## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

ENGINEERING STANDARD FOR PROCESS DESIGN OF PIPING SYSTEMS (PROCESS PIPING AND PIPELINE SIZING) ORIGINAL EDITION MAR. 1996

This standard specification is reviewed and updated by the relevant technical committee on Aug. 2003. The approved modifications are included in the present issue of IPS.

This Standard is the property of Iranian Ministry of Petroleum. All rights are reserved to the owner. Neither whole nor any part of this document may be disclosed to any third party, reproduced, stored in any retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior written consent of the Iranian Ministry of Petroleum.

Mar. 1996 CONTENTS :

IPS-E-PR- 440

PAGE No.

0. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 3 1. SCOPE ............................................................................................................................................ 4 2. REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................ 4 3. DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY ............................................................................................. 4 4. SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................... 5 5. UNITS.............................................................................................................................................. 7 PART ONE : PROCESS PIPE SIZING FOR PLANTS LOCATED ONSHORE-SINGLE PHASE

6. GENERAL SIZING CRITERIA........................................................................................................ 8 7. FLUID FLOW .................................................................................................................................. 8 8. REYNOLDS NUMBER.................................................................................................................... 8 9. FRICTION FACTOR........................................................................................................................ 8 10. FLUID FLOW CALCULATIONS................................................................................................... 9 11. SINGLE PHASE LIQUID FLOW................................................................................................... 9 12. FITTINGS AND VALVES ............................................................................................................ 10 13. SPECIAL CONDITIONS ............................................................................................................. 10 13.1 Water Flow ........................................................................................................................... 10 13.2 Pump Suction Lines............................................................................................................ 10 13.3 Cooling Water...................................................................................................................... 11 13.4 Limitations Owing to Erosion Preventive Measures ....................................................... 11 13.5 Other Matters....................................................................................................................... 12 14. SINGLE PHASE GAS FLOW ..................................................................................................... 13 14.4 A Practical Way to Calculate Gas Flow in Pipeline ......................................................... 13 14.7 Steam Flow .......................................................................................................................... 14 14.8 Flow Induced Noise ............................................................................................................ 14 PART TWO : PROCESS PIPE SIZING FOR PLANTS LOCATED OFFSHORE

15. SCOPE ........................................................................................................................................ 16 16. SIZING CRITERIA-GENERAL.................................................................................................... 16 17. SIZING CRITERIA FOR LIQUID LINES ..................................................................................... 16 17.1 General................................................................................................................................. 16 18. PUMP PIPING ............................................................................................................................. 17 19. SIZING CRITERIA FOR SINGLE-PHASE GAS LINES ............................................................. 19 19.1 Process Lines...................................................................................................................... 19 19.4 Compressor Lines............................................................................................................... 20 20. SIZING CRITERIA FOR GAS/LIQUID TWO-PHASE LINES ............................................... 20 20.4 Minimum Velocity................................................................................................................ 21 20.5 Pressure Drop ..................................................................................................................... 21 PART THREE : TRANSMISSION PIPELINES FOR: 1) LIQUID 2) GAS

21. SCOPE ........................................................................................................................................ 23 22. SIZING CRITERIA....................................................................................................................... 23

1

Mar. 1996

IPS-E-PR- 440

23. CRUDE OIL PIPELINES ............................................................................................................. 23 25. NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS (NGL) PIPELINES............................................................................ 24 26. NATURAL GAS PIPELINES ...................................................................................................... 24 PART FOUR TWO PHASE FLOW 27. TWO PHASE FLOW SIZING PROCESS PIPING ...................................................................... 26 27.2 Two-Phase Flow Unit Loss ................................................................................................ 27 28. TWO-PHASE FLOW PATTERNS .............................................................................................. 29 28.1 Bubble or Froth Flow .......................................................................................................... 29 28.2 Plug Flow ............................................................................................................................. 29 28.3 Stratified Flow ..................................................................................................................... 29 28.4 Wave Flow............................................................................................................................ 29 28.5 Slug Flow ............................................................................................................................. 29 28.6 Annular Flow ....................................................................................................................... 29 28.7 Dispersed Spray or Mist Flow............................................................................................ 29 29. VELOCITY LIMITATIONS .......................................................................................................... 29 30. MAINTAIN THE PROPER REGIME ........................................................................................... 30 31. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ..................................................................................................... 31 APPENDICES : APPENDIX A MOODY FRICTION FACTOR CHART ................................................................... 35 A.1 Method of Solution.............................................................................................. 36 APPENDIX B RELATIVE ROUGHNESS CHART........................................................................ 37 APPENDIX C HAZEN-WILLIAMS COEFFICIENT (FRICTION FACTOR) "C" ............................ 38 APPENDIX D RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS ........................... 39 APPENDIX E RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS ........................... 40 APPENDIX F RESISTANCE DUE TO PIPE ENTRANCE AND EXIT........................................... 41 APPENDIX G EQUIVALENT LENGTHS OF VALVES AND FITTINGS...................................... 42

2

Mar. 1996

IPS-E-PR- 440

0. INTRODUCTION This Standard covers single phase liquid flow, single phase gas flow, and specific cases requiring special treatment, and a brief discussion of two-phase, two component flow calculations in short process pipes. "Process Design of Piping Systems (Process Piping and Pipeline Sizing)" are broad and contain variable subjects of paramount importance. Therefore, this Standard consists of four parts as described below: PART TITLE Part One: "Process Pipe Sizing for Plants Located Onshore-Single Phase" Part Two: "Process Pipe Sizing for Plants Located Offshore" Part Three: "Transmission Pipeline for (1)-Liquid and (2)-Gas" Part Four: "Two-Phase Flow" The flow of liquid, gases, vapor, two-phase flow and many other fluid systems have received sufficient study to allow definite evaluation of conditions for a variety of process situations for Newtonian fluids, which will be discussed later on. For non-Newtonian fluids considerable data is available. However its correlation is not as broad in application due to the significant influence of physical and reological properties. This presentation is limited to Newtonian system except where noted. Primary emphasis is only given to flow through circular pipe and tubes, since this is the usual means of movement of gases and liquids in process plants. The basis for fluid flow follows Darcy and Fanning concepts. The exact transmission from laminar or viscous flow to turbulent condition is variously identified or between a Reynolds number of 2000 to 3000. The correlation included in this Standard are believed to fit average plant design with good engineering accuracy. However other basis and correlations used by designer should be mutually agreed upon. As a matter of good practice with the exercise of proper judgment, the designer should familiarize himself with the background of the methods presented, in order to better select the conditions associated with a specific problem. Most published correlations for two-phase prossure drop are empirical and, thus, and limited by range at data for which they were derived. A mathematical models for predicting the flow regime and a procedure for calculating pressure drop in process pipelines are presented in this Standard. Design conditions may be: a) Flow rate and pressure drop allowable established, determine pipe diameter for a fixed length. b) Flow rate and length known determine pressure drop and line size in the range of good engineering practice. Usually either of these conditions requires a trial approach based upon assumed pipe sizes to meet the stated conditions. Some design problems may require determination of maximum flow for a fixed line size and length; however, this just becomes the reverse of conditions above. Optimum economic line size is seldom realized in the average process plant. Unknown factors such as future flow rate allowance, actual pressure drops through certain process equipment, etc. can easily over balance any design predicated on selecting the optimum. Certain guides as to order of magnitude of costs and sizes can be established either by one of several correlations or by conventional cost estimating methods. The latter is usually more realistic for a given set of conditions, since generalized equations often do not fit a plant system. Optimum criteria for pipe size should be subject to mutual agreement between Company and designer. Unless otherwise stated, equations presented here are only used for calculating pressure drop due to friction. Therefore pressure loss or gain due to elevation must be taken into consideration where appropriate . For supplementary information regarding the mechanical part of design, reference shall be made to Engineering Standard IPS-E-PI-240 for "Plant Piping Systems" as well.

3

Ed. The approved modifications by T. form a part of this standard.C.Mar. "Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards.. SCOPE This Engineering Standard covers process piping design and pipeline sizing. were sent to IPS users as amendment No.. 14th.. Vol. 1987 HYDRAULIC INSTITUTE STANDARD "Centrifugal. "Standard Material Requirements Cracking Resistant Metallic” GPSA (GAS PROCESSORS SUPPLIERS ASSOCIATION) "Engineering Data Book". 2. 10th. The relationships presented cover Newtonian fluids which include most useful process piping application. 2003. the methods suggested here do not contain any built-in safety factors. but only to the extent justified by the problem at hand. For dated references. to the extent specified herein. Unless noted otherwise. The applicability of changes in dated references that occur after the cited date shall be mutually agreed upon by the Company and the Vendor. For undated references. DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY AGA American Gas Association BBM Begg’s-Brill-Moody Sulfide Stress 4 . The subject of this Standard is to present mathematical relationships. Section 17. December 2001. These should be included. REFERENCES Throughout this Standard the following dated and undated standards/codes are referred to. 1996 IPS-E-PR. These referenced documents shall. II. based on which pipe size is calculated. Rotary and Reciprocating Pumps". Chapter 15 Guidelines for the Use of International System of Units (SI) in the Petroleum and Allied Industries" (IRANIAN PETROLEUM STANDARDS) IPS-E-GN-100 “Engineering Standard for Units” IPS-E-PR-460 "Process Design of Flare and Blowdown Systems" IPS-E-PI-240 "Plant Piping Systems" IPS NACE (NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CORROSION ENGINEERS) NACE MR 0175-2002. 1 by circular No. Ed. These modifications are included in the present issue of IPS. 2003. January 1982 3. API (AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE) API Publication 2564 Third Ed. Note: This standard specification is reviewed and updated by the relevant technical committee on Aug. the edition cited applies. 214 on Aug.440 1. the latest edition of the referenced documents (including any supplements and amendments) applies. in addition to presenting most popular pressure drop equations and fluid velocity.

in (mm) The Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) will be designated by "DN" although in calculations the diameter generally has the units of millimeters (mm).440 Decibles (unit of sound pressure level) Diameter Nominal. The following table gives equivalents of Nominal Pipe Size in DN and Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) in inches: DN (mm) 15 20 25 40 50 80 100 150 200 250 300 350 NPS (inches) ½ ¾ 1 1½ 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 DN (mm) 400 450 500 600 650 700 750 800 900 1000 NPS (inches) 16 18 20 24 26 28 30 32 36 40 Eq. NGL NPS NPSHA NPSHR Re r/min s Natural Gas Liquids Nominal Pipe Size. (dimenssionless) B B B 5 . in (mm per m³/h liquid flow) Amm Cross-section of pipe.325 kPa and 15°C. in (m²) Am Minimum pipe cross-sectional flow area required.S gallons)per day Bh Rate of flow in barrels (42 U. ERW mmH2O MSC Equation Electric Resistance Welding In adopting the SI System of Units in this Standard it has been tried to satisfy the requirements of API Publication 2564.Mar. in (mm) E Efficiency factor f Friction factor of pipe. millimeters of water column (mm H2O) is also used [9. in (mm²) Bd Rate of flow in barrels (42 U. (dimensionless) fm Moody friction factor. 4. (dimenssionless) fD Darcy’s friction factor = fm. in (mm) di Inside diameter of pipe. But in cases where the pressure drop is expected to be small. kilopascal (kPa) is adopted as the unit of pressure in calculations. (dimenssionless) ff or fF Fanning friction factor fD= fm= 4fF. To this end.80665 Pa = 1 mm H2O (Conventional)]. 1996 dB DN IPS-E-PR. in (m) Dp Particle diameter.S gallons) per hour BX& BY Baker parameters C Hazen-Williams constant D Inside diameter of pipe. SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS Unless otherwise stated. The Metric Standard Conditions For measuring gases and liquids as referred to in the Standard is defined as 101. all symbols used in the Engineering Standard are defined as follows: A Area of cross-sectional of pipe. in (inch) Net Positive Suction Head Available Net Positive Suction Head Required Reynolds number Rotations (revolutions) per minute (RPM) second.

in (J/kg) Static head. 1996 g G hf hc hR H h1 h2 K Ke L Lkm Le LR M P Pave Pf Pv Po P1 P2 IPS-E-PR. in (m³/s) Liquid flow rate. in (m/s) Specific volume. in (m) Length of pipe. in (J/kg) Molecular mass. in 8314. in (m) Latent heat of steam at return line pressure. in [kPa (absolute)] Final or outlet pressure. in (m³/s) Universal gas constant. G =M(gas)/M(air). in (m) Initial elevation of pipeline. in [101. K) Reynolds number Modified Reynolds number Gas/liquid ratio in m³ (gas)/m³ (liquid) at MSC Relative liquid density (water = 1) Flowing temperature. fitting. in (m3/kg) Mass flow rate. valves and etc.. in [kPa (absolute)] Base pressure.81 m/s2) Relative density of gas at the prevailing temperature and pressure relative to air.Mar. in (mm) Enthalpy of condensate at supply pressure. in kelvin (K) Base temperature = (273 + 15) = 288 K Fluid velocity. in (m/s) Average fluid velocity.440 Gravitational acceleration (usually is equal to 9. in (m) Final elevation of pipeline. in (kg/h) 6 . in kPa/100 (absolute) or [P1-P2/100 (absolute)] Pressure loss. along 100 m of pipe. in (kg/h) Total fluid mass flow rate. in (J/kg) Enthalpy of condensate at return line pressure. in (m) Ratio of specific heat at constant pressure to the specific heat at constant volume cp/cv. (dimensionless) Coefficient of resistance in pipe. in [kPa (absolute)] Vapor pressure of liquid in suction temperature of pump. in (m³/h) Vapor flow rate. in (m3/kg) Critical velocity with respect to sound velocity. in (kg/h). in (m/s) Fluid erosional velocity. in (m) Length of pipe. in (m/s) Specific volume of steam at return line pressure. in [kPa (absolute)] Operating pressure. in (kPa/100 m) Liquid flow rate. To. in (km) Equivalent length of pipe. in (m³/h) Rate of flow at flowing conditions. at 20°C and 760 mm of mercury.3/M (J/kg. in (m³/h) Gas flow rate at Po. in (kg/mol) Operating pressure. in litre/minute (L/min) Liquid flow rate. in kpa Average gas pressure = 2 2 2 3 P P 1 2 Δ P100 Δ P100 Δ PTP100 QL Qsc Qv q ql qs R Re Rem Rgl S T To V Vave V Vc Ve VR W WT Wc Operating pressure in fittings. mol. loss. in [kPa (absolute)] 3 3 ! P1 P2 .325 kPa (absolute)] Initial or inlet pressure. Head loss due to friction. (liquid+vapor) Condensate load. in (kPa/100 m) Two-phase pressure.

Mar. downstream or outlet. in (kg/h) Gas mass flow rate. 5. or upstream conditions. in (kg/m3) Liquid volumetric fraction A fraction of L & M modules Surface tension of liquid.s) Density. in (kg/m3) Mixture density. in (dyne/cm = mN/m) ρ L (rho) ρ g (rho) ρV (rho) ρ m (rho) ρ TP (rho) λ (lambda) φ (phi) δ L (sigma) Suscripts: 12gL- Refer to initial. except where otherwise specified. Refer to second. in (kg/m3) Gas density. UNITS This Standard is based on International System of Units (SI).440 ¡P flow = L100 ¡PV100 µ 0 . in (kg/h) mass (weight) fraction of vapor. (dimenssionless) L & M modulus for two-phase Gas compressibility factor IPS-E-PR. Refers to liquid. Refers to gas.5 Greek Letters: Δ (delta) Differential between two points ε (epsilon) Absolute pipe roughness in (mm) γ (nu) µ (mu) µg (mu) ρ (rho) Kinematic viscosity. in (m2/s) = absolute viscosity relative density Absolute viscosity at flowing temperature and pressure. in (kg/m3) Liquid density. 1996 WL Wg x X Z Liquid mass flow rate. in (kg/m3) Vapor density. in (Pa. in (cP) Gas viscosity at flowing temperature and pressure. in (kg/m3) Two-phase flow density. 7 .

fluid viscosity and velocity of flow according to Reynolds number is as follows: Re = d. approximate calculations often neglect the importance of momentum on total pressure drop. The design problem as described above is correctly defined as line sizing. pressure drop available for controllability. 1996 PART ONE IPS-E-PR. When there is an abrupt change in the direction of flow (as in elbow or tees).440 PROCESS PIPE SIZING FOR PLANTS LOCATED ONSHORE-SINGLE PHASE 6. GENERAL SIZING CRITERIA The optimum pipe size should be based on minimizing the sum of energy cost and piping cost. is reduced. Since velocity is inversely proportional to the square of diameter.51 f = −2 log10 ⎢ + ⎢ 3. and B. The opposite problem. This increase is a function of fluid velocity. 1/ ⎡ ε 2. valves.ρ μ (Eq. density and initial pressure. the local pressure on the surface perpendicular to the direction of flow increases dramatically. A preliminary line sizes must often be selected before an accurate knowledge of the system equivalent length is available. that of calculating velocity and pressure loss for a given diameter is very frequently encountered during hydraulic or "spool" checks. However. the line size must satisfy process requirements such as pump suction line. 1) 9. sometimes for preliminary design purposes when pressure loss is not a concern.7 D Re f ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (Eq. 8. process piping is sized on the basis of allowable velocity.1 In vapor systems. improper sizing can lead to slug flow with its well known vibration and pressure pulsations. and rigorous calculations to determine pressure drop involving trial and error should be performed by computers. REYNOLDS NUMBER The relationship between pipe diameter. 8 . In addition. The problem is further complicated when a diameter is to be found which will produce a specified pressure drop or outlet velocity for a given flow. velocity limitations causing erosion or aggravating corrosion must be taken into consideration. 7. With both vapor and two-phase systems. and straight line in the system. FLUID FLOW 7. spool check calculations are required before final specifications for prime movers can be written on final diameter. chosen. In this situation additional trial and error is required to determine the proper diameter. Sometimes. and B) is the Colebrook equation. Although pipe sizing is mainly concerned with pressure drop. the use of rule of thumb or approximate sizing methods can lead to critical flow and subsequent vibration and whistling. the result being that.Mar. 2) For reference chart and method of solution see Appendix A. but are functions of diameter. fitting and valve losses are not constant. With two-phase systems. high velocity fluids require special attention with respect to the size selection. FRICTION FACTOR The basis of the Moody friction factor chart (see Appendix A.V. fluid density. In general an evaluation of the total system equivalent length must be made based on fittings.

1 For calculation pressure loss for a single phase (liquid-gas-vapor) fluid at isothermal condition when flow rate and system characteristics are given.V = 4074 × 10 4 μ . The following formula is for pressure loss of laminar flow: ΔP100 = 32 μ .ρ (Eq. FLUID FLOW CALCULATIONS IPS-E-PR. SINGLE PHASE LIQUID FLOW 11. 1996 10. 5) Alternatively. 6) Δ P100 = 81055 × 107 fD . q2/d5 bar/100 meter at flowing conditions (temperature and pressure) 9 . Elevation pressure drops must be calculated separately. Δ P100 can be expressed as: (Eq.e. In cases where the pressure loss is less than 10% of the upstream pressure. As a result the Darcy-Weisbach calculation can be applied to a long run of pipe rather than segmentally as directed by the variable density in gas flow.2 Flow is considered to be laminar at Reynolds number of 2000 or less.W 2 d 5 .440 10.e. presented in this Standard through the application of Darcy-Weisbach (often referred to as simply Darcy) and Fanning principles. an average value of ñ is not required and either the downstream or upstream density can be used. The calculation is simplified for liquid flows since the density can reasonably be assumed to be constant. using Equation (3): ΔPe = hL . ρ 10200 kg m 2 (Eq. therefor before using the formula for pressure drop..3 For a given mass flow rate and physical properties of a single phase fluid in turbulent conditions. 3) The elevation pressures gains or losses are added algebratically to the frictional pressure drops. for a given volumetric rate. 11.2 For compressible (gas and vapor lines. q S d 4 at flow condition d2 (Eq. 11. Reynolds number should be determined for regime of flow. the Darcy-Weisbach or Fanning methods shall be used. 4) Where: Δ P100 is the pressure drop in bar per 100 meters. P100 can be expressed: ΔP100 = 6253 f P . The average gas density of flow in uses . i.P2) ≤ 0. where the pressure losses are small relative to line pressure) reasonable accuracy can often be predicted providing the following conditions are met.1 For the calculation of pressure loss in liquid lines.4 P1 This is because energy losses due to acceleration and density variations can be neglected up to this limit. (P1 . 10. ρ = ( ρ1 + ρ 2 ) 2 The pressure drop is less or equal 40% of up stream pressure i.. 11.Mar.

w ⎟ ⎜ d 8655 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (Eq. K = K valve + K elbow + K tee. . ρ .25 × 10 4 Le ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ C ⎠ 1.2 Pump Suction Lines 13. 8) Pressure drops " Δ Pf" in fittings can be calculated as follows: ⎛ ρ . FITTINGS AND VALVES IPS-E-PR.L d (Eq. in the case of liquid at the boiling point and below 7. As a result. 1996 12.17 (lb/ft/sec2. f .1 × 10-6 K. 13..2.80 (kg. constant "C" is taken as "100".5 kPa/100 m.. 11) ρ . E and F.V2 kg/cm2 = 5 × 10-4 K.⎜ 4. The Hazen-s formula is as follows: ⎛ 100 ⎞ h f = 2.. (Eq.V2 kPa In cases where valves and fittings are to be handled as pipe equivalent lengths. 12) 13. the equivalent lengths shall be taken from Appendix G and added to the actual pipe lengths. is gravity constant 32. kg-force). K V P gc is coefficient of resistance. 10) (Eq. 9.Mar.m/s2. lb-force). 7) 4. ρ . is velocity is pipe (ft/sec) or (m/s). is one of the most accurate formula for calculation pressure loss in water line (see Appendix C for Hazen-William’s constant C).V 2 ⎜ d ⎜ 2 gc ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ( Fanningequ ation ) ⎟ ⎠ (Eq. For the design of new water pipelines.9) Δ Pf is pressure drop in fitting (psi) or (kg/cm2).Williams’s formula.9 kPa/100 m in the case of liquid below the boiling point. following equation is obtained: Δ Pf = K. from which the pressure drops shall be calculated. shall be taken and calculated from Appendices D.1 Water Flow The pressure loss for water flow shall be calculated by Hazen.85 ⎞ .V2 / 196120 = 5. 10 . The value "K" is defined as follows: ΔP = n K= 4. f . SPECIAL CONDITIONS 13..V 2 ΔP = K ⎜ ⎜ 2 gc ⎝ Where: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (Eq.85 ⎛ Q1. The HazenWilliam’s relationship. is density (lb/ft3) or (kg/m3).1 Generally the pressure drops in pump suction lines shall be held below 4.440 In case where the coefficient of resistance "K" are to be used..L ⎛ ρ .

3 A suction liquid line to a centrifugal pump should be short and simple.3 to 2. Note that the longer payout times favor larger pipe diameters. in (m) (the term "Datum" refers to the bottom tangent line in the case of vertical vessels and to the bottom level in the case of horizontal vessels). is 0. An economical comparison is justified with large diameter piping.45 kPa (0.13 m/s.Pv) Where: (Eq. piping costs increase with diameter while utility costs decrease.440 The maximum velocity of bubble point liquids shall be 1.5 psi) shall be added in the case o f dirty service.Mar. is pressure working on suction liquid surface.1 Amine solution The following limitations should be considered. in (m).2 In cases where permanent strainers are to be provided a minimum pressure drop of 3. 13. is relative density (Water = 1). Of course.2.4 Limitations Owing to Erosion Preventive Measures Velocity of the fluid plays an important role in errosion-corrosion. 13. Velocities are usually between 0. No addition is required in the case of clean service. is net positive suction head required. is height from datum to pump centre. in (kpa). Between alternate design the best size can be determined by adding the total cost of utilities over the period of capital payout to the capital cost of each installation. Higher velocities and unit losses can be allowed within this range when subcooled liquid is flowing than when the liquid is saturated. in (kPa).4. Mechanical wear effects at high values and particularly when the solution contains solids in suspension. where most of the pump pressure is used for pipe and equipment resistance. For corrosive liquids these values may be reduced by fifty percent. The equivalent length to be used for pressure drop calculations shall be assumed to be 46 m (150 ft).4 m/s.2.835 S [H -(NPSHR + α )] + (P1 . in (kPa). Pipe smaller than pump discharge nozzle size is not used. 13. 1996 IPS-E-PR. For carbon steel pipe: Liquid 3 m/s Vapor-liquid 30 m/s For stainless steel pipe: 11 . NPSHR α (alpha) P1 Pv 13. 13.305 m (1 ft) for liquid at boiling point and 0. Velocity often strongly influences the mechanism of the corrosion reactions.3 Cooling Water Cooling water discharge headers are usually sized with unit pressure losses in decimals of 7 kPa (1 psi). Allowable pressure drops can be determined by the following formula: Δ P = 9. The lowest over-all figure will give the most economical solution. is vapor pressure of liquid at suction temperature.2134 m for liquid below boiling point. 13) ΔP S H is friction loss in piping to pump inlet.2 m/s and for sub-cooled liquids shall be 2.

Mar. in (m). This value is intended for vaporliquid separation based on the particle diameter 200 micrometers (1000 micron = 1 mm) in cases where the operating pressure is high or the difference between the vapor and liquid densities is small: q V = 0. 12 . hydrotreating processes often cause rapid erosion. 14) The line size shall be also checked that the control valve size may not become larger than the line size.5. tees.5. 2) Determination of line sizes in cases where the liquid enters a control valve at the boiling point should be sized on the following basis: With consideration given to the static head and length of the line from the liquid level to the control valve. is relative density. in (kg/m3). 16) Δ P (flowmeter) + P (line friction) is relative density. Δ P (flowmeter) = kPa pressure drop in flowmeter. is static head. the flow velocity in the first 3 meters of the vertical line shall be less than 0. 0. 13.5 Other Matters 13. 15) (Eq.corrosion of carbon steel pipes. 13.2 Vacuum tower overhead line 1) The line cost and steam and cooling water consumptions shall be calculated and the line size shall be decided so that the annual cost will become minimum. 2) Pre-condenser shall be provided in wet cases where the pressure loss in the pre-condenser shall be 4 mm Hg.H > Δ P (flowmeter) + Δ P (line friction) (Eq. reducer and air cooler tube inlet parts after water injection points.440 13.26 Sh > Where: ρ (rhow) H h S ρ . Δ P (line friction) = kPa pressure drop due to friction.762 m/s.4. Care must be taken not to exceed the highest fluid velocity in pipe tubes.2 Ammonium bisulfate (NH3-H2S-H2O) solution Aqueous solutions of ammonium bisulfate produced in the effluent line of hydrocracking.Dp = °V (Eq. 1996 Liquid Vapor-liquid 9 m/s 36 m/s IPS-E-PR. the following should be satisfied. especially for nozzles.1 Gravity flow 1) Side cut draw-off In cases where no controller is provided for the liquid level in the liquid draw-off tray. the line size shall be determined so that no vaporization may occur at the inlet of control valve. is static head.1412 or 2. In this case. bend. in (mm).003g (° L °V ).

At 15.e.Mar.5.4 A Practical Way to Calculate Gas Flow in Pipeline Here is a short cut way to calculate gas flow in pipelines.440 13. 3) The flow velocity shall be calculated by the following equation: V= 354.h R ) d2. For every 0.1 Line from heat exchanger to steam trap or control valve The pressure drop in this line shall be smaller than 11.d bar /100m (see Eq.1 kg/cm2/100 m) and shall be checked that no condensate may vaporize therein.3. 14.6. 18) is cubic metere of gas per hour. 14.3 The Darcy formula (Eq. 5) also can be used for calculation of pressure loss in process gas lines as follows: Δ P100 = 62530 f D . the flow velocity "V" must be limited to 1524 m/min to prevent erosion. A variation in density implies variation in Reynolds number on which the friction factor is dependent. assuming the pressure drop through the line is not a significant fraction of the total pressure (i. (m3/h). as pressure decreases along the line so does the density (assuming isothermal flow). a simplified formula for compressible fluids is accurate for fully turbulent flow. It is based on Weymouth formula. A rigorous calculation of pressure loss for long pipeline involves dividing it into segments. no more than 10%).2 As mentioned above for estimating pressure drop in shortrun of gas piping such as within plant or battery limit.3.W 5 2 g ρ g . the answer will be 1% error. 17) 13.5°C and relative density (specific gravity) of 0.3 kPa/100 m (0.5°C (10°F) variation in temperature.2 Line from steam trap or control valve to following vessel 1) Steam condensate return lines must be sized to avoid excessive pressure loss..d 8 / 3 P12 − P22 L m3 / h (Eq. since pipe lengths are generally short. performing the calculation for each segment (considering variable parameters) and integrating over the entire length.1 In general when considering compressible flow.5. 2) In this case. 13 .5. 14. For every 5. 1996 13. LR (Eq. For process piping however. the answer will be accurate. WC . VR (h C . a figure mostly practiced by design companies (refer to Engineering Standard IPS-E-PR-460 for.01 variation in relative density (specific gravity). the answer will be three-fourths percent in error: Formula: Qg = Where: Qg 10. a rigorous calculation would not be necessary and the equation outline below are considered adequate. SINGLE PHASE GAS FLOW 14. Part of the hot condensate flashes into steam when it is discharged into the condensate return system. "Process Design of Flare and Blowdown Systems").3 Steam condensate lines IPS-E-PR.4 Flare headers Flare headers shall be designed so that the maximum allowable velocity does not exceed 50 percent of critical velocity.73 × 10 −4 . 5) 14.5. 13.

For trouble-free operation maintain operable velocities at 0.440 d is pipe ID in (mm).0394d + 3.6 System operating at pressure less than 7000 N/m² (7 kPa).00118d ⎟ ⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎝ ⎣ 0.5 Vc and Vc for ideal gasis is given by: VC = K . As the pressure drop in a pipe (increases) so does the flow. 14.00108 ⎢ ⎛ 91. the Spitzglass equation shall be used for pressure loss calculations: ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ Δhw .5 An important factor in handling compressible fluid flow is a phenomenon known as critical flow.72 ⊄ 10 4 0.00338 ⎢ ⎛ 91.7 Steam Flow Babcock formula shall be used to calculate pressure drop in steam lines: 2 iP = 1.00118d ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎡ ⎤ 5 ⎢ ⎥ ΔP.L °S (Eq.5 (Eq.P ρ m/s (Eq. This limit is called the critical velocity.5 0.L⎜1 + d + 0.6 d6 3 W 2 .5 ⎞⎥ ⎢ ⎢ G.64 K .L⎜1 + d + 0. P2 is kPa (abs) at ending point.T m/s M (Eq.R.5 ⎞⎥ ⎢ ⎢ G.8 Flow Induced Noise The allowable maximum flow velocities in cases where the maximum sound pressure levels of the piping noises must be kept 8 to 10 dB (A) under the sound pressure level of the background noise. 22) Where: ΔP is the pressure drop in Pa. P1 is kPa (abs) at starting point. 23) 14. 14. 19) = 31. 14. L is length of line in (m). But for compressible flow this increase is limited to the velocity of sound in the fluid at flowing conditions. 21) (Eq. m/s* 30 41 52 14 .d ⎥ m 3 / h at 15o C Q = 0. Sonic or critical velocity is the maximum velocity which a compressible fluid can attain in a pipe. are as follows: NORMAL BACKGROUND SOUND PRESSURE. 1996 IPS-E-PR. 20) The maximum velocity in piping handling compressible shall be less than ½ of the critical velocity.d 5 ⎥ m 3 / h at 15o C Q = 0. dB (A) 60 80 90 MAXIMUM FLUID VELOCITY TO PREVENT NOISE.Mar.

IPS-E-PR.440 15 . 1996 * Obviously these velocity limitations refer to compressible flow.Mar.

the maximum flow rate expected during the life of the facility should be considered rather than the initial flow rate.7 QL 2 dL (Eq. The maximum design pressure within the scope of this document is 69000 kPa gage (10000 psig) and the temperature range is -29°C (-20°F) to 343°C (650°F). presented are based on years of experience in developing oil and gas losses. 353.1 General Single-phase liquid lines should be sized primarily on the basis of flow velocity.6 m/s at maximum flow rates. to minimize flashing ahead of the control valve.440 PROCESS PIPE SIZING FOR PLANTS LOCATED OFFSHORE 15. However.2 Flow velocities in liquid lines may be calculated using the following derived equation: V = 353. It is also usually advisable to add a surge factor of 20 to 50 percent to the anticipated normal flow rate. 17. 16.1 When determining line sizes. The recommended practices.). the first incoming and last outgoing valve which block pipeline flow shall be the limit of this document’s application.91 m/s to minimize deposition of sand and other solids. Practically all of the offshore experience has been in hydrocarbon service free of hydrogen sulfide. Many companies also use computer programs to facilitate piping design. the flow velocity should not exceed 4. both the flow velocity and pressure drop should be considered. Manufacturer’s data or an equivalent length as in Appendix G shall be used . SIZING CRITERIA FOR LIQUID LINES 17.Mar. If practical flow velocity should not be less than 0.3 Calculated line sizes may need to be adjusted in accordance with good engineering judgment. SIZING CRITERIA-GENERAL In determining the diameter of pipe to be used in platform piping systems. 1996 PART TWO IPS-E-PR. The following sections present equations for calculating pipe diameters for liquid lines. the overall pressure drop in the piping will usually be small.2 Determination of pressure loss in a line should include the effects of valves and fittings. SCOPE This document recommends minimum requirements and guidelines for the sizing of new piping system on production platforms located offshore. 16. 16.3 Pressure loss (kPa per 100 meter of flow length) for single-phase liquid lines may be calculated using the following (Fanning) equation: 16 . In determining the transition between risers and platform piping which these practices apply. For applications outside these pressures and temperatures. At these flow velocities. recommendations based on extensive experience onshore are included for some aspects of hydrocarbon service containing hydrogen sulphide. 17.7) 17. carbon migration and etc. Most of the pressure drop in liquid lines between two pressure vessels will occur in the liquid dump valve and/or choke. 16. special consideration should be given to material properties (ductility. unless surge expectations has been more precisely determined by pulse pressure measurements in similar systems or by specific fluid hammer calculation. For lines transporting liquids in singlephase from one pressure vessel to another by pressure differential. singlephase gas lines and gas/liquid two-phase lines. respectively.

is acceleration head. ha = L.QL .2 In a centrifugal or rotary pump.66 × 10 8 17. the acceleration head.C k . meter of liquid. is static head.VL . is friction head.81 m/s²).hvpa + hst . 18. meter of liquid. is gravitational constant (usually 9. velocity and static head. or head loss due to flowing friction in the suction piping. meter of liquid. The modified Moody diagram. including entrance and exit losses. the liquid pressure at the suction flange must be high enough to overcome the pressure loss between the flange and the entrance to the impeller vane (or rotor) and maintain the pressure on the liquid above its vapor pressure. positive or negative. 1996 2 f m .RP . NPSHa = hp . atmospheric or otherwise.hvh . Available NPSH should always be equal or exceed the pump’s required NPSH. Satisfactory pump operation requires that essentially no vapor be flashed from the liquid as it enters the pump casing or cylinder.Mar. Available NPSH for most pump applications may be calculated using Equation 26. meter/second (m/s). less the vapor pressure of the liquid in meter absolute. 18. meter of liquid. as well as the friction. In a reciprocating unit. It is the total head in meter absolute determined at the suction nozzle.S L kPa/100m d i5 IPS-E-PR. in Appendix A may be used to determine the friction factor when the Reynolds number is known. 25) ΔP100 = 62. but the pump required NPSH is typically higher than for a centrifugal pump because of pressure drop across the valves and pressure drop caused by pulsation in the flow. is velocity head.1 Reciprocating. is velocity of liquid in piping. is zero. (Eq.ha Where: hp hvpa hst hf hvh ha VL g is absolute pressure head due to pressure. 27) 17 . 18. meter of liquid.g (Eq.4 The Moody friction factor "f" is a function of the Reynolds number and surface roughness of the pipe. the acceleration head is critical and may be determined by the following equation from the Hydraulics Institute. rotary and centrifugal pump suction piping systems should be designed so that the available net positive suction head (NPSH) at the pump inlet flange exceeds the pump required NPSH.440 (Eq. For reciprocating pumps.hf . due to liquid level above or below datum line (centerline of pump). Similary the available NPSH supplied to the pump suction must account for the acceleration in the suction piping caused by the pulsating flow. the pressure at the suction flange must meet the same requirement. Additionally provisions should be made in reciprocating pump suction piping to minimize pulsations. ha.4 For a centrifugal or rotary pump. 26) 18.3 The necessary available pressure differential over the pumped fluid vapor pressure may be defined as net positive suction head available (NPSHa). is the absolute vapor pressure of the liquid at suction temperature. Otherwise cavitation will occur. PUMP PIPING 18. on surface of liquid going to suction. meter of liquid.

g is gravitational constant (usually 9. is length of suction line.5 when more than one reciprocating pump is operated simultaneously on a common feed line. b) Use larger suction pipe to reduce velocity. K is a factor representing the reciprocal of the friction of the theoretical acceleration head which must be provided to avoid a noticeable disturbance in the suction piping: = 1. Note: IPS-E-PR.04 for a quintuplex pump.5 for relatively compressible liquid (hot oil or ethane). glycol. in rotations/minute (r/min).440 The constant "C" will vary from these values for unusual ratios of connecting rod length to crank radius. is average liquid velocity in suction line. all crankshafts are in phase and. if permitted by pump rating. if kept properly charged may reduce L. in meter of liquid. e) Consider using a pulsation dampener if the above remedies are unacceptable. in meter (actual length not equivalent length). = 1. = 0. is pump speed. = 0. in meter/second (m/s).040 for quintuplex single or double acting. the multiple pumps act as one pump of that type with a capacity equal to that of all pumps combined. properly located dampener. = 2.200 for simplex double acting. = 0. the length of pipe used in acceleration head equation to a value of 5 to 15 nominal pipe diameter. c) Reduce required pump speed by using a larger size piston or plunger. Acceleration head is directly proportional to line length. is empirical constant for the type of pump: = 0. 1996 Where: ha L VL Rp C is acceleration head. 18 . = 2. d) Consider a pump with a larger number of plungers. For example: C= 0. 18.028 for septuplex single or double acting.5 for amine. Speed required is inversely proportional to the square of piston diameter. Acceleration head is directly proportional to pump speed Rp.Mar. This is very helpful since velocity varies inversely with the square of pipe inside-diameter. It should be noted that there is not universal acceptance for Equation 27.115 for duplex double acting. the maximum instantaneous velocity in the feed line would be equal to that created by one pump having a capacity equal to that of all the pumps combined. = 0. the following should be evaluated: a) Shorten suction line.066 for a triplex pump. L. location and charging pressure used. water. Dampener should be located as close to the pump suction as possible. However. In this case. This is about 40% less than C =0.4 for liquid with almost no compressibility (deaereted water).81 m/s²). at time. Acceleration head is directly proportional to fluid velocity VL. to the feed system.6 If the acceleration head is determined to be excessive. = 0. Acceleration head is directly proportional to C. The results obtainable by using a dampener in the suction system depend on the size.066 for triplex single or double acting. 18.0 for most hydrocarbons. type.200 for duplex single acting. Equation 27 is believed to be a conservative basis which will assure adequate provision for acceleration head. A good.

1996 IPS-E-PR.305 (1 ft/sec) 0. but are more complex than suction piping pulsations.74 (6-9 ft/sec) 19.7 The following requirements are recommended for designing suction piping: a) Suction piping should be one or two pipe sizes larger than the pump inlet connection. The pressure drops listed in the following Table 2. The Table 1 below may be used to determine preliminary suction and discharge line sizes. Additionally. SIZING CRITERIA FOR SINGLE-PHASE GAS LINES 19. d) For reciprocating pumps provide a suitable pulsation dampener (or make provisions for adding a dampener at a later date) as close to the pump cylinder as possible. noise may be a problem. size the common feed line so the velocity will be as close as possible to the velocity in the laterals going to the individual pumps. etc.Mar. If potential for accumulation of debris is a concern.1 Process Lines When pressure drop is a consideration (lines connecting two components operating at essentially the same pressure. This will avoid velocity changes and thereby minimize acceleration head effects.61-0. 18.37 (4½ ft/sec) 0. centrifugal and rotary pump discharge piping should be sized on an economical basis.61 (2 ft/sec) 0.TYPICAL FLOW VELOCITIES SUCTION VELOCITY m/s (ft/sec) Reciprocating pumps Speeds upto 250 r/min Speeds 251-330 r/min Speeds above 330 r/min Centrifugal pumps 0. b) Suction lines should be short with a minimum number of elbows and fittings. c) Velocity in discharge piping should not exceed three times the velocity in the suction piping. have been found by experience to be an acceptable balance for short lines. 19 .3 m/s (60 ft/sec). This velocity will normally result in an economical line size for all pumps. The following guidelines may be useful in designing discharge piping: a) Discharge piping should be as short and direct as possible. and will minimize pulsations in reciprocating pumps. compression) and operating cost are considered.46 (1½ ft/sec) 0. When velocities in gas lines exceed 18. b) Discharge piping should be one or two pipe sizes larger than pump discharge connection.83 (6 ft/sec) 1. when capital costs (pipe.440 f) Use a centrifugal booster pump to charge the suction of the reciprocating pump. 18.8 Reciprocating.83-2. with the flat side up to keep the top of line level. e) In multi-pump installations.91 (3 ft/sec) 1. means for removal is recommended.91 (2-3 ft/sec) DISCHARGE VELOCITY m/s (ft/sec) 1. include a suitable pulsation dampener (or make provisions for adding a dampener at a later date) as close to the pump cylinder as possible. TABLE 1 . d) For reciprocating pumps. c) Eccentric reducers should be used near the pump. This eliminates the possibility of gas pockets being formed in the suction piping. reciprocating pump discharge piping should be sized to minimize pulsations.) single-phase gas lines should be sized on the basis of acceptable pressure loss. Pulsations in reciprocating pump discharge piping are also related to the acceleration head.

SIZING CRITERIA FOR GAS/LIQUID TWO-PHASE LINES Erosional velocity. 30) 20.81 ⎛ di .d i5 kpa (Eq. flow lines. production manifolds.Q g P.ACCEPTABLE PRESSURE DROPS FOR SINGLE-PHASE GAS PROCESS LINES OPERATING PRESSURE kPa (ga) 100-690 696-3447 3454-13790 IPS-E-PR.5 The following equation (Fanning) may be used when total pressure loss is less than 10% of inlet pressure and is based on friction factor given by the GPSA Data Book.T . If the total pressure drop is greater than 10% an equation such as Weymouth’s should be used. 31) Where: Ve is fluid erosional velocity. 20 .Le .38 + 0.T d 2 . Flow velocity should be kept at least below fluid erosional velocity.13-4.ρ g ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ μ ⎟ g ⎝ ⎠ 0.0025 (Eq. Ve = 1. vibration and noise.P (Eq. 19.4 Compressor Lines Reciprocating and centrifugal compressor piping should be sized to minimized pulsation.Mar.1 Z . 20.Q g .22C ρm m/s (Eq.49) 11.14 (0. 1996 TABLE 2 . if the total pressure drop is less than 10% of inlet pressure.2) 19. If solid (sand) production is anticipated fluid velocity should be reduced accordingly.30 (0.3-27. ΔP = 1. 28) 19.3 Gas velocity may be calculated using the following derived equation: V = 124.2 The above Table 2 may be used to determine pressure loss. 29) Where: f = 1.433 × 10 5 2 G. 19. f . process headers and other lines transporting gas and liquid in twophase flow should be sized primarily on the basis of flow velocity.440 ACCEPTABLE PRESSURE DROP kPa/100m (psi/100 ft) 1.05-0.Vg .19) 4.52-11.1 The velocity above which erosion may occur can be determined by the following empirical equation.5-1.2-0. The selection of allowable velocities requires an engineering study for each specific application. in (m/s).082 (0.

in (K).4ZRT P Ve (Eq. IPS-E-PR. in (kPa absolute). the minimum velocity in two-phase lines should be about 3 m/s to minimize slugging of separation equipment. 20. ρ m (rho) 21 . in (kg/m³). in (kg/m³) (calculated as shown in Equation 32).12R.3 Once Ve is known.5 Pressure Drop The pressure drop in two-phase steel piping system may be estimated using a simplified Darcy equation. is operating pressure. is gas/liquid ratio. 20. ΔP100 = 6.Mar. use average gravity for hydrocarbon-water mixtures at Standard Conditions. This is particularly important in long lines with elevation changes.4 Minimum Velocity If possible.G.65 + 97.6S L .9 ρ m(rho) is gas/liquid mixture density.P kg/m³ 28.WT2 d 5 . the minimum cross-sectional area required to avoid fluid erosion may be determined from the following derived equation: A= 277. 33) 20. 28. 1996 C is empirical constant: = 125 for-non-continuous service. is operating temperature. = 100 for continuous service. is gas/liquid density at flowing temperature and pressure. 32) is relative density of liquid (water = 1). m³ (gas)/m³ (liquid) at MSC. The use of the equation should be limited to a 10% pressure drop due to inaccuracies associated with changes in density.ρ m kpa 100m (Eq.Z (Eq. 20.P + 35. 34) Where: WT is total liquid plus vapor rate.440 ρm is gas/liquid mixture density at operating pressure and temperature.2 The density of the gas/liquid mixture may be calculated using the following derived equation: ρm = Where: SL R P T G 28829.254 × 10 6 f m . in (kg/h).82P + 10. is gas relative density ( MW ) at Standard Conditions.22R.T. in (kg/m³).

440 22 .G + 1000 QL.SL (kg/h) (Eq. 1996 WT may be calculated using the following derived equation: WT = 1. 35) IPS-E-PR.Mar.2225 Qg.

0018 + 0. 22. 23.1 For pipe sizes less than or equal to DN 750.d ⎛ 1 f = 0.QL = 2. thereby minimizing accumulation of corrosion matter within the pipeline. 23. or impingement attack will be minimal. design consideration should be given to obtaining an operating velocity which will pick up and sweep away water or sediment that accumulates in lower places in the line during periods of no flow. Formula. 22.54 × 10 × d5 10 kPa/100m (Eq. 00662⎜ ⎜R ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ em ⎠ (Eq. The upper limit of the velocity range should be such that erosion-corrosion cavitation.S μ .83 ×10 8 QL 1.355 ⎛ 1 ⎞ f = 0. sediment or other corrosive contaminates are expected to accumulate in the pipeline.2 Intermittent flow conditions should be avoided where possible.748.65. CRUDE OIL PIPELINES The following formula have been found to give results corresponding fairly closed to those observed in operation for typical Iranian crude oil properties. the following points should be taken into consideration when designing a pipeline.Mar.00207⎜ ⎜R ⎝ em ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.748 kPa/100m (Eq. Operating procedures should be developed and implemented for adequate cleaning (see also NACE MR 0175-2002).3 If water. design should include loading and receiving pig trap. 37) For viscous flow (laminar) For turbulent flow Rem = 45. for transmission of a specific quantity of crude oil. 0. pressure loss shall be calculated using the Service Pipeline Co. This Standard presents different methods for economical calculations of pressure loss. For turbulent flow up to Re = 170000 ΔP = 26. 22. If operating criteria dictate the need for intermittent flow.1 Design consideration should be given to flow velocity within a range which will minimize corrosion. The lower limit of the flow velocity range should be that velocity which will keep impurities suspended in the commodity. SIZING CRITERIA Although pressure loss is primary criterion in determining line size.2 For pipe sizes greater than DN 750 the SHELL/MIT formula shall be used for pressure loss calculations.s. 36) 23. SCOPE The transmission line as related to the requirements of this Engineering Standard is a pipeline transporting gas or liquid and also two-phase flow from oil fields to the ship loading points or production Units such as refineries and natural gas plants. 38) 23 .S d 4. But application of SHELL/MIT formula for diameter of less than DN 750 also gives an acceptable results: ΔP100 Where: 2 f . required diameter.Q L .2518 γ .440 21. products and natural gas to the terminal under consideration. 22. 1996 PART THREE TRANSMISSION PIPELINES FOR: 1) LIQUID 2) GAS IPS-E-PR.

55.135 Rem > 0.135 to 6.1 Natural gas liquids is generally in natural gas processing plants (dew point depression process).14 × 10 − 3 ⎜ o ⎟ ⎜P ⎟ ⎝ o⎠ 1. in (m³/h).440 Where: Rem is Reynolds number modified Re/7742.02 ⎡ ⎤ P 2 − P22 1 .4 Rem = 0.4 For natural gas pipelines with diameter greater than DN 300 the IGT/AGA formula should be used: 24 . Weymouth formula: ⎛T ⎞ ⎡ P 2 − P22 ⎤ Qg = 0.E ⎣ G. 25. 25. (dimensionless).2 Pressure drop calculations should be made using an appropriate method as described for liquid handling.d 1. 40) The efficiency factor "E" decreases with increasing flow rate for fully turbulent flow.94. It generally varies between 0. in centipoise (cP).1 to 0.d 8 / 3 ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎜P ⎟ ⎝ o⎠ ⎣ G. µ(mu) is absolute viscosity. 26.Mar. The Weymouth formula is applicable where the operating pressure is less than 450 kPa. NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS (NGL) PIPELINES 25. 1996 Viscous flow Turbulent Indeterminate region Rem = 0. 25. the water stratifies to the bottom of pipe and corrosion may occur.02 ⎢ 0. 41) 26. Its components typically range from C2 to C9 and its relative density is typically about 0. NATURAL GAS PIPELINES 26. 25. 26.3 Crude oils generally tend to carry free water along the pipeline.5 (Eq. pressure loss should not cause vaporization and consequently create two-phase flow.Tave . 39) 26. .4 Due to its higher vapor pressure. a two-phase flow conditions must be avoided by maintaining an adequately. S is relative density. QL is flow rate. high minimum pressure along the pipelines.Z ave L ⎦ 0.2 For line pressures greater than 450 kPa the Panhandle revised or "B" equation should be used: ⎛T ⎞ Qg = 14. d is inside diameter.5 (Eq. this water is a potential source of corrosion. It is advisable to maintain a certain minimum velocity in order to keep the water from stratification.3 The compressibility factor "Z" is calculated at pipeline average pressure which is given by: ⎛ P 3 − P23 ⎞ ⎛ P −P ⎞ P ave = 2 / 3⎜ P + P2 − 1 2 ⎟ = 2 / 3⎜ 12 ⎜ P − P2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ 1 P + P2 ⎟ 1 2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎝ ⎠ (Eq. Therefore in the time of calculations of pressure loss.961 ⎥ . actual temperature & pressure of line should be regarded.00494⎜ o ⎟.1 For gas pipelines up to about DN 300 the Weymouth and Panhandle formulas have been found to give satisfactory results.4 IPS-E-PR.Z ave L ⎦ 0. in (mm).3 In transmission of NGL by pipe. 23. If the velocity of crude oil is too low.88-0.Tave .

Mar.75 × 10 ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎜P ⎟ ⎥ G.10. 26. etc.5 IPS-E-PR. due to complex nature of twophase phenomenon.L. Sometimes rich gas gathering networks also exhibit two-phase behavior. 25 .7d ⎤ ⎡ × d 2.9 Exceptions are flow and gas lines between oil and gas wells and separation Unit or system.. 26. but it turns out that.Z aveTave ⎝ o ⎠⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 0. 26. particularly in high pressure lines this contribution could be appreciable.1 The effect of liquids accumulating in low sections of natural gas pipelines should be taken into account in the process design stage. particular attention must be paid to gas velocity.2 Particular attention should be given to the additional pressure required if it is intended to remove accumulated liquids or internal deposits by pigs. At design stage. 26. the effect of elevation changes.6 When corrosion inhibitor is being injected into gas transmission line.5 In gas transmission lines changes in elevation may seem to have a negligible contribution to the overall pressure drop. 26. 42) 26. consideration should be given to the incorporation of liquid knock-out traps where desirable and where permitted. 1996 ⎡ 2 ⎛ 0.8 Due to operating problems normally a transmission line is not designed to handle two-phase (gas-liquid). it would be helpful to consult the inhibitor manufacturer for limiting velocities. 26. In recent years several computer methods have been developed for predicting the behavior of two-phase flow in pipelines. The factor can be critical in hill country. a general agreement on the best methods available does not exist.06834G (h2 − h1 ) Pave 2 ⎞ ⎤ 2 ⎟⎥ ⎢ P − P2 − ⎜ 1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎥ − 5 ⎛ To ⎞ ⎢ Qg = 75. High gas velocities tend to decrease the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors. But. inter phase changes along the line.10 To get a reasonable evaluation one must resort to computer application. particularly when the gas contains water vapor and hydrate formation is suspected. 26. Each method has it relative merits in its particular applications.10.440 3. the final temperature might even drop below ambient.5 × ⎢4 log10 ε ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (Eq. This phenomenon called "Joule-Thomson effect in pipelines" should be watched for. the following points are noteworthy as for as process design of these systems is concerned. Although it is not intended to present calculation methods for two-phase flow in transmission pipelines in this Standard.7 In long gas transmission lines when excessive pressure drop is encountered.

As Equation 44 shows "Bx" depends on the mass-flow ratio and the physical properties of the liquid and vapor phase. 2 BX = K (WL / WV )( ρ L .1 Two-phase flow regions The two-phase flow patterns are shown in Table 3 first column. TWO PHASE FLOW SIZING PROCESS PIPING 27. Using data supplied or usually available to the process piping designer. X remains constant for one set of flow conditions.16 English "By" depends on the vapor phase flow rate.166) and also μ L1/3= μ L0. (Eq. Consequently. corrected by applicable twophase flow correlation. 1 are shown as lines. can be substituted for WL/Wv and √ ρ L. which is in turn. 1 changes only if the liquid-vapor mixture proportion changes and.1. The selection of one of these flow patterns is made using Fig./ ρ L 2/3=( ρ V0. Once calculated.33.Mar. on vapor and liquid densities. to a much lesser extent. the type of flow might also be changed. the vapor content of the mixture in equilibrium increases with corresponding decrease in vapor 26 . b) Unit pressure losses are determined by calculating vapor-phase unit loss only. 43) K = 7. This can occur in long pipe lines where relatively high friction losses reduce the pressure.1. 27. The position of the Bx line in Fig. The practical significance of the later variable is that by changing pipe diameters. 27. it does not change with alternative pipe diameters.2 Baker parameters A particular flow region can be determined by the Baker parameters Bx and By. In reality these boarders are rather broad transition zone.ρ v (Eq. if the physical properties of the concurrently flowing liquid and vapor changes.ρV / ρ L / 3 )(μ 1 / 3 / σ L ) L K = 212 SI K = 531 English Note: Percent liquid/percent vapor.5√ ρ L0. the Baker parameters can be expressed as follows: By = K Wv A ρ L .1 × 106 SI K = 2. 44) ρ V . 1996 PART FOUR TWO PHASE FLOW 27. also changes friction losses in pipe.1 Two-phase flow resistance is calculated in two main steps: IPS-E-PR. and on the pipe size.440 a) A possible flow pattern is selected by calculating coordinates of flow region chart. 1. The borders of the various flow pattern regions in Fig. Where Δ P100 (liquid) is calculated assuming only liquid is flowing in the pipe and Δ P100 (vapor) is calculated assuming only vapor is flowing in the same size pipe.

The selected method for calculations should be approved by the Company. However. the calculations of the unit losses for vapor-liquid mixtures is based on the method of Messrs. Only the essential necessary relationship are repeated here and used with the customary data of practical process piping design. then. Lockhart and Martinelli. The Bx line will shift somewhat to the left. 45) Calculate the pressure drop of the vapor phase. assuming that there is only vapor flowing in the pipeline. is a function of the Lockhart-Martinelli two-phase modulus X as follows: 27 . TWO-PHASE FLOW REGION SELECTION GRAPH Fig. 1996 density. the intersection point moves up and to the left. If By ≥ 80. It is assumed that the two-phase flow is isothermal and turbulent in both liquid and vapor phases and that the pressure loss is less than 10% of the absolute upstream pressure. With increasing vapor content.Mar. This can be expected when the vapor content is 25 percent or more of the total mass flow rate.000 the flow will fall in dispersed flow region for hydrocarbon liquids of normal viscosities. In oil & gas transmission lines there are different correlations methods which the BBM (Begg’s-Brill-Moody) is the most popular.2 Two-Phase Flow Unit Loss There are different methods to calculate Unit losses for vapor-liquid mixtures. the long multiplication of Bx does not have to be calculated. In Equation 45 φ is the two-phase flow modulus. The general equation for calculating two-phase flow unit losses is: Δ P100 (two-phase) = Δ P100 (vapor) ( φ ²) (Eq. It is suggested that the designer calculate By first. 1 determines the flow region for the calculated liquid-vapor proportion and physical properties of the liquid and vapor. 1 27. At this stage the Lockhard-Martinelli method widly used in the chemical industries mostly for horizontal Pipes. IPS-E-PR.440 The intersection of Bx and By on Fig.

corresponding flow rates and viscosities. The form of the correlations are identical: φ =a. It can be obtained directly by calculating the liquid vapor phase Reynolds numbers and using the Moody friction factor diagram for commercial steel pipes (see Appendix A). 53) Where L is the equivalent length of the pipe and fittings in meter (Appendix G). 27.xb (Eq.4 The initial diameter of two-phase flow in short process pipes can be sized through the vaporliquid reboiler return line formula: ⎛W dmm = 18.5 (fL/fv)0. Ö can be also found through Fig. 1996 IPS-E-PR. where the friction factor varies with varying Reynolds numbers.5 (Eq. 46) Correct the calculated P100 (vapor) with the correlations listed in Table 3 second column.µ (Eq.167 (Eq. flow region coordinates can be calculated and the flow type determined. 47) Where "a" includes the vapor-phase flow rate and the pipe cross section and "b" is a constant. L can be computed conveniently using Appendix G. 51) A convenient form of Darcy’s equation for unit pressure loss calculations for liquid or vapor as previously stated is: Δ P100 = 62530 (fD. ρ bar/100 m Use the same diameter for liquid and vapor-phase and corresponding phase flow rate. except for annular flow where in "a" and "b" only pipe diameters appear as variants. two-phase modulus: X² = Δ P100 (liquid)/ Δ P100 (vapor) (Eq. 27.2.2. 3 or Table 3. the two-phase flow modulus will be equal to: X² = (WL/Wv)² ( ρ v/ ρ L) (fL/fv) X = (WL/Wv) ( ρ v/ ρ L)0.2. Usually both phases fall in transitional turbulent zone.42 ⎛ ρV ⎜ X ⎜ρ ⎝ L ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.5 The over-all friction loss in the pipe between two points will be: Δ P = Δ P100 (two-phase)(L/100) (Eq. 50) fL and fv is the liquid and vapor-phase friction factor. fL/fv increases with the increasing vapor content of liquid. 52) 27.5 (Eq. 48) Inserting Darcy’s (or Wiesbach’s) equation in the numerator and denominator of Equation 48 (deleting the identical constants and symbols). After finding the vaporphase unit loss and applicable twophase flow correlation (in Table 3). two-phase flow Unit losses can be calculated by Equation 45.73 ⎜ V ⎜ ρ ⎝ V ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.440 ¡P X= L100 ¡ PV100 μ 0 . 27. 49) (Eq.1 As mentioned previously X is the Lockhart-Martinelli.3 As with all line sizing procedures pipe sizes must be estimated first.2 Reynolds number are calculated separately for the vapor and liquid-phase using the same diameter. 27.2.2.W2)/d5.Mar. Knowing the pipe configurations. After pipe size selection. Re = 353. 28 . density and friction factor.7W/d.

characterized by bubbles of gas moving along the upper part of the pipe at approximately the same velocity as the liquid. It occurs for gas velocities greater than 6.2 Plug Flow Alternate plugs of liquid and gas move along the upper part of the pipe and liquid moves along the bottom of the pipe.305-3.61 m/s (2 ft/sec) and gas velocities less then about 0. Plug flow occurs for liquid velocities less then 0. In some cases. 28. 29. 1996 28. It occurs for liquid velocities less than 0. 28.91 m/s (3 ft/sec). 29.61-3.5-4. 1.6 Annular Flow In annular flow liquid forms around the inside wall of the pipe and gas flows at a high velocity through the central core. TWO-PHASE FLOW PATTERNS IPS-E-PR. These form frothy slugs that move along the pipeline at a much higher velocity than the average liquid velocity.305 m/s and gas velocities from about 4. It occurs for liquid velocities less then 0. the liquid in a two-phase flow system can be accelerated to velocities approaching or exceeding the vapor velocity. these velocities are higher than what would be desirable for process piping. 28. The seven types of flow in horizontal pipe are shown in Table 3.7 Dispersed Spray or Mist Flow Here all of the liquid is entrained as fine droplets by the gas-phase. develops when bubbles of gas dispersed throughout the liquid. the high-velocity liquid).5 Slug Flow This pattern occurs when waves are picked up periodically by the more rapidly moving gas.1 m/s (20 ft/sec). 28.3 Stratified Flow The liquid-phase flows along the bottom of the pipe while the gas flows over a smooth liquid-gas interface.05 m/s (1-10 ft/sec).1 Bubble or Froth Flow This pattern. VELOCITY LIMITATIONS Depending on the flow regime. 28. Such high velocities lead to a phenomena known as "erosion-corrosion". This type of flow causes severe and in most cases dangerous vibration in equipment because of the impact of the high-velocity slugs against fittings. where the corrosion rate of material is accelerated by an erosive material or force (in this case.6 m/s. 28.6 m/s (5-15 ft/sec) and gas superficial velocities of about 0.4 Wave Flow Wave flow is similar to stratified flow except that the gas is moving at a higher velocity and the gasliquid interface is distributed by waves moving in the direction of flow.15 m/s (0. Dispersed flow occurs for gas velocities greater than 61 m/s (200 ft/sec). These patterns (in order of increasing gas flow rate at a constant liquid flow rate) are as follows.5 ft/sec) and gas velocities of about 0. It occurs for liquid superficial velocities of about 1.440 In determining the type of flow in a process pipeline designers generally refer to as Table 3 which is known as Baker map in Fig.Mar.1 An index based on velocity head can indicate whether erosion-corrosion may become significant at a particular velocity and can be used to determine the range of mixture densities and 29 . 28.05 m/s (2-10 ft/sec).

3. Changes in the inlet flow rate can cause slugs as well.3. 30. The pressure in this blocked gas rises until it forces the accumulated liquid downstream in the form of a slug. This could result in equipment damage due to erosion-corrosion.2 Slugs can form in variety of ways. slug flow must be avoided.1 Most importantly. Slug flow unit losses in process piping are generally not calculated.440 ρ ave. 55) (Eq.1 By reducing lines sizes to a minimum permitted by available pressure differentials. MAINTAIN THE PROPER REGIME In addition to keeping the velocity-density product within the acceptable range. if slug flow enters a distillation column.Mar. such as liquid collecting at a sag in a pipeline and blocking the gas flow. 30 . 30. When the flow rate increases. one must also maintain the proper flow regime.3. (Eq. 54) Where the mixture or average density: ρ ave = WL + WG WL / ρ L + WG / ρ G . First water hammer may occur as the slug of liquid impinges on pipe and equipment walls at every changes of flow direction. the liquid inventory in the pipeline decreases and the excess liquid forms a slug or a series of slugs. Pigging-the removal of water from the line to minimize corrosion-can cause very large slugs as the line’s entire liquid inventory is swept a head of the pig. This index is: IPS-E-PR.2 By designing parallel pipe lines that will increase flow capacity without increasing the overall friction loss. 30. V²ave ≤ 10000 ≤ 14800 English SI (Eq. because it causes various mechanical and process problems.3. 29. The cycling causes problems with product quality and process control.2 The corrosional velocity limitations may be determined exprimentaly. Slugs can also form due to terrain effects. 30. As the liquid waves grow large enough to bridge the entire pipe diameter. 30.4 By using a low point effluent drain or by-pass or other solutions. 1996 velocities below which erosion-corrosion should not occur. the stratified flow pattern breaks down into slug flow.A) For erosional velocity refer to Clause 20 in Part two herein. 30. Second. the alternating composition and density of the gas and liquid slugs cause cycling of composition and pressure gradients along the length of the column. 30.5 By arranging the pipe configurations to protect against slug flow. 30.3 By using valves auxiliary pipe runs to regulate alternative flow rates and avoid slug flows. The limitation for corrosional velocity is based on the inhibitor film resistance and experiments. They may be created as a result of wave formation of the liquid-gas interface in a stratified flow.3. 56) Vave = VG + VL = WG / (3600 ρ G . It is normally less than erosional velocity and is basis for design velocity in pipelines.A) + WL / (3600 ρ L .3 Slug Flow Can be Avoided in Several Ways 30.

5 In general. it has been shown that if the liquid content of a vapor line increases. 31. generalizations and simplifications have been introduced for providing practical methods of design. that two-phase flow is turbulent in both the liquid and vapor phase. The assumptions connected with this Standard are: that two-phase flow is isothermal. . In vertical lines. Second. 31. but larger enough to stay within available pressure differentials and allowable pressure drops. First. flow and turn-down flow. Third between the various flow patterns. .440 The significance of the two-phase flow theories and experiments to the process piping designer is threefold. that the pressure loss is not more than 10 percent of the absolute downstream pressure. the criterion for selecting a suitable line size is that the pipe diameter must be sufficiently small to have the highest possible velocity. When changes are made to the pressures or to flow rates. Thus there are varying densities along the pipe length. 31.Two phase calculations normally are done by computer packages.Mar. Increasing the velocity in the uphill portion of the line reduces the liquid holdup in the valleys and lowers the pressure drops. 31.3 Process piping systems have flexibility in the distribution of pressure loss and control valves can operate within a wide range of available pressure differentials. Low velocities tend to increase the chances for the slug flow. They use different correlations for flow patterns and equilibrium of states equations. The liquid in two-phase pipes passing over hills tends to run back down hill and accumulate in the valleys. that the flow is steady (liquid and vapor move with the same velocity).8 Two-phase flow pipelines are unstable. vapor moves faster than the liquid.6 Normally slug flow is undesirable in two-phase flow pipelines. the friction loss can be many times its original single phase pressure loss. it has been shown that for a given set of vapor liquid properties and physical properties a characteristics flow pattern develops.The package and the selected correlations should be confirmed by the Company. 31. .The flow patterns shall be checked for normal flow.1 Two-phase flow piping design through rational and empirical steps. max. unit losses can differ.4 Designer can capitalize on the characteristics to obtain the optimum piping and component size and layout. 31. 1996 31. Limitations. due consideration should be given to this phenomenon at design stage.7 Pipe size over design must be particularly watched for. 31 . 31. 31. Since flow velocity is one of the factors which influence the flow regime. changes in flow conditions cause the liquid to go into or come out of storage. the static head back pressure will not be the same as that calculated with average densities. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS IPS-E-PR. A two-phase pipeline is both a pipeline and extremely long storage tank.2 In long lines. the pipeline readjusts itself gradually and equilibrium may not be re-established for several days.

32 . 1996 IPS-E-PR. 3) calculate the unit loss. ρ fH. procedure: 1) Calculate Huntington Correlation. Hx = (W1/Wv)(µ1/µv) 2) with Hx enter the graph and read the friction factor. 2 According to Table 3 Item 5 for the wave regime. pressure drop calculations are as follows: Wave flow unit loss.Mar. Δ P100 (wave) = 62530 fH (Wv)2/d5 ρ v.440 WAVE FLOW UNIT LOSS Fig.

440 LOCKHART-MARTINELLI CORRELATIONS CAN BE USED TO DETERMINE TWO-PHASE PRESSURE DROP Fig. 1996 IPS-E-PR.Mar. 3 33 .

4156 X 0.Mar. 2 φ = 2.000349 2 3 φ = ax b a = 4.815 (W1 A)0.440 TABLE 3 .SUMMARY OF TWO-PHASE FLOW UNIT FRICTION LOSS CALCULATIONS TWO –FACE FLOW PATTERNS TWO-FACE FLOW CORRELATIONS Q=(A0.782 X 110 −2 X (W1 A)0.18 X 0.lnx ) A0 = 1.6294 X 0. 1996 IPS-E-PR.000826 d = PIPE INSIDE DIA .A1 lnx + A2.8 FOR LONG BORIZONTAL PIPES USE SCHNLDER .49139 A2 = 0. lnx A3 .04887 A3 = 0.4659 A1 = 0.8-0 _ 0123 d b = 0.17 34 .75 (W1 A) 0. WHITE – HUNTLNGYON CORRELATION FOR LONG HORIZONTAL PIPES CALCULATION ON FIG .343 – 0.5 AVOID SLUG FLOW φ = 3.1 φ = 86.855 (W1 A)0. mm d = 250 FOR 300 mm AND LARGE SIZE φ = 4.

Mar. 1996 APPENDICES APPENDIX A MOODY FRICTION FACTOR CHART IPS-E-PR.440 (to be continued) 35 .

1.440 The well-behaved nature of Colebrook function-no maxima-no minimal or inflection points-suggests Newton-Raphson interpolation.1 The Newton-Raphson method is applied with convergence to ±0..3) A.2-b) (Eq.1. as a method of solving this equation. This value may be computed explicity from the form of Colebrook equation which is valid in this region: X = I/√f = . friction factor can be found through Hagen-Poiseuille’s equation: fD = 64/Re ff = 16/Re fD = 4ff (Eq.2 Successive values of x are then obtained from Equation (A.Raphson method the first derivation of y with respect to x is required: y′ = dy dx = 1+ 2. the friction factor used for the case of completely turbulent flow (flat parts of curves in Moody chart where f is independent of Re).1. A.Mar.2-c) (Eq. The corresponding value of x is then substituted into Equation (A.. A.5) (Eq. 1996 APPENDIX A.A. A. 2. To use the Newton. nmax xn is the guessed root of equation given by f (xn) = 0. f ′ (xn) is the value of differentiate of the objective function.7D B = 2.6) (Eq.1 A.1 Method of Solution IPS-E-PR. A.1) until the value of y (xn) is sufficiently close to zero.51/R The problem then is to find an x such that y = 0 . A.2 log10 ( ε /3. 3.1) Where: n = 1. A.0001. A. log10 e A + Bx (Eq.4 For the liquid when Re < 2000. The n is iterative counter and nmax is the maximum iteration.4) A. ..1..7d) (Eq..2) For this purpose.7) 36 .2-a) in order to compute the friction factor.3 As an initial guess of the value x. The Newton-Raphson method is of the form: Xn+1 = Xn - f (X n ) f ′( X n ) (Eq. A. y = x + 2 log10 [A +Bx] Where: X = 1/ √f A= (Eq. A. A. this requires differentiating the objective function.. A. one defines a function: ε /3.2-a) (Eq. f (xn) is the objective function. 4.B.

. and friction factor... 250 mm int.. for fully turbulent flow in a cast iron pipe.001 . 1996 APPENDIX B RELATIVE ROUGHNESS CHART Relative roughness of pipe materials and friction factors for complete turbulence...Mar.0196... diam.. Friction factor at fully turbulent flow (f) = 0.. IPS-E-PR.26 ..440 (Absolute Roughness ε is in millimeters) Problem: Determine absolute and relative roughness.. Solution: Absolute roughness ( ε ) = 0. 37 .... Relative roughness ( ε /d) = 0...

cast-iron Tar-Coated cast-iron Girth-Riveted steel (projecting rivets in girth seams only) Concrete Full-Riveted steel (projecting rivets in girth and horizontal seams) Vitrified.93 60 2. brass.85 150 0. TYPE OF PIPE RANGE-HIGH = BEST SMOOTH WELL LAID-LOW = POOR OR CORRODED 160-140 __ 160-130 __ 150-120 145-110 150-80 __ 150-80 145-50 __ 152-85 __ __ VALUES OF C AVERAGE VALUE FOR CLEAN NEW PIPE 150 150 148 150 140 120 130 139 130 130 130 130 115 110 COMMONLY USED VALUE FOR DESIGN PURPOSES 140 140 140 140 130 110 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Cement-Asbestos Fiber Bitumastic-Enamel-Lined iron or steel centrifugally applied Cement-Lined iron or steel centrifugally applied Copper.57 Multiplier (Basis C = 100 ) 38 .54 130 0. tin or glass pipe and tubing Wood-Stave Welded and seamless steel Intenor riveted steel (no projecting rivets) Wrought-Iron.71 110 0.Mar. spiral-riveted steel (flow with lap) Spiral-Riveted steel (flow against lap) Corrugated steel __ __ 100 60 90 60 VALUE OF C (100/C) 1.84 100 1.50 70 1.440 HAZEN-WILLIAMS COEFFICIENT (FRICTION FACTOR) "C" The Factor "C" shall not be confused with the Darcy-Weisbach-Colebrook friction factor "f".22 80 1. these two friction factors are not in any way related to each other.00 90 1.62 120 0.47 140 0. 1996 APPENDIX C IPS-E-PR. lead.

1996 APPENDIX D IPS-E-PR.440 RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS 39 .Mar.

29 17. 1996 APPENDIX E IPS-E-PR.56 θ = 5° 10° 40° 60° K 0.05 0.3 206.54 10.0 θ is angle between pipe axis and flopper plate 40 .0 θ is angle between pipe axis and plug cock axis Butterfly valve θ = 5° 10° 20° 40° 60° K 0.24 0.8 118.Mar.52 1.440 RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS Plug cock valve 20° 1.

23 SLIGHTLY ROUNDED ENTRANCE 0.04 WELL ROUNDED ENTRANCE 1.Mar.440 SHARP K 0.50 0.0 PROJECTING PIPE EXIT 1.0 ROUNDED EXIT 41 .0 SHARP ENDED EXIT 1.78 SERVICE INWARD PROJECTING PIPE ENTRANCE SHARP EDGES ENTRANCE 0. 1996 APPENDIX F RESISTANCE DUE TO PIPE ENTRANCE AND EXIT IPS-E-PR.

or plug type seat With wing or pin guided disc (No obstruction in flat. bevel. 1996 IPS-E-PR.1 ♣. double disc or plug disc Pulp stock . 13.. Fully open 17 Three-Quarters open 50 One-Half open 260 One-Quarter open 1200 Fully open 3** Fully open 135 Fully open 50 Fully open same as globe Fully open same as angle Fully open Fully open Fully open Fully open Fully open Flow straight through Flow through branch 44 140 150 420 75 20 18 Foot valves with strainer Butterfly valves (DN 150 and larger) Straight through Cocks Three-Way Rectangular plug port area equal to 100% of pipe area Rectangular plug port area equal to 80% of pipe area (fully open) (to be continued) 42 ..8 ♣.. bevel.8 ♣... or plug type seat) .8 ♣. With leather hinged disc 2.Mar. 3.4 ♣.. With poppet life-type disc 2..... 17.with stem 45 degrees from run of pipe line With no obstruction in flat.2 vertical & 1.440 APPENDIX G EQUIVALENT LENGTHS OF VALVES AND FITTINGS Representative equivalent l length in pipe diameters (L/D) of various valves and fittings.4 ♣. bevel or plug type seat With wing or pin guided disc Fully open Fully open Three-Quarters open One-Half open One-Quarter open Gate valves Gheck valves Conduit pipe line Conventional swing Clearway swing Globe lift or stop Angle lift or stop In-Line ball 3. 13...7 horizontal ♣..With stem 60 degrees from run of pipe line Angle valves Gate valves Conventional Conventional wedge disc. DESCRIPTION OF PRODUCT EQUIVALENT LENGTH IN PIPE DIAMETERS (L/D) Fully open Fully open Fully open Fully open Fully open 340 450 175 145 145 200 13 35 160 900 Globe valves Conventional Y-Pattern With no obstruction in flat..

** Exact equivalent length is equal to the length between flange faces or welding ends.Mar. 43 . L For limitations and effect of end connections. ♣ Minimum calculated pressure drop (kPa) across valve to provide sufficient flow to lift disc fully. * Values applicable up to DN 600.440 Fittings 30 16 20 50 26 57 20 60 37 24 8 30 8 76 30 11 16 3 Close pattern Return bend Enlargement* Standard Contraction * Note: * Equivalent lengths are in terms of small diameter. 1996 APPENDIX G (continued) 90 Degree standard elbow 45 Degree standard elbow 90 Degree long radius elbow 90 Degree street elbow 45 Degree street elbow Square corner elbow Standard tee With flow through run With flow through branch 50 Sudden d/D = ¼ d/D = ½ d/D = ¾ reducer d/D = ½ d/D = ¾ Sudden d/D = ¼ d/D = ½ d/D = ¾ Standard reducer d/D = ½ d/D = ¾ IPS-E-PR.

- Rigorous Method for Fire Case
- Line Sizing Basics
- Basic Process Engg Manual
- Line Sizing
- Steam Line Sizing Calculations
- 45835669 Chiller Ton Calculation
- e-pr-460
- Hydronic Pump System
- e-pr-85
- Engineering Standrad for Piping and Instumention Drawing
- Fluidisation Agitation & Mixing.ppt
- Line Sizing Criteria as Per Different International Standards
- e-pr-308
- Hydraulics & Line Sizing
- Process Engineering Manual 005 I
- Fitting Equivalent Length
- Pig Launcher and Receiver
- Process Engineering Manual 005 II
- 2,4 Pipes&Pumps
- Blow Down
- Rating and Design of Tubular Heat Exchangers using HTRI.doc
- Fire, Vessels and the Pressure Relief Valve
- Aspen+Flarenet+System+AnalyzerV7 0 Ref
- Heat Exchanger Design Manual Rev1
- API Catalog
- Selection of Liquid & Vapour Separator
- HTRI-COMPRESS Kettle Calculations
- Calculate Chiller Capacity
- Pressure Drop Calculation Equations for PIPING and PIPELINE
- Prediction of Slug Length In

- 10ppm硫含量汽油的挑战与机遇
- OPEC Annual Statistical Bulletin_50th Edition_2015
- API Separators Article Solutions
- Europia - Whitepaper v16 Lr External Use-2010-03068-01-e
- Estimating the Viscosity of Mixtures – Neutrium
- [全庸][魔女江湖]
- 2012最新各国不锈钢牌号对照表
- 200903_劣质重油改质加工技术进展及展望_刘显法
- 催化裂化汽油降烯烃技术的进展
- 200805_超重原油改质和加工技术的进展_刘显法
- FLARENET在乙烯装置火炬管网设计中的应用_姜凯
- Oil Benchmarks_What Next
- Process Design_Some Practical Tips
- Regulation of Properties of Oxidized Asphalt From Heavy Crude
- 7-ASPEN_减压塔
- 芳烃分离装置的工艺模拟
- 超臨界綠色技術之概述
- 199410_催化裂化过程中物料化学结构组成变化规律的探讨（下）
- 卡西欧 fx-6300G 用户手册
- 200108_生产清洁汽油组分的催化裂化新工艺MIP_许友好
- Experimental Study of a Pilot Plant Deasphalting Process in Supercritical Conditions
- 199408_催化裂化过程中物料化学结构组成变化规律的探讨（上）
- 完美照片的十大经典拍摄技法
- 69083 MotorGas Tech Review
- Process Simulation of Solvent Deasphalting Plants With PROII
- Discussion Document – Effect of Ethanol Blending on Gasoline RVP
- Solvent Deasphalting PPT Final_1
- Discussion Document – Effect of Ethanol Blending on Gasoline RVP
- Asphalt Oxidation Studies at Elevated Temperatures
- 摄影爱好者必备的100个摄影知识

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulClose Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading