Prestress losses From the time that the pre-stressing force is first applied to the concrete member

, losses of this force will take place because of the following causes: 1. elastic shortening of the concrete 2. creep of the concrete under sustained compression 3. relaxation of the pre-stressing steel under sustained tension 4. shrinkage of the concrete These losses will occur whichever form of construction is used, although the effects of elastic shortening will generally be much reduced when post-tensioning is used. This is because stressing is a sequential procedure, and not instantaneous as with pre-tensioning. Creep and shrinkage losses depend to a large extent on the properties of the concrete with particular reference to the maturity at the time of stressing. In pre-tensioning, where the concrete is usually relatively immature at transfer, these losses may therefore be expected to be higher than in post-tensioning. In addition to losses from these causes, which will generally total between 20 and 30 % of the initial pre-stress force at transfer, further losses occur in post-tensioned concrete during the stressing procedure. These are due to friction between the strands and the duct, especially where curved profiles are used, and to mechanical anchorage slip during the stressing operation. Both these factors depend on the actual system of ducts, anchorages and stressing equipment that are used. Thus although the basic losses are generally highest in pre-tensioned members, in some instance overall losses in post-tensioned members may be of similar magnitude.