, v = 1, a normal vector to the surface at (2,3,0) is 6 i + 2j  6 k, and an equation of the tangent plane is 6x + 2y  6z = 6 or 3x  y + 3z = 3.
32. r(u, v) = u2 i + v2 j + uv k =? r(l, 1) = (1,1,1).
ru = 2u i + v k and r , = 2v j + uk, so a normal vector to the surface at the point (1, 1, 1) is
ru(l,l) x rv(l, 1) = (2 i + k) x (2j + k) = 2 i  2j + 4 k. Thus an equation of the tangent plane at the point (1, 1, 1) is
2(x  1)  2(y  1) + 4(z  1) = 0 or x + y  2z = O.
SECTION 17.6 PARAMETRIC SURFACES AND THEIR AREAS ET SECTION 16.6 D 603
33. r ( u, v) = U 2 i + 2u sin v j + 1. cos v k '* r ( 1, 0) = (1, 0, 1).
r u = 2u i + 2 sin v j + cos v k and r v = 2u cos v j  u sin v k. so a normal vector to the surface at the point (1,0,1) is
ru(l,O) x rv(I,O) = (2i+k) x (2j) = 2i+4k.
Thus an equation of the tangent plane at (1, 0, 1) is
2(x  1) + O(y  0) + 4(z  1) = ° or x + 2z = 1.
34. r(u,v) = uvi + usinvj + vcosuk '* r(O,7r) = (0,0, 71)
r u = vi + sin v j  v sin u k and r v = u i + u cos v j + cos u k, so a normal vector to the surface at the point (0,0, 7r) is
ru(O,7r) x rv(O,7r) = (7ri) x (k) = 7rj. Thus an equation of the tangent plane is 7r(Y  0) = ° or y = 0.
35. Here z = f(x, y) = 4  x  2y and D is the disk x2 + y2 ::; 4. Thus, by Formula 9.
x
A(S) = fJD )1 + (1)2 + (2)2dA = V6IIDdA = V6A(D) = 4V67r
36. ru = (0,1, 5), r., = (1, 2, 1), and r., x r , = (9, 5, 1). Then by Definition 6,
37. z = f(x, y) = xy with 0::; x2 + y2 ::; I, so fx = y, fy = x '*
J" r 1271"11 1271" [1 ] r=l
A(S) = iT VI + y2 + x2 dA = #+11'd1'de = "3 e + 1)3/2 de
D 0 0 0 r=O
= 1271" ~ ( 2 J2  1) de = ~ (2 J2  1)
38. z = f(x, y) = 1 + 3x + 2y2 with ° S x S 2y, 0::; y S 1. Thus, by Formula 9,
A(S) = lID j1 + 32 + (4y)2 dA = 101 I:y VlO + 16y2 dxdy = 101 2y j10 + 16y2 dy = .L . ~ (10 + 16y2)3/2] 1 _ .L (')63/2 _ 103/2)
16 3 0  24 ~
39. z = f(x, y) = y2  x2 with 1 ::; x2 + y2 ::; 4. Then
A(S) = lID j1 + 4x2 + 4y2 dA = 10271" 112 viI + 41'2 r dr de = 10271" de 112 viI + 41'2 r dr
= [el~71" [12(1 + 41'2)3/2]: = ~ (17vTI  5v5)
604 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
40. A parametric representation of the surface is x = y2 + Z2, y = y, z = z with 0 ~ y2 + Z2 ~ 9.
Hence ry x r , = (2y i + j) x (2z i + k) = i  2yj  2z k.
Note: In general, if x = fey, z) then ry x r , = i  ~~ j  ~~ k. and
A(S) = II VI + 4y2 + 4z2 dA = I027r 103 vI + 4r2 rdrd(}
o ~ y2 + z2 ~ 9
41. A parametric representation of the surface is x = x, y = 4x + Z2, Z = z with 0 ~ x ~ 1, 0 ~ z ~ 1.
Hence rx x r , = (i + 4j) x (2zj + k) = 4 i  j + 2z k.
Note: In general, if y = f(x, z) then rx x r , = of i  j + of k and
ox OZ
A (S) = J l 1 + (~~ y + (~~ Y dA. Then
= Hz VI7 +4Z2 + ¥ In!2z + V4Z2 + I7!)J: = 'T + ¥ [In(2 + v2i) In v'i7]
42. Let S1 be that portion of the surface which lies above the plane z = O. Then A(S) = 2A(S1) by symmetry.
OnS1.z=Va2x2solrxxryl= /I+~= ~.Hence
V a  x a2  x2
if JaJ~ Ja
A(S1) = ~dA= ~dydX= 2adx=4a2.
a x a Ja2x2 a x a
o ~ x2 +y2 ~ a2
Thus A (5) = Sa2.
Alternate solution: If A(S2) is the surface area in the first octant, then A(5) = SA(S2). A parametric representation of the surface in the first octant is x = a sin 8, y = y, z = a cos (} (8 being the angle in the xzplane measured from the positive zaxis), where 0 ~ (} <::: ~ and 0 <::: y <::: a cos (}. The restrictions on y follow from:
x2 + y2 <::: a2 or a2 sirr' (} + y2 <::: a2 so y2 <::: a2 (1  sin2 (}); thus in the first octant 0 <::: y <::: a cos (}. Then
ry x ro = (asin8,O,acos8) andA(52) = s=s:: adyd8 = Jo7r/2a2cos8d8 = a2.
Hence A(S) = Sa2
43. Let A(Sd be the surface area of that portion of the surface which lies above the plane z = 0. Then
A(S) = 2A(S1)' Following Example 10, a parametric representation of S1 is x = u sin o cos 8, y = a sin <j> sin 8,
SECTION 17.6 PARAMETRIC SURFACES AND THEIR AREAS ET SECTION 16.6 0 605
z = acos¢ and Ir4> x rei = a2 sin ¢. For D, 0 <::: ¢ <::: ~ and for each fixed ¢. (x  ~a)2 + y2 <::: Oa)2 or [asin¢cosO  ~al2 + a2 sin2 ¢sin2 0::; (a/2)2 implies a2 sin2 ¢  a2 sin¢cosO <::: 0 or
sin ¢ (sin ¢  cos 0) <::: O. But 0 ::; ¢ ::; ~, so cos 0 ~ sin ¢ or sin (~ + 0) ~ sin ¢ or ¢  ~ ::; 0 ::; ~  ¢. Hence D = {( ¢, 0) I 0 ::; ¢ ::; ~, ¢  ~ ::; 0 ::; ~  ¢ }. Then
A(81) = J071"/2 J~"!~~!2f a2 sin¢dOd¢ = a2 J;/2 (7r  2¢) sin¢d¢
= a2 [( 7r cos ¢)  2( ¢cos ¢ + sin ¢)1~/2 = a2(7r  2)
Thus A(8) = 2a2(7r  2).
Alternate solution: Working on 81 we could parametrize the portion of the sphere by x = x. y = y.
Jf a J71"/21acose a
A(8J) = dA= r dr di)
Os(x~(a/2»2+y2s(a/2)2 Ja2x2_y2 ~71"/2 0 va2r2
Notes:
(I) Perhaps working in spherical coordinates is the most obvious approach here. However, you must be careful in setting up D.
(2) In the alternate solution, you can avoid having to use [sin 01 by working in the first octant and then multiplying by 4. However, if you set up 81 as above and arrived at A( 81) = a27r, you now see your error.
44. ru = (cos u.sin u.Ur.j, = (usinv,ucosv,1),andru x r., = (sinv,cosv,u). Then
45. ru = (v, 1, 1), r , = (u, 1, 1) and ru x r., = (2,u + v, v  u). Then
A(8) = J J u2 + v2 :s 1 ";4+ 2u2 + 2v2 dA = J0271" fol r"; 4 + 2r2 dr de = f0271" de fo1 r"; 4 + 2r2 dr
= 27r [~( 4 + 2r2) 3/2]: = i (6..J6  8) = tt (2..J6  ~)
606 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
46. z = f(x, y) = cos(x2 + y2) with x2 + y2 S 1.
A(S) = II D }1 + (2x sin(x2 + y2))2 + (2y sin(x2 + y2))2 dA = II D VI + 4x2 sin2(x2 + y2) + 4y2 sin2(x2 + y2) dA
= II D }1 + 4(x2 + y2) sin2(x2 + y2) dA
= I:7I" I01 }1 + 4r2 sin2(r2) r dr de = 10271" de 101 r}1 + 4r2 sin2(r2) dr = 21l'I01 r VI + 4r2 sin2(r2) dr ~ 4.1073
A(S) = lID VI + (_2xeX2_y2)2 + (_2yeX2_y2)2 dA = II D }1 + 4(x2 + y2)e2(x2+y2) dA
= 1:71" I: VI + 4r2e2r2 r dr de = 10271" de I: r } 1 + 4r2e2r2 dr = 21l'I02 r }1 + 4r2e2r2 dr ~ 13.9783
1 + x2 2x
48. Let f(x, y) = 2' Then fx = 2'
l+y l+y
_ 1 x2 [_ 2y ] __ 2y(1 + x2)
fy  (+ ) (1 + y2)2  (1 + y2)2 .
We use a CAS to estimate
I~1 t(~ ~llxl) }1 + f1 + f~ dydx ~ 2.6959.
In order to graph only the part of the surface above the square, we use  (1  Ixl) s y S 1  Ixl as the yrange in our plot command.
49. (a) The midpoints of the four squares are U, ~). (~, ~). (~, ~), and (~, ~); the derivatives of the function f(x, y) = x2 + y2 are fx(x, y) = 2x and fy(x, y) = 2y, so the Midpoint Rule gives
A(S) = 101 J; }[fx(x, y)J2 + [fy(x, y)]2 + 1 dydx
~ ~ (J[2(~)]2 + [2(D]2 + 1 + V[2U)]2 + [2(~)]2 + 1
+ V[2(~)]2 + [2(~)]2 + 1 + V[2(~)]2 + [2(~)]2 + 1 )
= ~ (Ii + 2.fi + I¥) ~ 1.8279
(b) A CAS estimates the integral to be
A(S) = I; J; } f1 + f~ + 1 dy dx = 101 J; } 4x2 + 4y2 + 1 dy dx ~ 1.8616. This agrees with the Midpoint estimate only in the first decimal place.
SECTION 11.6 PARAMETRIC SURFACES AND THEIR AREAS ET SECTION 16.6 0 601
50. r(u, v) = (cos3 U cos" v, sin" u cos" v, sin" V), so ru = (3 cos2 u sin u cos" V, 3 sin2 u cos u cos" V, 0). r., = (3 cos" u cos2 v sin v, 3 sin" u cos2 v sin v, 3 sirr' v cos V). and
ru x rv = (9cosusin2 ucos4 vsin2 v, 9cos2 tz sin u cos" vsin2 v, 9cos2 u sirr' ucos5 vsinv). Then
[r., x rv I = 9 J cos" u sin" u cos" v sin" v + cos! u sirr' u cos" v sin" v + cos" u sin" u COSIO v sirr' v
= 9 cos u sin2 u cos" v sirr' v (sirr' v + cos? u sirr' u cos? v)
= 9 cos4 V [cos u sin u sin vi J sirr' v + cos? u sin2 u cos v
Using a CAS, we have
A(S) = Io7r I~7r 9 cos" V [cos u sin u sin vi J sirr' v + cos u sin2 u cos'' v dv du ~ 4.4506.
51. z = I + 2x + 3y + 4y2, so
A(S) = 1L
(OZ)2 (oz)2 1411
I +  +  dA  J I + 4 + (3 + 8y)2 dy dx
ox oy 1 0
Using a CAS, we have
or .:!Q v'14 + ]2 In 11 V5±3V70 .
8 16 3V5±V70
52. (a) ru = acosvi + bsinvj + 2uk, r., = ausinvi + bucosvj + Ok, and ru x r., = 2bu2 cosvi  2au2 sin vj + abuk.
(b) x2 = a2u2 cos2 v, y2 = b2u2 sirr' v, z = u2 => x2j a2 + y2jb2 = u2 = z which is an elliptic paraboloid.
To find D, notice that 0 :s: u :s: 2 => O:S: z :s: 4 => O:S: x2ja2 + y2jb2 :s: 4. Therefore, using Formula 9,
J2a Jb.J4  (x2/a2)
we have A(S) = JI + (2xja2)2 + (2yjb2)2 dydx.
2a bV4  (x2/a2)
(c)
(d) We substitute a = 2, b = 3 in the integral in part (a) to get A(S) = I~7r I~2uJ9u2cos2v+4u2sin2v+9dudv. We use a CAS to estimate the integral accurate to four decimal places. To speed up the calculation, we can set Digi ts: =7; (in Maple) or use the approximation command N (in Mathematica). We find that A(S) ~ 115.6596.
608 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
53. (a) x = asinucosv. y = bsinusinv. z = ccosu "* x2 y2 Z2
2" + b2 + 2" = (sin u cos u)" + (sin u sin u)" + (COSU)2
a c
(b)
and since the ranges of u and v are sufficient to generate the entire graph, the parametric equations represent an ellipsoid.
2
2
= sin2 u + cos2 U = 1
z 0
(c) From the parametric equations (with a = 1. b = 2. and c = 3),
we calculate r u = cos u cos v i + 2 cos u sin v j  3 sin u k and r , =  sin u sin v i + 2 sin u cos v j. So ru x r., = 6 sin2 u cos v i + 3 sin2 u sin v j + 2 sin u cos u k, and the
surface area is given by
54. (a) x = acoshucosv, y = bcoshusinv, z = csinhu "*
(b)
= cosh2 U  sinh ' u = 1
and the parametric equations represent a hyperboloid of one sheet. (c) r u = sinh u cos v i + 2 sinh u sin v j + 3 cosh u k and
rv = coshusinvi+2coshucosvj,so
ru x r., = 6 cosh'' u cos vi  3 coslr' u sin v j + 2 cosh u sinh u k. We integrate between
u = sinh1( 1) = In(l + J2) and u = sinh1 1 = In(l + J2). since then z varies between 3 and 3, as desired. So the surface area is
127rJln(1 + v'2)
A(S) = Iruxrvldudv
o  In( 1+ v'2)
127rJ1n(1 + v'2)
= J 36 cosh" u cos? V + 9 cosh4 u sirr' v + 4 cosh'' u sinh'' u du dv
o  In( 1+ v'2)
55. r(u, v) = (cos3 U cos" v, sin ' u cos" v, sin" v), so r., = (3 cos2 u sin u cos" v, 3 sin2 u cos u cos" v, 0), r., = (3 cos" u cos2 v sin v, 3 sin" u cos2 v sin v, 3 sin2 v cos v), and
ru x r , = (9 cos u sin2 u cos" v sin2 v, 9 cos2 u sin u cos" v sin2 v, 9 cos'' u sin2 u cos" v sin v). Then
Iru x r , I = 9 J cos? u sin" u cos" v sin" v + cos+ u sin2 u cos'' v sin" v + cos+ u sin" u cos" v sin2 v
= 9 cos? u sirr' u cos" v sin2 v (sirr' v + cos u sin2 u cos' v)
= 9 cos4 V [cos u sin u sin vi J sirr' v + cos? u sin2 u cos v
Using a CAS, we have A( S) = fo7r t: 9 cos" V [cos u sin u sin vi vi sin2 v + cos? u sin'' u cos? v dv du ::::0 4.4506.
SECTION 17.6 PARAMETRIC SURFACES AND THEIR AREAS ET SECTION 16.6 0 609
56. (a) Here z = o.sin o, Y = IABI, and x = lOA!. But
IABI
lOBI = lOCI + ICBI = b + u cos o and sinO = lOBI so that
Y = lOBI sinO = (b + acosa) sinO. Similarly cosO = :~~: so
x = (b + a cos a) cos O. Hence a parametric representation for the torus is x = bcos 0 + acos a cos 0, y = bsin 0 + a cos a sin 0,
z = o sin c. where 0 :::; a:::; 27r, 0:::; 0:::; 27r.
(b)
1 Z 0 i
a = 1, b = 8
2
z 0
2
5
a = 3, b = 4
2 z 0 2
10 a = 3, b = 8
(c) x = bcosO + acos a cos 0, y = bsinO + acosasinO, z = e sin o. so
rQ = (asinacos 0, asin a sin 0, a cos a), re = ( (b + acosa) sin 0, (b + acosa) cos 0, 0) and
rQ x re = (abcos a cos 0  a2 cos a cos" 0) i + (absina cos 0  a2 sin o cos ' 0) j
+ (abcos2 a sinO  a2 cos2 asinOcosO  absin2 o sin e'  a2 sin ' a sin 0 cosO) k
= a (b + a cos a) [(cos 0 cos a) i + (sin Ocos a)j + (sin a) k]
Then IrQ x rei = a (b + acosa) vcos2 Ocos2 a + sin'' Ocos2 a + sin2 a = a (b + acosa). Note: b > a, 1 :::; cos a :::; 1 so Ib + a cos 001 = b + a cos a. Hence
A (8) = 1027r 1027r a (b + a cos a) do: ae = 27r [aba + a2 sin a] ~7r = 47r2ab.
610 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
17.7 Surface Integrals
ET 16.7
1. Each face of the cube has surface area 22 = 4, and the points Ptj are the points where the cube intersects the coordinate axes. Here, f(x, y, z) = Jx2 + 2y2 + 3z2, so by Definition I,
II s f(x, y, z) dS ~ [f(l, 0, 0)](4) + [f( 1,0,0)](4) + [f(O, 1,0)](4) + [f(O, 1,0)](4) + [f(O, 0,1)](4) + [f(O, 0, 1)] (4)
= 4 ( 1 + 1 + 2 V2 + 2 V3) = 8 ( 1 + V2 + V3) ~ 33.170
2, Each quartercylinder has surface area i[21f(1)(2)] = 1f, and the top and bottom disks have surface area 1f(I? = zr.
We can take (0,0,1) as a sample point in the top disk, (0,0, 1) in the bottom disk, and (±1, 0, 0), (0, ±1, 0) in the four quartercylinders. Then II s f(x, y, z) dS can be approximated by the Riemann sum
f(1. 0, 0)(1f) + f( 1,0, 0)(1f) + f(O, 1, 0) (1f) + f(O, 1, 0)(1f) + f(O, 0, 1)(1f) + f(O, 0, 1)(1f)
= (2 + 2 + 3 + 3 + 4 + 4)1f = 181f ~ 56.5.
3. We can use the xz and yzplanes to divide H into four patches of equal size, each with surface area equal to ~ the surface area of a sphere with radius y56, so flS = ~ (4)1f ( y56) 2 = 251f. Then (±3, ±4, 5) are sample points in the four patches, and using a Riemann sum as in Definition I, we have
II H f(x, y, z) dS ~ f(3, 4, 5) ss + f(3, 4,5) flS + f( 3,4,5) flS + f( 3, 4,5) flS = (7 + 8 + 9 + 12)(251f) = 9001f ~ 2827
4. On the surface, f(x, y, z) = g( Jx2 + y2 + Z2 ) = g(2) = 5. So since the area of a sphere is 41fr2, lIs f(x, y, z) dS = lIs g(2) dS = 5 lIs dS = 5[41f(2)2] = 801f.
{)z {)z
5. z = 1 + 2x + 3y so  = 2 and () = 3. Then by Formula 2,
()x y
= I~ 102 x2y(1 + 2x + 3y) J4 +9 + Idydx = v141~ I~(x2y + 2x3y + 3x2y2) dydx
= v14 103 [~x2y2 + x3y2 + x2y3] ~:~ dx
= v14 I: (lOx2 + 4x3) dx = Ji4 [Jfx3 + X4] ~ = 171 Ji4
6. S is the region in the plane 2x + y + z = 2 or z = 2  2x  y over D = {(x, y) I ° ::; x ::; 1, ° ::; Y ::; 2  2x}.
Thus
lIs xydS = II D xy J( 2)2 + (1)2 + 1 dA
= J6 I; I~2x xydydx = J6 I; [~xy2]~:~2X dx
= V; I;(4x8x2+4x3)dx= V;(2~+1) = v;:
SECTION 17.7 SURFACE INTEGRALS ET SECTION 16.7 0 611
7. S is the part of the plane z = 1  x  y over the region D = {(x, y) I 0 :<:::: x :<:::: 1, 0 :<:::: y :<:::: 1  x}. Thus
11 s y z dS = II D Y (1  x  y) V ( 1 ) 2 + ( 1)2 + 1 dA
= V3 I01 101x (y  xy  y2) dy dx = V3 101 [~y2  ~xy2  ~y3l ~:~X dx
= V3 (1 !(1  X)3 dx = .fl(1 X)4]1 = .fl
Jo 6 24 0 24
11 s y dS = II D Y J ( Vx ) 2 + (Vfj) 2 + 1 dA = I01 101 Y J x + y + 1 dx dy
= 101 Y[ ~(x + y + 1)3/2[:: dy = 101 ~y[(y + 2)3/2  (y + 1)3/2] dy
Substituting u = y + 2 in the first term and t = Y + 1 in the second, we have
lIs y dS = ~ 123(u  2)u3/2 du  ~ I12(t  l)t3/2 dt = ~ [~U7/2 _ ~U5/2]3 _ ~ [~t7/2 _ ~t5/2]2
37 5 237 5 1
= ~ [~(37/2 _ 27/2) _ ~(35/2 _ 25/2) _ ~(27/2 _ 1) + ~(25/2  1)]
= ~ ( ~ V3 + is v2  :fs) = 1~5 (9 V3 + 4 v2  2)
9. S is the portion of the cone Z2 = x2 + y2 for 1 :<:::: z :<:::: 3, or equivalently, S is the part of the surface z = V x2 + y2 over the region D = {( x, y) I 1 :<:::: x2 + y2 < 9}. Thus
( )2 ( )2
X + Y + IdA
V x2 + y2 V x2 + y2
=j] X2(x2+l) x:+y: +ldA=j] v2x2(X2+y2)dA
D x +u D
= J2 I;7I" 113(r cos (})2(r2) rdrd{} = v2 1;71" cos'' {}d{} 113 r5 dr
= v2 [~{} + ~ sin2{}l~7I" [~r6l~ = v2 (7r)' ~(36  1) = 364v2 7r 3
10. Using y and z as parameters, we have r(y, z) = (y + 2Z2) i + yj + z k, 0:<:::: y :<:::: 1,0:<:::: z :<:::: 1.
Then r , x r , = (i+j) x (4zi+k) = ij 4zkand Iry x rzl = J2+ 16z2 Thus
11szdS = 101 101 zJ2 + 16z2 dydz = 101 z J2 + 16z2 dz = [i2 . ~(2 + 16z2)3/2 J: = .i. (183/2 _ 23/2) = ~ "2
48 12 v~
11. Using x and z as parameters, we have rex, z) = xi + (x2 + Z2)j + z k, x2 + z2 :<:::: 4. Then
r , x r , = (i+2xj) x (2zj +k) = 2xi j +2zkand Irx x rzl = J4X2 + 1 +4Z2 = VI +4(x2 +Z2).
612 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
Thus
IIsyd5= II (x2+z2)Jl+4(x2+z2)dA=I~11" I~r2Vl+4r2rdrdB
x2+z2:<:;4
= I~11" dB I~ r2 VI + 4r2 r dr = 27r 102 r2 vI + 4r2 r dr
[let u = 1 + 4r2 => r2 = ~ (u ~ 1) and ~ du = r dr]
= 27r 1117 ~ (u ~ 1).JU. ~du = ftJ7r 1117 (U3/2 ~ U1/2) du
= _!_7r[~U5/2 ~ ~U3/2]17 = _!_7r[~(17)5/2 ~ ~(17)3/2 ~ ~ +~] = ~(391Vf7+ 1)
16 5 3 1 16 5 3 5 3 60
12. Here 5 consists of three surfaces: 51, the lateral surface of the cylinder; 52, the front formed by the plane x + Y = 2; and the back, 53, in the plane y = O. On 51: using cylindrical coordinates,
r ( B, y) = sin B i + y j + cos B k, 0 S B S 27r, 0 S Y S 2 ~ sin B, Ire x r y I = 1 and
II S1 xyd5 = I~11" I~  sine (sinB) ydydB = I~11" [2 sin B ~ 2 sin2 B + ~ sin" BJ dB = ~27r.
On 52: rex, z) = xi + (2 ~ x)j + z k and Irx x r , I = I~i ~ Jl = v'2, where x2 + Z2 S 1 and
IIs2 xyd5 = II x(2 ~ x)v'2dA = I~11" 101 v'2 (2rsinB ~ r2 sin2 B) rdrdB
x2 + z2 :<:; 1
=.J2 I~11" [~sinB ~ ~ sirr' BJ so = ~ V;7r
On 53: y = 0 so IIs3 xyd5 = O. Hence lIs xyd5 = ~27r ~ V;7r = ~~ (8 + v'2)7r.
13. Using spherical coordinates and Example 17.6.10 [ET 16.6.10] we have
r(¢,B) = 2sin¢eosBi + 2 sin ¢sinBj + 2eos¢k and Irq, x rei = 4sin¢. Then
II s(x2 z + y2 z) as = I~11" 1011"/2 (4 sin2 ¢ )(2 cos ¢)( 4 sin ¢) d¢ dB = 167r sin" ¢J ~/2 = 167r.
14. Using spherical coordinates, r( ¢, B) = sin ¢ cos B i + sin ¢ sin B j + cos ¢ k, 0 S ¢ S ~, Os B S 27r. and Irq, x rei = sin o (see Example 17.6.10 [ET 16.6.10]). Then
II s xyz as = I~11" 1011"/4 (sirr' ¢eos ¢eos B sinB) d¢dB = 0 since I~11" cos Bsin B ao = O.
15. Using cylindrical coordinates, we have r( B, z) = 3 cos B i + 3 sin B j + z k, 0 S B S 27r, 0 S Z S 2, and Ire x rzl = 3.
lIs (x2y + Z2) d.S = I~11" I~(27eos2 BsinB + Z2) 3dzdB = I~11"(162cos2 BsinB + 8) dB = 167r
16. Let SI be the lateral surface, S2 the top disk, and S3 the bottom disk.
On 51: r(B,z) = 3cosBi+3sinBj+zk 0 S B S 27r,O S Z S 2, Ire x rzl = 3, II S, (x2 + y2 + Z2) dS = I~11" I; (9 + Z2) 3 dz ao = 27r(54 + 8) = 1247r.
On 52: r(B, r) = rcosBi + rsinBj + 2k, 0 S r S 3,0 S B S 27r, Ire x rrl = r .
IIs2 (x2 + y2 + Z2) dS = 1:11" I~(r2 + 4) r dr ao = 27r( ¥ + 18) = 1~37r.
On 53: r(B,r) = rcosBi + rsinBj, 0 S r S 3,0 S B S 27r,lre x rrl = r , IIs3(x2 + y2 + Z2) dS = 1:11" I~(r2 + 0) rdrdB = 27r(¥) = ¥7r.
Hence II s (x2 + y2 + Z2) d.S = 1247r + 1~37r + ¥7r = 24l7r.
17. r(u,v) = u2 i + usinvj + ucosvk, 0 SuS 1,0 S v S 7r/2 and
ru x r , = (2ui + sinvj + cosvk) x (ucosvj ~ usinvk) = ~ui + 2u2 sinvj + 2u2 cosvk and
SECTION 17.7 SURFACE INTEGRALS ET SECTION 16.7 0 613
[r., x r., I = V u2 + 4u4 sirr' v + 4u4 cos? V = V'u2 + 4u4 (sin'' v + cos? v) = u VI + 4u2 (since u 2: 0). Then
lIs yz dS = 10"/2 Iol(u sin v)(u cosv) . u VI + 4u2 dudv = 101 u3 vI + 4u2 du 10"/2 sin v cosv dv [lett=I+4u2 =? u2=~(tI)and~dt=udul
= 115 ~. ~(t I)Vidt 10"/2 sinvcosvdv = i2 115 (t3/2  Vi) dt 10"/2 sinvcosvdv
= .1.. [~t5/2 _ ~t3/2] 5 [1. sin2 v]"/2 = .1.. (~(5?/2 _ z (5)3/2 _ ~ + ~) . 1. (1  0)
32 5 3 ' 1 2 0 32 5 3 5 3 2
18. ru = cos v i + sin v j, r , = u sin v i + u cos v j + k =? ru x r., = sin vi  cos v j + uk=?
Iru x rvl = VI + u2, so IIs VI + x2 +y2dS = 10" 101 vI +u2 VI + u2dudv = ~7r.
19. F(x, y, z) = xy i + yzj + zx k, z = g(x, y) = 4  x2  y2, and D is the square [0, 1] x [0,1], so by Equation 8
II sF· dS = lID [xy( 2x)  yz( 2y) + zx] dA
= rl (1.X2 + 1.1.x _. x3 +~) dx = 713
Jo 3 3 15 180
20. F(x, y, z) = xy i + 4x2 j + yz k, z = g(x, y) = J:eY, and D is the square [0,1] x [0,1], so by Equation 8
21. F(x,y,z) = xzeYi <xze" j +zk, z = g(x,y) = 1 x  y, andD = {(x,y) 10::; x::; 1,0::; y::; 1 x}.
Since S has downward orientation, we have
lIs F· dS =  lID [xzeY( 1)  (xzeY)( 1) + z] dA =  101 Io1X(I  x  y) dydx
=  r1 (1.x2 _ x + 1.) dx = _1.
Jo 2 2 6
22. F(x,y, z) = xi + yj + Z4 k, z = g(x,y) = VX2 + y2, and D is the disk {(x,y) I x2 + y2 ::; I}. Since S has downward orientation. we have
jer F.dS=_jrr [x( x ) _y( y ) +Z4] dA
J s J D V x2 + y2 J x2 + y2
jr r [_x2  2 4] 12" 11 (r2 )
= JD ~+(VX2+y2) dA= 0 0 r +r4 rdrdB
614 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
23. F(x,y,z) = xi  zj + yk. z = g(x,y) = J4  x2  y2 and D is the quarter disk {(x, y) 10:::; x < 2,0:::; y < V4  X2}. 5 has downward orientation, so by Formula 8.
= _ J'r ( x2  J 4  x2  y2 . Y + y) dA
k ~~~ ~~~
=  II D x2(4  (x2 + y2))1/2 dA =  10"/2 I02(r cos B)2(4  r2)1/2 r dr dB =  Io"/2cos2BdB I;r3(4r2)1/2dr
[let u = 4  r2 =;. r2 = 4  u and  % du = r dr 1
=  10"/2 (% + % cos2B) dB I~ %(4  u)(u)1/2 du
[1 B 1· Bj" /2 ( 1) [ r: 2 3/2] a
= '2 +4sm2 a '28yU"3u 4
24. F(x, y, z) = xz i + xj + y k
Using spherical coordinates, 5 is given by x = 5sin¢cosB. y = 5sin¢sinB, z = 5 cos ¢. 0:::; B :::; tt , o :::; ¢ :::; Jr. F(r(¢, B)) = (5 sin ¢ cos B)(5 cos ¢) i + (5 sin ¢cos B)j + (5 sin¢sinB) k and
r", x re = 25 sin2 ¢cos B i + 25 sin2 ¢sinB j + 25 cos ¢sin ¢k, so
F(r(¢, B))· (r., x re) = 625sin3 ¢cos¢cos2 B + 125sin3 ¢cosBsinB + 125sin2 ¢cos¢sinB
Then
II sF· dS = II D [F(r(¢, B)) . (r., x re)] dA
= 10" 10" (625 sin" ¢ cos ¢ cos2 B + 125 sin3 ¢ cos B sin B + 125 sirr' ¢ cos ¢ sin B) dB d¢
= 12510" [5 sin" ¢cos ¢ (%B + i sin2B) + sin" ¢ (% sin2 B) + sin2 ¢cos ¢ ( cos B)j ::~ d¢ = 125 10" (~Jrsin3 ¢cos¢+ 2sin2 ¢ cos ¢) d¢
25. Let 51 be the paraboloid y = x2 + Z2, 0 :::; Y :::; 1 and 52 the disk x2 + Z2 :::; 1, Y = 1. Since 5 is a closed surface. we use the outward orientation. On 51: F(r(x,z)) = (x2 + Z2)j  zkand rx x r , = 2xi j + 2zk (since the jcomponent must be negative on 51)' Then
IIs1 F. dS = II [_(x2 + z2)  2Z2] dA =  I~" I;(r2 + 2r2 cos2 B) r drdB
x2+z2:S1
=  102" :t (1 + 2 cos'' B) dB =  C~ + ~) = Jr
On 52: F(r(x,z)) = j  zk and r , x r , = j. Then II S2 F· dS = II (1) dA = Jr.
x2 + z2 :::; 1
Hence lIs F . dS = Jr + Jr = O.
SECTION 17.7 SURFACE INTEGRALS ET SECTION 16.7 0 615
26. Here 8 consists of three surfaces: 81. the lateral surface of the cylinder; 82, the front formed by the plane x + y = 2; and the back, 83, in the plane y = O.
On 81: F ( r ( 0, y)) = sin 0 i + y j + 5 k and r 8 x r y = sin 0 i + cos 0 k =>
ffs1 F· dS = f02" f02  sin8(sin2 0 + 5cosO) dydO
= f:" (2 sin2 0 + 10 cosO  sin" 0  5sinO cosO) dO = 21l'
On 82: F(r(x, z)) = xi + (2  x)j + 5 k and r , x r , = i + j.
ffs2F.dS= JJ [x+(2x)]dA=21l'
x2+z2:S1
On 83: F(r(x,z)) = xi + 5kand rx x r , = j so ffs3 F· dS = O. Hence fIsF. dS = 41l'.
27. Here 8 consists of the six faces of the cube as labeled in the figure. On 81:
F = i + 2y j + 3z k, r y x r z = i and fI 5, F . dS = f ~ 1 f ~ 1 dy dz = 4;
82: F = xi+2j +3zk,rz x r , =j and ffs2 F· dS = f~1 f~12dxdz = 8; 83: F = xi+2yj +3k, rx x ry = k and fIs3 F· dS = i', f~13dxdy = 12; 84: F =  i + 2y j + 3z k, r z x r y =  i and f f 54 F . dS = 4;
x
85: F = xi  2j + 3zk, rx x r , = j and ffss F· dS = 8;
86: F = xi + 2yj  3k, ry x r , = k and ffs6 F· dS = f1 i: 3dxdy = 12. Hence ffs F· dS = L~=1 ffsi F· dS = 48.
28. ru = cos vi + sin v j, r , = u sin v i + u cos v j + k => ru x rv = sin v icos v j + uk and F(r(u, v)) = usin vi + ucosvj + v2 k. Then
ffs F· dS = fo" f~ (u sirr' v  ucos2 V + uv2) dudv = fo" f01( ucos2v + uv2) dudv = fo" [~ cos2v + ~v2l dv = ~1l'3.
29. z = xy => az/ax = y, az/ay = x, so by Formula 2, a CAS gives
ff s xyzd8 = f01 f01 xy (xy) Vy2 + x2 + 1 dxdy ~ 0.1642.
30. As in Exercise 29. we use a CAS to calculate
ff S x2yz dS = f01 f01 x2y (xy) Vy2 + x2 + 1 dx dy
= ioJ3  f2ln(l + J3)  1~2In( v'2 + 1) + 2~1;0 v'2 + ~ In2
31. We use Formula 2 with z = 3  2X2  y2 => oz/ox = 4x, oz/oy = 2y. The boundaries of the region 3  2X2  y2 20 are If S x s If and V3  2x2 S Y S V3  2X2, so we use a CAS (with precision reduced to seven or fewer digits; otherwise the calculation takes a very long time) to calculate
616 D CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
32. The flux of F across S is given by Ifs F . dS = lIs F . ndS. Now on S, z = g(x, y) = 2 y'1=Y'2, so {)g/{)x = 0 and {)g/{)y = 2y(1  y2)1/2 Therefore, by (8).
lIs F . dS = I~2 I~l ( _x2y [2Y(1  y2)1/2] + [2 y'1=Y'2f eX/5) dy dx = ~ (167r + 80e2/5  80e 2/5)
: ~ ,
y
x
33. If S is given by y = h(x, z). then S is also the level surface f(x, y, z) = y  h(x, z) = O.
V'f(x,y,z) hxi+jhzk .., .
n = l'<7f( ) I = . / 2 2 ,and n IS the unit normal that POInts to the left. Now we proceed as In
v X, y, Z v hx + 1 + hz
the derivation of (8), using Formula 2 to evaluate
where D is the projection of f(x, y, z) onto the xzplane. Therefore
34. If S is given by x = k(y, z), then S is also the level surface f(x, y, z) = x  k(y, z) = O.
V'f(x.y.z) ikyjkzk . h .,. hi he uni I h .
n = ., = and SInce t e xcomponent IS posiuve t IS IS t e unit norma t at POInts
IV' f(x, y, z)1 Jl + k~ + k~'
forward. Now we proceed as in the derivation of (8), using Formula 2 for
i _ ok j _ ok k
Jf oy oz
= D (P i + Q j + R k) =====( O==k )=2 ='=(=Ok=) 2 1+  + 
oy oz
(Ok)2 (Ok)2
1 + oy + OZ dA
where D is the projection of f(x, y, z) onto the yzplane. Therefore
SECTION 17.7 SURFACE INTEGRALS ET SECTION 16.7 0 617
35. m = II s K dS = K .411"Oa2) = 211"a2 K; by symmetry Mxz = Myz = O. and
Mxy = II s zK dS = K I~" 10"/2 (a cos ¢)(a2 sin e) d¢dB = 211"Ka3 [1 coS2¢]~/2 = 11"Ka3. Hence (x,y,z) = (0,0, !a).
36. S is given by r(x, y) = xi + yj + Jx2 + y2 k, Irx x ryl =
m=IIs(1Oy'x2+y2)dS= II (10Jx2+y2)J2dA
1 ~ x2 + y2 < 16
= I;" 114.12 (10  r)rdrdB = 211".12 [5r2  ~r3]~ = 108.1211"
37. (a) I, = II s(x2 + y2)p(X, y, z) dS
(b) t, = IIs(x2 + y2)( 10  y'x2 + y2) dS = II (x2 + y2)( 10  y'x2 + y2) J2dA
1 ~ x2 + y2 ~ 16
38. S is given by r(x, y) = xi + yj + y'x2 + y2 k and Irx x ryl = .12.
(a) m = II s kdS = k II .12 dS = .12 a2k7r; by symmetry Mxz = Myz = 0, and
a < x2 + y2 ~ a2
39. p(x,y,z) = 1200, V = yi +j + zk, F = pV = (1200)(yi +j + zk). S is given by r(x,y) = xi+yj + [9  Hx2 +y2)] k, 0:::; x2 +y2:::; 36 and r., x ry = !xi+ !yj +k. Thus the rate of flow is given by
lIs F· dS = II (1200)(!xy + h + [9  Hx2 + y2)]) dA
a < x2 + y2 ~ 36
40. p(x, y, z) = 1500, F = pV = (1500)( y i + xj + 2z k). S is given by
r( ¢, ()) = 5 sin ¢ cos B i + 5 sin ¢ sin B j + 5 cos ¢ k, 0 :::; ¢ :::; 11", 0 :::; () :::; 211", and
r q, X re = 25 sin2 ¢ cos () i + 25 sin2 ¢ sin B j + 25 sin ¢ cos ¢ k. Thus the rate of outward flow is
618 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
41. 8 consists of the hemisphere 81 given by z = vi a2  x2  y2 and the disk 82 given by 0::::; x2 + y2 ::::; a2, z = O. On 81: E = asin¢cosOi + asin¢sinOj + 2acos¢k, T¢ x To = a2 sin2 ¢cosOi + a2 sin2 ¢sinOj + a2 sin o cos e k. Thus
ffSI E· dS = I~7r Io7r/2(a3 sin3 ¢ + 2a3 sin o cos'' ¢) d¢dO
= I027r Io7r/2 (a3 sin ¢ + a3 sin ¢ cos2 ¢) d¢ dO = (27f)a3 (1 + ~) = ~7fa3
On 82: E = xi + yj, and ry x rx = k so II S2 E· dS = O. Hence the total charge is q = fo lIs E· dS = ~7fa3fo.
42. Referring to the figure in Exercise 27, on
81: E = i + yj + zk, ry x r , = i and IIs1 E· dS = I~1 tl dydz = 4; 82: E = xi +J +zkrz x rx =J andIIs2 E· dS = I~1 I~1 dxdz = 4; 83: E = xi + y j + k, r x x r y = k and II S3 E . dS = I ~ 1 I ~ 1 dx dy = 4; 84: E = i + yj + z k, r , x ry = i and IIs4 E· dS = 4.
6
Similarly lIs E· dS = lIs E· dS = 4. Hence q = so II s E· dS = fo L: lIs E· dS = 24fo.
5 6 i = 1 I
43. K'Vu = 6.5( 4y j + 4z k). 8 is given by r(x, 0) = xi + V6 cos 0 j + V6 sin 0 k and since we want the inward heat flow, we use r , x ro = V6 cos 0 j  V6 sin 0 k. Then the rate of heat flow inward is given by
II s ( K 'Vu) . dS = I027r 104 (6.5)( 24) dx dO = (27f )(156)( 4) = 12487f.
44. u(x, y, z) = c] Jx2 + y2 + z2,
F  K'Vu  K [ ex i _ ey . _ ez k]
  (x2 + y2 + Z2)3/2 (x2 + y2 + z2)3/2 J (x2 + y2 + z2)3/2
eK (.. k)
(X2+y2+Z2)3/2 Xl+YJ+Z
1
and the outward unit normal is n =  (x i + y j + z k). a
Thus F . n = eK (x2 + y2 + Z2), but on 8, x2 + y2 + Z2 = a2 so F· n = e~. Hence the rate of
a(x2 + y2 + Z2)3/2 a
. J'r eK J'r eK 2
heat flow across 8 IS J sF. dS = ;;!2 J s as = ;;!2 (47fa ) = 47f K e.
SECTION 17.8 STOKES'THEOREM ET SECTION 16.8 0 619
17.8 Stokes' Theorem
ET 16.8
1. Both Hand P are oriented piecewisesmooth surfaces that are bounded by the simple, closed, smooth curve
x2 + y2 = 4, Z = 0 (which we can take to be oriented positively for both surfaces). Then Hand P satisfy the hypotheses of Stokes' Theorem, so by (3) we know II H curl F . dS = Ie F . dr = IIp curl F . dS (where C is the boundary curve).
2. The plane z = 5 intersects the paraboloid z = 9  x2  y2 in the circle x2 + y2 = 4, z = 5. This boundary curve C is oriented in the counterclockwise direction, so the vector equation is r( t) = 2 cos t i + 2 sin t j + 5 k,
0::; t ::; 27r. Then r'(t) = 2 sin t i + 2 cos tj, F(r(t)) = lOsin t i + lOcos tj + 4cos tsint k, and by Stokes'
Theorem,
lIs curl F· dS = Ie F· dr = I02?T F(r(t)) . r'(t) dt = Io2?T (20sin2 t + 20cos2 t) dt
= 20 Io2?T cos 2t dt = 0
3. The boundary curve C is the circle x2 + y2 = 4, Z = 0 oriented in the counterclockwise direction. The vector equation is r(t) = 2 cos t i + 2 sin tj, 0 ::; t ::; 27l', so r'(t) = 2 sin t i + 2 cos tj and
F(r(t)) = (2 cos t?e(2 sin t)(O) i + (2 sin t)2e(2cos t)(O) j + (0)2e(2 cost)(2 sin t) k = 4 cos2 t i + 4 sirr' tj. Then, by Stokes' Theorem,
4. The boundary curve C is the circle x2 + Z2 = 9, y = 3 with vector equation
r (t) = 3 sin t i + 3 j + 3 cos t k, 0 ::; t ::; 27l' which gives the positive orientation. Then F(r(t)) = 729 sin2 t cos t i + sin(27 sin t cos t) j + 27 sin t cos t k and F(r(t)) . r' (t) = 2187 sin2 t cos2 t  81 sin2 t cos t. Thus
= I;"(2l87sin2 tcos2 t  8lsin2 tcost) dt = I;" (2l87(~ sin2t)2  8lsin2 tcost) dt = [2187 (It  I sin4t)  81 . I sin" t]2"  2187(7l') _ 0  21877l'
428 304 4
5. C is the square in the plane z = l. By (3), lIs, curl F . dS = fe F . dr = II S2 curl F . dS where 81 is the original cube without the bottom and 82 is the bottom face of the cube.
curl F = x2 Z i + (xy  2xyz) j + (y  xz) k. For 82, we choose n = k so that C has the same orientation for both surfaces. Then curl F . n = y  xz = x + y on 82, where z = l. Thus
IIs2 curlF· dS = I~1 t1 (x + y) dxdy = 0 so lIs, curlF· dS = O.
620 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
6. The boundary curve C is the unit circle in the yzplane. By Equation 3,
lIs 1 curl F· dS = fe F· dr = IIs2curi F . dS where S1 is the original hemisphere and S2 is the disk
y2 + Z2 :s: Lx = O. curl F = (x  x2) i  (y + eXY sinz)j + (2xz  xexy cosz) k, and for S2 we choose n = i so that C has the same orientation for both surfaces. Then curl F . n = x  x2 on S2, where x = O. Thus
IIs2curIF.dS= II (xx2)dA= IIOdA=O.
y2+z2::;1 y2+z2::;1
Alternatively, we can evaluate fe F . dr: C with positive orientation is given by r (t) = (0, cos t, sin t). o :s: t :s: 27r, and
= I~" (eO(COS t) cos(sin t), (0)2 (sin t) , (0)( cos t) ) . (0,  sin t., cos t) dt
7. curl F = 2z i  2xj  2y k and we take the surface S to be the planar region enclosed by C, so S is the portion of the plane x + y + z = lover D = {(x, y) I 0 :s: x :s: 1,0 :s: y :s: 1  x}. Since C is oriented counterclockwise, we orient S upward. Using Equation 17.7.8 [ET 16.7.8], we have z = g(x, y) = 1  x  y, P = 2z, Q = 2x, R = 2y. and
Ie F· dr = lIs curl F· dS = II D [( 2z)( 1)  (2x)( 1) + (2y)] dA = I01 I01X( 2) dy dx = 2101(1  x) dx = 1
8. curl F = eX k and S is the portion of the plane 2x + y + 2z = 2 over D = {(x, y) I 0 :s: x :s: 1, 0 :s: y :s: 2  2x}.
We orient S upward and use Equation 17.7.8 [ET 16.7.8] with z = g(x, y) = 1  x  ~y:
[by integrating by parts]
=2e  4
9. curl F = (xexy  2x) i  (yexy  y) j + (2z  z) k and we take S to be the disk x2 + y2 :s: 16, z = 5. Since C is oriented counterclockwise (from above), we orient S upward. Then n = k and curl F . n = 2z  z on S, where
z = 5. Thus
f F· dr = Iiscurl F· ndS= IIs (2z  z) dS = lIs (10  5) dS = 5(area of S) = 5(7r' 42) = S07r
10. S is the part of the surface z = 1  x2  y2 in the first octant. curl F = 2y i  2x j.
Using Equation 17.7.8 [ET 16.7.8] with g(x, y) = 1  x2  y2, P = 2y, Q = 2x, we have Ie F· dr = lIs curlF· dS = II D [2y(2x) + (2x)( 2y)] dA = II D OdA = O.
SECTION 17.8 STOKES' THEOREM ET SECTION 16.8 0 621
11. (a) The curve of intersection is an ellipse in the plane x + y + z = 1 with unit normal n = ~ (i + j + k), curlF = x2 j + y2 k and curlF· n = ~(X2 + y2). Then
§ e F . dr = lIs 0 (x2 +l) dS = II (x2 + y2) dx dy
x2 + y2 :s: 9
z 0
~~ ~ :::=
.~ ~ ~
/: 0 2 (c) One possible parametrization is x = 3 cos t. Y = 3 sin t, z = 1  3 cos t  3 sin t. 0 ::::: t ::::: 27r.
(b)
o
x
5
y
12. (a) S is the part of the surface z = y2  x2 that lies above the unit disk D.
curl F = xi  yj + (x2  x2) k = xi  yj. Using Equation 17.7.8 [ET 16.7.8] with g(x, y) = y2  x2, P = x, Q = y, we have
Ie F· dr = lIs curlF· dS = II D[x( 2x)  (y)(2y)] dA = 2 II D(X2 + y2) dA = 2 I~11" I; r2r dr de = 2(27r) [~r4] ~ = tt
(b)
(c) One possible set of parametric equations is x = cos t, Y = sin t, z = sirr' t  cos2 t, 0 ::::: t ::::: 27r.
13. The boundary curve C is the circle x2 + y2 = 1, z = 1 oriented in the counterclockwise direction as viewed from above. We can parametrize C by ret) = cos t i + sin tj + k, 0 ::::: t ::::: 27r, and then r' (t) =  sin ti + cos tj. Thus F(r(t» = sin2ti +costj +k, F(r(t»· r'(t) = cos2t  sin3t, and
1 [ 1· ]211" [ 1 3 ]211"
= 2 t + 2 sin 2t 0   cos t + :3 cos t 0 = 7r
Now curl F = (1  2y) k, and the projection D of S on the xyplane is the disk x2 + y2 ::::: 1, so by Equation 17.7.8 [ET 16.7.8] with z = g(x, y) = x2 + y2 we have
lIs curl F . dS = IID(1 2y) dA = 10211" 1;(1  2r sin e) r dr di) = I~11" (~  ~ sine) de = tt
622 D CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
14. The plane intersects the coordinate axes at x = L y = z = 2 so the boundary curve C consists of the three line segments C1: r1 (t) = (1 t) i + 2tj, 0::; t ::; 1, C2: r2(t) = (2  2t)j + 2tk, 0::; t ::; 1, C3:
r3(t) = t i + (2  2t) k, 0::; t ::; 1. Then
fc F· dr = I; [(1  t) i+ 2tj]· (i+ 2j)dt + J; [(2  2t)j]· (2j + 2k)dt + Io1(ti). (i  2k)dt = 101 (5t  1) dt + 101 (4t  4) dt + 101 t dt = ~  2 + ~ = 0
Now curl F = xz i  yzj, so by Equation 17.7.8 [ET 16.7.8] with z = g(x, y) = 2  2x  y we have
lIs curl F· dS = II D [x(2  2x  y)( 2) + y(2  2x  y)( 1)] dA = 101 I~2x (4x  4x2  2y + y2) dy dx
15. The boundary curve C is the circle x2 + Z2 = L y = 0 oriented in the counterclockwise direction as viewed from the positive yaxis. Then C can be described by ret) = cos t isin t k, 0::; t ::; 211', and
r'(t) =  sin ti  cos t k. Thus F(r(t)) =  sintj + cos t k. F(r(t)) . r' (t) =  cos2 t, and
,f F d r271' 2 d 1 l' ]271'
fc . r=Jo cos t t= '2t4sm2t a =11'
Now curl F = i  j  k, and S can be parametrized (see Example 17.6.10 [ET 16.6.10]) by r(cp, ()) = sin o cos e i + sincpsin()j + cos o k, 0 <::: () <::: 11',0 <::: cp <::: 11'. Then
r", x r e = sin 2 cp cos () i + sin 2 cp sin () j + sin cp cos cp k and
IiscurlF·dS= II curIF·(r",xre)dA
x2+z2=:;1
= 1071' 1071' (  sin2 cp cos ()  sin2 cp sin ()  sin cp cos cp) d() dcp =I07l'(2sin2cp1I'sincpcoscp)dcp= [~sin2cpcp ~sin2cpl~ =11'
16. The components of F are polynomials, which have continuous partial derivatives throughout IR3, and both the curve C and the surface S meet the requirements of Stokes' Theorem. If there is a vector field G where F = curl G, then Stokes' Theorem says lIs F . dS = lIs curl G . dS depends only on the values of G on C, and hence is independent of the choice of S. By Theorem 17.5.11 [ET 16.5.11], div curl G = 0, so div F = 0 ¢}
(3ax2 _ 3z2) + (x2 + 3by2) + (3cz2) = 0 ¢} (3a + l)x2 + 3by2 + (3c  3)Z2 = 0 ¢}
a = ~, b = 0, C = 1.
SECTION 17.8 STOKES'THEOREM ET SECTION 16.8 0 623
17. curlF = a/ax
j k
a/ay
a/az = 2y i + 2zj + 2x k and W = Ic F· dr = JIs curlF· dS.
XX + Z2 yY + x2 ZZ + y2
To parametrize the surface, let x = 2 cos e sin 1jJ, y = 2 sin e sin ¢. z = 2 cos 1jJ, so that r( 1jJ, e) = 2 sin ¢ cos e i + 2 sin IjJ sin e j + 2 cos IjJ k, 0 :::; IjJ :::; ~. 0 :::; e :::; ~. and
r ¢ x r e = 4 sin 2 IjJ cos e i + 4 sin 2 IjJ sin e j + 4 sin IjJ cos IjJ k. Then
curl F(r(¢, e)) = 4sin IjJsin e i + 4 cos IjJj + 4sin IjJcos e k, and
curl F . (r¢ x re) = 16 sin31jJ sin e cos e + 16 cos IjJ sin21jJ sin e + 16 sin21jJ cos IjJ cos e. Therefore
IiscurlF· dS = IIDcurlF· (r¢ x re)dA
= 16 [Io7r/2 sin e cos e de] [Io7r/2 sin" ¢ dljJ] + 16 [Io7r/2 sin e de] [Io7r/2 sin21jJ cos IjJ dljJ]
+ 16 [Io7r/2 cos e de] [Io7r/2 sin21jJ cos IjJ dljJ]
= 8[ cosljJ + ~ cos31jJ]~/2 + 16(1) [~sin31jJ]~/2 + 16(1)[~ sin31jJ]~/2  8 [0 + 1 + 0  !] + 16(!) + 16(!) = !§ + !§ +!§ = 16
 3 3 3333
18. Ic(Y + sinx) dx + (Z2 + cosy) dy + x3 dz = Ic F· dr, where F(x, y, z) = (y + sinx) i + (Z2 + cosy)j + x3 k =? curl F =  2z i  3x2 j  k. Since sin 2t = 2 sin t cos t, C lies on the surface z = 2xy. Let S be the part of this surface that is bounded by C. Then the projection of S onto the xyplane is the unit disk D (x2 + y2 :::; 1). C is traversed clockwise (when viewed from above) so S is oriented downward. Using Equation 17.7.8 [ET 16.7.8] with g(x, y) = 2xy, P = 2(2xy) = 4xy, Q = 3x2, R = 1 , we have
Ic F· dr =  lIs curlF· dS =  fJD [( 4xy)(2y)  (3x2)(2x)  1] dA
[ 8 . 3 e 6 (. e l' 3 e) 1 e]27r
=   sm +  sm   sm   = 1T
15 5 3 2 0
19. Assume S is centered at the origin with radius a and let HI and H2 be the upper and lower hemispheres, respectively, of S. Then II s curlF· dS = II H, curlF· dS + II H2 curlF· dS = ic, F· dr + iC2 F· dr by Stokes' Theorem. But C1 is the circle x2 + y2 = a2 oriented in the counterclockwise direction while C2 is the same circle oriented in the clockwise direction. Hence iC2 F . dr =  ic, F . dr so lIs curl F . dS = 0 as desired.
20. (a) By Exercise 17.5.26 [ET 16.5.26], curl(fV g) = f curl(V g) + V f x V 9 = V f x V 9 since curl(V g) = O.
Hence by Stokes' Theorem Ic(fVg) . dr = II s(V f x Vg) . dS.
(b) As in (a), curl(fVf) = Vf x Vf = 0, so by Stokes' Theorem. Ic(fVj). dr = II s [curl(fVf)]· dS = O.
624 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
(c) As in part (a),
curl(f'V'g + g'V'f) = curl(f'V'g) + curl(g'V'f) (by Exercise 17.5.24 [ET 16.5.24])
= ('V'i x 'V'g) + ('V'g x 'V'f) = 0 [since u x v = (v x u)l
Hence by Stokes' Theorem, Ic(f'V'g + g'V' f) . dr = lIs curl(f'V'g + g'V' f) . dS = O.
17.9 The Divergence Theorem
ET 16.9
1. The vectors that end near PI are longer than the vectors that start near PI, so the net flow is inward near PI and div F(PI) is negative. The vectors that end near P2 are shorter than the vectors that start near P2, so the net flow is outward near P2 and div F(P2) is positive.
2. (a) The vectors that end near PI are shorter than the vectors that start near H, so the net flow is outward and PI is a source. The vectors that end near P2 are longer than the vectors that start near P2, so the net flow is inward and P2 is a sink.
(b) F(x, y) = (x, y2) =} div F = 'V' . F = 1 + 2y. The yvalue at PI is positive, so div F = 1 + 2y is positive, thus PI is a source. At P2, y < 1, so div F = 1 + 2y is negative, and P2 is a sink.
3. divF = 3 + x + 2x = 3 + 3x, so
IIIE divFdV = 101 I; Iol(3x + 3) dxdydz = ~ (notice the triple integral is three times the volume of the cube plus three times x).
To compute lIs F . dS, on SI: n = i, F = 3 i + y j + 2z k, and
IIs1 F· dS = II S1 3 dS = 3;
S2: F = 3x i + x j + 2xz k, n = j and II S2 F . dS = II S2 X dS = !;
x
S3: F = 3x i + xy j + 2x k, n = k and II S3 F . dS = II S3 2x dS = 1;
S4: F = 0, II S4 F . dS = 0; S5: F = 3x i + 2x k, n =  j and II S5 F . dS = II S5 0 dS = 0; S6: F = 3x i + xyj, n = k and IIs6 F . dS = IIs6 OdS = O. Thus lIs F· dS = ~.
4. div F = 2x + x + 1 = 3x + 1 so
IIIE divF dV = I1J E(3x + 1) dV = I~7r 102 I;r2 (3r cos e + 1) r d.z dr di) =I~ I~7rr(3rcose+1)(4r2)dedr
= I~7r r(4  r2) [3r sin e + e]::~7r dr
= 21f I~ (4r  r3) dr = 21f [2r2  ir4] o
= 21f(8  4) = 81f
On SI: The surface is z = 4  x2  y2, x2 + y2 S 4, with upward orientation, and F = x2 i + xy j + (4  x2  y2) k. Then
IIs1 F. dS = II D[(X2)( 2x)  (xy)( 2y) + (4  x2  y2)] dA
= lID [2x(x2 +y2) +4  (x2 +y2)] dA = I~7r I~ (2rcose· r2 + 4  r2)rdrde = I~7r [~r5 cose + 2r2  ir4r:~ de = I~7r (¥ cose + 4) de
= [¥ sine + 4e]~7r = 81f
SECTION 17.9 THE DIVERGENCE THEOREM ET SECTION 16.9 0 625
On S2: The surface is z = 0 with downward orientation, so F = x2 i + xyj, n = k and IIs2 F· ndS = IIs2 OdS = O.
Thus lIs F· dS = IIs1 F· dS + IIs2 F· dS = 811'.
5. div F = x + y + z, so
I lIE div F dV = 102'" I; 101 (r cos e + r sin e + z) r dz dr de = 102'" 101 (r2 cos e + r2 sin e + ~ r) dr de
= I~'" 0 cose + ~ sine +~) de = ~(211') = ~
Let S; be the top of the cylinder, S2 the bottom, and S3 the vertical edge. On Sl, z = I, n = k, and F = xy i + y j + x k, so
IIs1 F· dS = IIs1 F· ndS = IISI xdS = I~'" I;(rcose) r dr dl) = [sinel~'" [~r3l~ = O. On S2, z = 0, n = k, and F = xyi so IIs2 F· dS = IIs2 OdS = O. S3 is given by r(e, z) = cos e i + sinej + z k,
o <::: e <::: 211', 0 <::: z <::: l. Then re x r z = cos e i + sin e j and
IIs3 F· dS = II D F· (re x rz) dA = I~'" 101 (cos'' esine + z sirr' e) dzde
= 102'" (cos2 e sin e + ~ sin2 e) de = [ ~ cos3 e + He  ~ sin 2e) 1 ~'" = ~ Thus lIs F . dS = 0 + 0 + ~ = ~.
6. div F = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3, so lIfE div FdV = lIfE 3dV = 3 (volume of ball) = 3(~11') = 411'. To find
lIs F . dS we use spherical coordinates. S is the unit sphere, represented by r(cp,e) = sin o cos e l + sin o sin e"] + cos e k, 0 <::: cp <::: 11',0 <::: e <::: 211'. Then
r", x re = sirr' cpcosei + sin2 cpsinej + sin cp cos cpk (see Example 17.6.10 lET 16.6.10]) and F(r(cp, e)) = sincpcosei + sincpsinej + cos e k, Thus
lIs F· dS = II D F· (r", x re) dA = I~'" 10'" [sin" cpcos2 e + sin3 ¢sin2 e + sin o cos'' ¢) d¢de = I~'" de 10'" sin¢d¢ = (211')(2) = 411'
7. div F = :x (e" siny) + :y (e" cosy) + :z (yz2) = eX siny  e" siny + 2yz = 2yz, so by the Divergence Theorem,
lIs F . dS = I lIE div F dV = 101 101 f02 2yz dz dy dx = 2101 dx 101 Y dy 101 Z dz
= 2[ x l~ [~y2l~ [~z2l~ = 2
8. div F = :x (X2Z3) + :y (2xyz3) + :z (xz4) = 2xz3 + 2xz3 + 4xz3 = 8xz3, so by the Divergence Theorem, ffs F· dS = fffE div F dV = f~l f~2 f~3 8xz3 dz dydx = 8 s: xdx f~2 dy f~3 Z3 dz
 [1 2J 1 [ J 2 [1 4J 3
82x 1 Y 2 4z _3=0
9. div F = 3y2 + 0 + 3z2, so using cylindrical coordinates with y = r cos e, z = r sin (), x = x we have
Ifs F . dS = fII E(3y2 + 3z2) dV = f~'" fo1 I~l (3r2 cos'' e + 3r2 sin2 e) rdx dr de = 3 102'" de f01 r3 dr f~l dx = 3(211')(~)(3) = 92'"
10. div F = 3x2y  2x2y  x2y = O. so f Is F . dS = f f f EO dV = O.
11. div F = ysinz + 0  ysinz = 0, so by the Divergence Theorem, fis F· dS = ffiE OdV = O.
626 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
12. div F = 2xy + 2xy + 2xy = 6xy, so
lIs F· dS = IIIE 6xydV
= 101 I;2y I02X2Y 6xy dz dx dy = 101 I022Y 6xy(2  x  2y) dx dy
= 101 I022Y (12xy  6x2y  12xy2) dx dy = 101 [6x2y  2x3y  6x2y2] ::~2Y dy =I~ y(22y)3dy= [_h5+6y48y3+4y2]~= ~
13. div F = y2 + 0 + x2 = x2 + y2 so
II sF. dS = III E(x2 + y2) dV = 10211' I; IT; r2 . rdz drdB = 1;11' 102 r3(4  r2) drdB
= I~1I' dB I~ (4r3  r5) dr = 211'[r4  ~r6]~ = ¥11'
14. div F = 4x3 + 4xy2 so
lIs F . dS = III E 4x(x2 + y2) dV = 10211' 101 I; cos 8+2 (4r3 cos B) r dz dr ao
= 10211' 101 (4r5 cos2 B + 8r4 cos B) dr dB = 1;11' (~ cos2 B + ~ cos B) dB = ~11'
15. div F = 12x2z + 12y2z + 12z3 so
II sF· dS = III E 12z(x2 + y2 + Z2) dV = I~1I' 1011' loR 12(pcos rjJ)(p2)p2 sin rjJdpdrjJdB
= 12 I~1I' dB 1011' sin rjJcos rjJdrjJ loR p5 dp = 12(211') [~sin2 rjJ] ~ [~p6]: = 0
16. lIs F . dS = III E 3(x2 + y2 + 1) dV = 1;11' 1011'/2 112 3(p2 sirr' rjJ + 1) p2 sin rjJ dp drjJ dB
= 211' 1011'/2 [¥ sin3 rjJ + 7 sin rjJ] drjJ = 211' [¥ (  cos rjJ + ~ cos" rjJ)  7 cos rjJ] o /2 = 1;411'
17. lIs F· dS = IIIE ..,13  x2 dV = I~1 t1 I02x4 _y4 ..,13  x2 dzdydx = 36~1 v'2 + ¥o sin1 (~) 18.
z
z
x
By the Divergence Theorem, the flux of F across the surface of the cube is
lIs F . dS = 1011'/2 1011'/21011'/2 [cos X cos2 Y + 3 sin2 ycos ycos4 z + 5 sin" z cos z cos" x] dz dy dx = ~11'2.
19. For 81 we have n = k, so F . n = F . (k) = _x2 Z  y2 = _y2 (since z = 0 on 81). So if D is the unit disk, we get IIs1 F· dS = IIs1 F· nd8 = lID ( _y2) dA =  I~1I' 101 r2 (sin'' B) rdrdB = ~11'. Now
since 82 is closed. we can use the Divergence Theorem. Since
div F = :x (z2x) + :Y (~y3 + tanz) + :z (x2 z + y2) = Z2 + y2 + x2, we use spherical coordinates to get
II S2 F· dS = III E divF dV = I~1I' 1011'/2 I~ p2 . p2 sin rjJ dp drjJ so = ~11'. Finally
ff F· dS = fl' F· dS  ff F· dS = ~11'  (!11') = H11'.
S S2 S, 5 4 20
SECTION 17.9 THE DIVERGENCE THEOREM ET SECTION 16.9 D 627
20. As in the hint to Exercise 19, we create a closed surface S2 = S U SI, where S is the part of the paraboloid
x2 + y2 + z = 2 that lies above the plane z = 1, and SI is the disk x2 + y2 = 1 on the plane z = 1 oriented downward, and we then apply the Divergence Theorem. Since the disk SI is oriented downward, its unit normal vector is n = k and F . (k) = z = +Lon SI. So
ffs1 F· dS = ffs1 F· ndS = fISI (1) dS = A(SI) = 7r. Let E be the region bounded by S2. Then
ffs2 F . dS = fffE div F dV = fff E 1 dV = fOI s: f12r2 r dz dli dr = f; f~7r (r  r3) dBdr
= (271')~ = ~
Thus the flux of F across Sis ffs F· dS = ffs2 F· dS  ffsl F· dS = ~  (71') = 321i'.
. x xi+yj+zk 8 ( x ) (X2+y2+z2)_3x2 ...
21. Smce 3 = (2 2 2)3/2 and 8 (2 2 2)3/2 = (2 2 2)5/2 With similar
[x] x + y + z x x + y + z x + y + z
expressions for :y ((x2 + y2Y + Z2)3/2 ) and :z ( (x2 + y2Z + Z2)3/2 ), we have
(x) 3(x2 + 2 + Z2) _ 3(x2 + 2 + Z2)
div 3 = Y 5/2 Y = 0, except at (0,0,0) where it is undefined.
[x] (x2 + y2 + z2)
22. We first need to find F so that ffs F· ndS = ffs(2x + 2y + Z2) dS, so F· n = 2x + 2y + Z2.
B for S' x i + y j + z k . . k Th F . 2 . k di F
ut lor ,n = = XI + Y J + z. us = 21 + J + z and IV = l. If
Jx2 +y2 + Z2
B = {(x,y,z) I x2 +y2 + z2 ::; I}, then fIs(2x + 2y + z2)dS = ffiB dV = V(B) = ~71'(1)3 = ~lT.
23. lIs a· ndS = IIIE div adV = 0 since diva = O.
24. ~ lIs F· dS = ~ IfIE divFdV = ~ fIlE 3dV = V(E)
25. lIs curl F . dS = III E div(curl F) dV = 0 by Theorem 17.5.11 [ET 16.5.11].
26. lIs o; f dS = II s(Vf· n) dS = IfI E div(Vf) dV = IIIE V2 f dV
27. IIs(fVg) . ndS = IfI E div(fVg) dV = fII E(fV2g + Vg· V f) dV by Exercise 17.5.25 [ET 16.5.25].
28. IIs(fVg  gV f) . ndS = III E [(fV2g + Vg . V f)  (gV2f + Vg . V f)] dV [by Exercise 27].
But Vg· V f = Vf· Vg, so that fIs(fVg  gVf) . ndS = IIfEUV2g  gV2 f) dV.
29. If c = ci i + C2 j + C3 k is an arbitrary constant vector, we define F = f c = f ci i + f C2 j + f C3 k. Then
di F di f 8f 8f 8f "f .
IV = IV C = 8x Cl + 8y C2 + 8z C3 = v . c and the Divergence Theorem says
ffs F· dS = fffE divF dV =} ffs F . ndS = fffE V f· cdV. In particular, if c = i then
ffs fi· ndS = fffE Vf· idV =} lis fn! dS = III ~~ dV (where n = nl i + n2j + n3 k).
Similarly, if c = j we have lis fn2 dS = 1 1 l ~~ dV, and c = k gives lis fn3 dS = 1 1 l ~~ dV. Then fIs fndS = (fis fnl dS) i + (fis fn2 dS) j + (ffs fn3 dS) k
= (lll ~~ dV) i+ (lll ~~ dV)j+ (lll ~~ dV) k = 1 1 l (~~ i + ~~ j + ~~ k) dV = 1 1 l V f dV
as desired.
628 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
30. By Exercise 29. IIspndS = IJJE 'VpdV. so
F =  II s pn dS =  JJ IE 'V P dV =  I I IE 'V (pgz) dV =  I I I E (pg k) dV = pg(JJJE dV) k = pgV(E) k
But the weight of the displaced liquid is volume x density x 9 = pgV(E), thus F = Wk as desired.
17 Review
ET16
 CONCEPT CHECK 
1. See Definitions I and 2 in Section 17.1 [ET 16.1]. A vector field can represent, for example, the wind velocity at any location in space, the speed and direction of the ocean current at any location, or the force vectors of Earth's gravitational field at a location in space.
2. (a) A conservative vector field F is a vector field which is the gradient of some scalar function f. (b) The function f in part (a) is called a potential function for F, that is, F = 'V f.
3. (a) See Definition 17.2.2 [ET 16.2.2].
(b) We normally evaluate the line integral using Formula 17.2.3 [ET 16.2.3].
(c) The mass is m = Ie p (x, y) ds, and the center of mass is (x, y) where x = ~ Ie xp (x, y) ds, y = ~ IeYP(x,y) ds.
(d) See (5) and (6) in Section 17.2 [ET 16.2] for plane curves; we have similar definitions when C is a space curve (see the equation preceding (10) in Section 17.2 [ET 16.2J).
(e) For plane curves, see Equations 17.2.7 [ET 16.2.7]. We have similar results for space curves (see the equation preceding (10) in Section 17.2 [ET 16.2]).
4. (a) See Definition 17.2.13 [ET 16.2.13].
(b) If F is a force field, Ie F . dr represents the work done by F in moving a particle along the curve C.
(c) Ie F . dr = Ie P dx + Q dy + R dz
5. See Theorem 17.3.2 [ET 16.3.2].
6. (a) Ie F· dr is independent of path if the line integral has the same value for any two curves that have the same initial and terminal points.
(b) See Theorem 17.3.4 [ET 16.3.4].
7. See the statement of Green's Theorem on page 1119 [ET 1083].
8. See Equations 17.4.5 [ET 16.4.5].
9. (a) curlF = (OR _ oQ) i + (oP _ OR) j + (oQ _ OP) k = 'V x F
oy OZ oz ox ox oy
(b) div F = oP + oQ + oR = 'V . F
ox oy oz
(c) For curl F, see the discussion accompanying Figure 1 on page 1129 [ET 1093] as well as Figure 6 and the accompanying discussion on page 1160 [ET 1124]. For div F, see the discussion following Example 5 on page 1130 [ET 1094] as well as the discussion preceding (8) on page 1167 [ET 1131].
10. See Theorem 17.3.6 [ET 16.3.6]; see Theorem 17.5.4 [ET 16.5.4].
CHAPTER 17 REVIEW ET CHAPTER 16 0 629
11. (a) See (I) and (2) and the accompanying discussion in Section 17.6 [ET 16.61: See Figure 4 and the accompanying discussion on page 1135 I ET 1099].
(b) See Definition 17.6.6 [ET 16.6.6].
(c) See Equation 17.6.9 [ET 16.6.9].
12. (a) See (I) in Section 17.7 lET 16.7].
(b) We normally evaluate the surface integral using Formula 17.7.3 [ET 16.7.3]. (c) See Formula 17.7.2 lET 16.7.21.
(d) The mass is m. = JJs p(x, y, z) dS and the center of mass is (x, y, z) where x = ~ IIs xp(x, y, z) dS, y= ~IIsyp(x,y,z)dS,z= ~IIszp(x,y,z)dS.
13. (a) See Figures 7 and 8 and the accompanying discussion in Section 17.7 [ET 16.7]. A Mobius strip is a
nonorientable surface; see Figures 5 and 6 and the accompanying discussion on page 1149 [ET 1113].
(b) See Definition 17.7.7 [ET 16.7.7].
(c) See Formula 17.7.9 lET 16.7.9].
(d) See Formula 17.7.8 [ET 16.7.8].
14. See the statement of Stokes' Theorem on page 1157 [ET 1121].
15. See the statement of the Divergence Theorem on page 1163 [ET 1127].
16. In each theorem, we have an integral of a "derivative" over a region on the left side, while the right side involves the values of the original function only on the boundary of the region.
TRUEFALSE QUIZ 
1. False; div F is a scalar field.
2. True. (See Definition 17.5.1 [ET 16.5.1].)
3. True, by Theorem 17.5.3 [ET 16.5.3] and the fact that div 0 = O.
4. True, by Theorem 17.3.2 [ET 16.3.2].
5_ False. See Exercise 17.3.33 [ET 16.3.33]. (But the assertion is true if D is simplyconnected; see
Theorem 17.3.6 [ET 16.3.6].)
6. False. See the discussion accompanying Figure 8 on page 1103 [ET 1067].
7. True. Apply the Divergence Theorem and use the fact that div F = O.
8. False by Theorem 17.5.11 [ET 16.5.11], because if it were true, then div curl F = 3 oF O.
 EXERCISES 
1. (a) Vectors starting on C point in roughly the direction opposite to C, so the tangential component F . Tis negative. Thus Ie F . dr = Ie F . T ds is negative.
(b) The vectors that end near P are shorter than the vectors that start near P, so the net flow is outward near P and div F (P) is positive.
2. We can parametrize C by x = x, y = x2, 0 :s; X :s; 1 so
Iexds = I01 x VI + (2x)2 dx = 12(1 + 4X2)3/2]: = 12 (5 v5  1).
630 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
3. Ie x3 z ds = 10"/2 (2 sin t)3 (2 cos t) J (2 cos t)2 + (1)2 + (2 sin t)2 dt = 10"/2 (16 sin3 t cos t)V5 dt = 4V5sin4t]~/2 = 4V5
4. Ie xy dx + y dy = 10"/2 (x sin x + sinx cos x) dx = x cos x + sin x  ~ cos 2x] ~/2 = ~
5. x = cos t =} dx =  sin t di, y = sin t =} dy = cos t dt, 0 ::::: t ::::: 2Jr and
Ie x3y dx  x dy = J~2" ( cos" t sin" t  cos2 t) dt = I~" ( cos'' t sin2 t  cos'' t) dt = Jr Or: Since C is a simple closed curve, apply Green's Theorem giving
II (1 x3) dA = 101 I02"(r  r4 cos" B) dB = Jr.
x2 + y2 <:: 1
6. Ie y'xY dx + eY dy + xz dz = 101 ( ~ . 4t3 + et2 . 2t + t4 . t3 . 3e) dt
= 101 ( 4t6 + 2tet2 + 3t9) dt = [~e + et2 + rlit10]: = e  fa
(3,1,4)
C1: x = i, Y = t, z = 2t, 0::::: t ::::: 1;
C2: x = 1 + 2t, Y = 1, z = 2 + 2t, 0 ::::: t ::::: 1. Then
7.
x
8. F(r(t)) = (sint)(I+t)i+(sin2t)j,r'(t) =costi+jand
Ie F· dr = I; ((1 + t) sin tcost + sirr' t) dt = I; 0(1 + t) sin2t + sin2 t) dt = [~ ((1 + t) (  ~ cos 2t) + ~ sin 2t) + ~ t  ~ sin 2t ] o = ~.
9. F(r(t)) = et i +e(t)j + (t2 +t3)k, r'(t) = 2ti + 3t2 j  kand
r F. dr = r1(2tet  3t5  (t2 + t3)) dt = [2tet  2et  !t6  !t3  !t4]1 = !!  ~ ic Jo 2 3 4 0 12 e '
10. (a) C: x = 3  3t, Y = ~t, z = 3t, 0 ::::: t ::::: 1. Then
W = Ie F· dr = f01 [3t i + (3  3t)j + %tk] . [3 i + % j + 3k] dt = f01 [9t + 3;] dt = ~(3Jr  9)
(b) W = fe F . dr = fo"/2 (3 sin t i + 3 cos tj + t k) . (3 sin t i + j + 3 cos t k) dt
= fo" /2 ( 9 sin'' t + 3 cos t + 3t cos t) dt
= [_ ~ (t  sin t cos t) + 3 sin t + 3 ( t sin t + cos t ) ] o /2 =  9: + 3 + 3;  3 =  3:
11. :Y [(1 + xy)exYj = 2xexy + x2yexy = :x leY + x2eXY] and the domain ofF is ll~?, so F is conservative. Thus there exists a function f such that F = V' f. Then fy(x, y) = eY + x2exy implies f(x, y) = eY + xe?" + g(x) and then fx(x, y) = xyexy + eXY + g'(x) = (1 + xy)exy + g'(x). But fx(x, y) = (1 + xy)exy, so g'(x) = 0 =} g(x) = K. Thus f(x, y) = eY + xe?" + K is a potential function for F.
CHAPTER 17 REVIEW ET CHAPTER 16 0 631
12. F is defined on all of ]R3, its components have continuous partial derivatives, and
curl F = (0 ~ 0) i ~ (0 ~ O)j + (cosy ~ cosy) k = 0, so F is conservative by Theorem 17.5.4 [ET 16.5.4]. Thus there exists a function f such that "Vf = F. Then fx(x,y,z) = siny implies f(x,y,z) = xsiny + g(y,z) and then fy(x, y, z) = xcosy + gy(y, z). But fy(x, y, z) = x cosy, so gy(y, z) = 0 '* 9 (y, z) = h(z). Then f(x, y, z) = x sin y + h(z) implies fz(x, y, z) = hi (z). But fz(x, y, z) = ~ sin z; so h(z) = cosz + K. Thus
a potential function for F is f(x, y, z) = x sin y + cos z + K.
13. Since :y (4x3y2 ~ 2xy3) = 8x3y ~ 6xy2 = :x (2x4y ~ 3x2y2 + 4y3) and the domain of F is]R2, F is conservative. Furthermore f(x, y) = x4y2 ~ X2y3 + y4 is a potential function for F. t = 0 corresponds to the point (0, 1) and t = 1 corresponds to (1, I), so Ie F . dr = f(l, 1) ~ f(O, 1) = 1 ~ 1 = O.
14. Here curl F = 0, the domain of F is ]R3, and the components of F have continuous partial derivatives, so F is conservative. Furthermore f (x, y, z) = xe" + yeZ is a potential function for F. Then
Ie F· dr = f(4,0,3) ~ f(0,2,0) = 4 ~ 2 = 2.
(1,1)
(1,1)
c1: r(t) = ti + e j, ~1 S t S 1; C2: r(t) = ~ti+j, ~1 S t S l. Then
15.
x
= [~.!t6]1 + [.!t2] 1 = 0
6 1 2 1
Using Green's Theorem, we have
16. Ie vI + x3 dx + 2xydy = II D [:x (2xy) ~ :y (VI + x3)] dA = 101 I~X(2y ~ 0) dydx = f01 9x2 dx = 3x3] ~ = 3
= II (~y2 ~ x2) dA = ~ I027r f02 1'3 dr aa = ~87T
x2 + u? :0; 4
18. curlF = (0 ~ ey cosz) i ~ (eZ cos x ~ O)j + (0 ~ ex cosy) k = =e:v cosz i ~ ez cosxj ~ ex cosyk, divF = ~ex siny ~ «:v sinz ~ ez sinx
19. If we assume there is such a vector field G, then div( curl G) = 2 + 3z ~ 2xz. But div( curl F) = 0 for all vector fields F. Thus such a G cannot exist.
632 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
20. Let F = H i + QI j + RI k and G = P2 i + Q2 j + R2 k be vector fields whose first partials exist and are continuous. Then
FdivG  GdivF
and
(G."\7) F  (F."\7) G = [(P2 BH + Q2 BH + R2 BH) i + (P2 BQI + Q2 BQI + R2 BQI) j
Bx By Bz Bx By Bz
(n BRI Q BRI R BRI) k]
+ '2+ 2+ 2
Bx By Bz
_ [(H BP2 +QI BP2 +RI BP2) i+ (PI BQ2 +QI BQ2 +RI BQ2)j
Bx By Bz Bx By Bz
(p BR2 Q BR2 R BR2) k]
+ 1+ 1+ 1
Bx By Bz
Hence
F div G  G div F + (G . "\7) F  (F . "\7) G
= [(H BQ2 + Q2 BPI) _ (P2 BQI + QI BP2)
By Bx By By
(n BRI R BP2) (p BR2 +R BH)].
 '2  + I  + 1 2  1
Bz Bz Bz Bz
_ (PI B~2 + Q2 B;:I) + (P2 B~I + QI a;:2 ) ] j
[(F BRI R BP2) _ (p BR2 +R BH)
+ 2 Bx + I Bx I Bx 2 Bx
= [:y (PIQ2  P2QI)  :z (P2RI PIR2)] i+ [:z (QIR2  Q2RI)  :x (HQ2  P2QI)] j + [:x (P2RI  HR2)  :y (QIR2  Q2R.)] k
= curl(F x G)
CHAPTER 17 REVIEW ET CHAPTER 16 0 633
21. For any piecewisesmooth simple closed plane curve C bounding a region D, we can apply Green's Theorem to F(x, y) = f(x) i + g(y)j to get Ie f(x) dx + g(y) dy = 11 D [:x g(y)  ;y f(x)] dA = 11 D OdA = O.
a (Of Og) a (Of Og) a (Of Og)
= g+f + g+f + g+f
ax ax ax oy oy oy oz oz oz
[Product Rule]
Another method: Using the rules in Exercises 15.6.37(b) [ET l4.6.37(b)] and 17.5.25 [ET 16.5.25], we have
V2 (f g) = V . V (f g) = V . (g V f + f V g) = V g . V f + gV . V f + V f . V g + fV . V g = g V2 f + f V2 g + 2V f . V g
23. V2 f = 0 means that ~:{ + ~:{ = O. Now if F = fy i  fx j and C is any closed path in D, then applying Green's Theorem, we get
Ie F . dr = Ie fy dx  f x dy = 11 D [;x ( f x)  ;y (fy)] dA =  11 D (fxx + f yy) dA =  JJ DOdA = 0
Therefore the line integral is independent of path, by Theorem 17.3.3 [ET 16.3.3].
24. (a) x2 + y2 = cos2 t + sin ' t = 1, so C lies on the circular cylinder x2 + y2 = 1.
But also y = z, so C lies on the plane y = z. Thus C is the intersection of the plane y = z and the cylinder x2 + y2 = 1.
(0.1,1)
(b) Apply Stokes' Theorem, Ie F . dr = 11 s curl F . dS:
(1,0,0)
curlF = a/ax a/ay a/az
j
k
x
= \ 2ycsc2 Z  (2y csc2 z), 0, 4xe2y  4xe2y) = 0
Therefore Ie F· dr = lIs o· dS = O.
634 0 CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
25. z = f (x, y) = x2 + 2y with 0 ::::: x ::::: 1, 0::::: y ::::: 2x. Thus
A(S) = lID v'1 + 4x2 + 4 dA = 101 I02x v'5 + 4x2 dy dx = 101 2x v'5 + 4x2 dx = ~(5+4x2)3/2J: = ~(275v'5).
26. (a) ru = vj + 2uk. r., = 2vi  uj and
r , x r , = 2u2 i + 4uvj + 2V2 k. Since the point (4, 2, 1) corresponds to u = 1, v = 2
(b)
(or u = 1. v = 2 but r., x r , is the same for
x
both). a normal vector to the surface at (4,  2, 1) is 2 i + 8 j + 8 k and an equation of the tangent plane
~~+~+&=Oorx+~+~=Q 8
(c) By Definition 17.6.6 [ET 16.6.6], the area of S is given by
A( S) = I~ I~3 .J (2u2)2 + (4uv)2 + (2V2)2 dv du = 2 I~ I~3 v'u4 + 4U2V2 + v4 dv duo (d) By Equation 17.7.9 [ET 16.7.9]. the surface integral is
J" [ F· dS  [3J3 / (U2)2 (v2)2 (uv? ) (2 2)
is  io 3 \1+(v2)2' 1+ (uv)2' 1+(u2)2 . 2u ,4uv,2v dvdu
13J3 ( 2u6 4uv5 2U2V4 )
= 1 + 4 + 1 2 2 + 1 4 dv du ::::; 1524.0190
a 3 v + u v + u
27. z = f(x, y) = x2 + y2 with 0::::: x2 + y2 ::::: 4 so r , x ry = 2x i  2yj + k (using upward orientation). Then
lIs zdS = II (x2 + y2) J4x2 + 4y2 + 1 dA = I~" 102 r3sv'1 + 4r2 drdB
x2 + y2 <:: 4
(Substitute u = 1 + 4r2 and use tables.)
28. z = f(x, y) = 4 + x + y with 0::::: x2 + y2 ::::: 4 so rx x ry = i  j + k. Then
lIs (x2 z + y2 z) dS = II (x2 + y2) (4 + x + y) v'3 dA
x2 + y2 ::; 4
= I~ I~" v'3r3(4 + rcos 0 + rsinO) dO dr = I~ 87r v'3r3 dr = 327r v'3
29. Since the sphere bounds a simple solid region. the Divergence Theorem applies and
lIs F . dS = I lIE (z  2) dV = I lIE Z dV  2 I lIE dV = mz  2 ( ~ 7r23) =  ¥ 7r.
Alternate solution: F(r( 4>,0)) = 4 sin 4> cos 0 cos 4> i  4 sin 4> sin 0 j + 6 sin 4> cos 0 k, r¢ x re = 4sin2 4>cosOi + 4sin2 4>sinOj + 4sin 4> cos 4>k. and
F . (r¢ x re) = 16 sin ' 4> cos2 0 cos 4>  16 sin" 4>sin2 0 + 24 sin2 4> cos 4> cos O. Then
lIs F . dS = I~" 10" (16 sin" 4> cos 4> cos'' 0  16 sin" 4> sin2 0 + 24 sin'' 4> cos 4> cos 0) d4> dO = I~" ~(16 sin2 0) ae = ¥7r
CHAPTER 17 REVIEW ET CHAPTER 16 0 635
30. z = f(x, y) = x2 + y2, rx x ry = 2x i  2yj + k (because of upward orientation) and F(r(x, y)) . (rx x ry) = _2x3  2xy2 + x2 + y2. Then
Iis F· dS = .JJ (2x3  2xy2 + x2 + y2) dA
x2 + y2 ::; 1
31. Since curl F = 0, IIs(curl F) . dS = O. We parametrize C: r(t) = cos ti + sin tj. 0 :::; t :::; 27r and .f e F . dr = I;" (  cos2 t sin t + sirr' t cos t) dt = ~ cos" t + ~ sin 3 t l~" = o.
32. I Is curl F . dS = .fe F . dr where C: r(t) = 2 cos t i + 2 sin tj + k, 0 :::; t :::; 27r, so r' (t) = 2 sin t i + 2 cos tj, F(r(t)) = 8cos2 t sin t i + 2 sin tj + e4costsin t k, and F(r(t)) . r'(t) = 16 cos2 t sin2 t + 4sint cos t. Thus
.fe F . dr = I;" (16 cos2 t sin2 t + 4 sin t cos t) dt
= [16( ~ sin tcos3 t + fB sin 2t + it) + 2 sin2 tl~" = 47r
33. The surface is given by x + y + z = lor z = 1  x  y, 0 :::; x :::; 1, 0:::; y :::; 1  x and r , x ry = i + j + k.
Then
.fe F· dr = IIscuriF. dS = .JJD(yi  zj  xk)· (i +j + k)dA = II D( 1) dA = (area of D) = ~
35. IIIEdivFdV = .JJI 3dV = 3(volumeofsphere) = 47r. Then
x2 + y2 + z2 ::; 1
F(r(¢,O)) . (r¢ x re) = sin" ¢cos2 0 + sin3 ¢sin2 0 + sin e cos" ¢ = sin o and II sF· dS = 102" 10" sin ¢ d¢ dO = (27r)(2) = 47r.
36. Here we must use Equation 17.9.6 [ET 16.9.6] since F is not defined at the origin. Let 51 be the sphere of radius 1 with center at the origin and outer unit normal n i. Let 52 be the surface of the ellipsoid with outer unit normal ll2 and let E be the solid region between 51 and 52. Then the outward flux of F through the ellipsoid is given by
IIs2 F· ll2 as =  IIs1 F· (lll) d.S + III E divF dV. But F = r/ Ir13, so
div F = V . (Irl3 r) = Irl3(V . r) + r . (V Irl3) = Irl3 (3) + r . (3Irl4)(r Irl1) = O. (Here we have used Exercises 17.S.30(a) [ET 16.S.30(a)] and 17.S.31 (a) [ET 16.S.31(a)].) And F . III = _E._ . _E_ = Irl2 = 1 Irl3 [r]
on 51. Thus IIs2 F . ll2 d.S = IIs1 d.S + III EO dV = (surface area of the unit sphere) = 47r(1? = 47r.
37. Because curlF = 0, F is conservative, and if l(x, y, z) = x3yz  3xy + Z2, then VI = F. Hence Ie F . dr = Ie VI· dr = 1(0,3,0)  1(0,0,2) = 0  4 = 4.
636 D CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS ET CHAPTER 16
38. Let C' be the circle with center at the origin and radius a as in the figure.
y
1 F· dr + J F· dr = J" r (OQ  OP) dA = O. so
C _ct } D ox oy
x
Let D be the region bounded by C and C'. Then D's positively oriented boundary is C U (C'). Hence by Green's Theorem
tr>! F.dr=l F'dr=121l'F(r(t)).r'(t)dt
c _ct c 0
127r [2a3 cos3 t + 2a3 cos t sin2 t  2a sin t ( in r]
= 2 aslnt
o a
2a3 sin3 t + 2a3 cos2 t sin t + 2a cos t ( )] d
+ 2 acost t
a
39. By the Divergence Theorem, J J sF· n dS = J J J E div F dV = 3( volume of E) = 3(8  1) = 21.
40. The stated conditions allow us to use the Divergence Theorem. Hence J J s curl F . dS = J J J E div( curl F) dV = 0 since div( curl F) = O.
D PROBLEMS PLUS
1. Let SI be the portion of O(S) between S(a) and S, and let OSI be its boundary, Also let SL be the lateral surface of S 1 [that is, the surface of S 1 except Sand S (a)], Applying the Divergence Theorem we have
J'r r '3" dS = JJ'r 'V, r3 zv. But
las, r L, r
'V ' ;3 = (:x' :y' :z) , ( (x2 + y2X+ Z2)3/2' (x2 + y2Y + Z2)3/2' (x2 + y2Z+ Z2)3/2 ) _ (x2 + y2 + Z2 _ 3x2) + (x2 + y2 + Z2 _ 3y2) + (x2 + y2 + z2  3z2) = 0
 (x2 + y2 + Z2)5/2
=> J'r r '3" dS = J/' r 0 dV = 0, On the other hand, notice that for the surfaces of OSI other than S(a)
laS, r s..
and S, r ' n = 0 =>
0= J'r r '3" dS = J'r r '3" dS + J'r r '3" dS + J'r r '3" dS
las, r ls r lS(a) r lSL r
= J'r r '3" dS + J'r r '3" dS
ls r lS(a) r
=> Je r r '3" dS =  J'r r '3" as. Notice that on S(a), r = a=>" = ~ = ~ and r' r = r2 = a2,
1 s r 1 S(a) r r a
so that _J'r r '3" dS = J'r r '4r dS = J'r a: dS = ~ Je r dS = area of2S (a) = 10(S)I,
ls(a) r lS(a) a lS(a) a a lS(a) a
Therefore 10(S)1 = II r;3" as.
2. By Green's Theorem
Notice that for 6x2 + 3y2 > 1, the integrand is negative, The integral has maximum value if it is evaluated only in the region where the integrand is positive, which is within the ellipse 6x2 + 3y2 = 1. So the simple closed curve that gives a maximum value for the line integral is the ellipse 6x2 + 3y2 = 1.
3. The given line integral ~ Ie(bz  ey) dx + (ex  az) dy + (ay  bx) dz can be expressed as Ie F, dr if we define the vector field F by F(x, y, z) = Pi + Qj + Rk = ~(bz  ey) i + ~(ex  az)j + ~(ay  bx) k. Then define S to be the planar interior of C, so S is an oriented, smooth surface, Stokes' Theorem says
Ie F· dr = II scurlF, dS = II S curlF, n d.S, Now
curlF = (OR _ OQ) i + (OP _ OR) j + (OQ _ OP) k
oy oz oz ox ox oy
= (~a + ~a) i + (~b + ~b) j + (~e + ~c) k = a i + bj + ek = n
so curlF . n = n ' n = 1"12 = 1, hence lIs curl F ' u d.S = lIs dS which is simply the surface area of S. Thus, Ie F, dr = ~ Ie(bz  cy) dx + (ex  az) dy + (ay  bx) dz is the plane area enclosed by C,
637
638 D PROBLEMS PLUS
4. (a) First we place the piston on coordinate axes so the top of the cylinder is at the origin and x( t) :2: 0 is the distance from the top of the cylinder to the piston at time t. Let C1 be the curve traced out by the piston during one fourstroke cycle. so C1 is given by r(t) = x(t) i. a :::; t :::; b. (Thus. the curve lies on the positive xaxis and reverses direction several times.) The force on the piston is AP( t) i, where A is the area of the top of the piston and P(t) is the pressure in the cylinder at time t. As in Section 17.2 [ET 16.2]. the work done on the piston is
Ic! F . dr = I: AP(t) i . x' (t) i dt = J: AP(t) x' (t) dt. Here. the volume of the cylinder at time t is
V(t) = Ax(t) =} V'(t) = Ax'(t) =} I: AP(t) x'(t) dt = I: P(t) V'(t) dt. Since the curve C in the
PVplane corresponds to the values of P and V at time t, a:::; t :::; b. we have
W=I:AP(t)x'(t) dt=I:P(t)V'(t) dt=IcPdV
Another method: If we divide the time interval [a, b] into n subintervals of equal length l1t. the amount of work done on the piston in the ith time interval is approximately AP( ti) [x( ti)  x( tiI)]. Thus we estimate the total
n
work done during one cycle to be I: AP( ti) [x( t;)  x( ti1)]. If we allow n + 00. we have
i= 1
n n
W = lim I: AP(ti)[X(t;)  X(ti1)] = lim I: P(ti)[Ax(t;)  AX(ti1)]
n+oo i = 1 n+oo i = 1
n
= lim I: P(ti)[V(ti)  V(ti1)] = Ic PdV
n+oo i = 1
(b) Let C L be the lower loop of the curve C and Cu the upper loop. Then C = C L U Cu. C L is positively oriented. so from Formula 17.4.5 [ET 16.4.5] we know the area of the lower loop in the PV plane is given by  fCL P dV. Ct: is negatively oriented. so the area of the upper loop is given by
 (  fcu P dV) = fcu P dV. From part (a).
W = IcPdV = ICL UCu PdV = fCL PdV + fcu PdV = fcu PdV  ( fCL PdV).
the difference of the areas enclosed by the two loops of C.