Generic DSL Reference Model

co ~ ,Cenjr,al OJtIiCe ~,

A lnmdi'ng, ~rl1e.re local! loop~ .conn~ct to. trans~L1li8&lOfll: 8ifL'd l'1;\witclring

rCqui,~.m:ent. -

L1"; L:iDi";'l'ennilUdiornJ _, DS\L modern al tliIo network end of llie· '~oc.a[ Ioon ..

.1;".

I M!OF: I\ofahJ DiS!tributiDg Frnme, ~ A wire (:["00$'G(Jirln~,cdrn,g 'field. used ~)J) 1!:my loop Icn:"IDIy' :(:0 ~i1:qui.pmeht,

R~p~NJIt' =, A siglilal regCnerattit)fl device 10{'~:fu.ed .~~ the mid,po~fit",pf' a. cable.:

U~e~ no enable transmission on 'I'll'.!:ig ~oo,ps;. Repeaters ,~te lllrJo't needed :for the maj:L).rit~ of I,®ps.

L'Otall~p _, 1lire td~eph{).rte. wmm c;onneCt~ug t'ne CO fQ tne "cusromc[' pr.emi~s·,

NT.: Netwur'k 'f.eoi":miInamiiojj,,~ nSL mCidern at Wl,e CitJiSliO~l~e:r

I end of In't:' lOGa] loop,

NIF,);: N~lwi!)'[i\ Illtuf'liIIce !De~ce _, The pOif.lit: 0.'[ ~!,[l.ati"<:a't~,GJ:L 'b e1. ween, th.e·C~$t.~il']j~ iIil5'tall~t~on 'and the tel~'f:Jhoo.e c()'rnp'~'t'L'lA outside 'W':~.re.

I

,

''rEt Tti'm,in.aiIEqllipm.en.t ~ Boo-user ctfJl.Jp1nent such ·tiS ;;lj personal ooff;l,puter OJ"li teJepOQn,e.

11

DSL Fundamentals

. "

[)igilaJ .,s~.b.scrJ per' ] itl:e[{DSL)~cb t'wlogy. 'pro'!,' ~d,~'S, tr:~~~£poJ:'t oJ higr.t-,b:i:[-~~e d)gir~~ i[j,fo;Tf[Hl~io'f!, ever .... te;!"ej'JhDnC :s uu;s{:·dber 1 lnes, 'felel,tu,:n:le li nes. whose .. ~eJ,'ita,ge; dates back to .A lexandcr Gnl:ham: He'] ~'~$ hfiVCIMiQjl, 'of the ~i:erho~.e J.ri1 Pi1!L can 'now transport. data 2Il mi mD[J']~"" .. Qlrb.'UtS per sC:Cand. Thi~ 'us ~()C;()n)pHshed ''iii:a.:;S.Opni~ticait.ed. dJ:gX~1111Hl:I:lsn1l1ssi:on techniques i,wh~cn compens atefo[ the nrnJ1Y tl'iHlIs:rnission impairments ·!8o:mlllon to telephone lines, "Ihe digitslllmnsmission lec.ll'n'i,{~ll.Iiet. invol ve 'lJtJ(m'plex ~l ~o6W'iijns that h~vc :ii"IXMHy ue'';:;Orfl,e ·PJ'ra.c:~ i¢:;lil dll!e ~,O the: enormous ~fo:t:~~~tnK power of cl,igj!lal ,~;,gQ:al ]$m~:<:~nr.~ hi:l$e",d, on. vetY-,lafg.l3=-$ca~a tflt,e:grated (VLS I) f...:'~rC'rj,j;il[:~_ Mn[~ii:ng ~kl~~~l~i~~I1.{c-k:!J~m th~i D~L~ lur~ Q~PpiS~'~~'L1!H) g(;}~d_

'PSt. kdlt'K~~(),gY' h·~s.:,~dd~d, a ffilew [W:lf;~. [0 ~e tlt~h~y of' l~'Rerho~e; ,!~nc!i': 1'd'tp'ho~c lines; ~!h{dh were, cOcilSU'octe;d to {~aIT}' ~1 single- voice signal with" "a 3.tlj· kH~ t b~lJ;(_h v ·id[h yhoen Ild ~ can qow {!Offilvey f.L.eariy lOll di~~ta~] y eempressed VO:LCC' ~i'gn~l5, or ~ , .... ·~deo~siglil~;l w ith ~f~~l~ty slm HaJj ~ ib:r'oaGllCust ~ele'.A:;jon:, Hi:g'h-s~~d digll~1 l~i;lS:IJ'I,~~S;~t1iIl' via (,t~ephryne lines r~tl it~· ~d:v.a,l1ice.dJ. tiiignai ·:proce.~s.In.g to overcome: tttL'nI!smissl;oJi: Ifl1raJ"D1ii'iI~nt:S :dIUI,} ro :;~g.f:ia 1 -{l;Hen'~La~ i on, ;C'ra(;"is.t~lk r(O:~Se-. from t~(i: signals ptese:m on other wires 1~ the' same t?l!hI'~. ~11[11::1l!1' I,\e~ections. ... radio~requre[IJcy noise, and i,Jl]'pL1Il~e ·n.nL'Ve..

The t'wi"s..l\r;::d-,';,!,d.r~-p\!1!,tf i nft'tIi~trllliCt'J;~e' Cf.!n:_~eCl:S t~ '),I'iJ:u.!.a~ b ,eve~':y ho me and workplace j n the w6ir'ICI" hut DSU: tmJ_'e tlre:ijr ]~ln'ita,t'i:O'fE~_ Apl?mxj~m~t'~:~~ 1 $%"of t:el~p~D11.e ~ili-e:..~ }Ll t!h.'~ vro~h~ win reqtl,iil'~ . 'upgrade 'flti,ivity l;oper'rrnit hl~h-~.peoo DS]-: .opefa)ti~!~., C~rreGlive meaaures fur :I~flg Urop~ mrH::Juae-. ,~n::staJl~t~Qn of mid-snan ·.f~r,;~~,erii" ij);s:r~~ ~~~.'i00· (if t1 her~Ie;_liJl'oted multiplexers; ~n,j

.. lI1' ~ ~.JI. ~E ". •

['f~lmJv.m~ !Dfloa4 coU s,

l~ lh'i:; book we use ~t~~··lbr,m D$L [0 refer l~ all type,s.of' thgitfL~ ,~!Jjb~criuer IhH} t~ctlnolo-:gJ~<s, !,ncludl ~~, AD:S'C HIlSt. l~a'$ic r,atj~ l·,S~N ,O'$L. VDS,L. jiLnd ]J)RL., The terns XPSL has a];so beei-j I!l:l'ed! l:~ ttl c i:n;cl~~s~ty t:o ,:ref'8T lp·::aU types ·()f fJiSLs·.

1 ~;1 Altefil'~tiveiS· to D.s~:' P~ber; Wire!I€t$s~, ,~rnd C:MX

'Tb~"ohS-OIDeS¥I}D)Cfe ofhtt;J~ ~:w,;~.t~d~w:i,ru~Pfiit 'l,e'~(~iJ.hot.ie line hiis been predicted: m aii_Y, tj"n~~", 'the ,pvpuht:[ bel ief of nH1:lliY :telep~1()n.e,i:tl;d];IJSlty . experts in the.late t9,8:0s was d'lai' most.of the w{1irl;~ 'sl€lephones would he ciHrecl~y connected via 11:1:1£1: optic tines 1m! "Q ,few years." Fiber optic. lines a-re, now cemmen V.I lmybt busiaess ~iil(:;$, However, economks combined su J (h the logi!Stk:.'B.l

, ~~> lh noes of c ahle, C:Cii~S1'illN' Of - will d.-"l'~\ - the ,il ---, val -0-[ 1 he t(ltaU'!o! ,t"ih(i~~1 c w'(1rilf~ fm' mm'r'il

C ,a, ot":, ~ _ _ _ . 0 • _ _" L __ L.Il _ ,iL _ ik, - y. - rn - _ - , -..;:J- ,[-' _ " • _ '""

decades, In '[he: ,ead~ :I 990,s··ca,tne th!}. prvi-l)Lse ,o:f un iv~efS~,~ wi I',eles~ ~C'Ce~-3'; t.Tmwe'irer, 'fbr the lleal ·~ml!" li mired radi 0 'spectrum bandwidtb' c'i7mb;~l)_€d witb t:he ~{)g,stka] chel ~e~g;€s ,6§-phlCiri,g f:.2id~ifj ~uk:slre_~ 'w~'cre l'!~e.ta~9 (~~m:'i?,;st[ial~: or in, EHHll~ qr{il.t) resit~iG:.ts. wire l'eS~dra.ll$PilJln: Wf.:I~t~~ s~i~.s~~ (PI:~pprk~~tLG[I:;; that, '['cfllli(c mobiIhy alJj.d, those, I{~~l g.'iIin 'b'eI1~f:ll by hfQ(jd{:~sti'~g, Inc ,5ltlmC in fqmial-i~r:! t'o ,a l.atgo:::: t1i~l'~lbt!,r. 'ol ~-j,tQ:."'" Coax i:~d cable Dan. tnmsporL in le.~a8:bv,l': d:ala. .st:r.v.-ic~~ ailld voice 1Jf.'~erhO,[liC service in iitddlllhm tothe t~d~tio.1J.8II bro.adt;:;:~;si vidco: S:~TViC-\IL:, However, i he lnteraet l ve data and voice services are best Ser-'i{,fZ;d: V:l,S! t~~(k';"~H'!:y ctJJblc f~"i:[itie.s,~ wh ~oh were, ~\!:;)i~~b,1 e ~r0 ~~b:~J!.'.!t 1!lJ% ef .cable. customers. in 1991. Cab]o ijorrrpanie.s ~arr.e: lIi~},gradh~g ~hrei]:. f-a.c.Hh:i;e:.s. ... but oldy F~ selected ::.tnHlfS_ CCi\;lix7",modlstrrr .servlce ls add:etvl'fl,g .soms 'SI:lCiCCSS, ]'UiJ lhe 'ifreas. with lWO~'Wcly coax fat:-uJili>t:,s." ·O)mparedJ ('@ !he -at€'~dy 1 00%. p[.e~eliice\JJ'·'rho~e ~'~ncS' t ;;;:aibk l~cil~h,e:s p-ass by the V~SiJ;. IftJ<.1Jj:odtr o'f r~;5~de,nc·6·t. in tll~; Utrite.-ri' Stal€5 and' a ltiiu,,~b ~a- ... if.,~\r propq:rb::;m(:0f busi nesses,

:Fiber ... w i ~1¢::~". ~ilid. "uax i::'[fln~PQrt. '11ft VC 't:!1"-r:ived v1~ua~~'~ fC!r il~ny Jrpt))J i~~riCf~~. Tl1eje is inCl' UTtivcts:n~ ac~,e.:;;:s tf.>c1'1illlol,Pty Cha~, best s¢rY~~, ill l.:oc~"UOi'iiS <~l1id"2ill a;p.rhc:·tttio:ns. .. l:iT,il.rever. rliOW U~~l .D~,L ~:echnl')~o,gy has e-Jia'bled 'te~~p~Q~e lines- to con ve:y JtlHlltl ~1~~~Jji, app I ~t::U:io.lil,~ that, were once ~:~Qi!!1ig.fU. to be the exclusive province (IIi t1 her, tdephone~n~1:e9' are the most economic means (0 ~ralil$1p:O!1.t Iii brood f.a;nge' oJ ~CO;!n.[f~UI'Ilicadoos- services [0- W-i1IH] iCilIJl(1 f,!:f ,cU-'5't.o1!l.'IJI,S -, The prIm<Jjr)' ;;:I!~11l ication '~c alllneSSCf; of DS:L~ ~r~' the .bel, of m~jbi lity and POOT' or,u8Juc:fli::;t t":"'fiCion{::'J"

It pr®exi:s~:bn:g inf r~S~l:tl,ctme. ;¥..uch ;lIjg t.eile:pnDiI1.e ] i':nB~_ ;gl:l:a:Dli~N::I b;r l~e tignt [etJmo-lo,g~/ ts eClPh,()ll1icaily superior to dle:-p] oying',a :ne\v ~ nfh:1~[Tuctu!re, Even radio· requires new i,[Jifr~,li!"IjCh1re; .iit:e·s'; for tf<1!![jscGb,~r.s, and rL~fwO'rk hnks t.h ~h~;iL}~ ~~dte~~ A 11:e:I.V 'l~dIlnol ogy t::u~ be "pttiVe)1 ~n ~y \;v]ilm-e: 'l~e~. Co~,~$:ti n~' i nJn:fs'tfiLu.:tlli r-e is iiiiC.~p~jb[~, ef $11J:ppdrling ~5scnti~l ,t!ipp~ic~'t] ~JJt~ (s:uch 'g[s mobile ,t:=J(mltfii'lIlHi"GIl'tti{)flS) or i;vh€I,r; Lr;gR.~fr:e&!:j.:L~~to~y cOrl:ditim:l$' alter [nc- balance. In ~d.di~ i on ,to ~ei~g ex;~cf,l.s,jv~, bulMl.ng jl!JW i IrI:Em5~:[~d~[C takes ~, '~ong Ii Hie (6 o,b~j n ri,gh~~Ci:f~W~.Y'i l~y 4;~N'~i (~I)rain FlClmits 1(1' pt:i'l~~ l::i:ldili.~ towers, or 18:u)1£11 s.:;j.,tciliks"

']\v'istecl p~ff~r liB lephone I:i IVi;::S lTIfj,gy 'be hU:d~ilJ. but t-he)! ar.e, f3T from dead.

N1c:BJrly evea·y busi ness "8:~~d residence j n the ina U!strl'a'l:],;rt:tIi ~re"S of me world is ~lread.y con nected IDO ,HtJl: :~J.ol&;fJJ tel ephoo:e n,etw~rr-K, The ~G.tcpll One ii~jdlf::;:C["y' ~:HL:.'1 spe'Ll~ -?I!2ProZ htla~:>e"i,y o.ne lJ'i.l.l h~~

doHanU.S.) ever the past century coustructieg the W"j']U'i'dd twisted palr outside plant faciliti¢s~ N€;i:;1'[ty 700 mi [l iQ~], te:le!Jh-~)f~e ] ines were '~h pl a~e .i J1 1. ~9~\, Telep hone c omparrics continue to 5pend mi J li()<il~ ~ f doll ars . .' ach year construed ng more l·W.! sted- ~ lre-pai t telephone. ti ues, More 't~:a,l~ fjf)Q· [niill~~m le:lepho.l1f!· lines itre.e~pe.c~e~~ to exist by the year 2001.l Th.€ vast majority of :th~,S~ telephone lli..li.¢~ wuJI ;:O:!J.Ipp0 rt. the l:rfrIb:sptr~t of ,appl'oxJn)m.~]'y one million bits per.second <:Mb!s} when suitable fa lgh-spccd DSL tr'ail'loce lvcrs. :liia-e· 'co nnected to the customer all .1. releohcnc qOJIiJpany- ends of the ~ w lsied '!;J,/ ire pair, l I:l most cases. i'JO ll"1tld lflcati Q'JlS ilire need 00. to tlre nug~kl.e (11alu. -t~.dHdes. ~1an~r tel'ephone Jines..wIU's1,I!ppotC. rJ~la rale..'i·,1,.'e:H above .1 :~ibi~,

Voacc-ibtmd modem S were iJHl.· odu ced i n the 1 ale- 195f)~ Jor ij f.l~ pljrpG~' of ,sending q~l:i 'I nrnu~r the: ruh~~c s\-\dilc:h~d te].;:phone·.:n.,c;,twork (P,$TN). SC"~ Hgure ] ~l, Tht w{)rdi modesn C;(Hnes· from fllQ"d.,ulator .. dama-dulatQof (~~i3 .O~~p'te;r 6 for clel:~.U:;. . ill modul arion and demod!u[8J~.i(JIn), Data ransmWc<~. via (he iPSTN' IlJ''-:I~~ be !~lQdtdalC9 because The!: PS'Iff d'DC~ [JO~ convey 1,i'ctEut':Jl;i~s below -apj?:rm;,j,lllIul:td~' .laD Hz- U nmodu I ated d:~u/a :req ui re ~:ifa~1Sljll;~s~i'tm cf frequ . encies fI,ppro~\{:hall~' zero tb:~ III .~,m~tL lh~ modem transforms the- •. frequel'!lcy characteristics of the dat:il (0 resemble the 'voice :1oi·gn.li1Js that the :PS1'N was deslgnedto c.Qlilivey. The VSTN conveys :f:t~l1als D"lI' the 200 H:t· [,0 j.400 Hz. rrequeney b~iid!. Th us. the modi(.J.latcd d ala appear. to ~ .2L normal voice. ~;;Jji l I.;) ~'h:." ·~S'TN. Pacslmile (fax) machines ~mjt~il'E a v.().i.c-.e-b~na modem ~Q' trnnsmit the di:git<Ji~ representation of a p~lgC..,

local laop

User. A's: premises

'User His. PfeOO ises

'One of ll~eflrsl moderns, Kr&T's Belli "I OJ.., ~V.M used. f,Dr ruU-duJ),~t:x., asynchrortoustelelype tra:nsmls~i'O!]:l <:Lt. 3m}' b/s l.king :ElK (Jrequency 5[j~:ft k£y~ng)_ ccrrr ~n~ViJ lTV) V ', 2.l modems were similar but not ~{)mp:1tible 'Q;,'ith (he Bell 103 mndern, A fc\OI( years later, I:he ·n,ell 201 r.llifldle;~n 1·~Kre4:1S"ed. me bit rate te '120.0 b/s using. half-dup I ex ESK lEfLE~£m ~s~i on. J n .I I;tte191J.

Vadic, Inc. iMroo[!Jced the ',;'A3400, the first true full-deplex 12,00 b/s modem l,Fin~I PSK (phase sl1 1ft ,ke.ylllg). A fe\i; Y'~i?4'.t later the B::el!.l! 2. and then the Cel'IT Y21··a],,';(1 provided. 1200 'h(~ t"LiJ !-duplex.1 rM~S.1 f:lJ:ssio'n u~.i:n~ PS K. In .1.9£.1 ~ ·V.2:2bms yje t led 2400'. b!~ FIJU-'(hl:~lex, V'32. hitroduced ·treHi~. ~~di,n~·.aald t09k the bold ~t.e[) q·f e,cho~l:!.anceJ¢4 lmm;.m~.ss:j-OH (.lfiutfrormadotl ~n botft di reef 0])'$ us:lrng the .. same rreq uency hand. ·};.loderns prcced in'S: \i,3? ·p.Jaced upstream lra!~~.mJss.iol3 i 1;1 a frcq-Uelocy band ,d lfferent rrnm the down stn:.aJll transm 1 ~S;O[) (FD:~tI), 'V,32 achieved 9600 b/~. hJ.l1-dupk:.)1; tranS·~l is:s ~('itl.. Nex t. came :V,34. wh ch used band '1.'i.cihh. (lp~.im lzati QoU •. con.$tel I~~~on "shaping:' and c ,. ~u nel-depcndent precod ing no enable 2$.,g kh/s f u ll-d tJplex, llil 1995;· 3:3-.6 kb:t~, modems were i ~ treduced to the :mar·kctpl.n£ie. V, 34 modems, utili it: up w .,t6· kHz of bartdwi,~~Ji- l111!i~ i tecJi ni~.mlly ~ I] ttle mere than tbe lradi li(rt"l~aJ' 3.~ kHz tekphun:y . oice band. How~~eTi the V,3d. iiiI'lO~em can functienon hl1~~ ,;:~riUil less bn!1~!.';,i!ddtl, .. by reducing-the u~n~ndtt®d but rate. ~'y sendi ng 3 j,_(j kb!~ 'un [he 3..'6 kHz voice I(l~n,d V-34 ITI odems 's 'nCr D)::al'll), iO bit'ils p0r Hz, a remarkable feat that ap]Jroach_~s .th.c th~{lretk~:II.ffni[ for voice-band data transrnission, Hrstory reaches us h) be; skeptical ~f "the!l)~~:icaJ limits," which are sometimes exc:~dcj by creative' persons who bre-ak the rules Iby 0 'e:ad 11g .~. 'new model, In. late ~ 996, 56 kbls :';PC¥'~ modems ~'l.ppc~red. which were ·~'~;:.mdardil!.ed. by the V~9'D TTU Reeoram . cndatioe 'in 199 R_ The peM: (~ulset!ode modul atiou) moderns are- ~s'y mmetric :!1.] nee dley ·SIUPP'.Qrl up to 56 k b/s downstream (HYi,ry'aro the customer) and f.'I~ most .• ~J,6 khhdo the upstream direcuon. hli practice, PCM modems rarely achieve tnlrt:ni:ds.~aQa'I. rates above .:50 :~'~f~ bet ~tu;je ~)f i1.fnd'tatim1S·· on tnl:(ij~;rn uHe(;[ l}L1wer. tandem ';~9~nycr·siotl~:;. and line impairmcn ts . ~~~h a~ .tO~l(E coil ~_ Providing thai I here '~$ -adirect digital p~ln (w~th :t\Q ,artaHog Gon'Vyr~iroil·). fmn~ the di.gjta:l .1iI0U.rc'~ l~ [he PCM modern connected ~'O the nerwork end of ihe .subscriber's tine, tbe .PC.M !110de111 transrnission ra~e can exceed 3-3,.0 kb/sJJ,Y dlrec1iy '!llappl0g the digital sign:a.~ to the traesm iued $)' moo:1 w iJhoUlllre. i mpai nri~O't' of q.uaJ:·uii;~ lng noise,

Centva'~ Office

Cen~m] Offirce

user AI's premlses

.1

-'.

user '8.'1;5 preltu~e:s.

NQtl~r:' dJfs end-to-end . refereacemodel (;lo.rl,tains 1Mo DS.ls, one: for user A~ ::Ut(~ a second fo'[ user B,

• <

Fi:gurre, 1.2 O,SL ~eier..e~tca modal.

'He peN!. modem network archhecrure departs from the: univcrsa] F;STN c.~apabllit}' ( f 't~)~· prior ~eJlen1L:i,dI1l5. of voice-band nl;!:;:l'del:1ll.s,_ The. reM mcdcns at 111e. neswork end iI1l!U.:;~ h~'ve a

~ .

'd:~cct dJ,gi.t~J COflll0Ctioml to thea·t'~log-I·U"-digiial .conversion (GODEC-. conneoted to the PCM modern user's tele~h:6ti~e line. The PO\\f modem traverses the :PSTJ.''f ~;I a normal dial-up phone .eall, Th~ f6\1: m~:rde.m ~~. nke a DSL in that a ..:Hrec( cLigiral cmU1~'tlon 'trom, the network to the

subscriberline '~:rtte[tacc :1$ required, bl,l,l: differs rrom ~he;'DSL lnode1 (shown ml1l·Prgure 1.2) since the PCM modem call is carried as a PSTN POTS (plai n old re.~cptw~te service] call. Architect1Jr.:· . all)~. Pavl modems r'B;. s ide in 3: mlddle ground between .DS:Ls .. and L[a~itLo.lila~ voice-band !nOd "mS, PCM moderns can I!lt~ lize 'up to 4 kH.z o,f band ... \'id.~.h~

"The fljJltd~nr:l~nt~J hm:i~ of \'I()~~e.-'bat)d mtilod~·m:s is, the v{'!k-;e ~oderj,d6(:dd'cr (CODEC. that ,~S

. .. .. . .

locateder the local telephone switch o digital loop carrier (V C) terminal, The CODEC,con-

• I • •

verts the ~m.a1'~.g ~igl1lal~. on 'the pt! o·n·~· .~ ine to. <1;.64 ,k!}/s digla.aJ rt-preseil1.tat~(m I)sJ og pu lse code

modulation, /"'. voice-band modem whoae slgnal is carded in a FSTN voice c:a1:1 e-al'liIH .. 1t exceed the 64. kbls Pl~ rate, 3

With fTO Reuorarnendstions V. 70 ~nd V: 6 L voice-hand 111 odem can support slrnu lta.neous daca ;[i,~d di,g.it'Zieu voicevia a PSTN c~.IL v'70. uSing.V,34 modulationand (i.?29 Annt~ A. '~~O:IL'>B. codi~, can ,s·irnuhaJllll~eus].~ c(J'n"yc~i ""8 kbl~ c,oded v:oiC"c: .and ~pprrix ~riHu.ely 20' kb/~ ~~ln .IS -rllg .;} S lngle rSTN cal I. Because G, 729 Annex A pr .. ' i d~s Ier ::;ikrree ·degec.dou, a h i·g.ht:'~ u~tH r~o ,~aill: be. ac.h~ei;:"ed {hu j n~ periods <of ~~.~Cri.C€,

Data-compression l,!::thni,(j ues, such as _,:)pccifiedi i rr ITU .~,·;c;amme;rl(J'*t~O[fl VA2; cam ~at:;:·ht·e:i .. .e an c:lfeci ive' dal~ 'rate more than rwlce Il:iI'<.': modem T;!.1)!le~~ I lsted above, However ~lgJ:1J r ra.ndmri d ata (such as, some bi ~~arJl m·~ ~iI1cl digiti zed ~vide-IJ) t:;~lrtall [he 'bens11 t of data compres-

~ sion, Data compression can also be. apt)]i~d to DSL~_ For example, basic rate ISDN transport 'i+!Isifl,@ ~wu ]3. channels-can provide 1,23 kb/s. tmcornpressed Ah:r;OIl.ghptl.t and over 300 kb.f~ of effecti ve through-pta by eon Ipre-uing I:fJ.-dilll1ldant types of dat"a. ,,,,he,n data. compression is used, it is -usuallj pertermed on rue d±gi~.al Dnformati('J~l prior W the DSL uaasceiver, 1·he imp~cl of LT'<UI;So~ miss k!;J'!J hit errors m~y be mag ni ficd by data ~ompr.es$iu!il,

The singular a"d' 441Hage of modems is. thelr ubiquity, A modem 1l1~]' be .conne:C:Ked to any pfionc: lin.'!]. and immediatelj' can. to any ~)f l!:ui miilinns of Q~:ht-r Iyhonc i'in~~ t~at .IiJav,e..8. modem ~"hlr~ad}',~uaclll~~, .. Medems-cosr less tha~1 DSL cqlliprn.ei"ii: <md are ~~si~r to iastall. However, the c:I:a.[a rates reqnised by ap'pajc.~.JtiOlts ~a,vi;i OtilpflCcd (he rates. f'lQ.ssib1e; hy voice-band m~.ems. ,Ot~l'e!r d.1t!-liw'b.ar..::k~ of moderns ~aro [he blocked calls re.s'l::I~tilli~ fro~ll!! overlosded lecal sW:ltches and

. . -

modem peels (whic b were engi neered for shon duration calls], the i:n·ah:II:i.~'Y to connect to rnu 1 ti-

:(}~e de~li:n~tion:ti .sim'l..I:! taneously t' and h ~gh error rates. The!L."e. clrawb~c:&:~ 01" modems 'are solved by DSLs; -.

Th~ Ii;.!fL~~lnentQl dl.fte.re!i,~!t between vo i Q{:-.b~[I"{lrnt~·d~ms: and DSLs is tb~l .... oicc- band 'modem. ·:!Ze-rtu.:;: {w~r an e"nd-~.o::.eil1d PSTN con tleoLiO:Il whereas ~b.~ [JSt. .ope·rA~es -qvc'r a local ~o.op. , i··"gure·s. "] ,,] ,m(~ I ;2".11 ijgtr.~~t: [hhf di fferen C:, .

.3, At ,;]dJj~jQrull expense, Ti,"e~ abotlV'i!: 64 !:;bis eillil 00 M;ti"'i;,;:\'~d b,Y ~in .. '~rnl!i·m IJ~ ~le,o;jm:g'[)1Umple 1/0i~c-ib!md medcrrr

jjit~~. .

,A),>:sh(~Wr:il in ,f-i'gucc ],11, Urc voice-band m6r1Gil~ transmissionpath 'lllflZl;y cqnsisl ,~fl~e:lo~~] loop , for user Ai' a; local t;enlL'a~ Qfflee, trunk' fac'i hri,~s ~adiltnl3.J~~JiJ~f1:nth;, of m,] les in $Q~ e

.. -. ... t=

C:)H9Ci&, aaother Ce'l:l;~ri!l!l Office, which serves another customer, and l*~'ay a l00111j' ~opp .s.ervifn,g ~~'['

E'>_ In COtu:r{!!$~: .... the i.t'Sl,.. transmi sslon ,p~k~J~ con slsts rf:' O~ ly one ~QC alleep 'fm~[Il. the aser £~~e to ~h~ nearby O;-ntral Office.

Ani'Oi,he!' key 11 i,sti:11;a:dnn he~'Ween' V'O'ite-band: 'IrlrH)der:n~,' and DSL 15 '~;hat t~~e .DS L keeps !l:Jle in jbn:n~J i.Ofli i!'11 the dig)t:al.l .dOI.'~:fai!11 3] I, the' 'way from one user terminal to the oU'lieri!li1er il:emti nal, I~ con trast, ~he- voice- b41l~'~tr! odem '$e~)ds the. inform ari 011 'lhIOU:gh the PStN as an ~:ma~og ~PT-ei€mat~on OJ '~h:e user's ~~,gi,~'Fll i1;·{l:mna~~~,~~ .. 'tilth DSL, Ih~ '~:i,glUi~ is digit,ally r'~gener:at~! at each ·;.~kil through .the publ le iIlelWQl:.k .!-lIQ '[bat analog ,r.l1fijpalnTI~n'u:: i:j".~) not accumulate ;jU eac!l: s;~er.::

Thoagh 'the i.l1.fmlll,l;M~o!1 is tr.a]'~f;pott,ed via;a ne, work con ~i~ting (,'lor mJny t;J.e~t~'ru:s; ,t~e: DSL L['.m,1) SiH~ :<.;~iQin DCCG.s" to ::iIddN~S 'OJ] iy the lo~a'~ 'loop pnrtion,

The [:l"Ilmik. [a0in~ ies bi terconnect C~tHrzd (Jlffi-ce!!:} whtJ each, other dh:€.{:t~ 'if nr via inter'" 'meihal,e·switchln:g.,offioe:s. The trunks are l.ls'ua~~)' IlLgh"3pee.d' digi:t<l!~ fiber ~1p~:ic mUls\nl'iss1Qill systerns tQn:'.i~,Y i Iii,g 'i ~l fO'l',lH8!ti o:n from maE)], ,ciJ!SI.orne:rs_

Fctr ftJosr;:i eustemers served '!d~ d~i3h~! ktt:J'j) carrier (DU'::1 ~r other n:r~me t6tIT!! l~l,i::J I sysLC'fElS:: the PSt- exteads from the ci]"starme:r site ~D the DLC ,s:i,~~,,: DLe ~T1id 'fII~xtm,el:lieraitu0tl D'Le (N'C'O:[--C) are: I[l~erl 1:0 -serve .eustomers wh'~, are lt~~) ~r ~r:.~ b~ y-I.:: o'no;m'i'C:~II,y served "'T~~ ~, direct

. . '

bDpper 1,00']) (roEin ttl!'"C CO. The tite r,t,m-o~t:: [en'nl U1!a~ ~'t)~y L"I'e located i'tll. ,[l.'lt, ntil~d,~I' c~~'~'i,[]c.'l iili alt~

illJl,dqgrQ~md, '1~I.\!II,l ~(;()i~lE»Hi¢d env LrOI'l!J)'lieiTl vault, CEV}, hj, ,~r(!m'Qt:1? 1;:~g;lJipm'c(!t hue,; or :s,~nle,~u:rL1,es i n the lI![ II iiy ,mollt of a large tiflUltiI,¢JI!<lh'Loffit-E bum ~~;i~,g! :~:DC sy:$~en:'J_:S, multi p]~x, 20 to 20r}{) ,c'l!siO:ll1.'e.r:;: ,('),n!,B a trunk ,10 the CO .. Th~ Dl.C trunk ~;ypic~ny is an o'J?tle~ fib~lI". bll![ Si('.!811e., times HDlSt OJ' T ~ lines '~re used [elor smsller DlC:) , S,ee Se,"~~o(il 4",·2.:2. tor more (ni&c;t;]~.'.;.'k)n' of DLC 'ant!! NGDLC.

trunk

:OLe .remote '~en:rftna:~

e"tetil;t of DSL tlB "!

.: -.. --

user B",s, prem irs G: s

.A ns L (:0'IlSlsts ·JiJf a di reef COpPi.:!!' path from the 1;I:s~~ she. ~.o~ d~e nearest poln [ of ;~_c~'h.'!"¢ DIet" '~\H)r:k equipment The one exception to ~:his' rule is the 11:i1'i d-sptm re4:.e11i1:,er" which is 'used: (,0 'e%~'etld t.ile r:e.i?~{:h 'Isf the DSL by p~~hlg, a;, :l'[;fiJ;t~€:i ~.r hi. Hi¢. middle of the ~~c:al ,Io~p_ The ,!)SLr,epem'er

15 powered ~'i.ar DC POW!;i:!)'" s~pphccl from, ~he CO vra the .s.aTF])Z c{[Ip:p.etr wire ,p,air( So) thZit C01DV~ t~,e d~tt·a. Mid-3pa~ DSL repeaters: are ty:p'Le~l.I 'Y located in wm0rr'mrrf apparat us' CMcS U~~; bouse -1 t@ 20 repeaters. rJ~er api)fJl'atu$ cases ,rna,}, be lOc~~ed ,in Irfll' I,.!! udergreund manhole, m01Jj~Ited~ t)TI ,ti. l,llb]-

- ,

'lW pole I 01 f.mlil~ fro'r!l an oYe\[',hen9 wi restrand. The: 'C(;tS~: of the DSL .~p~t111!::.[ d€~troni~·s,j.~ -, smal ~

D(lti:ng~.wed to the.cost ~jr.th.~ (m,..ir.o:r.rrJ.i:e:~M:ao~ I,,]' l1arcl~ rL{!(V Hppanl.t.l]~ ,c:!IJ:;~ ~,[ld, the l:ab"9f [~U.iT€~, it;)

h •

'splice. the ('~~.MZ: ill.~.Q tne-.~,ab~t.

r;;::::;::::;::::;:~ lota:~ ,1~Q},f

C~~,!I'31 Offuce

'u:.'~er IVs prermses

-I

'VD;';'J.

lJfi"I" ~~'l'.{b.',~

A'ME.

ELlH'I.

I~S5

'Tbe voice-band moocl:Ul i~ s. dc.s,i&.f:l'i-"=d, to op.cfal!;~· ov~r the eQiHbilJ:~ Jim'i~a'!;:io~'.~s,o'f [h~; IQea~ loops 3[ b.oih eads of tne network plus. the H~nj,t~ti~fI of the; C~n.tra~ (:Hfuce:s., The Cenlra.1 Otfioe usualhf ·tmJiJt~h1S peM tODEGs (Coder Decoders), whuc~ convert ~lle an-ZIll(lg' ~i,gn~l~ on th~ leeal

[~ . .~

loop II) a, 64 Kbjs~ digital stgri~[ (tal iea·f(, DS-O), ,ror transpon :vla trunks, '111~S' ~ri;Elnsmission 'Ptluh is

~I~ec if Led 16 p!rQV:i,~c a ;[r~~ltl'~lliCS band of 1WO 'i:h. (,0 3.4 kldz, The DB.L i;~. deSl,g:r!red t,'{'.I. 'opcrn~~ OVeD" the, ltrn:il.atiuJl;S;.,~q;$¢~. by ~JJi!Y 0~~¢ ':s;lJb,~t~bCt lU0P'" 1ypi·c.gil ;s,1.1!1J~'f~b.e:r I:~rti have' Ii IDan,dwudth of lmndreds 6f' .ki~~'fi¢rtz. Thus, the I'p'l~n~l,al ~rftY.rrmw¢e 9f t~~ D$'[ .. ¢ao '3¥li::eed mo~~t:n~ by,a .l~'~ tot of J. Cltf{).r rtl,Qte. ~:!J:t'h~nu:~,les}: ,. modems stil ~ have tin ~ttlport~un ~.~d vantage ~ 11 tha[ they (;~Tlo·p6t:a!te o'vn 'v~rlUJ)~ ly ,ijI,'il,Y !pho[l~ connect lion 'lq Jlfly:wilere, In the worl d. Al~'U:· :OSLs 'Qwe ;j]j.'lJc.~ W ¥Qtce.hand modem s since Iil2riliY of the transmissiou ~ec~hfilq~es employed ~:.y ,rjS'Ls; :o:r~gin}~~t€d in ,,·o~ce~bl'fnd<'~ii:ooleEns.

There nD~n UrJa~~y ·t~.re:;; of U'MrS,ij) ;$13l.on I'rnj~Sj ·their use ,dc:pell:d:::: on the. ap'P~ ication rt.;.;q!l.l irem.e:ntB, ··agrja. bJl~nt'D'el fJ;har~c[el'~~~t'j;cs_

Sil'b"ll~l're::.;;~ tL'ahllm,i::i~,b~ is pe:rr:r.n~n61'1i!:Uy one \V~:Y nl'OJ1:1 :8, .S!QUIi:Je'- ~;() a dles~,uf;j.at],Ol1. Examples 01,' $:, n1plex Har.rsmis'Sio:VI j nelude radio broad:cfIl:::lJ .and seclui-ty ~].a):.m circuits, Vin u~ ~}~ ~1 ~ D&1.. ~p:~] !t."1J&L!DF.I~ l;Cq ui~'lJ l·Wa...W.a.y tr.ansmhsicnl., Thus, '8i~nf.'It:N, trfLiligji]:i.g5~.o,n i ~ usual Iy not used foy [j;sL~-. How eve i' •. ~!!ie co ~]l~ ·de.$cribe. a T l carrieras m~ e~'l'nple,G'ts"i'n1lplex ·tfatl'(sffilS~imll.!, TI Ii ues

a'W :compris'ed oti'i,!.i:.~ ... ~iml~[~~ " ines ~~:n.dl~g iii! (jPl.J~S~tc d.ire~~:i6il5:I' . .

H'~~f-dUlPlex 't~,an~mi5~io,n p¢r~()clkf.1:IJy !·I'm~z·nllits from S:t~l,hJ,~ A t9 SLrftUtln :18 atid JLl odlll.:Yt"

. .

times h' the 'Ol>t)(lisJte ,[li rectlon, Tltus I' ~t .@ ruy' pc.~nt i n: time i nfoi'rna~:km !~ ,~8'ffiI[ ifli orrc. til rcetion

I • ~' .... .. , • , • .... • •

!~i:mpl.ex)·. 'Two- \,,·nv. :ttmtSmLss irin 'i s achieved bv rhe transceivers at the two 'e·lid~,. a;f ~b!a Ki t<le.

'\ " ,J.~ ..'l ...

~knowing wht:J) to ··n~n;, .aroUi!1.'~" the i'i ne Hi. thll;:: ~a~-I:~e tlme uy ,ex(:ha~,g'rJlg th~ trmli~~n:i tter ;!.iind receiver roles, In the. end}' up-p] ic~'iojl:l!$ [if hfL[r-,r.3upl:e;(.~nu]srr:!i:i$s]'.O'n .• ail J,::'otll'!€- !:Jl,oB§ls,ag:e. was sent hgfoIiY: lh~ line was mrned around. SDrne DSL 's~.s;tems emp·1 o:y ~ vnrimjo~ of h'~IM~dll!p~ex c-aUiUI

l~me·c~mpl'essi".m multiple ... ',;j-ng (Tc~t ~isv known t,13 ··p·b\g r (t.lilg~'·J,s dis~1.,~~e;d fij]HlJer in Chapter'-5), TCJ\;i has reduced the· H.mmarOLmd period 'ito ~iill"~m.etv~J of a "',ew ltn]~]S0DO~Hls, Thus, 'reM s~tld~ ~i x.c~.le[lg':h bl~ck.; 01 a, fE;W I hO!J5~.md hils in a I termne d uf'c,;tioJls, E.xarllJp'les of [[ad idonal hal f·J~lple.x tr;llln:)n]111s~, on inelude te~~gJ:aphy,. teletype transmission, flil,!] L W'O"''!.!,I'~.Y :r.arli ollils'i:ng the :Si!I.'rite frequency,

Full- dlU,pIex trans mmS;..;: lot sends m tllf()IiJT.l<::tdon conti nuousf in both di rections (~[j the satne '\~1'in:: pair :E;xaJn~~'les include t.radd br~H:'tal voice te lephoaes. vo i:ce:-b;::mcl modems, basic rate. IS.DN : per A'NS]' T 1" 60,] ),' <lim1d Hb£L~ Si mehaneuus tWf.)-"~~laJ:' transnn ssi<lll :j,~' ~c~rtllpli,sh,e.jj '~)' each !nns{:ei 'ii~·r ~HjlJ.[r.:::r.ctin~J the ! (Icf~Hy tnu~sjll'ined s ~go~rl from i ~ received ;;::,i!'gn~J, An ~ ha-.c..aIl!8{: te~. ,hyhrid {ECH) method !S 011011 used io perm it bt~th directions .~,o use the .. Ktlin"e freq u,er~l{y band," ~he advantage of thi s ~.b[,l'pro£!.ch is ~hat lhe transm lssions. ill borh d~r~c nons c an re-..~ ide, in (he'] oy.rest possible fr'e>q~~l;!ni;j;v band where ~igl~~ I 1 lSS ·.LIIld. r.(r!ciiQ lreq uer~c,~ interference is m:i rrd,n~.1 ted,

An m;ym,m.e:'trk version of ftl U-d l plex transrnissi 0 n i s u sed 'bX' [mi·~lniJ~.e~:bc rfi gi.ta~ sub~r.!be;!' line (AiLtst), lnfonnarion is sent in hoth dirccdons suuultaneously, bu~ rhe d~Hl rn.tfJ. 'dawust[of::3JrJ (towards' the c.U:;'[A)I'fbC,[) is m UC!l gre;a'['er tlliln the' u:p·~tn;;~ml .(H~'W4:lif(r:_.; the 11 erwork)

. . - .

data rate .. This per:r11UlS hi~Jh .i]nwfliS-l:re.a"r:Jl. d£.iti~ r.a~IIi~ [)T'! much longer lines. by redm::i'n:g the near-

~rl;d er.u;s;s,taHc (NEXl) between A_l:JS:l:s,

1 .ilf.t::i

.Ibf!.~

T,lIn'1in. ---- ·9

S:~nTchroii.Q~;S.· t~<,iJn;s~n~ssia:11 S-O:.m,(]1j. bits ::i!Il [!l continuous ~r~H~I. DSL receivers -. iJS1lHtUy d.e:rlV~ tftcir tm mi tl~' 'Wro~1 the periodic tty oJ the recei wdl bi t U~nsit~on s. Sy tl~chro:rIJo:u:~ ,and ~:$}' nchro IlOU "

trans il'I iss Lon n'1I~.J' ,ap,rty (')1' :+.i mplex, h8.11':...dtlplS~~,~IJJ. rllin-~Up]t,~ ~ial1$~l]i~~ ion, In ,g,~·n0r.ill j DS"L~,

. . . . .

lise, l.yn::lifail}Q~I,~. Ii t'it .asynci'JronOtIH:i t~r:f:s.m W~~ ion,

A~XIi.(:nr(iill~H$ l[u~npll!J'~.~">':i i~~.~ :~1ti:lid~ Ifni t~' (~h~':!tll,C~er.$" qr b lGcks~ whh b, Q!I'ruiqU¥' ft~~' si,gha'[ 16' fnarrk the- sl:an'Df~~tch, l'iJ'lilJ: ,ATh1 t as.y'l1li: hE'O~~olJ$ tl',ffi nster rnQ~k::) '~~. u~~!M ~y ~rynJ~:e~fed vi-!l!. J"i,r~r/~,f:Oi-' l~rl~~ transmisaioa 1i~l the 'bit le.veJ: .ho/Vve,'il'B'ij; the start of each A Tht q€ n rn ~y Uy §L~ lI!:ny ~d:~e b lt. T~~n;" with ATM, ~t-~e cells .. ~re ,<liI~Yl'Jch:rGI:"bOl]s;. not the td:~ ..

DSLs 'ffltliS;r C.'0'ni~"i~r n1C!il~-e ThaI] one ell anne] 0 f il nfo'I'h~:;Ij~l(lllli' where 'effC'h ctJ;aJn~c I b f01' -::Hffereat ,~:1j~rtic.nhon,~ OJ ~rv j,ce,.'f. :~ SDN has IWCI 0 c hail nels for "10 ii,;~ftl[(a, a D chan nel for ~I~n(ll,mll"~1 :~mrj ~11 '~'liflb~~d'~ccd PP~[·~ti{HJs' {:h~fiiTi:el (~oc.} th!," oontrol ·a:!1d. Iri,~i1Jt~na~~~- B,DSt. h as- ~e' I~i:g{:. (h~il nel: ;;t,rld a tM C.OL ADSL has d ata cI!'jail1:le].~. '~~n ~c ,;!bltd.::.l, -~rql!r'a<~€. band 'fCir' allalliJg. :voite. service:

TiII~~ eli vis] o:n rnu I'[ipk.:dn.,g (TDM) j s the most G'ommcSnJ~! used method W' convey 'nIIl]tir~e ~h :jI'iTn~t$ of i:o·fonr!/!ti-oJI. In hJ'i'[iml"iOril is- org.~mii z.B~r j,r.! pD ,~L~('~c:rml~,liJg'th 'fr'al!l'es with a :fii xed nfj~n~T

""f' 1;0.1' rs ",l ~",,,, ared [""' "'iIi .... h '-"h" ·,... ... Ilim:~ 'T'.~ f,,.·-I,, " .. ·c· 'I"""""n- "'v ph- '" 11...- ru - ['·'·r "" ~'I ~~,,<"" -j., ko""" ne ''''''''v II-. ,; ,l,u';;:I'·l'"",:i

u~. U ~J ~ .. ~ v~. _ _ _ _ .Jid!!;; __ ~tI ~ 'ilIill 1:;;11 La ...... , ~};J.~~ I!_~~"i:-. I ~~ ~ !,; :..:r u L~ •. 1,;-:-, oCI.. ,~' .... ~G.LI [!..-.I,:!!-~,~.u, .. ~ l :I.I.lt.JI.t !L!"-'_,. !oJ Il" ,U%-Id,

:l:a]lO se~,c~~ small b~od<8', which art: 'd,i;:;p[!:r~~ '!tyIthill a f[~rne;, Frames may be' {irganj.:ted into su p~rf~n)~s 'to accorumodate low-h i ~:-T~~y thi;,HiiJlC~ such as .arr emib~{:Ucd operations channel, .In ,~d~llion 1:0 :54'.l:1idi~t~ rrndt'i'p.k~' ebanneh: (tf infonnarion in ~he same direction, T[):E\1 ]l1nv serve as a

...... ". .... .. ""... ""

cLup'leAJ~')g method. In t'Oi,iEaM ~r:)1il rllfi~ be ~~ rcmately 5t'JU upstream <1!11.d dOW;Ll!Sllrc~mt. This is c~] led

[; IJ'Ir:;: corapreasion t"Jlu:le,ipl.exing· and v3fWaU_y ~I i~tl[li1at-e{SJ ne ar-ead C:WSS1fii'k, (NEXT J 1 which i hnits the perfQil'iITlli:1:I:'''rCe of eebo-cnuceled ~l,jbtid t~m~Ui is:s ion ::;;,ys\i£:InS_

Prequeney ~i,v ~si~:ilJ 'lit'! i~ipkX~j1g (FDM} p~ ~e" ead1 chanee I i n a sf:!p~ra[{~ 'freq uency band.

Th!ll!!,all c:i;la;rJ'lle!iJj. are sen L.;i:ilt the $aOO>f'ti'l'ne. OMe il'iippl ~i;J;fHiOt~ ofT~t)~l is. die lI,~ of tmt": IroqL1e:acy b'nnd for ursar~a,L'rI inform adml ~Ilod, a differe'[~~ freqUlC:f.icy band ~OT' dowrilst~"eat11. in f6Hna:[,iO:I1i_ i'11M tlutA~;iu:ng ~~SQ v ll,t~f~,U~ elim~ nates NEXT, ADSL OS'es" PDM by pla.cing the ~.na~qg ¥Qk:.e 'in, the Imv'E:~~:t f['e""iL[I,::;tu~v band ,::rl\d Ih.'J;:: ·(h-,,~a jn '3i higlile;r freq ,l:Be~IC'l;): bjn~ .. ,~DM ~es'i"ns j tlvo,!!ve a

~, . ~ ..._,.J. ~ ..

trlia€oii' bCl:we~1li . ~,i I: itt ,co!~ipl;e,:dt}" ~n{i ~h~ ru.l1·()lirut of f!r.eq!.:teJ1JGY' sp,e!:tn.Ml1 W~$~:idi rO'f g~~r.J

. .._ _. .' .. .' ...

Spac,e ,d,t¥':i'sioi1! mul ~'~ry~.ex'i n,g: ~iinply pi~J.:.~~' cillcb ehanncl on :n hlJ.epillir.:a(€. 'set 'of wj;re~_ Tn~!L..

'''Sinl!p:HC'~ly 1:<: ·apPrQP!l'.t.;l~e :(6t £encl,ing;'v~~g"n~:1 s c)iv,e..t: distanees measured in c.e~Iimcfl_'TJi 1- bu~ the cost of w i ~S. ·-and ttJ~ ~dcl:iti~Qf.!rtl ·transcei,\~fS for' eg~ij ~t ,~,f vhr(l;s Q~ ~ck[y beeomes 'I?,Xp~:rt~,iv.m·:,· i~ Trrii)'i,f,I;~i.?.e rC)t~J CO$~;, DSl~. pl ace. 'iri,n i I) fbrl!'Jw~(i on on one pair 0'[ wires, HDSL us~,~ ~.wo· ~ai~:'£ ot W1r.es (fot" 1'_5 ,Mb/~'J ~1~~c[ tip tp .tli.tee pairs.of wires ,(f0r 1: Mb/,s)' t9 achieve l~':hge!l' line distances,

'DS..L:; fire pojJl~~t~-p0i:n.lltl:aIlSn'bissJo'n: systems, 01](: transceiver is connected to each of the two ends O'f a Flair of wires. On.e: end HHlj' he located ~Ht .et~JYho1te flntapany stte MH.:h as .a CtI1l,tral Office, and 11:1-2 €i~heF" end may 00 '~0sated at-a customer pW'~m1.S:e&, CO(r~1:p~1i~riI to JtnH[ipo'btt' < .. ~y,.~·te~flJ~, the ·p(i~nt.~ t'o-pOij'nll lram.;n'l:isslQh enj~y\';;: .~i,mp~ ie i ~)!, hl,gh ~e~ iilbi l,~t! I ~nd ~ h ~~b~f' Se'(;~1 [ilY~ fh~ ~fD:tnt~t9&.poijl't J07p()16gy pn;rif.ide~ diuH.c:ate.d b~nijwitl~h ~1Q .. ,ea.;dl ~U'·S.t~'l~ler, -Wh~l ~, ~iji~,a!ble ~sw{~{:hi'n:~ ~y~terfl~ '$~ [he cenl:ra~ site; '~he ilU'{i~~~'L~I: l}et(ohn8,f,ICe fOr e~~ CijstO:itiiet remarns,

. ' ... .... . . . .

PbnJlt~ to-mtl &tipoihn .sysrems Cl0J1:S1~t of a: ce<l:ll~~. t:m~~~'f;!,") ~;fiU'~OIil tr~Tni{:d ver; ,~\'h~~h eom'ITI!liIlr.ic2IJ[;et"l 'wi:tb '1!J1~~hpl~ atruc~\)" cQ[j'ner;t~d. [.en1;~.I1ab ... The terrni ~a~s, do rlo~' dir,~t1y tom rnunl-

cate w,ittl each or!h,er~ Coaxial t~].eV;'5,fon (CKf'V) '~y,s.tems emp'~o,1 p('liJlt~t~:t~nui~~ipO:En£ 'lr.~~m:UL1~ ssion, M:iJltipo'~lt-to~rmlHipQ6nl permit the terminals to c(lImmunica'lc ,0 irectly ~m(mg' themselves. 1 QlJase~J' local 'are-a. networks. (LAN:; .. ) are multi pol n~'-W-l:f!l.!Illtp'o:in't ~):.steins. The; rTlirLlTiber .()f transceivers rot" ~ network of'iV tenrninals will be N+l far a ,pohn-£o.mu1tlpo~,ia( sys~¢:rn.~ ~ii!'d "2M far' -a, POiUU-l'O-poifi t, ,s. ystem, In gi;i;lllcral, :111 Iii Di"poi I'J~ syseems are-more apP'rr'opti:iUe. [01: shorter d i,stance'S;. ~uild, :p-ol tlt-[('-pO~1.'Il systems are prefersed for longer distances, A~ ~,(lnger dis,tntlc~s, ~Il~, ccnnectiea of mu~t'lph.~: terrain als resuus iln greater sig:tl.a~ IQSs. 'and mOJ'C difficuh ~:g~ nal jlml~g-

The. discu ~~ion ~bO:'i/e applies for [h~ pbJ~sh:,il level. A l U:l;~ logical level, 'Wh,~~ foe h,for:marion now at ~~1tl1£ir protecol s IS considered i pol nt-to,~pDint :jjj!l1~ mt!ltipoi fit..i L'iif~'mlinion fl ~\V mf~J' occur via ~m)': physica! topol,o,gy ..

'1,.5 OSL Term info log!y

The ff:JikjVJ"~IJ.,g expl:madt111 of rerrns will be hel,p:flJll, in l..Ilrildle:rrml;nd~~"lg n.SLs.,The; oddest term ~,$ kflol?~t ,(kft), U!,e traditional measure of the length of 8i,le~,epb(l ie ~irre,me<.!'sli:lred in thousaeds of feet: 1 kh eql.!~Js 3(16 meters. Tilt <lia~neter 'of a WIFe is measured In millimeters (mrn), except "LIl. the Ur~i.tC(r State'S where 'J;,ne. Ameri,C'a~~ Wi)-e Gi:J"1l'ge, (AlrG): nli.:unber're:pn.<:S¢:llJS UNfh of an inch. (e.g., 2~~.A \Va has a ~,qflJ~;clor, diameter 'of .l f24 of~l~ lnch, ~ ... rbich :dfLiais {).5 mm). S:ig:~~~ power and ,.tgnal loss are mrea~.u,red m. the,rogar~.thn1~c ll,n'm; oidecibels (dB), !1~mCf.il after ALexander B ell, ,-.A J dB lnceease. ln power cq l:I~l~ ,a do UJbl~ ~g, nf'power, JI. 3 dJ~ decrease in iKi1" ... er equals onehul:f the powe~:; ,cli, 6 dB increase in IJOWi(:.f e'IJuah four times the rower, etc. The "freg,ueE1lcy ,of ali electrical signal is measured) in. kiJ,oJle1'r-z :,kll~,i thousands 0, ,cycies per se.colild) <Of" l1feg.aHp·u"

l'./Hz.. mil ~i(}ns of cycles. 'pelf second), 'fraditlonil'~ (~]~n;u~t.~switc:hed analog volee telephone "service is often called 'POTS for P.l:@.itt 0'1,c~ 'Ielephone Serv~~ce-, ".fh~s. has prompted some to jest ,~y cR'~]il1!g DSl~b:l:t'~Gd services I~AiVS (POgiltvely Atnazi.ng New Services '.

O~J~'er terms and acronyms are explained 1 n the (j] ossary ar the. end of this bo o'k

'The s(r~l~g~,h, (e.,:g-l p(}wer) elf '~tl electrical signal decreases v .. -.m th distance traveled due to' the resistance of tbe wires {:arr)'i~"g (be signa]. AisQ, sigl1al ~.t~enhaati6~ (~,.g., I0s~. becomes tte;i1!~e'r ~~ ~J:gher frequencies, S~~~np~y pu~,:, tile ,~rnbulilt of ,sigltal power dj~~Ip.aled ~~i the wires 8r~;,:,:~r 'w,it~· traasmlsstorr speed «l1td distance. DSL loop reach is lirn'i~,~>rJ. hy ,:h',.:: ~~grtlal he~mJlii~g 199 weak to be ,l'!LG~~lHi;1te.l y received.

Dj'git~] transmission englneers maximize the transmlssion disrance by 115-{:i of sophisticated modul fit,] crn We.hII~qllCS t~ at send ~ given-dam :E:'~(~ \"'ltii a, 1 in] i,l\~cl h@jn:S,tnit~:ed si,g r;L'Ell power i ~ '$ certain ft,~,q(jetlcy l,1alld- ,J'Q,f 'a givc,t) {ran~'1l)1~S'3'i ~n rnelhed, 'he mi;lx'imm'!l1"ac,h~evable trans mission bH r<*te decret ses, as the line "en.gHl h.c~a!\es- Thes, il ~$ po;:,jb~ :to achieve ~)Jgl dati:a,,'u",ansm:i.Ssio.n rase [or short ~Ql1PS and rclati v.et 1 ower rates ,:for iOlfg'~r loops. T hiE:: , achievable uata rate ~J 5.'1)

depends on . other, factors, h~cl UdUll,g crosstalk .( noise coupled from signal nn other wire ~:i rs j m~ the same cable ) ..

The' '2,.5. peak volt tf·a~s.m~ned _~iigna:1 for bas UC r~[e. ISDN ' BIH) systems Of.! ,t:! maximal J~d~ loop rna! encounter 42 ~~B' of si.,g:I~;;l1 attenuation w ~lb a r:€3U] t i rlg min useu I e. received ~W.:ilk. '~igllal f1 f 0,02 V.()·!ts . 20 l-nV) , The B;R,I system performs a rernarkab le ~~sk recoveri hi!! a si_g n~1 n:hht amonnts to only .m(I·IS of the- transmiued sign~t Thecorresponding values for 11)S,L 5ys~'~n~~ are prcvlded b.dow.

lr'ans·miit !P~'$k: (voJt.s)

M,axim:~;n:n S1ignaJ~ .Pcn~-er Lo~:s (dee~I1'b,~,sj

NHflli:mum Received iP,eaKs (\!\O~ts}

llR[ -. 2B,lQ ~ IA4 khh) 2 .. 5 42 (l01
HDSt 2BrQ 1 :- MDl') t·5 3·5· O,{ti4.5
.a r :8.
AJ[)S:n... 'OM'f ~ 1.5 Mbls) 1$·'" 15 OJ.I;g,f.
VDSL SD.Ml' (26 Mb/s} J.:-4 ;1>0 OJ)~-n,1:2
. TI:1~ peak AD·SL vq.li~11! d~pl:,'li!ds' O'.I~ the i~rl.pih::rtI~I~t.::L1~0:t~ 6f the ~r,D:ru.<;ITIlllT{! • 1~1 -!:i.1JH1~ C'~~. rhe ~jjk ~J.w1s.-. m~~,.:d A.l")SL 'I,lol~~~e 'C(lLlmd exceed 15 v(l1K For the oomi'l'~OiLl;:r used 20 ~m!! ~r')Jl.sll~iLh:='i.'l!:1. ~ i~ :jJ"ill!rng-l::

ADSL !ilJ..JllSrnit t.i~,n:!I .I\!;:vilil. is :5.1: voH:=; a..n:C1'ln u"~F.ugC" ~c"'!i"'{~d! :sj:g:l~:hI VThI.g~ -o€ ii_{I2' velts fo~ iii ;H~I."imum !Il!n~nl lo};)p ..

Fi~ure J.6 shows l.ne ~p·pro1(~·m.ate. achlt;.y~ble transm i.$:s,!('.i11! 'lfa~e as ~~. funcilon of 1 in e length.

The Iower curve ~b f~r syrn metrlc [r.an.~mi.s: ion I end the [·j,PPC:.'T .1:.I..H~e_sl1O'w.s· rhe.dewns tft':~nlJ rate [Or 'a,~yn')'t'ne1'IEI;..~ transmissien whh: ~n as yrnmetry ra:do of ~ 0; 1.; I'h us, n.hc upsi re~m rate is, assumed to be ('iiile-h~jjH!il. of the asymmetric rate shown on U'J uS graph. Convent ronal crosstalk and ;II. (;. dB margin i~. ·asSUI1 jed ,. This gJ<lph shows the advamage of ~sYm:metr.ic tr~n~iJli~s:·i{)!lI - tt!lic:h laighe.r downstream nam~sm ission rates ,.

'1!" 1 Cros,s,fa I k

A :tG·~er.houe 'cab] e con tains Up' to several ~bJous;tuad sep"lfilale. wjre pai I. s packed dt)$)~~y I,()g~ their. The electrica I ifi g~iHds iii, a· wire pa.i;i' ge;lIleruJte a :sm~~1 r e]'e.ctrolnaJg·I!'J~I.ic fteM, w~.icl:~ ~.l,Ir),QU nds the ':win:: pa~T ~'J])!d i:nduces an ~loctf'i·c:ci~ ·sa·.~nal Gt1~('J iie.arbY · .. vire· pairs; The ~:w.js,diil·g of the wire pairs.

reduces [].li~, inductive c_oJl.ilph[)g {~ds{;!"~utQw as croJ.'ilaJk)i but some -SlB'm:~~ leakage remains . . erosst~l~ is most pronoueced ;;;!It ibc :s-egm·enl. of c~ble t"lC~Ut. the :i n'terteri·I1}:g. transm] uers. The ., .·~~j"ss'talk ~t$tllting f:rom .. other tnulsmiSSEoil systems in the same c,ablc· (and. est"J:e~'i.an}' thesasne . Ibm na~r group widILf.I the cable j ~i) a primary factor Ii 1'01 ting [he hl t rates .and h10p reach ach ievable :by DSLs. ·M~[j.ag.em:.etU of rair-to· .. palr crosstulk :r-eQuire:!:i care in iJ~: b"~LIld\'!(ddH~ an;d signal ~Hiwe-' O[ transmitters and out-of-band. d~~~,1 rejection by rec~h~r.$. This i s· Qm~O referred '.0 as sp~.d r:{~ { Y:l/)mpcalbil1't,lr and i . reminlscent 9·f !'h!e ill~tjZlge.nH;;~il of rad!h1 fr..;:qat.ncy hroadcastcrs.

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,Od3 " ,."J 2.3 ~,,9 3<5 ,;3.1 4. '7 Su3 > 6,,9 kim,

~g.o~; loelfilgtll ~Q!,' r,L~i mm {2So AG): wl~' [I!fi. 1¢11J!i~11fi

~ ~,S'Ymi'r!1 --- As,~mm I

IF'i'9ure 1 ,6· IJSL dat~ r.ate rvlHStJ'I$, loor 19n9ttt,

Near-end crosstalk (::~JS(~ knvw n as. N£Xn hi, a majcr lOlpal mlen:~ lor systems tb;ffii share the· .. same freq uency hand' for upstream :aud. downstream transrnissioo ~e.,g.,! echo-canceled rnybr.id. transmission), NEXT ~t(ii5e is seen by the ,roCl1lL "'~f lu.t~t,~d :flIt thti \~am::r ·end. of the cable ,;;15 [hC! '~,[(l'1!srt1i~tcr t'!ial. js the iIi.iQ~~.e source.

'1:ri!Li!iI3mine[

~~::.L!; ~~~X_;~.~ ~

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'. Q~bLe

!F1i gu~e, '1 ,'1 NEj~r.·~n,cl cWG:S:s.ta~k {N ~}:

n~lls·ti!1,I~sion ~.."ysie;ln~ can ,!I!:vQM N ~;;X·t tty m;,rn ®. di ft~r6ii1 t~e:q LHhiCY bsnds for ~JPstre~un ~a~4 ?:ow ii.:s~ritun trm:ib'I!1Jl~,~si'On'~ ,~j'equeue.r dj visJ~l) I'll ~lt~plex,ed ,( FlJM) s.yslemi '~j;V'o-Ld NEXT fro~n l'B;;;e ~ysJ:e·1.1I'jS (atso kn0~ a~ :?ill NEX1). RDM ~y stems .·$t~'1 i j~:I,E$:!. eope wt,h Ntl¥T from .!;l:t~e!l':· type;s .qf sy:~~.cms l~;Sjt transmit in ~11!!? same frequericy band, and ;!H1iQtb~r J?~.snQ:.L1i,€J~mn ,kii Qlwi~.as FEX'f;

U'.[t)'lsinliner

~'m'~: ~~~~~~,-""""",,-~,

" c~ble; Fig'Uh!!' 1',,'6 FaJr",end ~ros';S.talk· (F,E;Qe).

~

cJ~:;ipte;~· ~ i, iD$l f!;lll'idl!llihellltsl.s:

,.

F.@:r-e:iilId. c.m~~la,lik. . .{ FEXi) .~s the npl'~e detected by .the :r.ec:eJvrer located at. ths f[;l!li end o~:' t~1:Ij' cable ·~ .. om ~.bt transmitter [lim i~i the Tilois(.': source. .F~XT '6S kss severe than: NEXT bec~l,t~e the FEXT neise ~':S ·mJ l~nuatetl, by ll!3!1,1'er"S 1.1l]; tnl[:· fu u ~€Jl~ilIl uf tho cable.

A major :3Jdv~nm,ge·.o,f fiber optic tnmsm].'i~i·;PJl. t~ the' "belt. of .any cn.1os~t~~ k

1 ,.8 Enabl i tlg ;!MlitJ Dwsabl in 9 F'Of,.t;~s·.

-~ ~ ..

In .1 '~7'O" th~ le~eeJ)!illrnUJ:1i.k:a:th~!]l s. w;:::,rkl consisted ef \~Qk:e- ~nd c'n <'IHt..<:te..IF-olT'l,e;Il!U3;d ·q6rt:i·[]lJll.OI1.{:,a-, b.'on$·lu·.m~iiilrrnme computers, VOuG(~>was "king'i"i' and '~h~l'e W~8 ~iute H.g~~ fQfDSL~:, Thttn c;a'Ht!?-'

.- .. ,',.. ... . .

n:t~}~ iOf($ 9f P¥f.5~~~~.1 ~o~lp·l,j.tefS tFC:1;:}~ !In_i~ltl~nvcHiJ, (a\:!,~ i,,,,~ ~~i] I Hm.."g~~ flirid ~k~eo) .arp~ ic~tiQI)~r

and eventlJliilHy the hue~"I:\e:I:, ,hi the ear.ly l';~~Os. the number Qr 'c(1r:llipUI:'ei~s {~jldudill1,g microproeessers !fi c;mrs, and. .. fI!pp.'1 i::mce:s.). exceeded the world popl!.ll'M [on of bJIUJMn;!j" aJld ~n the miil- g}gO::;. the !nd i:d:Ile"s' of lJj~age :lTi}]" di~g;ralal"')p ~1,c.nti.o1.1s ~in~llildi:ng :fax) il.~ ~h~ publ io network exceeded

,.l .. ,~ e= '" T'~ c,'" g.iL In rernct ",,,,,.,,,.;,,, '1"' n ()W '._, hi q' "ir!lI;i] ; .. ,~" -I'''''' '0" 'D't:'L:' 'i:" ,,1. .... (.l"'T'i~'J"';'i.it"lP'''' .... 1f 1",;,("1 ( ,.,. becan

r(. ~.il,IoJL,.._ , ~.Il!.:-'U.b~.L .: .~\.,ollr v"," tL~~"':;~;;.l "i;,;., , _'.: oI.<L· _ .t:" ;(iI'iJ"IJ"\ ,~,-".y!L ~IiJ ~ J ;!131"~ I. ,1,;.i"U'io- ... ~rl:"'·~'I,).! J'. =-.. ~ !:I!~ '1iJ ~.,," -'0}1 't~6 '.

IQng before ]',I,l~e;rnel, became a househol d word, ViiiQG: ~Ia:L1SPQilt :rcmffi:nSi ~'rnrortaJiJ, e":"en :r()t DSt.-!S,. Po]: e~1i]l"ipM~ HDSL i~ l.Il~~d fur YO;lC£ -trunks to PBXf:; .\Sli1d wi.t~e:s·~ c~,]~ sites

11.1.£ 'fI!d'f~nl of ~(.'!W ... cost ~od PO'W~f:1"lil'fJi~'l'~.~il ~'iJgna~·pTo·ccS"sor.$ tD3iPs} h~8 ,enabled. dle !ifSe

.' 9:

of m.ignrmth'l;ns ~haJ~ ~v.C[ilt o~i:::~ (e~~['ifecl f~)lr (:"x.qti~. ,a';.r9ijp-aot:: Rna. ,~ie{:eti:;c ~~p~ lcati ~tls. The DSP

b]\ea'kth[9l~.gh ~]&I;.i ~:nnb.~td ru~i~tnlJ~i~Jn COlor video' codecs (!;o(\,e~-~I;eG9der') '~lil ,[)SL -rr.Lt,0s:. ,tl;S..ing; standard alg,orrith[),lS <~EG1_, MPF.iG2,. if.OO. ~~id H.j:'6.l), High-qaality vi):.if.':{). ,cO-JlJJeife)1J~~ng ls 5~rpr(il'red, ~~ 384 kbh I' entertainment v~d!S:n b p'm;~i b le .~~ 1.:5' MJbh;" a~d high-de:f~i1 hJOH 'TV is. pU$sibi& at. .20. :Mbl3,. [n° '~'9'8.::1, the tL"a!nSPOI:J' of hEgr:.·~lu:.a.l ~ L~r '';f.~deo over most 1e1~rhone: ~ i nes was ut~jmagl.n:lilti;I'e~ [oday '~t is C0iLUmCHl practice.

"'["he DSL t.c(:'hn\J'~ogy we- take for granted tOO£IJY was 'VCJY-, r:m:~~rJ:y preverned from behl,p .ci&,plojr,e-d by ,t wo 'Puwcrf~.~ obt;~,JIZ:'i:.: fiber [ever, and n>g ldmtory t.l r~t'e:(r,i;d'f"JJlY.' Dtu~hll.g the 19:8lli--:rt1~nY' of ~hc ]eait~ ng t~le~QuliIi1lJi~ I'cnhtln:l Ij~licy rn*i.r.s: ~'I !ev:e~. 'Lh;l~ r;;;~ppetphQ~e' Ti'l1~!:; wriuJd

~-. . . ,..

~qq:lli.-bc replaced 9]' 'fi~e:1;':'~~pii~ lines d h;e~i'ly to r;:ve:ry £u·Stomer .. Twt'i yets.iGm~. of fl~0~: fe.~er ~lgu-

~.TH~·:nU, e:l!!:iHoo: ~ ! ) fiher .. b2l!$130 trnn~~:rot1 w0\-lJd ?ooi:lI I:i"€: 8.G hte xpensive If:l;:c'll c:o:p~cr rransport :wo.~lkl 'be absndo ned, ~nd al DSL !.ech~olo,gy w()'uJd p:p)lo,ng' the l'IS{'. ef copper 8.ild thereby ~~h~,£Y the .str.a.1'lilgj.'~aUy vilal defi'rl[,lyn:~e:nt ,o;f flber, A'J, tb~ ,me.hate raged it became cl,~ar~I thaI n ber tQ the hUI!I1{: a;."r'fH) WGlwi.I d re'f.fHlllt 6'.::.:.pen,~d ve and tbat_.il:Il;e telephone CQITIp,a.n:~e-::; 001;.lT!j Jlu.'i: re ~J ~ heir enstomers ~:G wait ,~e:veral years until fiber' arrived ThG ~.ekpl~'Q[)1:: companies focuSled their flbsr ,deplOiynrents towhere they' ~~idea:,e etQ~'iiomi~Hy JL.II~I.di~d; to major business sites' end W :fthm: .. · n!riwted nml(ip!c;\'cr-s' (thgiHLI 'loop ~ajJ"ri~1."), which serve hundreds of customers, Wb~Th a~k"€d if DSLs wer.e 0Jn i.mi!.>r~m t¢d],llu~o~Y'. Rny Smirlt ~.cE8 i' E~H ,AH~jltJ.C.) :iJep'j led, '~A DSL i.s· an interi m

. :,. . .

Lcchnolo,gy, .for ~J11~ next 40 '}'.e~rrs i"

The' ~c.{Jnd threat ~.'Q the. tn·trod uctlon of DS..L~ w~~ ~he uncertainty 'r.bg~lr.cliJig who wQ'uld Own [he DSL tr;['I:lisc:eiv€.:l: at [l1;e customer end 0,'[ th€;.· ] ~~H:e. ThG t.eJ.epiho.n:rz eompanicsfe I,~, til a~ tha cussomer-end trc~n sr::::e i'1er should be I 8''!1ig ~'j) the network to assure g{)odl pBlloHIlun.ce; slmpl ~ f_y trouble resoluuen, and to ease the up'g~~d.e to fLltlliilie ua;::JuliolOgllf.:L M0:ny r€:~:ulnrDrs! O~ uie other hJl!itd, insisted that the cv.stQnl~r--e!l,~f l.ranste1 ... ~el' ve ~wfJed by the customer [0 perm u[ the cas-

"

tomer the freedom .[0 d):Oi)sc ~mo.J:!:,g 1!J1:~:~y competinve providers of eq~ tprf1e.ru System de.v!:.:d 15- ment iiJm'!:rJf.Q nEcc:ause.'equip.r!Jt:t,nl designers did not know what. Ieatures were t~c:~lJ.·ir~~~; eqlJ1plt'lenl: . NendOJ$ di~. not know wtlich ~·~a~e:'i channels to' u ·e, 'lmd lc lcphone company engineers d.id not .'.~,now ~\!h' t wO,~,fd be responsible f()~ ~ Il~~nad!)on .at~d rm~j l'1i[p.n1'tiace. For ht!.liic ram I:SDN ~ ft. lite 1i,'U r~i fed. States, ~ t. was resolved 'tJt~1.t- (he customer-end transceiver would be owned !by ~ he. cus!qJ]]e·r. Horw~v:e.r. ill many other ceuntnes the.oppo ·'te resolution \\ .... as. reached. Either model can ~l>''Or.k., bu~: Qnly after 'lJw 'Qf,t(;!s~on ~s 'funm·ly made.

ADSL encountered a different reg Li.I:alOcF)' .guagmiJ'e; would [he tee~ho:ne cempanies offer ·~bSL as a regu'him;~ Or unregulated ser v ice •. The ·regrul~tOT.Y cTliv~rDi:J;me~lt i'n ~he United Sl.."it~~ mMe 'both aUe;rna~.m",!C::;~ c·qlU.atly unattractive, and worse .yet was the prospect that me rules could ·th;a:nge f.lga;~f1.'a·[ any li:r[l~·., Once a]~·ini nie price paid fo'r s'lil;m.d;it~ing 8J competitive market was de-by lf1g the .j IlU"od:u:ct~ion .of Dew services by nearl l' I:"", ~. }'1t;;~j-~, 'Vi[h ~ ·.J:ii),8;j·kel· window of nv£

. . .

'Jie~r.s. f~r sorne ~en.r:i~es, U]~ c~jJ Ii [lg le.{f~>Ct of regulatinn 'c-an e asll y cause i [un ovarors '[Q become

. of! to ds v

:;:0".,. or

Th<t;, success of a: ,sBl"vi:cf:' {and. its underlyi I1g techno I.ogy .. depends 'g;reat]y Q~ i ES' price :and its: .relarion to i:'1i\l.atl able. ·;;I:he:r,nati ",I'J;,~, Service p lee, EJi. turn, d:e.;pend~ ~rt~l~)" Oril [1.lIe C0S~ of eQu·j,[p: m<l.'lnL amid labor costs far' operatlen. Equipment iJ:1~d Il)pc!r.a.ti~.g costs are reduced ~iis the rH..I.liifltJe,: :~f customers grows, LOW'~bOsr serv lee 1'S best achieved .by eSlab~ ushing' a' ;j,e.tvi~e. 'I h at "f!,ddress:es, the .f}1QSt customersand minimizes .adfrlidOrl·Al If,1JL-aJs rueture costs via use ciff existing facilities .. Fo'r .DS:L~i ·add~ti-i:ma.t :tr,an_:Lieehf¢r cir<!·lIi cry that exteads ~oop.:r.e~h or euablcs ~ddi m:Lonal.a.ppi icu~ io.!'ii~ '~~b'y ultimately enable the redue~ilof1 of 5<eivi.~e: Plijtv by expanding ·tht": a-lkrre~saMe marker, A r:eclJni·~t lh6n)~)n th~ fl.£~d. of l,)SL~.j~ d1iat the cost Qf,~dditional capab'il:j.E,y· 'In: me transceiver y:J.~I(ls grt::M.cr savings from. reduced' !J-pc..r~nin.g 00SH:, g:r~ate.t' loop reach, or ross ible add itiona] jap,pHcatimlS,

'Ifn.e flrst steiP ·jlll de¥\eIQp'i:n~ :iii. teclnml:ogy or system [s ldentifieaucn of he customers" needs and their Imp] k:aHOF.l$:· O"Mi fl,!lnct~onaJ, l:oeq!:.J lrernents, End-user de~n:;l'la: fl))Ji products and se('\'i,;;;es is drlvea by savhlg money, ma.kmlJl.g· mOlley, accoIDplisilin..g aecessary t.asks;'s;a.Yi~ig tlme, and someti:me ~ ttJ~ possess ion o.f~. status 5,ymbt11_ These ~c:n-i.~lldll?' are S~t'tSfi.l~d hy 1IIp.~lk~tkms: bardwtlr:e ~1I)d ~of*ware that pc:rfQfU) certain tasks for. the user: AD~ '(~J'pJ'iC().r,Ii.().I~ .~s a. p'i:1~;.I;::.~~-e ,0 ~ b~¢y.'tm;.,. s'oil'Ware, arid, in some cases ~ .. a mlt'!t'?'or.k. service lh-litl. prcJtVMes'~' .SOk.Lfio'D to. s:pe~it1c: end customer i[j,~~·~;s, ... A service per. orms -certain tasks; or pn) iJe~ certain ~a,~abi1 ities, for '"1'11]:0:1:. the customer (hr:.softJ1:~ne. ',else) P~l'S, for or. ~ [cCU.1:TI.ng basis ;.e.g" p.el' use, or per month}: In rn~:my. cases, a service may be .UseISJ to. sup-pmt many ~pplk~lion . .;;.: At the risk of circular l'eflSmail1,g', fIJ 'service b somethiag prov.ided b;y a service provider, such as a telccommun» 'atiml~ carrier company, The ,iifPP~ kMlons listed in the follow un.g table:r ~pp.l.y H). hQ~:h p lilhli.~ and pru~!e nen~lodl{ .~~ti;i i·~~ ...

The end user m.ay' be cl'l'U.ged. [or it service per lISCI. per :mlll:l,n-i} ·of ijS~. per by~~ .or a flat raH:' per month, Services 1Il.l!.a.y he c~araclreJ:tle!;:l . .i.11 terms. of guaranteed throughput and ~vfl;i·l.albH-

'ity~·Als.o"" [he.:s6rVic.e ~m:lY ~·~'.r~~~:·' [.0 Ihe:end user, itl; 'wtli>ch.:c~e a;oiJ1bel' [)aTIi:1(~,act!J~~n~ pays .for the,. serv lD~ ~e.g·-,1' gOO numaer plume servjcc, ·"id¥c!ii,~r:-pail1 broadcast tv 8e'1:vic~l·

8'_ach appl icatlon has speei fie c-haIacle!ri::;U'Cs,,~ ~iI1O::::b. as wiHlngne{:;s to pa;y" ,s.~~st~' ned and peak data; rates dQ\y~stre;;'l:111 and ups,tlrearn; poteatielmarket slZ€ ~ cOffilJlt":;c~i:){~:ty. oOfl,uec~:~ori- duration, Go,:n'sta:t1!~-F.atelbUrSty. ,e-rror t'(lI~el"ti!m:;e" 'i1l1 aximura acceptable iilgnal tEeh:liY, :nma:~dnrurn d!e~ay var.iation" pri'l,;'~"o.y, ~~d security (a'l;!tnentb~,alj o,n'{:if user). Real-time applications (~,'!,l,cb as .s;m-r-"£al1l:~n~: ,ddep~- have .~tr.tcl~r ~quirimeillfs _:l')[l ,cleJay and bit ~1ne:"tb;;t:n m,;,~f-re~.d I,irole -(we~j br.QW~l ng) ~md' non-reel tVille" fei~,ain- 1'0 ;b~"'suc.ces~ful,. aWa:~i[le~~~ of Ihe, .. sy·s~tIJl s~mu,m be .d'4s:~gJleJ .~o.. ·~s,'lJre, 'I:n~-u: the ch1itr-,~t(ierL'S.~:lq'S of the, kEY app.:tk:<?I1io[[.~ are sat~s,fl~iI.. 1-1'1 other W9l',ds::; defi-M:, the 'pmb~~m 'before ~lternptlng to ,~q,.I);{e 1t

. App-H~tiol1,5l"aJ,',e also p~rdy. :~efl ned 'by the, n:l~rk€~t, segmenl, Itermin.:::H 'lucadOln, and Iie!n)i'F"d~~, I-Y,p:e. M:ark:e~ segments jnclude consumer, 'business, 'lidtl~JLi'Q[(_" government, and l1"J.li ifa~.y_ Eac h 11laJs. its ,oWn- ,di,an:L'ctertst"i'cs fur wil i in I!!"n:€ss,~to:-nnlii". privacy, securitv, rei i,:a,bi H~y. and Crise: of

"':;Q lr' .... It"' .. . _", ...

use, \Voik.~aH:1o:trte,,{WAH) ~5 a :bti'&in~S"-type;"' applicati"on, which m'3!y. be ·If.aid fClT by the ,e:nd' nser

Or. boy jhe e:mph)jlet ',~c(rm:i~ls [m~y be l(i.;;aled·at 'the 'tiome, Qffice, [Jl;ilb!~c; or mobi~c sile'" At first, o(n.!i mug]lt d:i£rlti;ss' mh~ Ii:i,t()~'il~.~p"pli~~diof:l j;~r IDSL-b~~~~ s~!v[ee~, H,a:WlBver~ the. p~L 'ir~~y be i:.ls,ed ta, cOii:nool "a radiobase li!ii:~t to the netwo-:rk wi th the final Li nk lO t~,,~ l'€imi:Il~;l ',i'i~ i:ad.iO, The

• , • • '. .. •• ~. - - • • - - • - - - - - - - - - - ... - - L • •

,elild..;i'lb!Jt :p'jattq~m 0'1 ~y cot)s-ist ~f ~: "PC: '\cvorksliadQ~" TV; ~nfO\tl;rHiti"1n appt~,~:ii;I2e:. N' p.!.ib~i~ kj(V;ik-, iF,or ['~~e S~.l~e, :aprdk~ti()f-i;s."d~~f.tI") te~l\!,l i~:I'~Js ;!I;!I1d network computet» re'q~i~ more .. 1C otr.mlunk:·at~.on b.and:~vidlh .than· ,R pc' b(',{::Liluse·'mueh {,"If [hi['.. uillf~;mn:lw[ori lTrL1$~ 'be; down:! Ct~, fi·.Q''L'Iil a dJ.-SUtti:t .®t';icr mther ~h,~tHiJ·thf;,lt1etrnm·Jld±$k~dtiv.e- w.h'l~li1 the PC-

There have been :ri12Lny delD~t,es a:bol~uhe exi;slenc.e o;t' a '~'!dner :appu.[!:ati:UJl!."'''~ slagle :r!Jpp~ii-' cati(}rI! wi~ti suetr a ~,a;[ge ~arket. de:,m~H~cU' (h~l 11..aT Ol:l!e- j ustifies tti"ie creation ij~ ,a, service Of .sy:s-'te.n:~. Give'llI the 'hjgh c(;)l):w&e}¢iJY"aJIo, CDSt. [l'r hi"gh-hiJ--r-ate pl.!lI.Mic data 'fle~I,~(6r:~ir.i;g, it is dOil'o,tful 'that,.1- '~ii;(g~t, ·.apptkadon w;o.1,!JI~ s ufflce, S;1JI~-e wi ~ I 'a:r,~uB; that. ltnitfilet ,ffCCCS:S Is. '.-n !k~H,e1' a'Pplka~iq~" HQWe~l6~::, Iniliernet .access j,'lS ac~tIlaU,y f,nore r~grut~y di¢~ct'ib'0d ,aB, n, .s~~'V~c~~ ttl,at '~~l~p'Qns 'lrifHllfil, ,(iJppl ka;~lo:ns {~le:c~n(nJi.9 :rfL~ilj 'wl!?~b '~rows,] I1g~ me li'Mi:sfer, (lat~~se aoc.#S8; :dl.!;Jp.tb~[]l~, ~t ITO'me, eicJ Eve]] if there were-a kiih:([' arp,p~ iG.~l'~on, it (~,n~l tll:y W9uJd ~~O~' b~ ~h;e- Q'~'~Y j_mpbrl~nt. ~ppll9a-' ti(m,~.·the, p(:JW·~;f"~[ a pu bHt dla~:a net work. ls ':lllS: a~j H~y to suppott lna:ny ,~pf.l;~k;,i;tio()ns~

III [Il~ :F{)~ iQ~hL"g tables, the Ur.SL '~nl~nber pro'Vtd~ for Mt rate 'i.ndicates the minlm urn s~~is-, factory rater fer some 'tI:OOS. <.ilnd -tt1ic' second number-is the 'r~.~,e thfflt \-\'l0!;:1.M .sZflisfy rue:aT:~7f al I uses '~ml the n:t~T term, These ,ru:'te j.'f.1'f(jr,~ghp~li bi.t .f{~t.::;.:c" '[tot i."ntf.~1(i;()f.. ·M!' r.!JUl};S:. '[p.aq;)11~'~[·unl"2:rfa(:e, bit '~:nes,

df i. () Th,,-1bJs (Et~J,eme~). 26,J .... 1Jb!s- (Al'M Fotu,m), ,~:n;"d l.on Mf::fs ·{Fa.~t: ]Slhermi:il nn~J be used a~, the

l~al ,~J1Tte[[1iGt ~Q con,\:~y t~y,\~pp~ ~!;ntion ~hroillgh~p~t btl ta,ie~ !'i sled] tit the ~:fo1~owi~g tables, 'fh~~' -I.rr{O''!'InatiCiTIi. is ba~'ed tl1pOi1 .. :di$d~:s:s,lons· within H1C AD£L fOl'uutl ,~nd ''1' 1. E:,I ..4.'"

ADSL ·is,. w~!'~ .:~ljjiled to ~'l.IJpp~nbti g infm~}' ly~es ,of ,appUc~I'lo"ns,,, '~fith '[·ne, noUl;hk~ ,!t'xq;~ption (if broadcast tdey{~.j~)[I and some htgh·pe;[f'OrrI;_1-an{!~ business fJ.pp~i,c:atia'!1J$,. ADSL"s 'pDifij[l~tQ'po~m 'nature provides, ad vant~ge~ fO'f reliebl ~hy and skomit}'; h0:WCi\1Cr 'the dedk{LE,e,d A1'U·C p8T. !l:'UiS~0me.r ll"i;a'lkeS' ~l co~;tJy' far' brnadca,!;l use. Dhrec[ b['Oadce:M ~:lJi~,cmt,e (D'BS) ,o:r.-t6r-reslr]_a~ b[l:o-~.dcii;gt, f.i,i!lNt ,as mul'ticnann'el rnult.'lp.ol n,t di s;tr~bl!!liti~:)IIi: s-y~t£;r(( (MMDS) are, eXfe,~J~ nt means fer pro~

fable '1 .• 1 R@sic;fentiall CeW1Sum'~r Appf.ication:s. •

. . . .

Vo:'C ~df.:p.I:L<!,n)l 1 IlIt:~~ et, on lj' rN;:

.~ '\-',nd.ci::. a c ce 5:S t;~e~tJi\c;.t)]{; nU!!j I Hi,:gi1l defmilL1o-it TV .~]tDn,;') Bm::.d:ciiI£tt video PremJ ~J;m "H~co 'channel

on 'I II'

s: \?Jy-~~r:""']t;;~, .... vn r,::q

Movies on demand Mu sit 0:I1 demand Vid~:() .f1~tMle ,

pi stance Iearni n.g

{l~ilJ.re ri:J! stored "ideo ltl.:s[rut!li:(H1i

D~tah1!J~-e' a~CCS5. (cor,nmtmmty. ~jb:i:-a:ry., governn~E!.(;jt ~1ifo;rmati[)~d

On-] lne dilE'·ec~01]!':

1 elkh" pfl:g;6'..~ Sa.f~:ware dr)Wl1!~Oiild Sh()p'-.!.!lt -home tQ'IlJ~m::· ~$aIQ:g~.

·\fjd~· g~lmcs. (mtl!~ti.fJ'I~.y1;f :;Jo(! .pP-iymPer .... use) Vi:)t'!:'-ii1!:,··hijmc.

.!8 ill t1K -,a;~ - horne RadrLG rrem o~J.~e.[~

d~i(:'..s

Gamble at horne :Mec.!~cal eonsu ~:aUOil W.bome.

Se,ck¥riI~; alarm

U.~.i fi.y meter r'cadJ:ng;

Do.wli'lis.~r$.am Up,$tr.e.a,m Wi Iliingi to pa'V lDe.maltl:di
[);emand Fta,te· Raft~· 'P,o'Jelt'll~tal
{kbl.s.) {:l<bJ.s)
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rzs-e .. ~ 64-- J. ,;'500 H '~\-1 Voice teh~pt:Jony

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:P\.~Mio:;:; t~r:i)~ i i')'.fi;~, ~k!ioo'k,. teller

On· 1 i nc .:;1"1 t'i;: c; I QIT!(~ ~eli.o.~ll! p._Qe:S Ini~mc~' ~~I1S$ ~fJllb.1 ic rret 'iJJ"c Irk). l'n~:~.~l1e~tE:;':.Ti"a!)e~ ,®occs:J. (r.~rlv:?!~~

nAn.v (I tr~ ~

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Access ~tQ ~:L~mm~:

datalbt1.~. 1;lbirru-y LA.N:~i r.lM:WQ~1~j.e'i::tio:rJI con ;;!Ih~~;;;[j'!,.'-e: de:sJ,~tL sceccn -sh~rif;ig

T F~:t1'i'I1,n:V,eclu;c ati~J:"[ B~$!i,nc:!.~m n:i_~ric~2I1 I1IG,W:S

Vid~o phon;e {deS:ktdp)

Videzl j)}nrc;..w_i'I~ (confe~enc'~ f{l'OrIT) i{e'mgs"{:' VI dec

survci Hmi!l(:~

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vjd:i.rig· broadcasr teiev\sirJ{r service ~~td. eOiJ.I.~ be u~!UI iii! {;.ofnb~n;a.1;~ QJf witt) A1J5L lb ;s'iJppOIl a jfu~J r.'~n.~e of: appHc.ai.iQ~IS.Ji~GhKlil:'iJg ~wn~'!,!HL'Y h~t,erl1e't aceess atld remere LAN .acc.¢~~t

The :~Dtki~':i,ng hib'lc ~od~cf.it~ ~he. jT~llsfe'l' time fq.t .certain ~~p8iS of images Whh-OUI';;.;)I))-· pressiou, ,except {(:It' the IO:W' :t~~bei!efl ·'fae..'jfunJ'i lei' where' t~pit: al t:.()J1l1pro-~~l.Q;t1!. is accounted tor; li~ the'~as( L'O!!,cV~ the ~~ktuw-~.<j"b:e· and $U bjectlve .qtl~.1 j ty i~. ,t~:fclkat,~1 NJr d]'~ I E;ITIJ compressed video, The ,[H[I1SlHi:$.~!ol:l' rates i ndk'lted in the eel umn 'bend ings were !!l::ied. rot t~'1:e t~l ~HlaHel(t'lr of transfer tate. However, in :riI;~my cases .. (me actual w:mder rate litfLY [be lci~~dh~n'lhe·taw line tn;lnlnni:SS,~o'n rdll-e d'~e 'to ~.rppBl'l;.lay!3lf pretecol overhead ... ~,e:I:.Y~r d.z] g~1, PC""'p1:~t.~!:,;\;i·fiig dd~y, ·an~ '~~~JibQ'J)lt;;" net'wo-rk traffi.c: del n'f.

. '

l'able 1.3 I mlC1lQe T mt:isl'e'r Ti'me

.FuU screen vf AS1~'~~ !~t COi:'P.p.t·,fM;I:d, f~:p{

(~ ptL;gc» .Com,r.i'Ti;:j.! i;,\t~') ~~f!iS:~, QIf ru] 1,,sCro.1!.11 :8·tdf

»r:

~QI,otYGA

'f'itj] L ;s(,:,(€.en ~ ~-bil o::.~.I{Jor X-GA Chest x.-'~3!y 'C'l)n~p\re$"Wt] digitiilf V~d~tl' % of :~a:,: r·~ [,:1 1" P ~ ¢ii, l,rr:eq!Ll~l]r.y

Sj~e 28.:13 k:bJs t?iB I<llls' 3g~l kbb~ 1.5 Mbl~ 2S Mb<!s,
'11.k:b L.J $ ~l15 ~ uiJ tril nil
00 kb: 3 .• E 0.7 ~. b,n if nil ~)i I
.' r
1:S,M.b[~ B7 s 'tSi,5 ~, -rl,~ s .~Ai '" ili]
~ DM.b 7};:mhJ 1.6 mhil 33~ ·S.2 s o ,~ 05
."!
,64Mb 3'" ..... 8.::1 .iimI ~r~ 2,U . ' 4·] 2:5'
;- min mm 's. s
:(()% 25% 100'% 190% WiJ%
fau fair -' i~IDTV'
lrr00l;' . V H:S,-Jik,e'
ql.:l!;1dit1 ~~lIJlll~,y qual it~
--' - 'Tbe n ~,~ s b:e;s in T.ab'~~ 1.3, ..tlf,C measured i tt kll~jbit$ or 1l1let4i~~b~t:§. A. ViQ,~ screen Is .64(;i X 4'80 pixels; An XGA. screen is .lG24··x 168. pixels. Co mprcssed. ¥~'dco aa i.5 MbI:s tua_1' pi c tu re . qlll'al.~ ty 0.:.10 ,good ~';,'i an original vkl;(:;:ot[lJie played Qf,! a V HS p:~~yc!l'.

Further in fonnar LO,h ahO'Lt~, :D.SL· ap:p'lj,c.atiDH-S 'j S (YI'ov~t!i!l:d j n . See tions ~,l~; 2·'.al1d 143"

llJ.tgit~J l,edullGlo&~ w~.s' jin~t ,~:n~.To"d'IJ.;]ced dlliring ~:he etl·'i'~t l ~6Q~' ~,O the, in ter.9Bl,~'e trllH~~ to .!(ol ve tliilf.pl'nNe'l'n of long- ~jsbrn~0 noise due .tti the; ·aIc.pu-in~la:t;i:on "of no1 i:::& jnneit:;nl 1,0 'an 31?g· ~milL~mi:s:~.

. ,

~sj~on. 'EJI,;;h il'nak~g t>e;p.eate.r i!~ Pi ~!lg ,~'J stance trunk. ~m.)lp~ i :f'if!,d the tiJQi~e' ~S. ~lJ~11 as. the ~,j:gm~l.

D.eslYi~e· 'tije' mosradvanced a(n~I'j ner des) 2:t1 ... some mJdit ional nol se i'i- ~e~en;lt~d. by each fe', )egrtt:lir.

1-" ... .~...- ..... ' ._.. ,_ il

Digi!.@ I tran smissien el im mated n oi se :t\CcUHIlJlal.i:on because all1 e)(;;l!~~ eU:gltZlil repl ica Is reerenred

at each ~~pe:ate,r .D~i,g:i,t~~ repeatered l'raJ1is:rltis::~j"on. cnnbJcd "fi:r:~l,raUy pe:d~ct ,tra.~~,m'~~:;.iiQ'Il. regard~€SiS, of the distance,

'f~i.,cp];;Ol.tC Central Offio!3..s. are connected t'D each ,o~:ber v IfJ. ~l'IJ.H'ji~~", each 0fwhh~b emits rn:!l![)Y voice ,(ire iJ~tS, In most' oases, a. h:loe::!:~'n;hi~,9J network a~Qn ilecture' CO:bi:fi-c;ct~ [he local Central O_11fuces toa :t~!lLienlJ 'Of ton office, By ~"970, .rnasl·of the 'ZI,hhh)~ trunks IH{i]' bO~iii r,c;pla¢ed. by (t~~:tal T i truaks, c.i;l,dJ: ~rf which caFl.ied ~" v~l:.¢e cireui ts, A.5, til ~s{!,I1. the rendem ~j;b'd. to] I o,ffi;;;~s ~~:~ .. ~'i.JJn:~llEide(j by 'dig~"t~l' U"~I1Jfu~: ." Sw fti::Jl~ ng :$y:~n~m. de~~igl)~[1:~ -r~~.I;jzed drat ~t W{i:S j 11.erfic:iei1~ for a .La.it.demflo]j oJt~ce .. ~oc convert the ;CiTC:vh~ from the d~glta~ trunks to aaalog, to be, gwiu.ch~' via ,f~ ~1'.ad~ t'iona'~ . .aIJi~;i'ng ';l-;W'j rd1.i;l.l!g ~1lalr~:K, and thea bac,k to ,aigi,H.rl agai n to ,an01~~r rrunk. Thus. i[:!lillf~enlh()~ I offiees qu~cki'y C!['.i~lf',,:e~tBd to (Jl~lwJ",

18y ~he' late :~ 9703; 'the entire ~'Mernl]k'~ rie~wod( wa:s, {u,gi(;a], The local CO:s. eennected t~ ·,Ul.g1.l'ld ~T!,m'k;j ,fLriJ rnnahJ:g lines which were carry i n,g: a gr0\vi1J.~ pro!}Qn~'(ln of. d~,g11~1 ~r~fflc -frO,t'D1 complJfc:r::!: :a:nd t~1i:: m~cr.iin,e;s, U ·w.as.:pred~c[ed tll!a:~:,cl:ig1ta~ tr2Jf:f1c·w.~·'U:~ii~ L'i€c;;;;.r .... l~ gJ:,emte~ tl1.a'i:'il ~j~¢!,-, ~(!i~' \l'~~~ . calls, :-and 'i ~(tefod' '0'), ~,~c IT.lid-, 199(~& i~ d.id. The entire e]f~lr~,Blfs- i:i1~IJ~~.tf:Y Was;:.mO;\I+n_g

,Ii;) ~tgit~:i 1 the I ot~'1 ~wit~he8' (s)]C.h :~5 KF &1"~: l.A ES5) were '~llrlDaay cMi~trolT0d by dl.gi~a:~ ogr.il~' puters, and l !1Jte:.rom~e ~:-i grm~ ~~l,g ($uch fl$<.l..cIS ant:l S.s-7) was d:.igi:t~~ .. Desp~t.e ~()(Vl.jS. re:s~\~~:T:J!Cfi hy the local s w1.t.dh,it~g cornmu hity, ~:he.~lgj ~~l !'iJIJ ~wvpl OV':.fI' the 'noJ;:$j'l-..sw~t[!h '~~'i'th ~he":l~rlwd,~cti.{m -of d!lg"ft:al, td.~phurlJe !pWLl't:he~ 'such -as the Nor!'e~ .lDMS lOn, P.(f&T ,;):E:5"5; Siemens EW;S,o" ,;:tnd' Erjesson AXE. ThcSQ ' f(],agi.t.i1]:'; switches i,11M,aJ ly t:ef[]~ i nated onl 'J atl~l]og ~ ines; -whtch were- con-

vt-t.i.Il\'?J to e4· kh/s d:~'gjt'ul via c.;:ODOCs at. tl1e switch .~ ~]]e !JIl i L .

In, 'I '98:5'1 ISDN extended ~he db:H~] domain to ~he 0ILi ij'WmUf,. POI' the ii:r::..a 'li:rno. end-to-end ,SU.gtt~:1 service 'wli.~ a.v!ll~ ~able ('it;, ~l' 1 iuwge s¢~'llc', ]},3"DN 'PfiOyidc's the C;lJi~mome[· ViI,it'n boll]: ,\'::i:rt,1.1ii~ '~witch"ed and ,p:'iad~.e~~s\dfcned ,d.i g~tal service, P,r.i.o!]' W 'lh is, di.~i taJ ',dalbl :Sir1fioo tDD~n: ~ili{:~ op;::.r~ iJiting: at rates 'in :th~·.Th~g~.af 9_6 (0.,154, \bls p:rQ,vMI~d a<:;ce$s't~·p\::l~kel-::;"!Io.~k:l~ed :rjid~ s~rvic~,:lrb~ UpS serv ice was .vf:ry I inrited ~'Il!I¢ 1,0 i~:s: h~,gh priee and 3va51~bj~ uly ,prdy in :i!J. ~iw selected ci!r.eM. ]:S.DN 'is .. pruil~~rily .fl, (:.i~uit~~'\'!f·ilched network, .W'i.d~ pa,cke[~S"iAd~hh!g .S'LLiwb]~.only for !l,MIO..v,band p'olt)k~t It;1:ffk;,

llro?i;dllband. IS DN (8 ISbN) with 'l;iC~h~peTf;)ml~l'll'r)G' ru;wm:h'ronous transfer mods (fo:T~1') $-W1Iichi~g"'~atj 'i!Ii[ ni'S~ :eu~dsi\o:nNI .f.I;S conffiJ!~"Ztiifig t,o til'1l custonsers 'via direct fdlxiT op-t~t lines, ,BU:;:ON W(Ulld be j imited ~'O, ~ pri vi I~gedl fan'r,;] weal lhy} r~w'; HJQ'SL ~1J.id ADElL. opened the world ofsw ~~ch~i1 bfQad.p~l1d ~i.~ua service ., te.a v~sUy l.a:l):~e:r mff[\K.e,L

CHAPTE.R.

2

.

Types of DSLs

A~ the processing power ~f di gttnl .. signal processors has g[~I1, so have IJSl. b[[ rates, DSL ted:J'I~o.k1gi' beg~l) w~'U) :[.44 k.bJs·lD~sl{~ rate ISDN (.BRa), and has evolved to :I. :·5 and 2JI _r".U4s ver.siens of HDSL .• t' Mbls ADSL. and no.Y!.' 5.2 Mbh. VDSL,

.2 .. 1 DSL De.si'9inl Ma.rg:i·n

~DSLs·.m·c designed wit~··.a o,dB 8NR margln. This rneaes that the nSL \\I~'I~ "pro;{i,dc 1 0-7 bit error :rale (B5R) \"j"hen 'li1c crcsstalk signa] power i~'o d13 gr~:?JJtCf' than the defined "worst-case" . crosstalk model, 111m ~ ny ·Cft~c.:s the- ·WOJ'.SE.-C'a5.e. cW~~Ullk 'mo~cl is. a 5(J-llIa.i r b~ nder group 1~ neJ ~Ni.[h·4.9 f;~lf.ero%·talke s, cWHJt put' Gaw.;~ia[l! llouse:"a 6 dB. ~NR.m·aj'!ii:n. \v:6JU.M l'e$LBJ~' in a 10 '1:4-

BE.R_ Howev.ej., hi! the rea] 'wor~d~ ~l()h;e, .~$ oh.e:1l n mi,-~·a'usshTt'i. Thus, Ier lypic;a1 'C£)lIldi t i ons, tbe 6. ::dl? margin ~·~nv.i"les a~$I!lI:r~nC:e thru P.SL!:;. ll;£,LJ;l~l)r oper.Me ar ~L BER· of better than JO·9 ~~,d ~:h~~ D$L&' wil I: pro v ide reliable ser: .... ice even when the mr'8,[[J::HID lsslou e~.\1 i renmern ~:s ...... IU!I1oiC than normal.

The: 0 ·dB valee origi nf!.ted duri ng work on lh~ ANSI bas ic rate ISDN $~fJ.ndard in Tl D 1 .. 3 (the predecessor of T I E J .4) willn a .1 '985 eOtl!1 ri b~H~,on from Richard McD00~'l.cl of Bellcore, As desclilb·· tl j n T 1 e..1 ..4/95-- ~ 33, Hu::;··6 dB des.ig~ m:al'gln s.u~] serv~~ as '~n a'p',p):(~P.r';~ te v~~~ [f~, TI~c.. des.igo mrtrgin p.rOVl.~C5 fur 't:.abl'e 'ilaI~ati~~~ f rig lng. splices, w~t cable), rtd.Jiti ~':i1;~1 noise i n ~O 'and cusromer prem ises w iltlil.g; !.)[h~~!r .. noise sources, i~pertc(:t transcei ,; er desig' l~,., .:smdl manu a< !f~:ulng 'Va!, atlons, Th eo'am.au nt of (!~ign. ~ar.gtn~ ·h. a .. tr·;j)(le~)ff bet W(jCIil assuring reliable. opera,t!.Of.l iii al I C9i~diti ens ;;'I;.Ejd ~n~1Jtti r!.g the ij~c of the I.eC~l tlology (lUI the. longest. possi hie loops.

More so·ph i!s~·ic9;~ed. transm ISS!0111 methods can achle -e f:i:l:~her. performance, b~lt tJl-e need . · COl' de:s:ugn margl Ili remains. However. 5YS(.enls th~t measerc l1:lIarg.in at ~nrl'~'-up ~~ilt :P[I!)V id.g: th~ installer: aR instant ]flIdic~~io[!l i:f rtbe 100]) has in.ad-e.qHRLe margin, The. installer can then 'lake eor-

51~\-1. ' D6~V:I~~I.~e~m

Bit 'RU::t~

(~i.I.sJ:·~ee to (:~.r s rom e r')

.LIM-

J.,5M

'i:;1.:~V ~:¥,:m'iOL.r

-l~m

r'

1M,

ISM

'Upst~,C:i'!;n' Bit R,n.tc,· "1j;itVgi:'.:~ 'tmm CU:iIJr.i!M~T)

iFlglur~ 2.1 DSjt. bit rates Wml loop reach ·s'h,owrn .for :2,6 AVVG ... 'wire, (ktlo~et. - ne i"~:p$all$r).

rect ive actioT!I:~H;lJ]dl':as fi:J:Idjn_g' a. rocW~I' 'W ire pair or -r,tm1'(!''''in:~' &tidged raps, Ail ~t~inl"l'H~~it C-'fi.'tlJ he til1:~'4e' tlJjl~ '.~ysleDttS; ch::i[ pru\!.md~· a !f(:~n'R-t:i.~c ind rctltiomi ~r 1.ran~mi.s5~~n thillfgi r~ CDl~id r~~{'jll~hly be u~~~ with.a "!TIIar~i;]' H~remcd~ (j,f ;s- ~dB. Hb:w:G·~et, re1R~jng U1~ ~ci,igii rrL;8,~gln 1))1 Gl?le ertwo .:t9(~tib.e:ls transl ates into ~li-p.andi[J~g; t];U3 ~j:t~ Oif, .a:0c{)~ ... ~bk 'loop pOpul8;~tQn by .otIJ~y about f~ ~[ !flQPS,

One eQuid argue th~.l 11 tn.llnk~ El trunka, and. D'n~ -(dignaJ dfjia ¥.'G(rl'iti!:] l~'OJ~$ were th~ first DSts. A I,tlmugh T 1 U. ..544 M'bh Ahernate· 'Mark Inversica (A~1.[) •. hycdl '~rinH'iti1y 'in N'~r~h A111e1'~~m)., and E.I ,(2J142 Mhj,) 'HUB3} ltan::'U'[i,i:':s,i,()I:1i syste'L"il'5 'w~re mi,gll1ially -LnJb::l:'liIded tor use as ~r:Ufi!ks :bt~",,\leen ('_.e:!~,~Jai Offk~e::({CO:'f}r the)! later·,proved u~\J3fu ~ as n ughus.peed h[lkS frorn COs ('0- . -.' ,-, \, ._. '. '7"1 -;. " -,)"-'. 'n" - ,-."~,I Il,. J AT-&' iT"· 'I'('j~?: ..... A" : ..... ,;<-~., .. 1\-0." d·· :" -.- ." .']-. ,¢XIS lOfill.e,r £iiles, .. .!I" earner V. a~ I! SE, usea H)' . _'" llill~ ::11;)_, ~W~ l.o-'LY tr un t'..~ to a-y .. ~x~ ¢lHi re, Y

:f1b~1~ and H~ lcrowave b~~ii?~. TUE 1. ~ Unes. :at-q: tim. 1J~~d tD;day for- their original purpose, rU" liE 1

zs

J'i:!1ie~·~r~:~l>hn used on Su.bscr.iber !L[~e5i,:,-,but they lKLV'e; ~hd\r drawbacks, They are e:xpeJls,lve and Um~ c~J'lisumi ng (;{) insoa11 ~l~d ~IJ,e u~ua'lly segre~is;~ed, ]tHO, Moder ,gnH,lplS '(wire po11J' bun,~l~} separate from other typ-es: ur ~nLnsmissl,of1 systems.A TJ line cD!t$i~lL~ (j.:f four wires. Two' wires con"!'t,Y inron1).9.ti an to the cus lomer, and another i\"NZI wires convey i nf()mu1JtiOil1 from, tnC" c ustomer, 1."e," :f<!~d!u{:c ncar-cud crosstalk between the lwo dJ:rc,cdoI1:s of ~~raJltsn.li.s$.on.,. one cable blader grO\tp . fa bund ~t of w ires) carries only outbound 1'! pairs, itnd a different binder ~:J'{'.iIil:P carries O'r,ily ti:JbotLnd '['] pairs. T'I lillozs'ar¢'tluigned .. ,,·i[h ~ ~l;(jirU,l,~l 11$ dB (e.~ .. , 2 [0'3 kft) 0'( line loss n(: 1']'1 ,l{Hi' for '~he Cp'end s'lZtliOIl (CO-(.rj,~~its'l.r~pl':'nWr) -. a maximum of 36 dB (e .. g_. J to 6 ttl) loss lor :F'qpca.:ej'-~:o~l:epearer sections, ,anll up lrr 21:5 ~l.B of'~ ~b~ loss from the :I a;~t. repeater IiO the customer premises, T] Li,I:"bes: must he u nloaded and have no bridged taps" D4-t~'(li;eii of many m.ik:s; may be covered by the use of many repeaters, TI repeatr;:(r:q~U'e powered via ~I-.l~ :130''''O~l DC Jinepower, :for the ~r:po,se5 of lh'is book, w~ dm] I eons lder T'i I.E I aJ~d :DD$. 110~ to be .DSLs,

The AM] line code :I:or'f] iransmission e simple to ,rfJrlelJi1JE:ntbul.i~ {lileffi{!~cnl by lodfJ:y's standards .. AMl sends, one blt per band: a-baud is one tj,j,gna] element, T1 transn is., ion uses a high transraitted sign-aT rOWeL which g~nernte!!> h igh levit~s or crosstalk I"Wl"ln 1 00 kHz to 2. MHl;, ~O.[her DSL;!!,~" which use these same frequencies; ean be affected if pln·t:ed in ~t b.tIider girm.l.p with T 1 lines .. In exueme cases 'I' 1 crossralk 'can affect ltieps in. othl;;.r- bi nder groUp:;;i, e ,

. . .

2.;3, [B.asic Rate, :IS[[)N

2,.3,.'1 liS DN Sa sic R~.J:e Of:ugiti:S:

In th:ls book, we shall. conslder basic rate ISDN (SRI) to be the first ll:l the farm ~y of OS L$, In~€g.HLled services di,gital network ([SON) was :llrsl·o.Qncei\red in ]976: and was !;!&l'g.£,~)' dl.:oriine.d by, RC{:oitl~tle1"ldl~ ~01:lS: developed wHtbi.n ·U,c ccrrr (no,\,\! called the TfU'r [~te.Inationalldecornmuaicaticns U:ni(l~} The, ISDN'vision was ambitiolJ.s;, a ur if:O'I'Il'l.glohal network tor data comtn'luiri,c,a:tJ.o:rrs and telephony. Dev,e-Iq.pnlt.'i.lI1l of the [sDN transm iss] on. s witching, signali ag; and o~er~dons. ;§.~"s~cm$, requ i red a: hercu ~.eal!l effort remun lscerit of the ,c'6li.Sitruc~,i0ij of a cffnthliental railway llet~'9rk. c.nly to h~ foll o.~ .. ed I?l' the invention of the. ~irpl~ul~., 1'f~ e,ff()'I,t to develop ISDN .~.pa[lnciJ,: ~~ d~r.:a.de:, wi ~:11. I? (for.t$ of [h.~:us~nd~ (I f people ffo'~1 il.lm J reds C}f companies j lit more thall1 r ~o. co !Jntri,es:- We estiruarc that the: development of IS ON 'I,,':JQst QV~ . .T $'5:0 hi fI ion: i l is not known 1,:1:" this 1 n,'Ves~.rne'tl;~, wi'U be 'fu'lly recovered. ISDN w as focti sed o.~ telepllOny services and lower-speed packet-switched data. This. focus ulrimarcly bceame a '!l'lajor weakness" ]S:6N networks Wcn~:· poorly suited for the high-speed packet switchi: ~ aJKIIQ31~ h('Ad~ng'&ti.me sessions that .c.na:ra{:'[Gl'icz,e 'i'rU.e:rn-et aCC":'~lS; Ncnetbelcss, ~ho\St ~vho weuld cJall~':t.l II,lie fui,h.H"IB of IS'DN mIL1S~

".. ..' .

nol for_g4t the mj~l,i()ns: of h.appy·~~SDN (!U~tOl1lcrs"

ISD~"",{' service tl;~ah; begae in H~85_ 1iJC first NQlfiLh America» lSD .. service \.~·~1S PE?vided in ~9~ft by A:r~T-min1)h~ B~·~l (now called Ame"iit'!.~~~) in Oakbr~ok" Illlnols, F..Iidy trial BJU $:yste,ms employed :rCtvl (pung- POrtgl, 0'1" a~~:el.'[11'I('Ei Tnfir~ 'i IIIvtrsiODi ~AMI) transm lssion [ed~oi g:U<f::;S . .: These early systems were ::,.j,fllip~ef to Imp.lement., but 2H Iql hli~l'fl.ryj. J quaternary) transm~ .:5,io.o was: selected f~)(' the s '~l.t d.al'd trnns,mi:s:s.IQtl· teehn iques ,for []~:;,~ .~j' an pa 'I.S of the world

,e-xc~pnhe.·f'ederal Repl.lbUc ofGermeny and ,.,t\,~li,strra., whkh ~.se·4It.l:T (4 :Biumy, j Teraa y)' and J.apa~, which uses' ~. ping-pong AMI aansmissloa meth~d.. ]J1;1;;.'= loop reach of the ,is I,Q"' and 4B ~ T ~,y.~t'mns i~ grealcr thau the prestandard systems, wbiun. quickly faded :fm~ use,

The t-01a.1 number of B RI J i:n1e.tl. ~~~ serv lee \M(J[~d widr.::: gr~' fJ:'(}lliil 1.7 ml.!tl:on in 1994 It) nearly () :FI1:~ Hi'('ITI b~' the endof 1996. 11"e approxinl.ate numlbe,r of ],SDN ~'~!I1es: fur :thecO'LIi!l1trues 'w~lfuj the Iargest ISDN dep1o:y:mems n~e ~r,ovidt':@, below, The 199.1, ,Infmm:&!tmon':ts based on ITU statistics. The 1996 values, are based on. In form,atl on provided by experts from the rcspccti ve eeuntrics. TIle u..S. :t 9% number is from 'pee statisrics, ISDN de.pHjyment is ,gtowing'~~l 30% to .5~% per' }'le.~t in f.ni:niY·GQLltllri~.

Ta,blle' ,2.,1 B~~c Hal'e ISDN. L-mes in Servlcs

Gerrnany tI!li:~'+tt St~~$.

428..000 :352.,000

l})I)lJ,fJOO 8!1l3 15 1.0!J0;OOo. ·1.40(),Q ,0 .100,.000

.~ ,,;-. 00' o'

Ja J~:n . .l._~.r,

France :24.0 000"

Urd.t,,;;d KL~gd{lim '75.000'"

The d~pl-oYl~e:nt of ISDN in GerlJllany '~Vi):S accelerated by governmen« mandate. wne'D"Cas other ,(,ti!1l'I~it!'ies i1a'I,,!'e ';,o.uowed. -a market demand d0:ploJ[[)lent mod e], ISDN. service was available n i 996 to about 90% of'telephonc customers ini fbe countrles II,sred I.n r ,able:..2.] ..

2.3.2 B,as~p Rat,e. ISD'NI CapaibiiJl i~ies 'and ,ApiP II:catioh~Sf

BRJI tr.fH1SPC.1itS a total ~f 'MO kb/~ of s·y.~.rmle~ti~",d~git1lJ1 :i,lJlorm::i&]o~ 9'r€t loops up t9 ap,pr!l}x~'ri~?l;tely t '~, ~f.t (? ~ knl I Q[ up to 42 dB' of Joss at .4~ k·~~,t1.), This is chan rle.}t?:;e~i ~ii;, {twJ) ,~ kis j.~ d).lUH~e'ls, 9~lc-l~ ~b/s D C.hanI11l9'1~ and 1'0. kbls :f~r framlng ~'I1;dJln~ control. TheB channels mgr.y 'be circuit s :w·mt~n.e:d. or packet ::;;w·itt:.hed. THlJe D chan riel carries $~,gna~tng. and user data. packets. An embedded operations cha.m:re] {~Qc),.and: ind~c.ato,r blts are ,co!~Hri!led! wltbln ,the 8 k'bl 0 cverhead, TI~~ eoc conveys messages used to diagnose the line and the transceivers. T ~e lndieator bits .l:de:IH'Efv bloc k error S so I,h~~ the uansmission perfbrmance of'the Ill]€!: [)'~ay. be measured.

RRI modulates da~ L'i::;h~g. one 'fO'U!~-J.I.}vet pilll::;c..(,a. quat) to :re.prt..~~.ru: two b:~ni!ll'c~' bits, hence 2. B i'llary OITI.~ Q-IJat.ter~.lal'1' ('lBTQ). D~,ta, is, 5C,IIU in both directicns simnhaneously I.l:::ri.ng echoc:anc'61~d hybrid fECH) t ·~·n~mi.~~ion! The ~:"'~r.rlp~e. 2B lQ baseband transmissjo~ If:ch!'riqiU'f. sends '160 kbj~ ~Jsit1g, 80 kHz oJ bandwiqrh, yielding a modes; bandwidtb effi,denc.y of 2 bit:s/s .pe Hz, Ada.pthr~ equal izatJo:n ;;1l..1tomtllk.aHy c. onspauaates :~O[[' attenuation across the U'aJ1Sm1 sslon band.

. BRI can w~r:~ .om ~ ~pop .w·l.lh 'Qn,{~g6d· ~ap~', pr-qv:kHltg the ~b(a:.[ l~ss 'is less than 41 da· 'M: 40. kflz,

anI: :1 qo.ps r1~u!o;t be. uol,o~dc{1L ...

2.3,.4, E.x,tended~R(1U11ge B~$:ic.' Rate IS['U!IJ

Loops beyond d:lreG[ Bf.U 'reach. of :5 .51::m (~, 8 ·lfrY fwm the CO ·may 'b€ ·SolJl"v.ed \' i;a, 3hcr~~,~ . [ive methods: .BRJTE, ffi~d.spa~ repeater arid e;;{j,ended-run,ge BR['

2~3,,,~"'1 'BR~TE

T%~c: rate l-SVN tTatlsJ:riis~:Lo~ e:x<te·n$i~n ~.B.RITE} Xse~ ~Fjgilr:~ 2:·"2) uses d.ig:6~~I: channel ~~l~ k:s (e,,!'J:,, D.4 ,alTa, ''q:S [ype mu.1 ~,t[~~exer~~ .. wh ~ch, time ·d,iVisitHi m~ l[ip~Efx: 24· !DEO d1J.a:nf!l®~5 i.nl~ .~~e: I 's44·Mh/s., Ii~~) and digj.t~:1. loop carriers (r~LC)J!$ ~·,meat1S 'to·ext~iVj ISDN service t'll Oi1icl:ls $;e:Ji\red lJY these channel banks, ~peda] ,[Sl)N d'l ~nr]el ,~uiit~ use ~hr:x:~ Dti~. in the channel b:&[J:k lID ~HLL1I!lpO,n: H~L Due ~~ (tbe addif onal cJ.i,a'lme~ l.l!1n i'~$, -the ,:ErRITE cotl'f~giJ~~a;ti~tL bas it rel~t tveily el:righ cost per. li ne, However. lA-'heIi, iU s:ing pr€0x·i5~in,g SLC or. channel ban k eqrtil tp,Il'Jl;~!"Jt~· the. Iew

st8rt-np cost of B,-RITE 'I:~. Mea;J. for serv ing 'very. small numbers t}i" lines in remote ·~j"ea5,

,J, :oSI},.''fI1 11i~ i!l"iU:liipb:;~~ iio~ ~~~ Ik~ ¥R~

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2.304.2 IV~wd~:pru~ R€'~;i2aoor-'

The [crop read~' ;f:hay be Jle~rly dOII,tbk~d by plJa:cing a repeatm· j tli· the middle of' the: ~Q"(:}P_ ,S,eD; :fligum 2:3., Since: ilbe 'rt,pc·.ai,v.[' hi, iI3~~~I:lJ~~~]!y .a b~,dk"~()~:b.ack tfT a.U!,a. Ll';, l~H~."~~O~? is ~,i:~~deg: !ili: ,:1 ~ndern 'pair of .DSLs: E:~dh ~lr ~h:~ l WC), ~oJ)p.s H~a)! lnllv.e up to 42: .dS· of loss ~:l40 ·~di~1 w'flkh ¢f.1iL;'te~rjolyd~ [0 ~ total 'rea:t'h or ~pprf)~.u.rn~tf'.l)' .30 'Ut· ,2 x '15)1.· Rep~ater.'j; are t~ p:i~call:y JO~~J1Bjjl ina

. .

.Iif{li~ tls10t ,rep::;~!,e:l' appaTi1iJ.H& G.~e: located hl' a manhole Cit" nH)li,!li~ed O~ ;!!i. pole. Since a manhole

with aYil.il.~~le,space m~y not he located .at the ,~~C! midpQj·ru: 'Of the lo.Qp.:~ the ter)~aler Q·.f:]''EIlJ is ioc;'ared somewh~l o.ff~·cen["o/r, .A;tLa r·~"s:U1hd·h,~ LHt1i(Ij,:a.bl~ 106~ reach of a rep~jt:e:t:ea~. line ·!;nay be. slighd}r ~e..i~ th~'Ll twice AHle 'ul!lt,e:pea&en~.d reach, Lo-adin_g:c6ih tJijtl~~t bc,tcmoy,e~l from . ~ he [90f) fbJ' :BR1. opel'a;tLQ>l1s wuf~' {~)!( w:rd~out repeaters, .

. Mkb·span repeaters, are I:ypka IJy powered viaa DQ \ln~tag~ (uslilally ~J 30 11.011£. DC) in 'rrhe:

United Sp:.ates s.lI!p'p!:ue:d fr.om a CO v~wer feed dtoctrut. For ·yet longer: reach!. IiI second r,e;pe~·~~. l)~tJJy 'be' employed, The two-repearer (;o:rtfig[Ji'~ti on .us :rnrcly !J.l5!td d:Me, to ·p~w·cr feediwg ~od ad~nlntstrat~~e Dpm.ple{l:Hie-s.:. The C03l .ofa rep,eat,eteJ l.in~ is domiD;iu.m 'by tIl,,,, :~atn~)i· tQf ~QC!P· design, the ~Wara~1JJ~ case, aLlQ: iristal !R'[l'L)~ of ·th~,:app:a:ratlJj:~ c~t'ie..'(i:nici~udililg ·~"l\le: s~.ud.~~g), The ~O?5t 0f: t~)e' I:'e.p.elt:er ;e~¢G!:1'ml,ics .is reiati:v-e.ly }~;ri1i;;)j! ~ in ¢Qrhprois.mL:

The r'6:p~~rer:ed c,QrrHgl!.!lrati D·t) and dlle ::B:RJTE· ¢cH~fi,guratiC!'~l have [,W:i0t::; the' ;S,~gn~lln'Ui$ff.tr, delay ,(:2.:$ ms.one W3l},) ~f dl.e dh'\;G~ nst, ciOnJig~r.::i)tl·'OJ]. (:L25 :m.~j,

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Transmi s;siqn ~clr~ffq'ue~ have- a,·(jva!H:tCJ since the cJ'f;~1ion of ~hC" BRI ;lt~at{jw[-{'l (~NSI.

T1Ai(;W), Tecbni\lue:5 .• ,S.~,Cll fI:S trellis (Qd~ft~, peJiltrit. 160 k1l1's· t~ be .~rans:mi~tted over Ieops llP' rc

." . . .. ..... .

8.5: ']{Ol "(18. kft) '!.!(ilh Olt~: ·the need f.or m.k~-S~i;1,i:l repeaters, :FGf b~cb~'·a:rd cm]J!pnL11h~li'[y; tbe

'8~~.tc[u:kd-;rnng.e .B:RI sYS!ie1TlS rl!r.esf;;~t thestandard ANSI T.1.601 ·iH,rerfa.ce to the· LT in the co ~wh!ch ni1ld ·a~\\iD· to H1Je C~;&lO.tHe'J~il'$ NTl, See F~g;lU"e i.4. No nnall:y I .a. CQ~ll;v€~:sion uni] .~.:s lOC;;8j~:(:J ~n a nrisoellaneo'-us equ-Lpment 'bay ln th,€ CO .. and the other conversion uliiJ~ is .IONHCd ln an enolosure ~ot.iillOO "3il the -nutside of the CIl:]5.t.O'I1He·r premi &II-s:. However. lot: t1!t~·tl:g [~he. t~110Ie con'Ver$~()~ LUi it i:~]. fL: mj{h~p;;!i~ ~Q!:aitj on may, ex·ten~ the, IQop ,rea~h r..l1Jhe:r,· As a res1J.lt a ~Qta~ tea:c:h 6f ITp.P'foiim,fi~0ly43 k.f~·" i5 + 28) JtI,~.y be ·au~lfled.':Fultherr~i9f-e\. 't\h.t1. ·tle[wt)[~ .• ~~J:I1:· converter ih~y fi!S~··M :pJaceq r,~,rnoje~'y, poovi,o~d that loca.lIJ"6v.cer b~ ~.\'fli!a~:l.e ~~ rt. e.sit e ..

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.~~L3. 5 D igitaill Added M awn Line

BRI uriJJlsce.ive;l"$ :!lire also used for l1)o[l·lISDN appl icatlons _. most !lot~bl J.' d"tgnta.'i ad:Gl.ed main line (DAML). DAJir,·ii. syslc;ms permits OAe loop-to cnnvey two Yoke, telephone circuits, :.see .figtll!l~ 2·5. V6iCl: ceder/decoders. (CODbCs,) at each end of the OA.ML sy..s.E.~]'IJ] eoavert t.h.~ . M kbt:., .. Ei·R[ B !Ch~r:Ht:el to. an .al:lialo.g tde:pllol'le .i nterface. 'rhus. the t["f~d:Ltmr0na] voice te~eptJ.aI:lY j.~lte.rface i' fwo·v.i"de.d to the.' CO 'switch and the customer's phones. DA Ml, systems arc- used (0 provide a4dWona] rclcpaone service to Sitys .. in an area h:a.ving a shortage of spare wire- pairs bet 'W~C~il rhe Co. and [he CU ~.tonle(S. ;.n'L~ pAhiL un it 'at the CU3~~:Hru:lT"'s pre:m ~;SGS i ~ usually powr;:red [wm. '<:0 power led via tb~' loop, DA}.-fL ,:)yst-e·~i.$ us il1 g SRI ·te,clrul:tol0,gy have ~ ma~ i.rl!'lul:n I,Q'!Jp reach of 5:.5 .km (~ S. kft· .. Hl)S17 besed .DAlVIL i5ys~.em s C3n conveymore thalli ~ W(~ ... oke circ~lits 'via one pair Qf w~l'e$:~

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'2.:3,.6 IDSL

Another non-]S'QN ~ppbt:ali~)r.I of"13B,1 'n~llsce:i"'e:fS: L 1DSL (ISDN D.s,~)" The SRI symme~'fk; ch~R'meJs._(r28 [(W'S or ] 44 kblJ) are eoncarcnnted [,0 'Dorm o:nli.l ch~nnel fuldrnn.s.m~ssion ·of D~ckel daH{bd,wQc,[1I a- router and.the customer's eornputer. MO$~ [ormsof ]DS'L wlll work with a conventional IS ON NT at, m'h(, ctJ;s~.{)mer end of tile Ii ne. Thus, with IDSL the IS!): ~ocai swirch

- .

2014 H.DSt

2.4.: H DSL a:ll'i'gi'ns

The: e81rly co.ncept definhi.qf1 uf HDSL {Mgb-'blt-Lii~te digltal-subscrjbcr bile) took place in b~t.c 19-8.0 at AT&T B.e:1J Laboratodes and Bellcore. .Ht~S.L transceiver deslgns "'ll'~C ,~~endal.1}' up-~·ca.lc basic rate J S DN de~l.~ll~, .L~h0rolory pmtmype 'HDSI. systems appeared in. ]:9&9; The first HDSL was. placed. into service in t\.'tarcn 1992 by Bel] C~iMJfL using equipment ,nl('(tlillfac. 'mred. by ·j"e·H~bs Operations lnc .: [[] Lisle, Illincis. Ne~~rly ,e;\fer~' m~~jor t~iiQpbone conl~~?!-rw ~r.l [he 'wo-dd now uses-}:iDSL II~l 1997. ~ppro;:.;:i[Jlatelj'·4.5{),O(m.HDSl ~'i~e~ 'Were in-service WIOrklw'i'(]~ with approx~~.alely 35 (} ,.0 00, llnes of these mii:Je~ iii N01~~h America, HpSL d~plqyme;rlltJ1 growing. a~. more than 'i5_(~,(I()O '''il1les pe:e. year. 'In October J 998; ~hc rru ,ap,pft)ve(l: R~co:rn,m~ndalkm Q-,99 ~ ,l tar first :g~DeradQ~ HD'SL ~ tl1 i'$ i~ based .do.sely (m ~he ETsr Techn Icnl Spee]fit.: arion TM . ...!03'03.6, Th-~ au has started "'iHJ_[~ on a second gcneratlen HO'SL (HDSLi). Recom me ndamioEl ttl at wi n he called G, 99' 1. ,2._

- . The ne~d f(lil:' ji"OSL became: 'evident as t'l 8:iiid E 'I ~l'ansrnissj on systems ceased to be used fUT their prigi L1·a~ purpose as. interoffice trunks <'lind saw rapid growth as 'pfi~t(:·li.lilc~ from Central OIT-a(:e to customer premises, TJlEl tralllsn:rE58i.()~ ~y.~iel1l· operated over the exi.s:rilii?: lc.U~,p:ho:ne W lres, but ,bU a :~~rg:€ cost, ((lot spcci al engineering, iOO.I," (;oIldlti{ming (:reuliq·v.al of bji·dS~d taps 'a'nd loading coils), and splic ung for app'ar.f:l,tl!J~ cases LO> hql:d tile repeaters. ~:l)aJt were reg ul red every_. ::l;O(}O ~n,5, oon feet, The transmission methods L~$;;;d Ior TIJEJ Lines Elhl(:e~ <high 'levels oftransmit :s.ign.al power ~t frcquenG~es fil til 'WO.kHz 10 abo'~e'2' ~'~Hz:~ ~h's required tbesegregaticn of TUEl. lines i]jl~Q bhider g~"~ps. ..'ie:p~rat\- fmL1l1'[8:all}, ether services. 111 .SIddhion to beillg expensive ~9 install and ]liJaiIlU!;iH~ TUB: l'hles'oflt:"TI [Qok many weeks from service order to-service Ul1lH1p. What w-as; needed V!,1. s ,H plug-ami-play trausm i $S'; on: :SYS[€Ii:1I that could- {111l1 iGk~y al1d· east I 'Y provi de J ".5: or :2. ~,~,b-!~. tram; sport qC',;'e:r moot subsc riber I ines, thus HIIA~l.,.

1JDSL~~ benefits are h-l.f:gel::t dlJ,!le to the 'Ed.in)1j]n<1~~on of mid-span reP'*alers. Each r.ep.ea1e:r .s:ite must be 'Gu:stom--eng'mn,e~ifed. to assure that. each seedon of t~e line remains withuli, the limits for si_gnal ] oss. TI:yB. repeated signals c.nn ,~:aUis;e severe. c~u:.;st:;Ll~; t'l"liljjS §~ie{:.iai care om ust be. rake \ i 11) [he. des ign Q:f repe&ttt;reo f'acU ~I·;C.~ W a voi d ex.c,;s$'i ve crossral k. to other transm iss [O!] systems The repeater ls place·(j. in an en v i~nmt:nt:a] Iy harde ned apparatus case 'in a manhn leo!' 0 it a pole:

The appar..mtu;s ,r.;·;ase rn'!J~l be. spliced ineo tbe cable. The appaiaws case costs far more than' the . u~pea~r_~. it h o~l,d4, ,A, repeater f~~ lu re resul ~s :i D~' ~t field serv i ce. vis iI, Repeaters are u.sut!Hy ~i 111"::

31

powered; this requires a special line feed p(j-\c\'er supply.at the. ca. M'OSl of I he.' power fed by'th{l' CO power S1JPP'~i' is t~'ast!fd due w loop reslsumee aed pi)'i;J,;'e'r SUPP1)i inefficic ncies,

HDSL is also preferred crv.C'r. tm~'iJ~onaJ T 1, carriers because HDSL provides .J]1.O~ exren-

. ~

sive diagnu.srlc features {i:ndudiEig '~NR 'm,caSIIJ('~Wll~I;tJ a~d. HD..st causes less erosstalk fa otber

u·.ansrol ssi em systems. bec;;l!u~~ it~ traJu;mi [ ~i.gn:aJ is confined to ri!r~r:l"I~'I,!,.'~r· bfl:rid\~!'i9!!.h than H1C trad"i:ti(fll]lal T~ carrier,

H,DSL providestwo-way L:544 01'1-048 Mh.I:s transport o v er l<;lcphone lines up ;;{1 3.7 km (12 kft) of 0...5, Tllil1l (2.4 A \V(J) tw lsled ~ r W.i'l;hcn,H:-a 'In i:d..-splln repeal6.I S!riId up to nearly ~ wice tnts disrance with one .. m~d-:s,p·an repea~e[ Mare than 9.5% nf HDSl. Jines have-no epeater. As a rule, t'Kr ~imle: c~n{h~ .. U'O~r~lg Q1I' bindc[ ~roup ~~gregj~~o!li is T'G,qlIU~d for I~IDSt,. HDSL provides rel[i~Lb]e t.t:!l.Ir~~m.i:ss ion over all carrier serving: arc.aJC~A} I ines 'J,!i,.' j rh ~, ty.pk:a.1 b.' t I3-1TOT- ['JJ~-e ~Or J 0-9- to io 1.0. DS;J ('1 .. 54.4, :Mblsj HQSL sY,,'j[cms lise I,WO p~i.i's of wires INitl'IJ each paLr.~.~Jlwcylng 7;08 .kb/s (;)'fpa,yjo~4 Ct~A. kb/s nee_[) iii1 both ~~h'el1Jons, Tbus, the terns dU!l1J ~h/plei IS ~~e~~ 'to describe HDSL.~r.a rsmlsston .. See Figure. 2,.6. El .(2.048 ~Vfbls.) HDSt systems have U'I¢ (l~Hf.cm ,oJ ru~mng

l .... yi] or rhree wire pairs i' wk~'b e,?ld~ wj re pah: usin.g. -[Ii] ~ l-duplex traasmtssion, The. lht'ee-p·air '"2.04S. Mbls FJIJSL IL1S~S the very same 784 khh; transceivers .as t-hc: 1 ;544 Mb/s sJ:slems. .. HDSL loops 'm"ny have bridged tnps, bu~ 'no loading coils .

. ~

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[)e~pite cady deseri pticns 'Of" HDSL as a "repeaterless ~echn:o}ogJ,;." HDSL repeaters 1:IJro commonly H:.J~ fot ~~le.~ beY'ciri~ HDSL.'i ~ollr.{..vp(:.~tcre~. reach .of 2.7'S '[0 3.1 km (9 fer 12 kIO . . . or 24. A\VG \\ir.e;·, up [0-. ~/_:"l km (~4 kft) t;:~L~ be i" fI;t·he:d. wlt~ one. repeascr (m~1 ~p to U km (:36

3,2,

i.:.fO with two repe .. uers, The actual ffi3:cb C~!i be less 'whwe it i s iJQt pO:):';J ble to place dlle a~pe.aler at the precise midpoint. E..2!riy two-repeater HDS]'. systems pm~r,ere,.j the I'ir,~[, repeater' vi,l line P()Vi,~e.I· f[\Ol:n 'the CD 'i:rnd. rhe second rep~'~lLer was: powered from rhe (:,1J;::;!tume:t: site. ~c,,\,\.~er ~,i~:·edil:lg fr:9ti!l: ~ he.custosner site poses TIl ain ten ance and attrni rri$l n~ti VI? drawbacks, With, rec ent i:cductmQJU: i n transceiver p O\IIi'~f': cons unQ])tiQ31,. i ~ h~ts' become pl;,l>sslhle to UJi,{! power two tandem HDS,L,

repe,at,~rs frol]"! t'h,G. CO power source, ,

Ptlmary rate (~ .. 544. Or ,:dJ4i~ Mill's) p[']: v ate !ine circuits frorn ,a user [0 the netwcrkis the !eadtng ~iI)S.L application. HDSL is ;1. pOpUT3!f means to connect Dri'~;~M, bran ··h ~~91iarrng,e.,(PBX) and p,Elcke~l A'l'M data equl pmcru to. the pubik: netwcrk. HDS t I i nks ~\r~ used I[o'l ink \V ird'!3 ~$ radio sites lruo the ~andl~i1Jl~ network. fIDSl,is;. used ~'O conrrecr sm81J cl!ig~t::1i:' k)op carrier (I)lLC si [1.9::: 1:0. ~ he 'CO .. During.l es 'tL'f~t few yea I'~ of use, ~J~~ hlglt '!.:.<m,;( of f lDSt eq lri'fHl),e.n~ limited the use of HDSL ~,n :s·i! uatiens' \!,,'h.e:(~ there W~8' n 0 ccon (;llfJ"i.~'a1 S jtc to. place a re~~tcr -app.araws eesc. By tim end (lor .~ 9?4,.I~e price of HDSL equipment. had reached ~he point where HDSt Wo!rS ceo-

, ,

n6rnic~,Uy prc:fcrred over trad~tiom'll THEl trnfls:miss~iU'[j .eqlJ.tpmc'nl fQT neady all new installa-

tiens, 1'f~ditj· ~UL! 'fllET equipment is still used for very S.l7to~'i lines (k~£. than .3 kft) that require ,li~7 fep¢';M,e:r·~ I'Ild for vei'.! ,I f;)ng' fi nes (tn,ore nlu.l:ni1 30 ktt} til at WGu]d req ui re 'm-q.re tha~l tw~ HOSt, repeaters,

The. annual mai ntenan ce costs of H DSL lines are '1 ower ~Ila.ti for T ME I fi ne~, because HDSL '!:[Iles have re-\~,er 'f6pOOE:erS ·'D fail, :;;u])e:t~or tr~nsn:~is~6f1 robustness: utld improved ,di;gnostic capabi I nlk:s .. However, ex istiug ~r~' iE J I ines arlo: rare 1.)1 repl.ac~(I by new HDSL 1 ine'~ due tn

the cost of in~i~all'hg the flew ~in~. ,

Althongh HDS L a'~ J)1: ~$.t used ~y local {}x,dl"an_gf carriers telephoae oempaniea), rhere 'J s ·omc us-it ofHDSL hil private 11(!l'Wp["ks,~o PI',Q\'Ld£ high-speed Iinks berween.baildiags wlthin a campus.

2.4.3

HIDS~ TI'''''ng,ndss lon

I . .III- _~. . !. __ ,Il._._

EctJ~I,~c~riC.- k:d 11)' bd;j dun~ndup I e X 2:6 1 Q Han~:rrriss UQ.n is, used for nc~~rl.}: all H DS' . systcms. worldwide, wnl~ some discrete. multitonc (DM.T') and carrierless AM/,P.M' (CAP) 8ys~e:nt~; used tin P3J'tS. or Eu:ro?c:. For 1 . .544 MtY::l, U'a['r,jJHm~ dua ~-titl.plcx !T;!UilS !'11 iss Ii(H~ !J:ses each pea i r of \,';f~r€s to convey .'~tle-~1.alfof tile ~'""Q-,\i!,o'a'y D~~yl(.oad n6~ kb/,) plus f!ra.miru!: and embedded operaL~QnS Ghanr~~l (e( c) overhead {~' to kbhi for' H tbtai] of 7~4 kbhj. 't,t1ulsm,iS.",NOIJ. Two p.t~lF.i. nf wires n:ta~c up' the total ] ,544 ,Mbts. HOSL [:ra~Srilj ssion s)~:~e[ITI, $ili~cc. troe same i v erheed i aformati OJ] ~,~ C !hycy,cd Qlli both w i ~e pairs, the !j"~tc'i ver .scleci , DIl(; wire pair fur. the (f, • .:.erbe.f!ld jn f(linil~H.Eon_ Usu~Uy. 'the receiver set ';(;s the \! ire p~j'r''''iru~:h the beuer,s.I.gfjf.:lj-w~noffie ratlo ~:SNR).

Several al ternarl \.' "'$ were coasidered for 'lth::; uri g ill a] lIDSL S' y;::;H~,r,ns~ SJ illglt. duplex, d!L! ~rI, slmpl ex, ':'UH.l dua] duplex.

Sit:lg~e'dup.lex ';pmvide~ ~I)e benefits of u ',illlg !"II.i'! J (lite pair of wires ('Ind rtqLJ1U"jn:g only nne trensmi tter-recelver pair II eacf end of rbe [j nc. See, Pl ~!Hfit: 2. .1_ The ~"'vo d irt:~~.inns., of transmlssian may he: ~e,p,af,mtt.~ by tl~q~~ency division m;u~ti]'~~x~l,g . FD.M) qr by echo-canceled J)'ybI~d (ECH) tl;al~~rnd s$i YJ1. However l£diD ~.luTi tt~l1g the full pay cad rate: (J' er most lceps was beyond ~hc

,~(Jn :bQ'Wjr~:treflI1I!" T~yl{)a~

, .,

abili ties orr the lechno'~O'gy in the early '1 99{fs" :FlLldh'gmllure~ the ~ar~e ·'band&vl.dtb tIeeded presen~:cd c;,on-cen'ls for s'pedr«], ~(lili\p~ht..i]itt W~~'[) 'other (}.'pet; of ~nlilsrrlb·si(Jii:'JJ 'sy~~'elw:- The ~ln,gle~ pnh' 'I ,,:~44 :WfP"/~' HDSL s)'sl~n:ts {soritc.fi mes t~n<cd' ~DSL} dbvelio:pii!d in 'the ,~tr~X :1 99(hf had a toop reaoh of less, ~h~i:r,~ ~ft. ,Oil :16 Awn wire; 'this,·s.f.J.(jn. [each ¥r~tJy hmih~,d' ,'~~lr ~~tilhy._~O~l}' w~~th dlC mDsl' ad varnl.ced k~h~i?gy 1~'\'1i~~b~e un, th~ l!tt~ 19~O::'; ';~oes .:il :a'pp~mi [h~at slng,~e:-d!,JbI6i, '1_544. Mbl~ ~n:$p6rt. nWL')' become pta.etk.id f(ji;" ('nil cilrri,er serv ht~ area {CS A) '] 0i?V' :rei~9ru" HOSL1,! deseribed jn Sectl~ln.· 2.,4 A'I er:nploj.!'$ shlgle-du,plex tr2!nsm~.$$i'OTk

Ih.i.al~$i:..:np~~x ~:~f!,~mi5ji9n uses LI.I,I\o p:;!ij r~ ':of Wlr'i}S, with _ one 'wire plil:ur earry] I.l~' the (un

. .. .. . ."

p:liI.ylo,a.u in u.n1'? ,d~~·.;;;~i>0i~ ·i!Ll1!d the !<.i~cQ~d '~j re J(a~t c~rl'yl1~ g the, fun ,r:at~· ~r:ai1i~),b1:L~si~n i ffii the, ~.P'po.-

~ te· d ~recti!oi~" See Figu~ +-8 ~ Thi s prn_v.id~"'i',!3' ·~~ty simple meaus It:ll[ [he s~pa;(hltip:n, of the sig~ab. In the ~ wo clHfe,"re.~( di:r~iti{)I1."" of transmission .. Tradit ~(.'lo,naJ 1'~1 (,"1;Ill'Ti'cr, !;;ltie·:s ,dlR~lil-s.irr.rp~eK n:~ns-

mission, Deal-simplex tmfJSH1is;:d on. ·:ha;~ ,ttile <.1:1 sadvaiuage of ·tla[tSm-ltl'lng a ::.:;i:g!tl1d wifh ill wj,Je' ficqI11:c,ncy btIJ(~;Jwtd:th., 'i,'!itri,c:l'J 1::; subject [0 ~grea~ ]'Ol'1'g, and crosstalk st the ht~her froqne.llcies" ,1)ue ~b erosstal k, ~he' s1,gnals, 'sent orr the t'~~io() pR'~r,i1. of \vi.te. s ,j:H:e r>.io~ ftt'~ly so:;grcgfi:~,vd'" 1~U.S1 t~e cl.iJa'I~ Sltb]:'PJ~x tr~:lt$,oo~veB may be 5impli?ft but ,~jl:te 're::;II;I.~tm'~g p"erf9':r:m~rl{!?: is' 'infan"i9[ t~ dt~~f d:l,l!p'le;~ ..

, Du~'I-durk~x llrfu!Jjsi[]],~$;sion :i.mp"io~s'· the. ~Ghiey~m~ loep. r(~_ach ·~iltd.~1teftr~1. C?th~~16biHty ~ ~l'I}a~'ng onl}' one:,;h.~~f of [lliIe\~otRl infGnll~~:ion·m ... eoch:'Wi~p·Ri:F! 36(';" fli~.r~ '4.:9', 1i:D~t :fur .... H~er reduces the ban~v, ... i:.d:th or the ttaHs:mijneJ S ijgQal by u~i~g ECH_ transm fs~in;J:I [l) ~~t1d. ~~h~ two d:uptc:tUQEiI;s of H'8;~S'll1 ~{1~km 'in the 'sarue frcq'!,.ien~y 'band- -Tm.e dt.la']~,d.lJpl~":!, lI:iJSL tf:}1Jilsm:i,ned signal power is progress hfe~Y' resg fm'"'frcquendes above ]96: kHz; A~ a ~BG,~tJU~ .the sl~ni;1~ C['Qsst~&k ~nd ·a~ter,jiuH't'i\J.n Is' #duce(3,_ A nother .adv,jmt~~e: .of d~Ja'l'-J~~,pJ,e~, ~:m~Lf.i.'mi'~!':,im r ~·s, that tr!-]oi:n~ one p~ii:

ofw(~ can ,~msi1y f,i'J'9'!lide'a ha1f.!l~alei 1:r~msmhr~km s.ys~:em_

,

Ot1;e-pitm,l', ria.~t~on-a:I-I'at,~ HDSL :s.ySJ~lTI~ are I..!ISe:J ,Qr the transpon 0.[ fra·.::t:i.Oitli::{>i-·rnte private-f ne services of" ?6~ kb/~ ~ilj belowand a] so fo:r .. ~n~:11 roup carrier S:1''l tems 's uppo:ui:ng 12 or fewer vQ.i~e Ch.f'LIUH~.I$'_. fmc:ri()(i:l!al-mlc· HDSL plug'-JIiIS fur the D~ channel n-a'I',P( pc.:rmit 11:1]) t? 1-2 DStt~ . .of HDSr.. t~n$:porl' '~nfonnal.km so be nlu.ldplexcdi w.hh ~n&o,fmlitlmQn'fro~~') other. channe] unhs in rhe SMm:: :04 rCh~lmcl bank,

Ideuticab nrmj'[u,enance infoemationjjndicater lbc'ls aadeo ,i ('OJ]' eyed QtJl ~~icb wire. pail' of the dlJal·-du~lex HDSL, system, This rt~uJidah'L tranSpOfL of 'I:i!~ ov~rh(:'ad permits ·fhe use of Jtile, same tranaeelver componems f"Or one- .. t,'O!,',o~ •. :and three-wire ')atr. ADSI.. systems . Funhermore, the redundant ovethead h:rtbnn&t~ol1l ensures rcl iab~e op!/.!imtion of the mal ntenanee fl,l.t\c,[~o.ns even 'If ~ rnilt5mrli;S.Si~n tu_s .. f.aHedi or is i mpal t'ed em one of the ho~.,

"It, . AI ij! 'Ii 'I" .

k,-*'Ii· • ...; •. ~ l:~nUl!g

HQ:SL frarn~nig cot.l~:ai:n5 posi t IO'I1iS for staff quats (quate.ntar)' S~ymboTg ,rerr·es~n:t] ng .t WO bas): The SlUJif quats ~.!!'e added to- frame's as needed to synchronize.the THEl payloa I hii~. rate 1'0 the H.IDSL I ine t:t':ll.osmissi.o,n, rate. To ,pe~:ffiit. C nec~i ve e cf"io.7c:allcded Dp "t111liol1; the upsrream and dO~~lllstr,zanll HDSL symbol rates rnust he e~ac:tl"i 'the same, There are some sitaarions where the;

.. " ~ . . .

upstream 1'1 m·l ,pay r oad hi~ ratei:rthy sl - gl.)dy ~ilfe.r trOll'! the' d6~1\'1l~tI'te am r ~~'lOttd bit late - 1114.::

:::n~ff q~~~ls, l,(1~'Cl!h.€J' witha 'htD.lfL:btlH{:(ng.; ~;·e.rn:ljt fhc payl'o:md rate to differ slightly frO'l"n the HDSL Ii~{: n)jre. ]\{aj1Y phbJ"it !:lee:w~'rk Tl)'E.] .dn;uil~ are loop timed, whfich me~m;s thal the upssream l~m r:rq~' is d~r~· cd :Fr~YIY! ~ he d ownstre, Tn bit c ~oc k, Loop.-ti:rned ci rcul!ts do not require stuff quats, HO'i,y;.eve]'~ ~'hi 5 fe:aH.'lJ'e is pro,vided On fLn HDSts in the event that a cir'C'IJ:il is nor LCH)P' timed,

1.4.3-.2 Delay (]-,a~en.cy),

l-radi~.[onal TI transmission systems; Il~';,"·, an .. erid-to-end signal transfer delay of ks.s than WO microseconds, DlB _.0 the ~(gital };lgm~1 precessing, HDSL circuitstypically have approxini:f\t:.::ly 40(} microseconds of 'ig:llal transfer ~e].ay as measured one :vay between the n.sx-·] .interfar.:e a£!iI Itle.:TL"103.illJieJ'f~c~.! The ,md:d.:iEkmu~ de~ay round. in HDSt. sy!'.*::ln~'Tarel.y pOS.C;j· a pr6b."km., b!iJ tyt~~re ;h a vc been a Icw c ases where UPlJif:l';'] a) er protecoi IbVJli.dshakes have ti 1)1 I¥ t1:-. 0 ul ~jj!J to. the lt1t:d end-to-end delay. EO!: this reason. JfDSL. systems .alle'd.e;f1ig'Jeo to :1s,~lLIre ~'h(lt th~ one-way slg.lHi.~ trnl1lsrrz::["' delay fUF" a nonrepeatered HDSt line is less than son microseconds,

lID§L I'tne.;; whh 'onc'~nid~,s:pat'l rckeat-e:r iH.I:ve twice this d,e;h~y. 'Other. network elen .. ents iiiidu~ing .~QNE~r J.ctmm:ruWs. a:nd dig't~}j erose-connect. systems (DOS) may ha'\" j"jelay~ in· excess of 50P mlc~s;ccoJld~L Thus, end .sj's,tt':Jns. sholU.M allow fora :[0", ..... - mi 11'1 lsecoads of network de,Jay regard-· tess 6.f the preserrlce of HDSL.

1.4.3.3 BitErroe Rate

.HD~L ~}'S te!t'tS, like BRI ~~1~ ADS~L. are dvi)igned to assure beuer rhan 1: 0-] om t. error (- ue (BER). orr ·WO'l'S.H~~Sd 10'opS with erosstatk L1IQ,i~e power 6 dB gre .. ater thaUl the theoretical worst-

~~sc ~!;!~~I.k<; model, "this d~~~grt c.r.i.~~ri~. iiS oosed on the .engi:il.etJ'lng j Ldd,gmeTlil and: ,agre.emefHS (lmIQ,ng ~ea'~Hi}:,g experts. in the 1'1.:6]" . standards workiJ'lg groep, A decade' of field experience .hus pto~!e~ mhis. de..s,~g~ criteria to he a good compromise between over-engineering (L1llderu$e ... lue to 0VC.r1.y consesvative des i,g~~) and uader-cngi neeri 'lg (poor ~"e:ll,(!bi [:j·ry due 'to the, J ([eli: ,),f !~cih~s'l~:u~ss;).

None thclcas, there are t W-I;} 'Pre\.ral,e:rli~: rnisconcepti om:··mgani].ing th'Q BEiR.'id¢sign or HDS Ls 'Hind {j~:he DSLs •. The 'firs( Iniscoii'iccp:f~on ts· that most HD$..Ls ;ope..n.t$:: ~I; 10.-1 B.ER._ 'The ~. o· i :B.BR 'I;i.td.ue is for ~ ·wor~H~;"~)'T.st""c:~a_.,t-' ituarion, .whi.ch is r::I.I·'~Jy seen i-i', the field, Approxi F~l:::i;~e ly 99-% of H.DSL~ in tbe field (lpei.a;I~ ;a't ~,.B~~ better than .I.O-·~\ \Vhel1l errors do· occur, they H:::I1d.t'o·appear in short bl,J!r:si~ .. This: bu:rs(y char.a~te.r:ist~c is more bt:Rlgn, than random bit-errors. T~e second mis,.conceptto'l:1 m;!{ ~hat.lcJDSLs are, gmssJ:~ over-engi neercd, C();~·skfer.ing the des ign ·W']lt1l. 6 ,dB' of mar-

~. .

.gto 'b1Jy.oirld .i1t worntm'l.~rm·.:~t:-~$.I:s..;; mode], it is eas_)' :[0 $l:.IC w.hy some pcopls ha ve I his opin uon ...

However, _ h~ seemingly overconservati ve desi.~n. [;1;, Nst~ fi,cd for ~WQ' E~.:.tSO[).s.., HDSLs ariZ required to··O'peHu·e teJiab.ly all ~:he firmc for <lI:I~ qlnliifiecllIOQP",. Unlike v~)[oe::.bal1:d modems ItlSCQi on switc~hed clfCllitS, one can not ';tJang up" .altd OJ.aJ up -ag,j1!j I~ i,rI n(;ipe.-s of' Q.b~~ i iii:ng a bette, COI)-' necrion, Furthermore, tll e real-world ).:!;nv:irol1ll~,e[!lt eomains lnany Hmpai:nne,n~:~ 1J:ral can con sume the 6" ·dB de.~igJl rml'r.gJ Iia (c. g .. ~ water in cabl e, l1~{); ~5p'l ices, pcer-q Il.l~] mty i nslde viim. Of a line I'~nger' than indicated i:11 cable .~cni··ds.).

2 • .4.4 S-econd=G·e~el~Uo.'n iHD'SL

Sta"ld~rds development. for n second- ge·ner:-Jn.l!.cH' HDSL Ltdnl;(ll~gy (HDSL2) 1J.e~~:i'1i i ill 199.5 to [ll'ovdde the same bit tate ~.t d loop reach as first- g""neta[joiIT HDSt but uSi[l_g .one p~j r Q~ wi:res. j astead of two. This reduCl uon of W~'I~e' p~irS is j m pO~l,a:ill because In.:a.r~y. L.B~~ ha.vel 'a, .short,ag:B: of .~~~'e w:i re pa:irs. in some a~3S. HDSL1 'U:S~ mote s.QPbl Slk:ai€d lU'o.d.lJ1.aLiL'tn a~tI pn\\r~l'{U.!

• < •

. codi n.g tec·fll·lt~qu.e5. Caoc.fI1l.llY ~se~e~t~ offset ft"e-qu{:'Tl!GY p.loceHli'Cnt or ~.~~ up~ .una cr,owllSHeal:l~

d£m:'td~ons .as. used (or ·HDSI;:..2. tQ ,he=~ combat erossialk. The. newer \I'iE~,?i()in~;, of"HDSL bom)\,v m~n)" ideas from ADSL A rate-a laptive version of.HI)S~ ~" :likcJy to appear, There: has: also been considerarion ,0' . Hq$L p~~oed 'in: 'a f~equ.ency hand above bascbaad tilnalog' voice Dr above '~a:~ic'rat~, : Sl1N .. The U:~rm SDSL . symrnetric; Or sin:gi:e-p,a'ir DSL) has. also been used H) describe tate.[· versions o.f HDSL.

:l.,4.4.1 ,P'f.:r.furlllu~nCe .Reqil!dre:nl)tirl,ts,

A I ~:'llOl.!~h s~.V~£~h'~ ,~:LI~-gesj,'Uc~~~' for I.i [!e cQdes· were f/l,ad~ ~ T'~ E ~ A· 'ft}.no;:willig a, req Ilil,est in ~ 995 rn El.4f95:-.(44)., progress ~~F,~tS :S~Q'" Unl'u'I .deta~~ed requll'ewn.e~~,s: '~"''ef,e ~$l@bhsh£{t These requ irc:meJl~$~ ~peelfi:e4' prlhuwi Iy . by [he. o'P~r~li,ing 'C();rrJ panles. were ril$~'I}l'QPos-ed i[! March 1'996 (11BL4i'J6-094 and T1E~n .419:6-'095,) and revised since ~.:hanir~~ (t1El .4i91'-H~(j. t"80RJ., 1: 81 ! 4rlS")" "fhey'tm:rentl,y are ~3· f~,ngws)

LOQ~p RI!-~d~-~ C~S'A, cqiV{:'I'~ge ~.:s;ame as, (W~)-p~tr A NS1' 1:.0] DSL):: '900G :l't (2,. kM~ of'" 2~ A\V'r;r (0.4 IntIn)

12000 n· (3,,6 km) O:f 24 AWe \0.$ :rrim)

Brld~ed wps limued to :2.5 kh [I)'wl t 2. ~ ft. p.:tr U=!p

. '

'C.aible :parameter.s. as' specified 1 III T 1.60 1

Im!p~i r:n:let1n;lP'~dornl;S!inO(l:t 'tH,in-ltHUlu'of') dB 01! performance m,argin with 'f % '~i!i.()T5[· . case c.ret';,~t·alk from the fa 110w~ ~g, i I:'I!te'l:'ferhn g 1;el''Iji lees:

49,-di:£lorber HDSL .39·distllrber 'HDSL2 ,~9~disttlrber·'!EG·A[),SL

, .

4' c~ ...I" 'b ro'F"'IM·' };]",'Q1'1

'':''-I,;;I,I:S:tul:oer ,["'.L..J',_ , -,M,,>'~ ='

"25 ~di:s'Jurb{!r T l

24 '']''1 + 24 HDS L2

.- - - - . ,.'_-'

24 Fn~l~'ADS t, +,.24 HDSL

S:p'ectnll 'eO'Q1:pati:bi[it)~,:, 10 all e.X]2~i,r.rg :~jy\tt:s~ :f1:0 -~orc' imr:itir.m~'JlJl ~hgLlii the. s~rvk;es< rolerate [ciuay. w'i~'h the f61l~'weilTg ¢Xc~pliolli;;;; shall, not ck:gr~dc HPSJL. by mOr~, 'ihat. ~ ~e. {T,l E ~ A197-~34, ~40RIJ and ,AOO,L 'by more [hft'Li J dB (!1E:~,At9Q-444}, The$~s~~'vj,~es

. :i,lli~l~de rhe fQUO'wing' .[; !Jstnmcr inl~r:fa.c~ speci l'ic~l~O~S;. T ~ ,413 {AJI)SLl, ilt-~ S. (HD~~,L);

"N' sr T"~ . ..1111"::1: 'O·S'··1)' AT: "[ ~f1;'1 {I:l::'r';l'<';'B'DA\

'1"\ ... ~, Ie ,"'I'!i.:I'~ \ .... -,I, . I' fl'11}u. ,. ,Livo, . Q,U!,';"y, ~,~_, ,,~.

L:lit!2!llil!:;Y.: Too ]J]axh:rn,liHL~31Le;IH;:Y for HDSL2 is EO 'De;,[)o rrtllG{e..dl!an fOf HDSL ,r50!1j..1:S)"

:2 .4.A.2 l':iill~ail"Jl:l e,i,li~~(

"":fhe i:r[rpaiTme:nt~ ~'ife!i"e selected :t'.!s (ypiej;~ .ci-f '~e:vefei-case' c.to-s~th;l.k t{;):rl'llbiIII~l~ion;) ~hat HD~;L2. m·ay .~]i:C:Q~.I:w,;n:~ Of th~ GSA teS!, ~i)~~)S in ANSI TH:.-2·S. it' w'a~ :io.l,mU [h~t.eSA:. 4 'ri.pH~'" ,w~t,t:d t~e, ~i mh.i ~g C:~: N~~r-end i~r~s~.,~;U: C~OU.l'i,1 ~ r~'g is, inOdt~ed usi I~,g, tll~ U~gtfl rnodel, as' ~pe'CiOed in T'i EJ.~,196,..JiJ3,6, ana fnt-end 'Crc:~~~~lrk {oup.lin,g is modeled as s:p~hlJed h:r .ANSl

~' ,

tJ3f~3 ATU1¢X 11, Mode~s for ~rl.ij()J.. TR-'28, ~,n~ "r~ AU:3- transmitters, were taken fl'om "1'1,.4! 3

~F[:J'M-} version fYf" ADSL were used, 'MQs!' of ~he l.~t~~!, ~~'oik.,~ ~corporiu,~~ m~JdU~ed ,,;'~·rs.iJJ>:r:JiS' clif tile PSD~ from A~lt1J~X,. D .4··a~Yd ]3. <,~ ~f tl.413, M:ps~ of (he'v..~[la&tci.:1lJ deal t' with 8p'~h pO~'t1(~ fo~." the FDNt, IQJJ. .. Qiil of '(h'c' upsnNdn~ PS DJ ~nd IIJ~ji f~q l:Ie'nc)' I~O'n-off (}f the downstream be psrx It W8~ g€Il1):r~JI.}' ,at:ca!'J1~"JtI (hiM U1.'c ~l nc terrn from ':B_4. and &.5 should 11I0~ 'be .I!"ised. ':~11,e m ~;;o:.cd cmst>talll: cases were added to the r.er.pri'r:@'LYH1LllS rr I' E 'I. ,4/97,- '180; »,8-]) aher 11 was f:muKI, thu~ they were 'w(Jr,~ t'ha~ nODliog:eneiflJs 0r{)SS~~!k for 'rio:a .... ~elr-NE:X'T 1 im~~ioo modul at] on techn iques,

Irrtpulsi ve noise has not been ~o.rii$j:dcl"!td ~(): be a slgl1;Hlca:n~ h11p~'i l~me:fTl: 'if~' the 'fli E] ;4 de] ~be:nJJhoos" A]1Cf, ~11 ·~~lCu~.at~lelnS n::,~~rd:~ng: spectra] eomp;j&u~i] l~}' ~,'I':e \,I,d ~h respect ~:Q :other .AN5,1· ])S£5 .. No, ,e~lcillg(li(1ns/~llei;lS';yr¢nK'!nt~ "have been puR'l~~dtecl w~:~h ,n~speGl ~'Q ~:he'ir ETSI, ri~'

. ..~ ...

lID ,t,:.?U~li.e:qJ't1:rts ,

,2A\,~.3 SF,ecltn~l Cil}mp3;ti,lJ,l~i~t

. T)~~l'c:rmh:lt~H:~ spectrai clQJ)Jpatihil ity bt!;'~;W'0Jt:JIi lJ.j3-W and -e:;s: ~.st~r~g serv lee p~'Ov~d, to be ;;:Ii Sl g-

~:tri;C.anl cballenge, .F''Of:"ISbN-l:HL\ it was e~sH}' shown that ~he 'rroposcd d~e codes .wen~ defiIifItl£:~}' le...".,; O! ;!Hl fmpairrn)f:n~ t'b:;:m: w:~f~:r:,rEXT. The otbe;r listed services were not 50 ~:a$yj, Por T I AOG, (LlS 1. /rn, I:h@ :tn:i~i~l tee hniqae involved .Ine~su I:i~g ~'he toMIl aniou [1j~ ef NEXT P~W~[ p-re~:e.:n:t. at. the., T:I receiver; "This w~s compsred tothe P?J.'i,:et from 'n ~~~]r{-.;;;ri)"ss.t:iik to see if ',~; ~1))b:Bem resul red. In 'sever,~~ cQirudbtl [h:J'fh5, ~t~( cm~5taI~ 'w~s w~fgh~ed by' a 1'neas'ure~ en E 1 Ai 9t-m'~ ~ or c.akuiitwd. 'rr reeelve fil.~er. 4~(,~f:, 11 wtiS noticed that·~peGtL:~~.com'Pat~N~i&:Y wt~:h 1.1

, y .. . . _ . < '.'. , ~

w~,;-~'a~d ~ ij.~~,~ the' fh~~ s~gllle]i.t.f~Q~~i the. to Vfl[!Y h6t, :~'!"h;rB ~':f Jq~ ~Ild '[H)l the :~9 TJB tlifLiL ttHI;

06tliil::r' ¥::~gme:ntr-t rnlii~t '(;!.p~r~U~ ~CI""'~I1";

'Wuib ADS.L, $pocti'AI cQ:mpm~Nl~ly ~~·s defined 'by Ideal JtJarglfh calculatlous, It was, rUllIl1d th~!&·£]],g~u, ehanges i'u the ,!;I~.s;un1t!d noise nOQrj transmit PSD::"l" and o.l'j,nJrl.lll1m'CalTI.~r r1iu~1:her (for the. FDJ.1 case) could have a .~ign ~fi,c;a.l1:i" ImpSl..et' on the per..formanG:{;, estimate, :M,ost c:t'dcul,a(io,lllS' h~y.e fOll,U;id I:~~U [he· agreed PSD wo~o!ld d'e,grad e ADSL (1' I A r 3) margins ny less than :1 {~B for ibe. WClI',s'[-(;ase s:tan~brd: ]'l!1itarfererOQ11"l bll;j,a~j ou

W.i~h, "I-:lDSL; the i~ih~] cmtl!'patibllity w'0~k was ,:jmiC' us llili g: ~be,01"e~ic~l~ (}a~ctJ:~Q(i~ns" but Ijlit[ ,te;sd 11I:g (TI:E 1.4197~3·39) showt.d Ul;mt" far S;Q:IIDe mo~,lil~fl6Ifi' fcmmih H'lis w~s insirlfi'dc:uL

(:111;18' i::>,H.d.d[¢5Scd '~Jt9re 1.:Drt~·p~~4.y.IY in dl~ riI,~x"( ,:s~ctinn.) , .

2.4A.,~ I\f,~du!I,at:mtIJ:B FU)r.m;:H

':~rl.y on; bQl~ :symm~lti~. echo-canceled tr~~tlnllli£s,i0n (."SET) ~ilJ ihqu~n:,JS.y d ivision IUU Iti- 1Il1~I!(~J lri11!l5ID t$5'],a[1 (FDtvn ~~,pr(1ad1lcs, were considered. 'S Elf' pl~O'\lf~d W have a sel f~crossl;atk IiIilil·ita.t~{)iI1 Q. W 3 dB ·sho.M of the roqllLi:rmfL€?II!L~. In ,cJ.E'Jntr,ast" F[}M' trsnsmission is' not Iil!fli~d ~y serf-NEXT. ~Lit ~y {ijj;g ress) 'c rosstalk from o [ht:r' s«Yi'~;s, ]t is' aht6 ~'um:ltedl b1i- (e:gre~~) cr-O~~~l;l,k Initfl"Q{l:i.,J.tr se:rv tces. due ~,Q the h ighef tran slnl t . .f:t'.equIZJl!ci·e~ i m"oly¢ wuth: ~~),j~~~jttt.l:Iig' 'a: ~yrn~iih~tr·~c

,,~l~a.d i n '~h ~~ manner, 1,ll;~ ,i,tilgr:ess and, e'gr¢ss~cmssnillK 1J~~l;e the FDM scl Uj,iClii .;e.vej,· ~~ ~esl r:m~t than, SET .. .40, ··j.;uig~re·~ 'FDiVI'" 5cfl!Sm~, fTJ E:~ .41~6~J40) W,r.J~ proposed :1 il','~ri, nm~n'llplt to m:ut these undesirable cffeG~.

In T'I El,"419}~(r73. '1l~~rti~HJ overlapped eeho-caeceled rransmissien (POET) was pro~500-: ~OE:r' i:rl!\~o'] ves u"':'crlappiJlJg, but 110~: identical; spe.(;tra 'in ~hc two transmit directions,

T.tl~St'!:"s~ia'Ctl:'a .are :c.aJ'€.[1:lI1Jy· ~ra:ped 'to>~pro\l.i.c!e l'i?Jax h1:i1um pel'fhi:'.fI1la:nc~ 'i n 'the. pre~et'!iee of S;eH~ ,:a1l!d fUL"Diglt! ~o:;Slalk wh i,k ~fiusi~lg rni nima I de.~rfLdrH.i'!D!l:'i (If ~Xh~r services due ~ 0, :eOET Qros;~~-alk. i:ii,~D ether se.rvicd., Var4'Oti s versions ef lh Bs.~[;RJ·n)1itcb wer_e. P:(O;pt~'1.'C~ in the su.;rujda~ p'l'Ote~~", all i:nqc.Yrp41.;at in ~ tfte. sa~,rr~ basic: G'ojrc~pi, {P..O~T';PAM {W -e73}.~ Over.CAPped (o/f'-, l79)~ OPTISl ~CI."'i' '1"''''1' ':'>'2- OJ'., "''':0' 'N' 'c;T (9'1" "1 fY1" ..t'11 "'i ')"L

\;.',f - __ ) f ~.J' _ ':J!, J.'io:.1 .. , . ,IU 'J ~,:::t' .... J..~. ~ ,;::; J,

One ChnHLl: teristic. that. nn d]&-s.~ :POET :m.od.uh_~hon schemes ·~xhfbit ls 'lh~ ~.[fe(~1. of hetero~}Clt.:r:OU:S erossealk on pe.r1:Qr:illJilitC;:e. FOi: SE"r; .performance in l~H')mQg¢'rueO-1Js a~,d heote['0ge'l10011$ ,cros~talk is qnite similar, However, wi~h POET modulution i.~: is, Pbs~-ib[e to have pe!rf.v.rfi:~~nce ~jl the presence of he.t~roW~tl!l}o!,:!s crosstalk that is ;si~!flj fi.cal'Hly \Vm3~ UiQfi pel'fO'ljUl~ii1iCe ln til€< presence of Jt6I11Q~er:~eo\l~ crosstalk .. The' ad lJ~~ 'perl(J~]h(!.rl~~ of [ht:$.t syst¢Hb, a~S0 varies w~~h the ,t.iJmbol 'r[JJ~.lt a!ad. moaul arion 'ty:pc. tVW1 ~iglt~).. S.H/,c:.r,§~I'lllpiecl n.~i!l~(e;ivet$'. it 1~ P9'ssible to. decoupIc, the ~r~m~,m,i t ,~:~,D: ~frch~, d,te, act1J1.~1 ~ym~~ol r~1!'e:" (I:hi s, Uii)~'$ pr.iJ~c i p~'~$ t,bn'i b:r' :to' [ho~·t~s,e9 in a

j," 'V'l !'-[ '1]"'- i:l!",.li C' - .j,:r;'I; t ...... ,"" .'y',,,:, ·1''' ....... ; .... · Th";::!. prop .ro.r."'!J '", -e. 0::'. "'1''''''' '" ~ h.1 cited 1""-1 e, CA-" n ·\,.,.,......_·:L...... ....~: 'ID/''\';q-;r

.n~ .... j._ .<~ .:.o~ ." .;!<t.r- .;""""" ..... ':'" ;T"':'.;~ .'."'):' v ."""l"r''''''''';:-'' J:I ''''~, "''''I",~,h.~ .• , ..... _ ,J:- .'""',"' ..... ". ..... i, F.}I,..JC,iL

~tj E:I. .4!9·7~ 17;{))., b'Ul L.ikbl1:11aidy '~:L W~l!::: f:~}ljn.d llu~t with Jh.'c tmp~l.inJl'!}nl sel lQT HD)SL2., ~AM, ~uodul.atiQ[j '~~ps, ,wen ,j.9i[)!n b€II;tl.ill~' from Jtihts J(N.i{)t~P 1 ing: cr I, E ,r ,41~,q -Jj1), t=;0l! each unique ,cro~~t:;:!iJk PSD. ~.~~er-~" ~~s a ptJ)l:ti€.";!J~ar: symbol rate that g'~w;s maximum performance. J~or. ease of ~i ~'iflp]:cinl!Ilt;;!,(,io{I" a s bl2:1e $'!t n~b'ol rate- that Qn~r·$pl.Jdormtlnce. ~d. near the, optthla~ level overa wide vf1tl.ety of cll'n~tilll:, PSDs 'i s d'e~.~iI',:a1J~e,

lvr6'iit. ef.the later llinci.lLllatkon scheme pmpos;ai's have PSDs: where s.om.e, of dle ilIppOiI frcquencies ~fC boosted :a tJ,6 ""C' the Tl!om.i:I1.~11 vahl:~. These "boQ}r.o!;{r" portions tI f tne .rsn·.;)~ als1' 'abQ'v~ ~he level .ilf .a:ny other 'D:SJ:.. i,hm opeJ~~.tcs, at ~:h'l)$~ n"eq~e:iw·ie~: 'l'ltl$ boost was 1;1 rs[ hl!w)'" 'd Llcr'u' j I] T"~ E'l :4191-- I: 70 and j tJ.~(jt~Q~t~jJ in. a prrotio~n.(;:ed ;'i,Vf~l' 1 n tiE 1.::4/9}-~!3,.,.A'fter. this 0v'l1lZ"e;pl wa..s i mrodl,il~ed ," ~~, wa.s; di ~D(~y~d ill nt, 'whert tr~~:rLiHl\h~'i l;i!g :S.~Ui:;:~ s'i.gl:liaJ¥l'i 'theqreh~aJ! ~Gi!I!i.~,

ClUlMlolls .a[0!lil; Were, ~\'iL .£li.ffic:i;en,t tn [1ife;rHc,t· s~c:~:p~~ Go.'i:l'I'()~~:ihi ~~ t~ with e;ds~ii1g 8.erViC~5~ Test:in"lg of dspg oj:€d HOSt: ~~yste.l:rrr~ cr l'!EH Aj$l7~l39) :I\!~V~J.M ~, ;;~g~:i'fleaJr~ difference between tb~0'I:eticiJ.l ca:kuh~.t~o!J]$ .I:11.l!d :rne.tt. .... ured performance in rhe presence of 0Pn:S7 .erosstalk, As ;;J. result. ltiiod:i,f],{: aiions were made [0 the proposed EDSL2' PSI) [0 reduce thJs d~:g!1ldadon (T tE r ,4/97 -~~ 35). T::i'i~, f11~ mess urements 'nUer :ritO'(!:illca[;li;).1JJ s ~o'N',ed thl$ degr..ar,laJim:i to be 2. ,dB 0(1'

I',,., ,.:t. IT I ~~i'L' 4- /~J?' -434 44~)'I']; 1- \

1!.:.~jl~ \ ' D. I -..~ ~. CI _.!Y'-- ~ I

The cUIT~n~: ~g['e~d-u.pon modulafien fonnat 'i ncorperates ih~: M.y ~,l.e;r1~e!1~~ ,P;J'.op..os;s,d [~n

.:-. . ~ .." - .

'fIE 1. ,.4197 -2,5 '7,:'

. .

,~ ThE; upstream and downstream '~ra:tliSll'1l.i.tt.er speetra w)l ~ be p~r~.iany (:),\!u.d.~pp~d in fre-

Cjuen£y,

,. The sh~.~e ~f lht transtrrit spectrum winbe dccoupled ftom.thc.'~ytribol rate ,W aIJfJi'i,\C fo]' .f1j~x'iIM(f use u'.f 'iJ.:\GI?.05::i: .bmiid\~·jdthi"

-.- . . .. - ..

,i The P'fI r~sm,i~. t'!'t(I<.h.~,~at~on used \i;l'j ~ l be r~'l~lse am pliH..!de TKiOd ~if1 a'll Of! (P.A_Mt

,~ (::ode-cl. I:rtOd:1,J 1 arion wi 1.1 .be' used,

t!iQSL

TIl e ~U] t ('f~ El -4/974:3;)) I,~" ,3: 'POET sy st.eJ U iJsing a modil'~~hon of (he OPTIi8 :i?SD" "k1l:is modulat lon f.drJ~~l iiS..e;~ 1PAl\;f W I~~ 3 li11 '(jnn-::lh~{1J bits ,pier' symij9~ 'al~Q: a ] Q-~eve] '(.'<QUecl, CQ[fA ~te'n~ ation • .A SY.lribDi 'f.a(~; of 9nCi-thir~l,(hc ray] oad'mlt.e: in l~llth. tll~ NT~to-LT ~i'Dd. L"r·(-o:N'-r' ~lir~t:. liQIli~ '~$ (:hos~1iI as-a g~oo (pmp[O~r~' 5y~nhQl rate'. Ad:vaJ~Mge. hi a:coie,Yed 'throil.~gh (h~ use ('J'[ ~KCcs.S bH~d'!;",':i:dtb in the LT.-tQ~'tIT dir;g,cHoit andj'1a, ni.~h Jegiea of spectra] fj'h.~~rtJlg, 'in hoth dirccfi,Qns, 'the tL"aI:iK[l1.~[ power is, nppru~fm~ooJ:f J 6,:5 dB Wi i tl each d~l\ectioll. this ino{h;{I~(,i0ij tech:t'l'uq LIe has been &hOIN.11I Cv]~ opnmal DFE caleularions) to have a. ;n~.i.n lmum ~heoTeJkal unceded 'iitUIJrp:t[t .on 'rne wu:rsH:.a.se r~tl,ircd lo!))p,.of 1.0 dB. Rea~1 zed ,p;e'l'fO'r~m~lice nenr me uleo~nc~l va~ues ~~: on.'~y po'Ssible ttlro(l~b the l!&~ b,f a fi:athonl't!~]y ,s:p~~~ equal i,l~r,

'fhe ''Spectru~ s'hapillii,g' {':]]]plqye,4 'Lm the. a.g!¥ea P§ De li""~S ~e~i,gne~l spt:i:j:IIt.aI.l:y for [his; aimphca.o.o:il,: to rnfixi'rli.!Zc 'the JDNt~ SNit, aL the' HDSL2 ~'>:itve:r {with ~ ::;¥ nibol rate (if 5r7..,33

'::I!" .. I.

kJiz} in .r\h.5 p.:~5~l1Ib~ ijf '~IW' ,~p~cj I:IC crosstalk l'ri:~X~S I, lsted ir1l. Ih~' t'eq~'~~iiilen~~" whHe :s.i{~'l.Lh~,~

'bm:J;UJsl.y 'm,jni'miziiil:@; (be impact of f"grcss' crcsstal k .into. the, ANS.I .[)$L£. See }-=ig~r-e t. l 6. Not 'only are rrt.tl:xhni::d ~g HD(St,-2' performsnce while [[Il.i:n;irni:i'.-i!Jig ,cgrc~~ pro~~:-;tll!~ k eonfl icl'hlg goals,

,,'i:n~.rly tryl 11lg to f3l.lFflllilll:,all!e(Ju;~!:'y :rrJ:tn~)lIl'~Z:t egress "Cl'oSSHLlk, inte ~i,.,"{O' d:iffe:l:€iR~\ DSLs i1l<i!}' resuh i'r~ a. eonftlcr. Fo'r lnsranoe, [0 m'i~l,hr.dze lm:p~g:~ hUD ANS] HDSL, it is desirable :to use lower and

, 'w~~er' psn,$, whe..n:5.8.<i ,~o minimize crosstalk l ute A.l'\fSft TL41 J ADSl., ~ ,narr,owe["'and .I.il~gJtcir .P.§lO :~s preferable, Sine c ~nit up~'~rnizmiol'l was do;tlJe spe~Ifkally forthe set of ANSI DSU, in lh~: l'~tltrel'b1len:~. one s!1iotltd ·g]jm: (l:::"dI~lpo.h(e that 3, :f['eq:u.,eilcy sc~hW 'Ver~k~i~ 6if the same ~,.h,~p'i.n,g 'fJ [; '~~' 'W6iUW b'C::' H~~ b~~t .soluttuou fer the rru "ie·rs,~on of HDSL2. ,:fl]ttll~r ',;;~~r.K orr [hi~, i,$f>tl~' wH~, be,

.. ' . .. ..

~eij~ired before' c~:ilild!JI3tO,!lS 'C:~n. oe:dmwn .

.. ' ,.-".

, .3~F=====f==~~~~~~====~T======ir=====i

f!i)WCi ;:In m:i'\i 1 ;?====:j::::==::::::;' ...-:_: +-' __ '¥' /~"'.-1----~""J' ,,.::,, ;:::::::=:jf,::::::::::::t ~T r ffIt;J~miH~1

~'~IY-~'_~'~~"~~~·'4··'-~~'~-""·-Y~--4---~

v . ,..iI r \ I ,~ -+-_ t, T T:r;r."~llliil,ler

-"~i.)'I--~~·I==~_+---+-+-----++-\~=--_I"'-=-_~~

.~~.

,j'.:I 1t----+----+--~r,I~~--+_,I~,__-____lf__-______I

.ro~--~-----+_--_+~----IJ~---I-~=4 .~l !----==--I-~~~---___I+----__+_-;\l----I----1

.'7J~F=~-i----=1 __ ~____lIl --+_l~, '"""'==~f------1

'.'7~'___---;lr--_-+----+---___'I~_·=~="'~··I~'_"'~"~

, . '~

.Sl~ Ii-, ----"----.L"..... __ ___,[). ....L.._ __ ____lL_ _ ___J

('i .I.j ,I ,5

Fig;l!'ie lh 1'0 MQm:i~a.1 ~:ransmi't PSDs f~r U\e HDS L2, m.odun~!iqn ~oF.m:M:,

: .. .'

· ...

2,.4.,4.5 Tl"e~rjj~ C~d,~ $ffi:t'illH:tU]",(j:

To meet the ,dU'fiCllH :r.eq~~l rements, €:oded mm:!hll{l,tion ;l]l1JSt b~ used 'tol:Ji!c[-ea~e the crosstalk limited performanee (}f HDSL2 O"I!Cl; i:i.l8Jl possible us.ltJ$ md~ uncoded mooul;"ltion! W~.,h the"~,ff~elael' Ihnitn'tl;i;:in i[lte[l~~voo c{)[!Ca1eLl"Iltei;l co~j tl$ 'mnd ulJ,;boC'od~rrg_ ledndqlllt6-s proved to be. ]:mFH::igs:icbi~e., This ~~"f.t tr':iid.ltlol1<1:~ tr~~ ~~ s-coded. Ulo,d~,l~~.i0in i Ii ~~,m1[~iI1Jat¥on wltli Gb;an;[leJ, «qj~.igJ.i:l:i[j$ pW~Qding. tSiJl(~h la~:TQI1:l] i't\S9~- H~rn$hi~tu~pl'e~o~ iii$." Alf~Q]:i,gb. :rtl.!Jltidlmen~;iQn .a iii 4 Iir1llUil,t'~l cooing ~pp~~at:..h~5 W£;I.:q; ,~l{~mj ~~(J,. ~ ~hijo.p'I'e '(j,t¥e-difnen Siditl1t1 trellis-coded .. PAM, JIpptu~U~) bas proved too m (he: best ;:i[ ~1!i~I:ri.eyi1:1,g td~h codl ng f~~~'t\$ \!oij t11 mln lm.~l l~le:n cy f"'i"'ltil ;lj1il~~ !;t",'1'.,

!._ ~. ,.tD rIIi1!/-~".J·-iJ ~ 1 J.

\VitlJ rhol .agreed modlub~:'ioH fonnatj,· 4-, ():. dB of ~odi[jg gain is .needed to ach~eve ~he. require menss, For one-dimensional tode~, wi [h Vilerhi de{:;Q-ditlg, 3;2 ssates are neeced to aclue v e; {J\,.:er ,~, dB of :te'a~zed B.£:1{ coding gain~ However, .. the 5.0 dE U1:;1!'~'gtn 1)'ud,~el nl:J)"st include :!l(:iHW non-ccdbtg-related irt~pI6me~lt'a-tio~ ~~ss:.whicJh ,ml!;]st be made lJ'p :f~i ~ n 'Codli,ilg :ga.hlJ., (Th~,~. impleru1reUtatiOJllr . .s:t,< c,an a:lf>o affec~: ~:1'!le I~'I ~ t"..ed 'botJi~g ,gaf~.) ~Ili,Ut5, a Y~11[:i,abk ~UJ,10'Uln t or coding gain ma'Y lb.~.nee~.ed~ 1b['j.'i{ld OJHlther ~()S~e.:s J n dH~ '(h~~~gl1 dr t~le: s'i,s:[~m. The a,~i."(:t:rIiJCIIJ~ :un(l~rle.s' .~+"~

.: . ./ .

grllllbill~ able r~,i~ ~Vi 9t1le~d~[ifLe;i1;~"i_O!'li<1~ 'tie) I ls rn ,8] AP)7 -44J}.. Sec ,Fig.t]t~ 2. ,11, Th:i~ Stn.lICtlLlrc

allows receivers nh~ .ti;8xsbHi~y I'~ rrade j~Jff.c4J:_mp~e)jty of ~h~ ~r~I'l~&~d~cc4er with cO'~n:plexi{y 'in. the remainder Cit' ~hlt tra~J~{:~":i:v.er. Thi~ prQgraffUlt1.3Jlde structure also ~llll}iw-s f0.l' ~hert1;;;lidli".e decoding techniques to be used (e'.go, Mqll€,ndal, decoding), w,h~¢h require ,slibsta~~~;'aHy di~'f€re~~ codes-

- -. .-

'thao those used ':fo'17 V~terbi decodi rig,

X3" ... ~== =========~>' yj

:x 2, ,,_ ~====~----~=~===============7····. '12

'i----90, Y ~

W

J--~~' •• '.

~ W'

~,Q---------7(D--->3-..... ro

AiD.SL

·Z,A;4.6. Compl~it,y [I) tf,ex'eoces Rem,ti,¥If1' 'bD' H1DS.[.

Sj [5Ce the rcq'J~ttnnenlSi far .ANSi FlDSL:2 wert· qu~t~ ~chal kn,gifJg.;, a, ~ E~nHiGan t c6~np':I'e1: ~~,y increase 1]3,' compared W HPSL j ~ !l'eq[l ~r<;"(I, H) mee [ thcm.J III t.hi~ section we brieflv cXfuni ne .. lf~'c.

'. .'. '. '.' - .

~·6~1.p.le·xily a ifferent_es;

.. The 'trit~sn~it" pm;,~er of HDSL2 is"J dB h~ghBr than that of HDS'l •. Furthermore I' tbe use .of prccod ing and [he spectral .s,~ap~!I1,g together cause !hl; peak-to-rms.ratio to belarger than ~hal of2B lQ-oo~cd HbSL~ Higher peak voltage I 'i{~!~ will, j,~creat>e rhepower ~o.n:S'LI,mi)~iol!1 of the 'I ti~¢ -ddv:l[jg chc!liI:itry,

, The channe) equallzing precoder has afurrction I:hae is stmflar W the feoob1~ck fdl'tt uf ·t.~e decision 'feedhack.€qu~tl,jz~f' .iJ.tsed in HDSt., However, i:l1~ data h~ the preccder arc: l'tl~l\Y bits (1: 1-'l6) Viii iil}e inS,lead 01; inc '2 bits for 2'B "FQ: D.FE_ tl'Lis I ncreases the comrb~ti~y"" :Fill rtherrsore, the presence of '~he prccodcr in~!=,:re..9.scs. the com,pl e:x-i ty of rbe .eeho canceler i III the same _,EiIULIlJICL.

~ Tn meet the performance re.gul.ren'llents ~lr1rorl,gh the use of Vrt~l:b - ~e-cQdiJ1;g" ~'t appesrs that trell i~, cedes qn the order ~f .5 12 states w.iU be EIJ~:cess:a.ry .. The Vit~r.hi ,deF~.~~r for such .;1, c~dle 'reiP'E'eS;e~ls. all. enormousincrease in bn~h prQce~~.[ng . .pqwer and memery .c.ou:ilp.ar~ to uncodcd HDSt. s;,yste.fl1is.;

t. 1'0 obtain adequate pe['fonnaJl1Ic.e; HDSL2 [Bq:U:1:reS a frncti:Qna~'~r spaced equalizer ~n~ echo canceler, both w~i.dil 'are of sig.n_i:~lcanUy b i,gher. complexity thrill! the :b;;1l.ti1dJ-Spa:cted equivalen ts typic ... ally employed in HDST 'natiscei"lore:r':"

:2:,5 ,ADS.l.

'2.5. '1ft ADSl Defin!irt ~O"l and ,R e-fe-ren,ce MOdel

Asyrnmetr: c digi tal :!;iUhSCf~be.r I,; ne {ADSt) is a loca I I Oo:l.p rransm i SSl on i ec hnclogy lhal .. iim'l!dt.lllne.ou'dy Hal"J~ s pmt~ ~be foHmviL1Ig vieone paa.of wires:

ii' Downstream (towards cusromer) bit rates of up w abmn ~ Mb/.s !I! UpSlreanll ,~[o.w~rds~net\\r(J.rk) ~i~ rates ~r. up ~? ,I ,M'bJ'9

• Pbj n old telephone. service (POTS, l ,C;" an~loI)g Yo LQC ~

The bit rn~,C: rewards the casiomcr :I,S much gl:e:at.er.'·~,ha.n f~'"()n~ ~li;e customer, hCIiiICC the tenn ~)m:men"i(:, Ani:l~(log' vo lee ~s transmitted ~( baaeband frequ!'2:l'lIcf.e..s 'a:l1!d (::Qmbfun~4 with the pass'~d data ti'"absf.l:~i.ssi,otl via a. low-pass Iiiter (LP.F,) ~hat, a~ cQrnmonly c,mUeJ ~ '·sp'lltte( .. ' hi ~ddi"Oi1,_.Hrthe sphltet-:s.~ Ule ADSL consists-of a.ri' AD:S.l trnnSJ]1~~s:i,on :~rihta! 'Lb.~ Ccntrl1l1 Office ~s.ide; ATI,J~); <,ii, local h~?p~ :llJiild ~,n ADSL transm iss tOfl~ \llrI it J~C, the remote side 't ~fQ.R}.

v

I I

L.OC;JI. hl~ '!!.\!':i~!~.i Ji~ir

I EI~.m~nrl N;::.L'·\I"(;if!

.;Juqlo_;; '!lOti;'::',

,.IF"",,,·,, ...... ,,,,,,·i,,,,"'

~~ID.m~y Pmrni~~

]!:N!'!ol

fh oJ!'! ~ .SI1!;' JJ.\i±i

2.$.2 A [lIS L Oriigi n.s

The. e~l!I::ty. conceptual' Jefl.t}il~Oil 'Of AOSI ... ~!~it1J':i rn 1 S}~g., ,ptjnru~:1fH~; b, Lim \Vt~tk of J W_ Lech ~edrl~r a,l1fl'o~J1;elt:s, ~t n'cncO re i Barly ADSL u!)_':v'IdbpTilc:nrl oegafi.i at Slar.d1ord U ni versity ·.and ,~&T a-d] L~ht~, irL 1. 9'9T~" ADSI. PN[~tf:p-e$ arrived at teicpbone cori,lpaJi,ies,:and B:e.:UCu[,e La.biol" r.at'oIi~.s· j n 19'92~ 'and ~a~.~y ADS1-. In:,o·d~¢ts. meved ; t'~'eJ fie~,d ~~clj]i.61:og;r; ~£i:al,'; in, ,I ?95.~. APSL d~w :f:tQm: :tl:re' (at] ier W~:r~"DJi; Vt1Jip8'-·ba~~d :rtJ{dx:tl1S, ISDN, ~n(I.Hl)SL

In OC.i!o~r 19R8~ the 'ITO' !~vt:'; p']:ehmI~'y ~l1iprOya~ to. ('·de!.~.l'~lj;iiJ~[~o:~" ~ ~,~ TfU' ~aH,gUage) d ~el '~i'f :AI)~SL R~¢Q~,n:(ine~]d@.ti(lfrt:::i ;Re~xJ\mml;:,[ilq:~'t~'Cln 0..922_1. ~p0:dfies. 'fun~:t"n~ .ADSL. thi~ ',is fL~rly iderrtk·aJ.to .!'\,NSl T~ .41') Issue 2 with two rnil;Jo:r exceptions:

1. Il~~~ t ~ .4.l.:3 lOtH'}· b~sed InhIal·:uzadryn. sequence Is repleced 'by a message-based process described Jill '[1.994.,1. and

1_ a special mode ha~ heel~ ,gJdd~J ((1 ~rn:prove 'v:rfonnH~~e ~'n t~c pre"S~nGe:'t~f ct(l\.~Malk, frmii T£M:~(yp.e ISDN 1lI,~ed hfJaj)~m~,

~:IX(.'r'arn:U~l.1ija~ ia!i] G :992,.;2 '('I1:.r,e~l{)w;hl tno.'!,¥n.ms G.tlteJ~!:;It'II.§CJ fue'S. ADSL 'Fm'" uS'e: 'wi thou; ,:1

-, ..... ~~ .. • .~.. .. . t_o:. ".;.

POTS &pJittel.':. G-fJ'14'~f: is, based 011 G.~'91 .. I w.i~h the- .f:oHoQirv'i.~g [[f'~jor differences:.

1.. added pI.o,vis:lot'il~" :f!ll~ I)O,Wef $;;tf:.dr~g modes ~~' d~,e AlJJ-t and _Al"U~:R I

:2. the addition (I,J ~t msi retrain-mechaeism to permit r~pW ,recovery from Q~foff::lvx~k ~1,'em".5,

~. the number 6f l\~ne"s: ~:l red uced from '15:0 to 118', ·and' 4.. .tht number '!;J.f ~~t~ ~"lPne i s 'redueed frol1~ t): to 8,

IR~(!(}rm1r1.'!;:.r[dal~icirl a.994.1 (previ{)!!l's:~Y known -as)JJrs,) sJi~dfie.$ 'a ,ftl~:5sage.:b~d i'nhhil-

. .. - . '. ..

ization h~nd:shafu~ 'f) .."U9W nrrlUllhll~~e DSL t~,Ul sceivers to ~egoIi fLl~ a cQ.rrm'l(j~ op~ra[i ng tr(0~j'e.

Ret~)nlrl1ii~l1dfl!~L('HI' G. 99..5 .. l pfpvid~.lfi:lir,'over~iew 9£ i:n,e fflrn,i'~) of DSL ~~co~mThe~i(]Jnt~Q[g~J( R~e~ ommendarion G ,996,.·1 :\peeufles methods for m'e:ilsuri ag the ~)ei'fornuLE~.(:~ .;}( .OSL- 'eq~tulP'rnen~ ..

ReciQmmend~tiQil G, 997 ,':1 spcei fics. the. physical layer operation s, acbll1 n lSlnui.tHi, and maiatetlIali'iioc provisions for Ao.SL This includes the ADS:L ell::JbedoJ;~f;.d operatiens; ~h~lfri~l£1 (eoc), ;lmd Nl-all·a.gemeIl t. I nfQJ'liiflatL(}ll B·!~: {11IE s),

2.5·.3 AO-Sl Ca,pa iii! iti~ a lilil:l~ Appl IcaUon 2.5.;.;3·.1 2.5'.3.," Al1SLl ADSL2, .and AljSL]!

The ADS t. concept evolved dm:Ln.g the early 1 990s., A,l first; .ADSI .. was. considered ~~.[ a Ifj XI~.J rate I . .5 Mbls d'o,-vtistream .aad 16 kbls lIfll!=.~\I·,eam tor video dial lone {VD1 MPEG-l .app~ ~-. cad (fi (I s , Some members o.f [the indu ~lIy refer t. . (I']j,$ 9JS ADS L 1. .•. Later, .i t became clear that. ,.::;'um,,c ~pplkm i.OriS would -req lJire hi.g·hq s-p~ds an d. fha~ n:l,Qiri .~d.v~nGed tl?~~s.i1"~ i:$~j n 'L1,;.;,bn !(llJrs 'w'qlU.~d ·einNe (lie higher speeds, Three t1b(s dQ'i,s"l1s~!~-a'n] ~l[!d 1"6 kbls. 1,Jp.~tr~a.~H ("-ADS (.2" was br1:e'F1y eons [aered. 1,0 en ribl~ twQ.·s illm .. tlt~[)e~!lil~~' Iv.rpT~G-~' streamsv.In 199;3, i.nter,-eg..: sh In~d to· Al;)S~3 with 61 :M~lt;:;; downstreasr ~rnd <~t leill~~, 64 kbl.~ upstream ~Q SUPPQIt M:PEG2 vldeo, 1 he Issue ~ AN'S] T.I. ,,413 ADS L standard grew mn of tbe ADSlj concept. The tCElTJ;S, AnSL 1.

, ,

A~L2! and ADSL1·~a.'r'~ seen lijtle use after approval of the ANSl 1'1 ,.;1 13 standard,

:2 .. ·,;.3.2 RA[)SI.

R811,~-atlartiv~ d:ig'ihil subscriber II.IH~ (RA.DSL) is a rerm :t~~at <l'~ pHe..s. H.i. ADSL ~"y~tenj~' j~:p~ble of al;:(WHl;;lt~C~ni' d~ten~tining: the trall~~,port c.i!T:'ia6ly of the individual lecal jOQP ,:'!n:a then 'OPk~thi.g at the higJ1!e'~l'rl:1rre suitable "for th~ll.o~:al ~OQP_ '~rhe'ANSl 1'"1 ,4, ~ 3. s,ta~d.ard [H,o.videsJh.e ;~p~bil it)' for mt€_'·~da'pith,"e.. operation,' 'nlC rate ad ap~;:.Jt!ori occurs upon '1 inc ~~a!["[·lIIf.l"; with an ade. 'I)!~te SigTIIHi quali ty 'i1l~rg~:n, 'LO assure. that the S.l~['L- Up Ii Mile rate caa be _m«~.m,t:l1 ned .during nominal -1Tl:i:lml,ke.:; i iii H ~ ] ine GnVl:s~ tmi$Sioil1:{:h~Lrnc~edstic. , 1"11"48, RADSL \vill aUE.orf!l~u~c,~~l1y provide Ii igher bit retes On loops, with 'bester trensmisslon characteristics (less loss ·{'.If .I ess uoise: , RADSl. irnplementat ons h~'i,;'e :~H~pporl:ed maximuru downstrean .. raees 31] the range of "1 to I () Mb/s· and Jim,;; i-· IJlItlLm up:st.reflrtJ fates i~· the r~ngo of 512.. to. 900 kbls_ OI'J long Jeeps (:5..:5 kmll:S kft or m"i'1iore), AADSL :ma)"r operate at rates of..,~~i,J IJ~ .5 t2 kls. dlo,,,y.tl~tr'!3ar:rt ml~~ t2 g klJ/~ upstream.

RADSL borrowed the concept of i!,'flie' .ad~~pt~.~Llcm froiri v0;ce-·h~nd. moderns. RADSL iP.fO-, ides the bcaef t of 0.IJC versi On 'Of equipment that :;'!.~o.;;s'!Jre~ the hi.:g~1:~t. pO~5~ ok· transrmssi on rate' fQ:r each Iocal :I oop attd also pE;..IIi1l1.ns. operation on I:ori'g'j ~)~:P~ at lower r..a~C::!j.

The ADSL concept contains two fu~J.a~nollJHl.1 P'~U'~s.:~ {J:J near-end crosstalk is reduced.by havi n~ th,*· Lwsll-e~ln bit i'(Ijt·e amJ baud 'W~dt~ Inuc~ less ~hal:( tll{:l. downSHf::anY bir rate, a~i.J (2) simu InIJIJt'!:on~ trar sport. of POTS arId da •. a. h).' ~rn~' tni~hn}~ dtH,a in a freqL~em;y bmi;~ .ab-ov~ voice melep,hony. Tw~l"W~Y transmission tJ'Yrl1!.lhil:r,.'~.g~bit rates is jWt 'on most le.f~p~(;m~· .Ii~~s_~u~ to the

IliI bined effect :i;.'! f l09:P loss and C:,I'CtS' tal k, f\i;. .l:fhmv.1l 'I n Fh~lI,r,,?" 2 •. 1 '3,~ received ~~gnal power imi.Ull she .. i n proportion wi th frequency, ~n.d received crosstalk noise i r.c~i~~~ \V~tl] fr.eq.ueJ'H_~y.

Th~J:$; ['j,vo-<wa.~" transmi ssion is !lot possible .at frequencies where the, c rll<S,.~t~rll: n oi s'~'Qver''IIvhe.lms ·IG rece .. ived s~gblal_

,..., .. ~~_, f{~€:!!"i:'ti::d. em S:> ~ alk ,[I,jj::le [1M) ~1i !:,r

U'l[l~~ f~~ r/ "W.;';,.W3Y, i!cbi:ic cancelled U~Ji;;:nli:;sjQn.

Fig'IJi'r,e 2,.13 Two~'r.vay transrrrissiQJ1 is I~~:l~t~d to 10000e-r ft:,eqJL:I~nc~e's.

This '~(m: ~ ltaa.csi;ld\ upon 0118 (:reaJ)oo ~ ~i:ft) M~ji,'r<ei1 (lr ~l'Idepei10i:lf)t :E)jjlians.

ADSL p~['f.6mts, ~ ~yo=wrljj,!; ~ran5~is.s~{)n wher-e l"l'QS$i b I~: below the tV;.rO •. wa.~· t{I,~,~(J,n j~[\:;..q1U'e:'~~C'y!. Th~ ~ppe:r "fieq~elrlt;;~~;S, ~hi:H are ~.ms~,i1:~ble _for '~.wcQ- way, tT.an~mm ssien ~ft used for onew9:Y tr~Ji$rr~];ss;ii()r.1.. T.h ~s' PWiTIl us ~O:w'Iii$freKfj1L ~tan~m \S~t9ti ro~:#s. far in e~cess,'O'f Iho~~ possible tor two~:wa,y. transmisslon.

. Jvla~w AD';SL ,sy~~~n1;S, 'U~ a fr.¢;q~e[)cy d;y~stou mtlh~.pkxed (F,DM~) ~,t~n~]'rds~ rd~' tech-

n.["quc. whleh places UPS~l.\I~,!1I:ll"l t!f,allls!(Ol~~fl[ln. in a fil'{iqtLClli;:: y Ib,nna &epf~li"u~,.; r'-o.rn the d!tfwilShe~1Il! t..NJUJ to ,p1\~Nent sel:f:-ct=mist[dk, The' guard band is, nCCi!bcf:;Sfity H'l f~ci'l h~~,e f~h~r~'iJ:b~~ :prfJV~J'I& 'POTS '!!1-6istbl tiL'Qm hl:Eelfering '.'",id1 theA'igit::11 ~tra'll£:!lil!j:.£,gion, Set l-;\i:~'ljre 1. '14"

, -

'-S'orrie AOSL s'U:[Ster.HS '1US-<i;:' ::111i ECH ~m[)srn'~SSi(Hr techn ique wj1;erB [hie: upstream freeuencv

,.j. l' 'IoII'~ ~

h~lTt~, res~;{1~~ wi thin [he -.d'Ow~s.treaill,l hrt:ml ~€~ .~iglmi' 2, 1;5. E1 'over~~~ppi ~g the ba.nds~ Itlh!t lQl~~i,

~t~ns:mhte~~ balnd}wid"th 'm~'y b~':' :rri~'Ut:e& HQweve:r. the 6tH ls. suhjea:;:t" to self-crosstalk, and its

. . . . . . .

',i,mpl~fQefltaJi~OIjj"'il!l';!i;')lv'~ more "Cmnp:~t'=·i 'q,igiml sjgnal pro~~5~n.g!, There i,s.·f'Ome d¢bM,~ M ro

whether the, cr~gitalcQ~nplcx,uty i$ :o:ffS~d by s,rm~iifi,oC~tlo~l o,r ~;he ~jj,~.1 Q,g.fio.n~ end.

Dtke h),thi@ hld, •. o.f,s~n~~.m:)st;!ill'~ ~t the ('Iq -CT~di r~PM AD'SL 0.ff~fS, rnuch better upstr,e~'m performance dnm 'ECH' ADsr .. HOWitVers the 'I,~ I,JeT dJnw'IlsIC'C!H!n. bandwldjh of :ECH ADS.L p-~['~' nt~t~ better dow nstl'Ba:trl: p.erfoOl,TI:l;1!T1(e'l especial ~y. ftfr- shorter j oeps,

Th('Jp~~'fonn a~c'e ,o'fsynmieHk ])Sl .. ~ fl,rhl1aiJ"ilJ' limited lhy' st1f-ne~r-end-c:r'()~stalk (sel f· NEXT}" ACrS.L overcomes sdf NEXT 'at the CUS~,O'lrJ13I':e[)rl ;s,~n"Ji?~~v bv ted i,.it).l~ng the source of the .se'lf~NEXT, 13'1' r.ec;luc{i)g: the UpMl~~~nil b,b ralte, tlJ~' tJ~i~.l~~a:m: t:ha.II~nei m~~y b~ ,p.ositi.O'!ie.<i to :il"'in'rii~,

n~ii!~mt,t .f.::r.it~

1'1'.111 ~ ni it POiWL';r

,~ I

.H i;gJP':": r l1i t- rb h:; I)v~~'n~t'~~rl"l fJ.arid

~

~)(JTS ~,~r':.;1

I {i;IM''''~ $Jai~d In.,..'~.r B~~-mc

/ /""'~ R""

/....------;.--,

f

j

,.

~I} l:Il"o.ssta!k :u~'l,j t'fue ·d(}W'r:.iS:Lre-3JlT~ ~.t9Jl1s:rn!SS ion, [';Clii' ADSL; reoeption 0,( the u~~[_n~,atn. ch annel -.;:: :B~.a0E~ 0a~itil' .!by -pli;'!;dH:~' it i1Ii~ iuwtf fr~(.1 uenoies 'i).'lkre loop 101:::S !:S: less and c;Fogg,t8lilk' noise Is

Qs~ -

A.nSL ~~;y:sh~~n:S ~nlr~~Y .ad\l~[Jccd dig'i.tal, tJ':m:nlsllJ1issi On, lcc'h tll,q l~~~. ~ij en hance performance, The ·nlGd!!J.la~:il()ffiI Mel freq~Le~t:;y pl<fGcruent ,()f l:b~ tran smi ni::~ ,'$~gn,fU d}' rtr~f!li{::g),IJy al!J~lpr~ to

achieve, 'Qr~:t'i nia! performanee f:'r{Hn the char.i,'L(:n::ri~bbs lufi tGI ~~c [.0 ~hc Sl~btv¥~I'~bltli ] uR@.,·belng 'used" T~h~ ~,r)dt.s are.used to redwpe. the d(ec:t, ~f :~l\f~dl'·~tat~ wlde.b"~~d: JlJai:s~. AJt"p(ti;;~ e'quiilHz,e:rs ll~;Cd~Cil. n,~.~~ h:f;1: ,1~:2Ij·r~wb~~·id no.J:se. such f:'I!];" till:Ji:n n'~iU:~cic~" ~n[ii.:.~~'~':eremlce. (RF,I,). Forward er.r(}I: COl~· trol (FEe} \':ode:s: mrlll{~ iriierl eaving rrrot~l. again~l ngiie. '.i,ml)'lll.~~~ lnH:xld=b .. u[J,_g' pr:o~~c[~ ~gtd.iast error btlr:;ib by $h,ul'tl i rag b leeks 6f d('b~,~ So' th~t 0 l,ong bun~, Vf etw.t~. ¢~ruhs in ,~: fe~ ,tt;on-,e,.::::t'~bl~) ~Tors, j.n !::"i;l(~Ji, block, ra~h~l' than 21 ,I(uD:ge: (lHICOtc'tGI~ble} ml1"Obel' of errors ~fi CHt~ block, An iIllC'r~ '!caving -dei~'th of 2ft l'l1lg: wi n ~'wti}Ct .ag;a,lnst nolse bup;:t~ up 'ti:)'':;;;"OO J..I!:;'; in .clUlJl:tiQ'I1I_ Surveys ofloQP implJib0- 'cyei:Us suggest dmt a ~S~' m..:aj ori})' of IlIDp:ulses, :3r,B less ~harrJ 500 ~s 'in duratien. HO'w-, 'BNCTr,' tilL'S degree of it1i~c~'h~~vlf!g causes all ~d-dbliQl1ial H'atl$[~on: dd;:]Y,' of 20 ms, wh~,ch can slow !(~mo/Ii tile U:l]iotiigtup~~!, :of P[1J.IOCQ~S, Sl,1Gh .~s 'fCPf'tr, w~ibh 'req uh:e pi;l..~"k.e:t:;:f !,{'I h:e~';!!di:l"LUW'~ed;ged b'efQri Ur],ort' Jrilf!, ale, senr,

.A Q$L :1 d..o,~~ m:ay have l~I'M:g1f:d :Lf.!PS. ~I: ~~9.loa(fi~:g coils, Au ,; 1:1Hrepah distill $Sl:Qn ,of ADS]'"

J . ... e,

lrEmsri'J'i·s~i9ri. ilIedul'i,q l_M~S i~ rro,,!,id~(~ ,i:lq,Jj~p:ter' ~"

i~.DSL wi 11 b~ I tUe!;lJUw& 'l"f1toe fibel"~f€dJ dh!:~lal '~:OQn carrier (. tiLt) S\'!;&U::;HlS to address those

'PI-" ..... ,~ L-- ~"..-

loeps lh!jl,l ate no[ se;[['v·edi di'Mct~y [T0111] :a CO. ,ADS L hi, well Stl,Gl~d 'to pro:v.idj n:;g hi.gh h:i.l rates over

the· nU:'~ied luops, which ~~'rc' lUIT:l)!. ,~Qijgt.t th~u] 3:7 k~n ('~ Z. kft), f)ers~be an ~ nJ:!Jslt)l standard fQr ADSL CANS]' T:I ;'41~)"" I(:;f.1tly. AD·SL sy$,te~~s, dld uot jnte1:~pe~i,e, Bff:brts 'by ",!\D~L IrJJ~f~'I,I:f:acturers '~tJiild ~t~~.d~~~~ c~mmi~t~e.s are. e'fP!3Ct~d to adtuev,e ml;Jlti!'en~tlt in.ler-dj}erabil,iJy for ~U[UJre AD3,[ .. ~y~te[Il~-, I~ hdd tit~Of.l ['0 Ilbc' phl~ic~l' :1:a::re-r; t~ u _ i:nte.rorcn~tJ·i lily !,equ.i:J~,e:.~ LCl()n]pat:ibi~ ity at all i:ay,Cf$ of the fir.Q~.[:)(~d~ "ftai:;h:,.

It b~~. hec"O'IT.I1B dear 1h~;t AD6L i~" fu~ access li6:]UiOlogjo' flh\t a:.syflic[b:rofJli.dus t~',al1s:fer mQ'qe (A'TM) needed tD opor~ t~0 door to h9~TiI~ .. and :;;m~ll office; .Before A DSL. A 1M, appdred to 6'e restricted to ofJly ~hUt;p who :c0'1I:1& iI:fi:ordi thi;; pt0.miirU't'b prices of ~ ~nk$ a;t 4.5 Mhls a];HJ above: big bn."'i.bn8';!o:.:S: and ~he. O:2iokbone :ruet\'i.!'Ork. 'I,,¥Qrk Is um;LeJ"iJl3:i" to deal w'iltfu ATM t.~H,';;.pon over A,[>SL\;' I!.IIJtjqll~ dl~Lr~Cterls~lics~ error rarss, b.tell'bcYM as)'t"J'1:met:I.)", [[net dylULtrl.iC rate cil.$l,j'~e-,

For ~ 1ime ~t ,;;l(,1pe~I.',~d til at.the f,lJGtl~, fov ,~.DSL· cVQ~ utitm was hi'gh sp.eieds- such a's I, () :Mb/s; dD.wn~tte.arn and l,.5~ ~1'blg; U1p;Hreall1. Hr,n\'f.'\Ter. [his ditccriim has fidled, due to O\reil~fJ with VDSL. sp~tl!'a:1 ~qr.nP1!l~ i l)fHty G~· .. mQ~T~.~, ~n'd i~Q!uhts :rDg.a~di:ng rhe need "for' th~~¢··spe.eil$". ~~I'i~:tcwj I the. fOCLU5 t"i)~ ~:s, C!rt umprO-'ll,e:d toOo,[). reach -, at "rri:Oi"€: modest r::i:l!tltl( iiIIea~ II 'MllIs~ and iower~cojs[. lower-power; and reduced crosst~dk lllTI,pler.oentatimilS~ ADSL sysl~nl~c. ~r~' h.e1.~g d~N€lu'B0.i] 'to con 'I/.~"f 1n1l,l,ldpJ'e di.giHL.1 dedvcd v~).j;cc· circu it!:!; in 'Rdd~tlQ'n to' hl,gh~sJx:.ed .datfb_

.2.iI:,S.1 A DSL +- ISDN

~ ome- vendors are 'I ntroducing ~ ve.t"f;'i,QWIi of A.DSt tw:he:r:e the upstrearu and d!oi!.vTlilm\.,:o~Ll!TI fr~ueJIlG~' band have 'been placed ~bi;)y·~ ~'hi~d} 'to ·gO kHz ANSI T 1 A'JO.l bns~'c rste lSDj\~ t~n:~mi,~~

, l -:. v ...

$'i OTl IJanJ, For BJtlus:i ilig' H]~' ij BS'J' l in6 cede ... the B RI-fi,B(lue'l'ltC:v'h;l't.nd is,O to 12"0 kHt~ Thh; -Sl.ib-

.. " -\0 -. ~. r.- -

$t'<1'1i"lt~~~.lly reduces ~1le- A[)Sl bir rates bur.does perlri.mt ~ ilrl;]'UI,t~fI'ri11i1ll~ ISDN and AD:SL ,'j,e):"v.(ce (,1'1]

one .Ioo:p, 11;w ,ADSl,.L + .ISDN COi~rtg;ll.mlioil is ·LlI~·i~i,ke].¥ [f) pr.:Qvid.e 'he .ft,]'[] :5:5 '~t~'i. (IS: gfq ~~'h

[i(tir~n;ally provided, by l$DN. A.ll$L + kl}DN 'b '()o'f p~[~Icuh:.r interest 'I n Gcrrnarty -and Frnnce, wh£1:e'lSDN S~f<V~C~ is' paniclJIlalrl¥ wMe~D.rea:J_ 1M3 c~llfl,g,ur@Jlo-.tt may also be u &eitl to :p[1u¥,iQC t~Nl,1 VDl.C'e {::~rcui1s Ol'mlLl mr)qer,atelx high a~t~ rates,

,

..... ~~. "j; S· 'jF.1Irnitterle:lZ,,.. A D' "~L

,;;.... .... "''''',~ - l'-"" - ,-,'"1"" ~ J::),

11l~ (u'$~{)rn~r pren1:i s,.e;$ i hstal!fi1l..10ii1 of ,ADS!L "service '~nn requlre :iW\\~ 0'1" modi fl~1 :1 ns:lde, ~~i¢conu:n~,lflicatj'O~:l$ \~id'l)g', :P9i a OOili;yent~O'nal ,ADSL CG!1:Fi,gumtU:Dtl" the ATlSL terminates-at tl!;~ network ii'liteJ't::;'Iice, device (NlDl, wherc' ~ l(v,",."~rasS fillet (th'B:.9ph~l'te,I') extraets ~;l1Ie v(_)iC'6:-,b~]lJd sig~~ls ~ha': ,a}\e, ,aH~'ched! W ~f:Je red nud green litt£.idic wires to- the telephones, and the Mi~d!eha)ld slg~als arecon ~ec:ted to ~:he )'~HDW anlij black. i liII~idc, wu'rc" .... sto the 'C.u~~:~liner~ ADS£. modem .. , Thifl' ~eqU~~ ~h(1 installatton of ~;he. S'p'Hi.Of;r '{LilJd, t1J:s,b reqlll:i.reft'he use.of the :;'131.10'1,1,1 ;U.1l) black ~:nside wires, w~udt sre 'ri'N 'fCluod in-some p,rettl.isc:s' ~r m~}' ~~~:[jd~}"'ibc U500, foi"' ~e:cond-U~e 'v()u~,e ser-

,v)t;e" F"~:u,tlletfrt~()r~, ill some eases, '~i!,~bS'[~fI;d~ffl j ii1s.idFi'l;~ ~<:'J~ berm:, used, whl.d],' 'w,iJI im:pill{r:

AQSt (8.l1"d. e~~n' ISPNf. i)p'¢!(a~,H)]\_, 1;\::; a, re~.uh], ~i¢';;," J liS ide 'iio' ~~ ',.,.;~1I oft,en be ,tequireu htiril the 1i,ID~~o tm.t ~lIl~C,Oi1:!e.t',~ APS"L :rFl!ud~m,.

The moot CQn7nTIOn A,DS1. 'POTS' spl i:uer GowftguraiLiofi CMci,Q~J,,"n i I] F~g!Jr~ 2,;, 16) plaees ,9l 'i6'.~-pass ~'uller (LP'r.') thr tbe voice, wi dl~g.,m' or riil~r the 'NIP a~~J 8: hug;h-~ru;;£ 1:1 ~tm (HPF) JOCMcC[ .wi['hili ~'~e ATU-R .. A.!te:nHit~yely, the splitter ~LPf ~udl HP1:ry rrlf.lY lbe,,~[I,.r'C,g[.il.t(id \.~i[hiri the ,ATO-

........... ..

R~ The ~plif,t.et .. within the ATU~ R. has 'the- d.~€iadv,a~t~g¢s of the possible lo~s, :of POTS ,~:v.ke

wbierr! rh< ,.-~T:U -It..is n::1n()V~ and P"9$~ib,l) e~i~~\!~ ¢f9:sMa1k wh~J~ ti.si:ng c.tisti liig fJr~nwst;$ ''''',~lnt·

The 'spH(terJe.~s, A DSL ,consep!t el ~ m i'rtilJ;(,es, th:e 5p,~illiL-~r 'fj-]:~~r fb[, the Cl1~l6,m~i.' 'i1l'iiII~[ 'of 'the, li I~e,

tvhmy ,loUj~r terms have bee n used. W describe Hi.[~' c un~GP~,;'.ADSL ,t~i'e~J::'(mJ'l1'WH ,DSL, {CD'SL), Q[' fj,d:ye-r£'{j" ADSL (UA1)SLJ_. BvHuedess ADSL is d:v~ille:diin. nil Re'~():l]]m,cnGh1Ll:'Qn 'G','9~:t,i. ·n~(~~ADS.L modem ~r.fd phones are ali d~[,'ect~y {;{),nntt::ted 'to. l~lC ,~,is'[']ng red and grton w,~ .. es

wi~hi'n the: JlF~m:~ses. Sj multa~eol.ll$, data· and "1'0 ice operation are supported. APSL 'J nstal tafton i~' euHy. performed. by pl'Ulggiiilg the ADSL medem into any. phone Jack. in [he f.tIl;emi ~ELS. 1'f~61h~r new hlR!de. w:uf~'n g u Q,t ",p~jtte'[ ~·ns.I.flUnti an is. needed. SC~ Figure '2; 17.

The c(~tiJtep~, is ~Ii)O-l'lderfll.!; the pt,a:--ct:ic~,1 hnplemeruauen j s being investlgared and wi n p:res:eilt compromises, 'T~ ADS;~ :s,pf~He;r has two purp-oses';' '( i) the splhik[ ~he~nlat~s. POTS' :signaling no'i·s~. which could corrupt ADS data transraissien, and (2) t,~e .spli'tter att.enlJlQltS "he ADSL signals to prevent audible U9]S'e· on th~ [cl~[Jhoi~¢S., ~,ue, In the ~1:D111i,frJ~ai' :imp;Ja~l~e, 'of some te'icphones, A.DSL-.lrans.nl mHed eflergy :at Tr€~utndes we] I above 'the, a:u-dib~e b~llid .can '00 moou.h~tcd ; nto the voice band. S.h i fti n~ the ADSI. transrni ssiQ1IJ b-afld:s 1Q h ~,gher fr~que:t:LCJ¢S, c~r-i, reduce these problems. However this will reduce the AnSl dam retes ~nd the loop reach, Btid error blI~S,~ are '~Ikel~' to QOCI;I[ when the: phone ri:n gs:, and surely 'dud Iilg the Tl:lig J:rip- u-aftt:s'ie,l!Iit ;~vhe~'!..a riIlitimt~o)hi,')ne hd;a'ke:'i'l o [f-h.o ok , A[l objedio"'!i~ble hiss'i!~g s'Q1I!Ji.di rrmay he heard in phones

, - ,

wlth pOCi-I' wideb~ll~ :Gh~u:~k~l£ri£t:ic$.

OUG sohnlon to these problems is to p'~aoe.., ~,:tOW;- ass filt,el' ~f1 series with each "phone~ See fb;;u.re 2. J. R" Til LS f.,I,teT would be i nexpensl V,f~; and have modular connectors .:5 Q ~hat, '~n ti.nt~~ ned customer could lnstall i~ In second . r'l1Is,talla'~i,bn rur ~' ~!,I~J I phone wou let n;ot 'be so .eas ~, but at worst tbc customer could buy a new "'~bSL(;ompatible'~ "'!Oll) ~ phone wi U • .i1!. low-paas tibel' huih inside ~he phone. This ccnfiguration should pr¢\"¢j'U: .f~OTS noise froru 'In~pa:i,rililg, ADSL transm!ssi(i,n aild Ans.L noj~c;; from tieing heard on [he telephoues. No new insjde wire is aeeded, and 00 :1![:)liU(i instaHatid}l is rtlced.:;~ ~t :the N[D, The customers ·cOM,'ld pIt-I,cr the;~r ADSi.. modem into any. tekp,h9,ne: \v"all jack. TheA[)'~:~ da~:a rate would be somewhat less than the conventionel APSL co:~ng'U~~iO'f,1~ TtJ€J:~ 'WQukl, be. sotne redlllC1m,Q[] i til data ,r~~-s due, to ,other noise ~nd the ~Qad:i,ng elflC~t of n1.a~y filters aliid w~ritlg, ·~Hl!JIbs .. The n1J R.ecolnmiIldatj,orl CL992.2 ("G.H~,e.:"J

, ,

has.less performance than the full-rate . R'e>C.Q1l l 11"1 e. ooaMGUi! Q.992. 'I (~~G. .p:MT '}" due .to .~ ,r~~~Ue,e(1

'f.ll:ll1i~ her of DMl tones, i:1~d fewer bits-per-tore, Reduced v eke- baad I..ran~m ~ssion. qua'] hy j;)1~)

~ls·o rcs:(tlil frommany ~mv:"pas:s: ~itle.1:·s hei:n$ ptsced in parallel, ... \no.:ber concern is mt-ouo]e .result. tfiia; from cUs.~.omer.) whQ ror:get to :ptElCI.'; a ', ;t..PF in the U se to. one 'of Hilftl r phones.

}\.11J-R.

If rhe .ieChilical Jl,11(:" operati!l,m:al hurdles .aTe o .... ercome, s~)I~tteJ·less ADSL may !lj~tlimaitely become r]JB domsnaat type of .A.!cL5.L for the near [ern';! I. most ADSLs :are. bd:l1g hlstalloo w~H~ ~ ~ntle): at. both ends of the J i ne. The 'use cf ~1:;Sp~ ti~t.er al' the customer ·site m.ay see ecm Un Lied use fnI-tl~1!e jnst@.n~~~io[~ of service ro customers who rC'QilIiit£. hi.g;h~r~-~~h-[,.ate· service, Some A\DSL. sericeprovlders! ave sbl;gges •. ed lh~ll~ their ADSL service should w{)~k whh boththe -, splitterless ~Iid '~']I:tered customer J~,O[J jl.gu:rntio:ns. ';_v~.ile usi h:g' .lin.; sarne type of AfU-C M [he ~o. The I?~:ogre$s

- f s'p~ nHer'iess ADSl I!A.'ZtS acoe~n(:;E1H_~d 'by the techu j,cnll and .:m,a:rl\::e!:~ng .acti ~'i~ ies of the. U n iversal A:DsL W~:d~l 19 Or~l);!p .. (U,.-\"WO) .. a. confi(~d~1i! of ~ea~in$ telephone c.o£np;am1ie.s '~nd .computeI'

~T.i~·.hig!h~ b.it~'rate, digi.~I: subscriber Iii ~~. CVDs.L~ 1 $ an extension of .ADSL technology ({) h:lghi3;r es, up .:0 52 b.-1b/s.dlo\~t~tstream. At .such 'hllgh hit ·~t'iiS" the loops. m.ust be £0. s.hort. [hrn optical ber will he ILl~OO f~:)<r' a~ I but the bSi few thoasand feet,

Most ]!)SL~H:~lfe prin1tliril..Y .i~l.(.¢l:lded for "':JE€ on loops ~f:~~ ~(CO to~a· C'u~:t;Qmer' premises '&I!f.KIl ;h'nrlarHy for use front flbe -fed distribntion multiplexers, The oppo~ii~ is U'iu.e: f~r vbst, ~.S'L:wm pr.ifrmri:l.}, be' 'ust>d 'fQ[ loQps fed from an optical network \mh (ONU); which is ~yp'j~ y. IQta~e(i less rhaml a idldj:oel~ from the C1JStOi ter, Few VDS[ loops will he served di redly

C'''''1i . 'ltiui' ,v.

. , '

Optical 'fioor counecrs the ONQ tp iDe -, CQ .. VOSL transrnisslon over a twisted w· re pair :ns 111S.~ 'f~r the fe~y ~hou~~n(l 'feel from the ONU to the cu~t.Qrtlerprern~se.s_ Se.e:-Plglue.2.],9 VOSL requirements developed by the TlE-l~&, siandsrds ·workh.g group specifled the fo~~owil~g objeiC[~v'Bs,'for j;"M:es :and' di 5fiaTlo-:'....s from the ONU to tile ·CI!.i~t:(}ITI~t sire ~

D(:!'\i'if1<str,eam rate (Mblsj

IU ps,t!",eam lialte (MblSJ)

mslan,ce (tift. (1111)

tl,4 3_2

.26'

,

]:3

:1.1.

'E,.6

ONV .

.

.

N' rr ~ w o :It

K J-------------------=----------~

I,OQO'- 300'. 2.500 ~gQO ~ OOf'l' ,_ :!,OO

I .~ ...

1,800 -,6fra

.-:-:1; 7~r" _, 'r 'io{'j·O··

_", .oi)U tlIl.Y·

The flber from the ne.l wor~, to ~he O~U5 mar ·pei::9~ne.;cted ~ ire'ctJy . ~,6 the qNl;if'i dau.sy c~a;~ed, at via H passive Qpdc;a1 splitter,

V[!ISI!. 5~

2'.6,.2 VDSL Orig]ns

nfsc~,s:..i.;iorn ~)fH'ie.VDS:Il .. "c~[ij(:c.ptbeg!I~ :l!1I's'l~rld~rds C~lIuttiHce)i in la.~ 1.'~94! with lhe)j.ef~ . ~ lIiiii,mlJ of VO~L systenl req ul'[bnen:t~' ,LD ETS] TM6. ttnd T ~ E 1.4, :S,e ..... cral' pmposal.::; are cl,lrr.-e:ntly bt ~'ttldled! hy these greeps ..

:2 .tL3 VDSl C,apaib,il iti~s and Appl h::a:t":Qrns

VDSL. as .PHlE1. of Hi full-service .network (f·S..',J, is in tended to support" all applica~,om; simul t:<:I!r.i€orH.Dsly = · .... ·auoe-. d~ul., and video .. Ultunliaile.(y,.. V DSL wOiJJI ld support bigh~ilille'f'initi~)(1li telev]skm (H DTV) and :h.igfil~pcr,f(Jr'ma:nce- com.pul:ing appl iCall[Qns. SYU1.lncll"ic application of VDSL ~ "m, provide tV.'O·W'3.Y dan~ rates up to 2<5 'M~!:, I;b~ wiH he .3un~~c.liyi: fur bui~j ness sites where fibc.r~t{)·tfuie("blJiidj n~ is. [j>l).~ j ustificd.

The. PAVtC VDSL ~.J'j)e; .'l.p~c.·ifi~at~~[1 €Jr!JpI0!,S c:anje.rl~s, ~,ml?1iwde p.];JL~,~(CAP) modula.tio['J. for n;'t(~ of '13, 25,92, and 51 Mb;/s d·ow.ii5tr~.a1iTI and 1.6 ,Mbls upsueiutl via ~n un~biCtded [,\~j~l:ed wire ~xd!;,. The D.AVIe YDS]~ specificaHon is based on a, passive ~'~'T archlrecrure, which w~,mU$ d i rec[ ccnnecrlon of ]I):uIti.P'I'e 'VDS.L ti"~.lHH,; .. eivers at the customer end of ~,he Hne" See

. f.brurre. f20" 1~ypica~ Iy, the. passive NT ,~r.chitect!Jre requi res the: ONU t() be less Hla.n 1 00 rneters 'r,om the customer Vns.L units, thus mrudn,g it more suitable for fiber-to-the-pedestal and in-prernises ,apr he arions .

. Ot-H)

SCH.o:P' ~at.mc

I .........

·.,,,,,,~I.l'P

, t.l»! or P. C

'-----ti"l. ,co ustomer Premises

The. VDSL Acti ~B hubi architecture shown i n Pigurc .2..2] permits a greater (rate). x (reach) p.r~.dJUc.t Ily"y usi ng a PQ~Ti.~~ to-point cOmlfiLg!.:lf,a~·l on, for '~(IIoiP lmf:i;loi,m,iss.i.on. The active huih consists of a ~:L11I g~e VDSt transceiver, and .a.:;se;p?lir.iue, shon-h nul ~ EJ1k .. within the va-em ises ~L') each, teerninal {shQ''lIy,~n )'r or a she t-haul bus 'I,: ... ~hbhl ~\he premises {not. stlm ... ·.[j) ..

_~ .. I.~I(JP b-o;.;:.arK

. M-J-top li01-WP{'

t L'?I~ I

II!o"Cus[~.ane~' Premises VDSl active I'H),b' .~irch~~ett~J r.:e.:

'3U0,qrJ;;!l~ 'S ...10 ~l1m:ItU90 !~1J,(;.~d ~ S~ (!j~ns l~.;rljJd~nb<:1' .J"~Sifl-plla ,_ 'J:U:~Ii1.1idnru(r;,'T 1~'ilIIfmJ~ T ~;'iJ 1':

• !' • .:!I, II W a~

~'(!QO] lre:.:'(:)"l ~ql j()' pU:'] ,!!~'IJIOl~i!1? ;.}I[) lJg l{J;~P9U,i, fiSC! I - U~~~~If!'lU~,.l, 'f~'~:l~N :.J.N

. '~!.In.

~P!Slifl.o, AWJdn.!(,l:)1:~~O(:rd~{~'~' ~n~, nu.re :U'O'H!:! [lll:!sm, l;:ontr.Qlb':Tl!]1

., ~ . . .. r·

. jIjil UQg.~l,;'Q IJJO~~lYru1i!Uklp

JO' l!J!~Jd ,;;;itU - ~':;)~A:;,.a ar..'m.f.l~'Y1. "'~'Il,"~'3N ':([n~J:

-s ;}'!-l:rwara ,:rgil.l.~sn::J' ~~I]. m 00 ~ql ~ll~~~UY~' I ,:;;u~ ~O'oqd:il;~

.' F .

~tJ.t = d,001 rEl;)~"I

'~.doo~}o '<l~ofem, I -;J'q~ jOJ; P21~g'QtJi l-O'U ara Sl'al'l1ad~'H '-5'1;'1(.10:[

,:a 0,0.1 '!iii 0 uorss ;P:~i.S rn:: ~ l ~lq~Ug OJ p;;)Sn

. '~N~-J' ,tt JO ~mo&K'I~iu

, . . ! m· ... I

MFJ JI'l~1LII V~OOI g-Y~'I":~ J) OO~l.f.l!lQl!r:~9:.I JC'~~!$ V ~ ~1f2ld;}'MI

·~~;'Wd~t~oo O~ .\W 01 e.ki(l,[ ,(Ui': Ol pesn P'I~~: fuIn)~~!~OO -S;OOl;) ';Jo.ll1~ '~ '_ ;}W~Jli ~1lF!linq!:xJ~CI U~8~, ;,i1«W I

idOOIl:'~~OT ~ql JO poo, }[.lOM. jau ~q-r1 l;'E 'l!.UI~porn: 1:8'0: - IIDO"~iIlI,~:J'3.:iL a.un ':'1.1,

-l'IJ:OOl.:{I) !~1b';} :B'[I~q;Jl~NLli; P~I1~ I,KII~;rS1Il11S~ll o~ ~~~r.t~-o. 'Saml T8.JO~ ·~.Q·~I.'Iii, >~mI!nq_ 'V - ~mo F.Q1G3 :OQ

11

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