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'"

Learning Sornskrtorn Book 1

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Arsha Vidya Gurukulam Anaikatti Coimbatore

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'----'---'.-----.~-_r

1- Verbal Roots, First Conjugation (~) , 01

2- Masculine and Neuter Nouns in 31, Nominative Case, Accusative Case and Vowel Sandhi ........ 12 3- The Fourth Conjugation '(f~ and Instrumental

Case (~ rcrlifff,:) "" 25

4- The Sixth Conjugation ("~z::) and the Dative Case... 34 5- The Ablative and Genitive Gases, Masculine

Nouns Ending in ~ and '3 "". 46

6~ The Locative and the vocative Cases, The Tenth Conjugation CLj:nf~) and Prepositions (~:) ... 58 7- ~;w and oq-m Feminine Nouns ending in

:;rn and t 72

8- The Imperfect Past Tense (MJ: Feminine Nouns

in ~ and ~ 84

LESSON 9- Masculine and Feminine Nouns in ';f[ Imperative

Mood (~) 98

LESSON 10- Feminine Nouns in 3>; Potential Mood ~ 111

LESSON 11- Neuter Nouns in~, '0 and:tr, Agreement of the

Adjective (~crr) with Noun 126

LESSON 12- Passive Voice ("cflGlUr !lZffrr) and Passive

Impersonal C'lrir rrdrl) 140

LESSON 13- Pronoun ('Bcf=rrtn _ _ _ 157 I

--~k-

DIU

Table of Contents

Pujya Swarniji's Message , c .

Pertace _c , , ii

F:oreword c :· 'iii

LESSON
LESSON
LESSON
LESSON
LESSON
"
LESSON
LESSON
LESSON DO.

\:lO

LESSON 14- Consonant Sandhis ~ - ~f.:~-T: and Nouns

Ending in Consonants " 168

LESSON 15- One-stem-consonant-endtno Nouns {contd.) 183

LESSON 16- Two-stern-consonant-endinq Nouns , 198

LESSON 17- Participles Past Passive (TI~) and Past Active

Participles (~) " 209

LESSON 18- Present Participles; The Present Active and

Present Passive Participles " 226

LESSON 19- Nouns and Adjectives v{ith two-stems (contd.);

Degrees of Comparison " ,., 242

LESSON 20- Consonant-ending Nouns and Adjectives> with

Three sterns · ".254

LESSON 21- The Formation of th e F emi nine Bases; Interrogative and Relaliv8 pronouns ........ " ........ 268 LESSON 22-lndeclinable Past Participle ~ and ~J:

Locative and Genitive Absolute " .. "" 284

LESSON 23- Infinitive (TIJ:j,~) and Numerals (~) 297

Glossary

Verbs " " 307

Nouns 324

Indeclinable , ,', .. , ,", , .. , 348

Nouns English , , 351

'\.:::,,0

-----------_,;O 0.

LESSON 1

Verbal Roots, First Conjugation ('1:Cfrf(~:-)

Introduction

.

The finite verb (~:,<rrq~'i),forrns the back bone of the language.

The verbal root ('iW!) is conjugated in six tenses and four moods. In each tense and moed there are three persons and three numbers. The three numbers are: singular (QChCl€Hy'), dual (liClil"il{) and plural ("I~q"'~"iq) ..

• In Samskrtarn, any word has two elements:

a, ~ - known as the verbal root (1:ffi1) ls the original form of the finite verb.

b. ~ - is the termination which is added to the verbal root (~). wrfu + ~ = ll'~-rt (word)

In order to combine with the terminations, certain changes in the verbal root ('mil) takes place, forming a verbal base (J-TW) I

These changes take place due to the strengthening process of the vowels of the verbal root ('I:1Tg) - known 2S:fT change and <fo& change.

• Given below are the steps to form the verbal base (31W) I

a. The verbal root (mg)is identified in terms of len classes ~:) !

b. The twofold stre!lgthening of the root vowel is done: - the first level of strengthening is called TT 1

- the. seoond level ot strengthening is callao ~ I

C. The verbal root (\'--ITQ) is augmented with it's respective class-affix (TfOT-fuq;-{T;fT{) j

d. The changes due to phonetic rules~) are implemented.

2

11. The First Conjugation ('KI1fc;-)

(present tense, active voice '07;, <:fikf~ .~:)

Formation of the base

Application

• The final vowel of a verbal root (short or long) ta kes TT

e.g.: R- to conquer "i={ - to be ~ - to go

a. 'JlT of the final vowel:

R - '#~l - 111 1f - ~

b. The Class I affii( (}T) is added:

~ + 31 = VfZf '4T 'I- car= ~ ?J\ + .3f = m

Note: In Samskrram, the phonetic: ctlange that occurs due to the proximity of letters is called ~ I The prescribed rules for the combination of two vowels which are proximate to each other are caned Vowel sandhi rules.

e.g. When the vowels D: and sit are totlowed by any vowel, they are changed res pectively to 3~<L and 3i'Cf. ~ + 31=;:;rn- +.3l =~ 'tir + 3l = '\=I'GT + 3l:: 'qq

~ ,

• The short penultimate vowel of a verbal root lakes lJ17T

e.g.: ~ - to protect o/t to know

T;;f{ - to move <f1Sl to draw

a. 1JUT of the shortoenuttlmate vowel:

. I

3icJ - 3icJ V{

....."'" ....

3

p. The class-affix 3iis added:

31q_ + $f = ·3[4 ;::jF{ +~r = ~:T

t'.f{_.. + J 1" = 1;f{

• The long penultimate vowel of a verbal root does not take lJUT

e.g. uftq~- to live .~ - to play

Tile class-affix J1 is added:

~ + J1 = :;rfrq~l1; + 31 = m

~ ,

• The short penultimate vowel of a verbal root followed by a conjunct consonant is considered to be long. and therefore does not take lJUT

e.g.:Fq - to blame ~~ - to protect

The class-affix 3T is added:

~ + .J{ = 'fF;" ~&t + J{ = ~~1

The Terminations of the Present T ense Active Voice ~ CRlft:' ~

I.-----~~_,-~--r--· . ; ~

! I Sing. ! Dual Plur.

I ' ...... _ ----.--- " .... _-- - - --- ..... -,~,y~., .. '--.~- .... '~ -_ .r~''''- •• -~. ~~~-'----'-'- --------"~

I Third person fu ! n: 3:rR1

1-- __ .. _ [._ .. _ _-. -............. ...- ----

! Second person fu i ~: l ~

,. __ .. --. . .... --. ·-·-~r~··--- .. -

l First ~~rson 1m.. i q: I 'If: __

Adding the Terminations to the Verbal Base (31W)

• The third person: fu - (l': • 31Rr

The class-affix 31 of the Verbal Base (atW) is dropped before terminations beginning with J{ (3lf~).

8. Verbal roots with a final vowel (short or long):

fi;:r ~ ~ ~ ~ .~: .~

'l.J. ~ 'IiGl' -7 'G"CIfu tfCl('!'; ~

~ -7 m -;i. tr6'a 'ffi(f: mfu

4

b. Verbal roots with a penultimate short vowel: .'

"'C:f\ -7 'R -7 i{{I<::1 T1Tc9': 'i'Rfu

~ -7 <iN --7 <:ihrfu q:r@: ~

~ -7 .'1'fi1f --7 Cj~l q)l'ffi': ~

C. Verbal roots with a penultimate long vowel:

~ -7 -;;ftq ..:) ;;fF.rtff ~m: ~

~7m -7 ~fCi ~: ~

d. Verbal roots with a short penultimate vowel followed by a conjunct consonant:

~-7 ~ -7 v-r;;;:m ~ -7 W --7 r~

r'I-;:;;i'f: .~ \~TI'i: z~

• The second person: 1~ - ~: - ?:f

a. Verbal roots with a final vowel (short or long):

f1i --7 -:rr:r -7 ~ ~~: ~

'I.j"7:'1'?T: ~

~: ~

b. Verbal roots with a penultimate short vowel:

~ -7 ~ -7 'mfu 'f:lT2l: ~

~-7~-7~~:~ ~ -7 ~-7 ~ <:fitf<:r: ~

C. Verbal roots with a penultimate long vowel:

~ -7 r.;frq -7 -;frqfu ~: ~ ~ -7 m --7 -ffilmr ~&'4; ~

d. Verbal roots with conjunct consonant

~ -7 f.F:: -7 ffifu f.~: f.R:'4

U1_ -7 ~1 -7 Z:;:rR:r -{~1~: '\!\1'2.T

• The first person: :q_ - ~: - 'q:

The class-affix ,37 of tile Verbal Base (anr) becomes ~ before terminations beginning with 11, and "{

a. Verbal roots with a final vowel (short or long):

F1 ~.;rp:j' -7 \fj'.@:r ~; :;mm:

'l.l, ~ 'I1Cl -7 ~r:rrftr 'trmcT: 'qCIT!{:
-7 ~ ,.-:; mr::r:
'I -7 mrrq ~: b. Verbal roots with a penultimate short vowel:

l:f\. -7 ~ -7 'i:j·nfiT "fRT'CT: ~:

~ -7 ~:r -7 qp..nill :qlmq: -,
em:rrq:
"'
cpe -7 ~. -7 onqifq ~: ~: C. Verbal roots with Q. penultimate long vowel:

-;;ftq -7 ~ -7 ~ ~: ~:

-,

m -7 m -7. ~ ~: ~:

"

d. Verbal roots with conjunct consonant:

~ ~ f-R" -7 f.:RrR ~: ~:

"{~1. -7 :HJ -} "{ltIlfi:! "{e.1 rq: {Wtr:

5

6

Summary

I "i'.R"- to move I 'TI - t.o __ kn-,o_w_..__I--,- __ ---.

T:ffii: ~ «ITmI1' W-m: ~

'Ef'tq: ~~Tfu .~: mmr

mm: ~: cmnfi:r, ~: <lirtlTl1:

I ~ -to go ''I q:;1~ - 1.0 draw I

I ~ - to blame I ~~::r - to protect I

7

Vocabulary

w
Regu la r ve rbs of the fi rst Conj u ga tion
Root 3rd Meaning Root 3rd Meaning
person person
singular singular
" 'l1cIfu f.:R_ f.:R;fu
'9;, to be, to become to blame
~ 3izfu to wander ~ ~ to lead
3P'f ~fu to worship lfT{ qqfu to cook
~'1 ~ to hum ttO -qofu to study, to read
,,... to draw qcrfu to fall
~ ~ :qrr
m ~ to play ~ ~ to ripen
~ ~ to dig <:N ~ to know
~ &fGfu to eat 'l_;fl:1 wmr to walk'
~ ~ to rore <F( ~ to worship
~ TRffi to move, to do '"&1.: rum to protect
~ ~ to move ~ ftgfu to grow
~ ~ to utter cr<{_ GRfu to speak
rn ~ to conquer Cftf ~ to saw
;:yftg ~ to live CRi CTflfu to dwell
Of{ ~ to heat (f([ ~ to carry, to flow
'f!r:if ~ to abandon ~ i%!fu to go
G1[ ~ to burn ~ ~ to grief
~ ~ to run, to melt ~, -rnffi1 to praise
mer mctfu to run ~ mfu to go
~, 1Gfu to dance ,~ ~ to remember
1-<1 ~ to rejoice n{ Pifu to laugh
;rq ~ to salute a ~ to take away 8

Irregular verbs
3f[ ~ to go v:rr tTTtlfu to blow
Tf11 ~ to go :tiT '~ to drink
1N .~ to hide q ~ to wipe
~~
m f-;mfff to smell <TI1 ~ to restrain
~ ~ to bite fuJI EGfTfu to spit
-_
ffi ~ to see W~ ~ to sft
, .\
GJ ~ to give ~lT fi:ip;fu to stand
'-. Exorcise 1

a. Conjugate the following in the present tense, active voice: ~I £I::ITI ~I ir

b. Identify the verbal roots and translate the following into English:

~. ~;;;.~: ~.~:j{. ttafu -

•••••• 44 •• ~ .•• t .~~ ••••••• ·.··.44 •• ~.+~., .... ·.

.............. . , .

4, ~: -
~. mr.r .
\9. crnm - .. ~ ~., ~.~ , •. ~ .

C. cmq: - ~. ~: - ~o.~: - zz,~ -'

~~.~: . ~~.~ - ~j{.mc!fu -

Z"'.~: -

................. ~ , ..

c. Translate the following into Samskrtarn:

1. You move.
2. He conquers.
3, They protect.
4, I speak,
5. They two dwell.
6. You two rejoice.
7. They fall.
8. We worship.
9. I know.
10. You all go, . ~ . , ~ , ~ , .

9

12

LESSON 2

Masculine and Neuter Nouns in3f Nominative Case Accusative Case and Vowel Sandhi

I. All the words in Samskrtarn may be classified ~nto three basic types, They are:

a. Dsc.!inable word ~) - is a word that varies according to gender, number and case. Declinable words include nouns flT11), pronouns ~rand adjectives ~},

e.q.: uq: Rama, 'IQ:': Guru, ~: He, :cih:": brave

b. Indeclinable word (~) -is a word that which never varies, except when affected by phonetic rules ~), Indeclinable words include adverbs (l'=ri':<-fll, ~, f"'1TJ:f, =, ~D,

""'.: -, "'":.-~"" ~

prepositions or prefixes (J:r, -3-q, ro, -ma, ~), conjunctions r:;;r,

31mTI) and interjections (Q", ClT).

c. Finite verb (f>'h<m<;9). - is a word that varies according to the number, person, tense, mood and voice,

e.g.:~1 ~(fl

three genders : Masculine ~), Feminine ~) and Neuter (~0)f),

three numbers : Singular (QCflCliH), Dual ~) and Plural (~-tFf).

eight cases

: Nominative (tr41iT), Accusative ~), InSlruniental~). Dative ~). Ablative (tr~1-,~), Genitive (1fltt), Locative ('flRrlt). Vocative (~M:RiiJ

II. Declension of Masculine and Neuter Nouns ending in :or

All nouns ending in 31, both masculine and neuter, are declined in the same manner, except in the Nominative, Accusative and Vocative cases.

:wPRf~ - "'ii.?1W - W~: - ~r.:r Masculine noun ending in 31

, C8se~-- - -! -Meaning -_. --. -------~--s~~;-ui~r-~ -I--D~;I ., -PI-~~;I I

i ~I?~i_~_~!i~~~-~'~l-;~:~_e-~t~==_~-_ ~--rrrq~-- _.~_.= _~I_~~I .. {1I11.; , - - j

!_A~_~u~~!~_e_ object _ ---------t~..,--~ _5!_t!! __ . ~- _.l

f_ln~~~~~~_~_nta~_:,.~ith~_E!L f"~~ ..• ,\1l1T~, .. _rr+T~ ----J

~:~~~~=1~7~~eca~;e~cl-S~=-~~~r:-1

rL~;~ti~~----'I~;--------'-'- - TIit ~:- wri--_C:O-I

l:'~ ?~~7~~.~·-:--=:~I-·~~~~~S3.i~,,9, ,:-~~-.~·:.::::-I:··-~",=_-=-~~ _ ... ~.i·~I=·~ {I.~.I,: ..... _ ... ~J

14

Examples Nominative case Accusative case Instrumental case Dative case Ablative case Genitive case locative case Vocative case

.-.:rtr:~·1

'.

";[Ft:Tf·~1

'nIT: m rrmfu·1 ~ -~:T1:r: ~ I

'(ill: ~ cr::r ~ I

-c

'lTf:Gm?~F: I qfq: .qk cmfu I

t "(l1:t, t (!5~ I

• Word order:

In Samskrtarn, the word order is relatively flexible, since the case endings specify the relationships of all parts of speech. The basic order is Subject- Object - Verb. The other parts of speech ary inserted within this framework.

The verb must agree with its subject in person and number:

A student salutes '~Tl: ~fu I

Two students salute miT:";:ftRi: I

Students salute UI3IT: -;P:rRr I

III. Nominative Case (JftT'lT ~:) The Nominative case is used:

8. to denote the subject of a tillite verb: [svara protects i?at: \1\1f~J i

b. as a SUbjective complement to complete the meaning of a sentence:

The boys are intelligent. "C1T3T: <qqf..fr ~: I

c. as an adjective in apposition to the subject:

The intelligent Devadafta speaks. ~: ~: ~fu I

15

More Examples

~------~-r---------.----------.

lt~

~: I4"!C!fu I 1:fCFf: ~I U11:~1

~ "I:!Oct: ~~: ~"&T~:

r-

Tf"'fT: 'IJl1Rl I

'fIT: ~I <f6T: ~I

IV. Accusative Case (firffim f<1~:) • The Accusative case is used:

a. to denote the direct object of a transitive verb:

Isvara protects the people tpCR: ~ wfu I

b. as an objective complement to complete the meaning of the sentence.

We know RITma (to be) a hero ~ cfR:rt~: I

c. after verbs having the sense of motion! mpvement:

The farmer goes to the village. ~: 1JT1Tl{ ~ I

d. meaningfully related to the follnwing prepositions:
1 . ~ - above 3lfu~~1
2. 311 - after/along 311 ~ -;;rr:~!
3. '31r - below/near :a-q~~: ( 'I:fCfft=r) I
4. ~: - nearlin front of ~~:~:
~~I
5. -qffir: - around '~-qm,: ~: ~ 1
6. ~; - on all sides, of :w:r::r.~: ifi'"i &1 f.,
~I
7. ~; - on both Sides of ~~:~:~I
8. ~ fie on r-;
- ~~I
9. ~/~~ near CR11. ~ crnp:r: I
10. f<Hr - without ~ fq.:n- WWr ~ 1
" " 16

11.3RRuT

- without/concerning

~~~

~ ,

"fum; 1

.~ 3Rf{ TITll: 'l:fC1"fu I "I:fCffi lJfu~: ~ I ~3lfq~:1

12.3R'ft

13. Wff

14. "if'q

- in between

- towards

- near

Note: In the sentences above, some words end in ~ According to Consonant sandhi rules, 't, at the end of a word when followed by a consonant,lschanged to an anusvara (~). e.g.: ChHlTD" t>'CR"l1~: ="Ch1JJ11i tm -qm:

• ~.-~.-~, ~'-'I'~ ,

More Examples

fucrtF1~ q-~
C?:CfiC1 '<'.l =1l1_
~: -qr;3 "flRfu I ~: 3{~dr ~I 811511: 'lIOf.'L ~ I
¢i"l"a"": J.T;t~1 ~t?qt~:1 3~:~ml
~:cR"~1 iR: ~~I t~; 'I."fUiFL wfu I Vocabulary
Masculine Nouns
~;.- teacher TIfl1: - village
3P9"; - horse "€9f:f: - student
a:rRtR": - conduct ;j=R: - person
tsar: - Isvara tJfrq: - living being
~; pigeon \"fSfTT; tank/pono
~: - hand ~~: - Dasaratha
q;r:q:;- - crow ~: - country
~: servant ~T man :~
~: well 71": - king
crn-: - turtle 'T'R: - wind
e, Cf<'hi:
~: farmer - mountain
c;rmr: Krsna rna: - lesson
TfJI": . elephant Tf: - son 17

nrJi3: - boy
Wt;.JUT: - brahrnana
~' ~. seed
-
"l:Jm: - devotee
~. -,",,: fool
.
1fT: - deer
liEf: - cloud
Neuter Nouns
3r~ - food
~~ - fuel
~ - gold
q;rr~ - lotus
q-~ - poetry
1JPl - house
;:~q_ - wheel
;:iR.?J=r~ - water
~ - grass
~:(¥f - misery
., ...
~ - town/city ~: ¥: 'N: czm:f:

Mu:r:

- Laksrnana

- wolf

- tree

tiger

- student

- cook

- Hara

tpfI.f - leaf
-,
'~ - vessel
'h~ - fruit
~ - war/battle
CRlf_ - forest
~ - body
W~ - Sastra
~fre;I:f. - character
~. - happiness
~ pJace Exercise 2

a. Decline fully the following nouns: <.fR?IWI~I~1

b. Translate the following into English: ~. ~~:I

,.~ ~~~ , -~ .

18

•••••••• 1,1 •• ~. ~~ __ •• _,. ,' ••• ,'," •••• ,_ •••••• ·."r_.' .~_ .r~._.' .. ~." II II II •••••.• .t , ... ~ ... '1 ••••••

.•••....••.•.•••.•••..............•••.•.•••.•.•••••• _ ••• _ ••••.............. _ .••••••••••••.•. _ <'

4~ •• 1., ~ ••••.• · ••. 1 ••••••.•• ' •••• · •••••••• ·' .•••••.••••••••••• +.++ ••••• , •• ~ ••. ~~+++~~ •••• , •••••

· •. , ...•.... ~ , .. ,' .•.•.• I·' '.1 , ~ + _, , •• , .•• " ••• " •• I.' •.•.•••••• ,. , ••••••••.••

· .... , .. , .... , .. +. ~ •• ~ ...• , ! • , , ••••••• ~ •••••••.•• , .•• ~ •• " _ .•••••• ' ••••• ~ •••••••••••••••••• ~ •• I • I ••••

• ••• " ••• _ .••••• - • -._ ••••.•••.•••••••••••••• - • ~ ~ - • , .• - .. + - • - • ' •• + • + ••••••• " " ••••••••• " •••••• -;; ••.•.•••••••

• •••••••••••••• _, ••• ;, ••••• i •••• ~ ••• ' •••• ,., •.••••• _ .••• ~. '"' •• ":- .••••• ~ •• ~ ~ ~ ~ • , ~ • ~ ••• i • ; ••••

•••• ,.,'.'.' •••••• ~i •••••• ·,.'.' •• ,·.· ••• , ••••••••• -t~~~t!··.·····~·~············,~,·~·'·····"···,·-

19

c. Translate the. following into Samskrtarn: 1. The deer runs in the forest.

2. The trees grow near the house.

3. The sastra leads men to happiness .

. . . . . ' .. , . , ~ :_ ~ , .

4, The student reads poetry.

5. The town is near the mountain.

6. Devotees salute hivara.

7. Characier (is) superior 10 (above) gold.

8. On both sides Of the village the boys sow the seeds.

9. We live without mis-ery .

................. , _ ..

10. Rarna becomes a king.

20

LESSON 2.2

Vowel Sandhi

Gltf~
J1 or -3lf + J1 or 31T -731T
r . -7t
~ or ~ + ~ or ~
S or "31 + S. or 01 -7 ~h
~or~ + ~;or~ -7~
1JUT~
J1 or aTI + ~ or t -7~
.a:r or 31T + S orO> .-7-m
.a:r or 3TI + ";ffor.;jf -73T{
.a:r or 3lT + c;2 -7 ~.
~~
,
J1 oretr + ~ -7"Q
31 or 3lT + 31T-7,m
J1 or .3-t"1 + ,z -7~
·01 or m + 311' -7 -m
"ltUT ~
"' e.g.: fcrm + ~. -7 ~:
.
ko": + 3rm -7 ~:
'l:fr-J + ~: -7 ~:
1tm ~ r-;
+ -7 ~
<
e.g.: :;jq + ~: -7 m-:
t8 + ~: -7 ~:
!ilU:! + ~: -7 ~:
{1C[ + ~: -7 ~: e.g.: "fiWT + ~ -7 1ltlJ'Icr>i.'Cl'l "Tq + 3~ -7 ~ 'ITrrr + ~'l,~ -7 'l#t~ "i.'["q + ~ -7 \1C1I?if'41{

"$" or i + any dissimilar vowel -7 <t + that vowel

8.g.:.3"1fu + 3mf1{ -7 ~ '3 or "3) + any dissimilar vowel -7 cr, + that vowel

e.g.:~ + ~ -7~

~ or ~ + any dissimilar vowel -7"\ + that vowel

e. g.: ~ + 3lTID -') f1:r::mrr

~ + any dissimilar vowel -7~, + that vowel

e.g.: ~ +~: -7~:

21

Note: Here ~ or ~ replaced by <{ The vowel that
"3 or 73> replaced by cr. follows
"5lI or ;re replaced by \_ remains
~ is replaced by ~. unchanged
;wnq m:;u; - _,
any 3i~ + that -q 31fu ,-,
'(( + -7 e.q.: + -7 ~
vowel vowel
3=IT + any -7 31cf.. + that m + aWl -7 ~
vowel vowel
any ~"1T'-t + that .,
rr + -~ 1" + J.ft'fi: -7 ~:
vowel vowel
.:iT any 3i1"C:!_ + that , .3icF: ~ ~cp:
+ 7- 'iT +
vowel vowel Note: Here too the vowel that follows remains unchanged Exception 1:

When .Q or ~lt is at the end of a word and is followed by short 3T, the..31 is dropped and the dropping of 4"1 is indicated by the following symbol' 5 " called avaqraha,

I:~I:I:I=I:I :~gj

Exception 2:

When 1:t, it. &iT or 3fT is at the end of a word and is followed by any vowel, this sandhi (~ ~)as per rule. But there is a further optional modification possible. The"l[_ or 9;. at the end of the word now is optionally dropped.

e.g.:~ + ~ -7 -~~~

fcrarIT + ~ -~ fumrc{_ ~

-3Ti4 + ~ -) ~ 3<;{

-a:ffir + 3~; -7 JTflTq_ Jj1~;

-7 ~~ or~
-7 F:imr~ or ~mlfq~
7- -3iFIT ~ or 3H'"11'1~{
-7 mTI~: or 3{f1lclllC'(l"'"l": 22

ExerCise 2.2

I. Identify and break the Sandhis Z. ~I

:.{, ffiOliI<1fB.dr I ~, ~:I

){, 'J{f\4BG:""I'l1 L" ~I

t", msfu:!

\;1. ~I

C, ~l

~. ~I

ZO, nms~1

..,

, •.•• , ," ••••.••••••• ~. ; ••••• r.· ••• ~ •••••. , ••.•

II. Identify and join the Sandhis

~, 111 + :p:c!"R: I
.
'i;. '3f'r + 3fm~rn I
~, ~ + a41""1GOti I
. ~
'6. ~ + ~I
L,. m + ·~I
~
r". WI + ~l
1.9. ~+ ~I
"
(;, ¥T + Tt~1
, . ~
~. W + ~m: I
~o, mQ + ~: I
R~. ~ + t.mr_1
\~. .~ + 3T'<t I ............... ~ .. ~~~,~;., , •.. , ,.

.'< ~ •••.•• , ••.••.•.••• ~.~.4~~~~~~··,.· '" .

25

LESSON 3

The Fourth Conjugation (~) and Instrumental Case (~fc.rqfu;-:)

I. The Fourth Conjugation

(present tense, active voice ~ 'Eflifft ~;)

Applications

~ (To nourish)

Ql't (To please)

• Formation of the base

-~

a. The vowel of the verbal root does not take guna.

~-'rt Wl,-?f\

b. The class-affix -<1" is added

• Adding the terminations to the verba! base (3flf)

The terminations and the rules are the same as those of the first conjugation.

Sing. Dual Plural Sing. Dual Plural
r- ~ " ~
3rd person ~ ~cT: q&m'f ~:
2nd person ~ 1f9~: ~ ~ ~: ~
1st person ~ ~: ~: ~ ~: ~: II. Instrumental Case ff~T fumm:)

• The mstrumental case is used -

a. To indicate the agent of a passive verb.

e.g.: ~ 1fl: ~ - A deer is seen by Rama.

26

b. To denote the Instrument or means. by Which the actior: is done. e.g.:~:·~~~1

The boy hides (his) face with (his) hands.

C. To indicate the person or thing accompanying the action. e.g.:~~1

I go with Krsna.

Having the sense of companionship, the I nstru mental may be followed by the preposilionW> (with)

e.g.:~W~1

I go with Krsna,

d. To express the cause or reason (i.e.) with expressions which imply: 'owlrtq to', 'on account of, 'out of, 'because of'-

e.q.: 1. 'l::&-:l UTti" "i"':rv:rTItr I

On account of misery. I leave the vmage.

2. fuwn ~ 'lfC.Ifu I

"'

Because of learning, knowledge takes place.

e. To translate expressions like

1 . by nature - ~"{i11: !:lIT: ~ I Rama is a hero by nature.

2. by name -~: aW-~~; ~I

There is a king by the name Gopala.

3. by birth -.~ 3Ft:

By birth (he) is blind.

4. by f;;lmily - <Tr:3rur "ili7~;;;-: TfP<T: I

Govlnda is a Gi"irgya by family lineage.

27

1. With the following prepositions:

1. W (without)

~Uf: n4ur ~ q;f ~ I Lakshrnana goes to forest with Rama,

-3Tt~%m~1

I come to the city with you.

2. mr (with out)- to indicate the absence of something. ~fc.RT~~

He does not see without glasses.

g. With the following particles

1. ~,(enough) .31c:5 -;rfr:t~ I Enough with grief.

2. ~ (enough) 'JlTI ~c-81 Enough with noise.

More Examples

3P.:J: ~ 'IW.Ifu I ~: ~~~ q~qr.·d [ ~: N~: W;:pTf 'I'<0Rf I

TWTit1: oo-lJl!Ifu I 'O:fB:f.ffil<aTI:rcr ~ I ~: ~-, ~ ~ I

____ ~~~_2 ~

• In Sarnskrtarn, the normal order of words is: subject-abject-verb:

a. The verb is positioned at the end of a sentence. e.q.: W cpt ~: I - Two men see the forest.

b. The negation ";f is positioned immediately before the verb: ~: ~ ~ ~ I - The king does not blame the servants,

c. The conjunction -q (and) is either repeated after each one of the nouns it connects, or is written once after the last noun of the serles. A sentence never begins with ~.

e.g.: ~: 'Q TJr<rofil: "1 ~ ~I or

~: TJT<rchi: -q mm<t ~ I

The learned men and the singers go to the palace.

,.'

28

Vocabulary Verbs of the 4th conjugation

(ftf ~ , to be pleased

p.-""---~'---~'-------+-';_:_'!':""":"':"':'''::''::'- ... --

~ to throw

r-~-+-~~---+~~~--~-----

~ ~ tobeang~

'"""--~---l

Q1\ ~ t~ be thirsty

::r./T ~ to perish

~.,__ f-t"lIf1. __ ~r~~-'--d-a-nc-~e-- .. __ - .. - - __ -.~~ __ l

'T! ~ to nourish I

1--!-""c..::..._-+-':"_I:~ft~;---+-::~,~:a_~_:-8-_~

._-

Irregular verbs of the 4th conjugation

-
m gilR:!lrn to be weary. __
~ ~ to forgive,.~end~~
~ cfloqfu to pI9_Y_ ___ ~ ______
'I1l1 'IJTRffu to roam, to err
.--~-~----
W ~ to fall
•.. ~.:......,
~ l11f1fc;. to rejoice, to be glad
~u fuurfu to pierce, to strike
---
WI1 wP.lfu to cease, to be quiet
~ ~ to be weary Masculine Nouns
~: - material for worship 11K: - leg, foot
~: the. sky :;m:n:;;: . palace
'31lW: present m: - cuckoo
CR:: - mat lBl: - vedic verse
~: - s.inger ~: - peacock
t1Z: - pot 11 1<";~I6f)1 {: - gardener
~: - moon 'Tf.{: effort 29
1'RUT: - foot ~: - chariot
>irt: - thief i3'l: - rhythm
-,
~: father :crT: speed
0: - the Lord ~: - lake
~: - wise (learned man)
Neuter Nouns
~. - ignorance 'tRll - wealth
~ - flower ~. - mouth -
"_----_._.
-l'flRJt - sky ~, - weapon
" life 'iltfq_ head
~ - -
~ - kn owled g9 --' ~.i1ll - vedic hymn
~ - fact, reality
Indeclinable
"if - and - no Exercise 3

a. Translate the following into English Z_~~·~;I

30

••••• r 0 •••••••••••••••••••••••••• ~. ~ •• __ • •• • •• _

.-- •• ~ •••••••••• , II ~ ••• ~ •• t ~.+ •..... " ,. ~~ .. r'~

..................................... , , .

)

., •••••••••••••••••••••••••••.••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ++ •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

<!

b. Translate the following into Sarnskrtnm, 1. He pleases the Lord with efforts.

2. Singers are pleased with presents .

............. , , - - , , .

3. Children are not satisfied with fruits.

31.

4. Trees grow because of water.

5. Man speaks with (his) mouth.

6. Life without happiness become misery.

7. Arjuna is not weary of wars.

8. By nature, Prahlada is a devotee.

g.. Yajiiadaua gees to th8gu~ukula with his trienc.

10. Father is happy on account of his son .

. . . . . . ~ •••.. , ~ , ~ .. *. ~ , ~ .. ~ ..•.•. , . ~ d •••••••••••• , •••• , •• + ••• ~ '.' •• ~ •••••••••••••

, I

34

LESSON 4

The Sixth Conjugation (~) and the Dative case

I. The Sixth Conjugation

(present-tense, active voice'Pl~ <FiCffi:' witTr.)

Applications IK - to strike

i;,"5@" - to write

• Formation ofthe base

a. The vowel of the verbal root does not take guna.

"iK::: iR ~= ~

b. The class-affix -31 is added before the termination.

TI'\. + 31 = ~ ~ +.:31 =~

• Addir;g the terminations to the verbal base (31W)

The terminations and the rules are the same as those of the first conjugation.

00 - to write

II. Dative Case ~ fu~;)' • The Dative case is used:

a. to indicate the indirect object of verbs meaning 'to give', 'to send', to 'promise', 'to show'. e.g.:1.~:~:~q~1

Dasaratha gives presents to the learned men. ~ - direct object; ~: - recipient, indirect objett)

2. ~ ~: f:;qtPt I

They shall; the moon to the boys.

35

b. to govern the verbs meaning 'to be angry with', and 'to long for, to desire'

..' . F:;

e.g.: 1.~: ~ '1;121,01

The king is angry with the thief.

2. !ilT0f:~: l~ I

The boys desire for, (long for) fruits.

c. to express the purpose of action. e.g.: 1. ~ ll'Cl0fct I

He goes for war [with a purpose to fight.]

2. ~'q,;f: ~~r I

You go for fruits [with a purpose to get.)

d. to indicate the person or thing, with reference to whom the action is done.

e.g.: 1,~: m-~'q: '3,+<:'1'*'1101 ~I

The teacher writes books for (his) students. 2, ~~ ~~'TFl ~ I

1 cut the trees for fuel.

e, optionally, after the verbs indicating movement. (see accusative)

e.g.: 1. 'Di1: ;pru7.T ~fu I Rama goes to the city.

f. after the following particles: ;p:[;. ~ e.g.:1.~-;:p::r:t

Salutations to Sri Rnrna. 2.~~fu;

Hail to the king.

36

More Examples

QCfic1:q ·IQ
:;,
CJ~: q{jq<:pi{lli wRrl ~: 'fue:m'1:r wR ~!
~~ 'l1cIfu1 ~: m:wr ~ croR; I
IE:Cl'q19_

, ' ,. ~ '_j I'm' 'l"lfu
~: ~.Wsm: . '"\1 I mf): '1Z1T I 31~ tjOI<:flI""l %fu I , :t~~':*il: ~"Rrt $ ~ I
--.~
~: ~ "TJWlfi:r I ~"R:~'I::<'l:~~1
~: ~~I 31~-rt: ~: qB"FfilR <rnJm 1 Note: The root ~ ~) - 'to please', 'to appeal to', governs the Dative of the person or thing pleased or satisfied, while the thing which pleases is put in the Nominative.

. 0 :""""::'1

e.g.: 1_ ~ '*'11011-1 ~1-q(1

The lotuses appeal to the Swan.

2. ~: ifl~,*,If.:1 ~ I

Boys are fond of sweets. [sweets appeal to the boys]

3. ~: g'RIq:;if1 ~I Students are fond of books. [books pleases the students]

4.~:~~1

Devotees are fond of worship. [worship pleases the devotees]

37

Vocabulary

to throw

to strike

to tear

to show

to impel

to join

to write

to create

to throb

to touch

to ask
to release
to break
~ to anoint
~ to find
fW[ fum to sprinkle j
t ~fu to call 38

Masculine Nouns

~; ~: 3:ntrr: '3ffi'CT: 'l'fi1l1: ~:

; .. ~:

~. Rt<:f;:

.~)~:

~: 'I1IT: f-i.T~: l1R: m~: ~:

- wind

- Aditya

- food

-festival

desire, enjoyment - gram

lamp

- priest

- 'golden coin

benevolence light

- burden

mendicant - respect

- Marlca

• rat

Neuter Nouns

,3;~ - worship

J.:r'<h:l", - wealth

~ - .Q.ealth

~ garden.

~~- toy ,±,o:g0't - hearing

~ - field

m - bank

"

~ - charity, gift

..n!;1: - absolution
~: - Yajfia
~. - mendicant
~ world
~; -
c:rR7:': - monkey
~. - modesty
.
fi:Im: sport
e;
C!R: - hero
'rf: - ox
~11: - arrow
WR'l": .quiet, calm
~; - jackal
"0f"l:!TCl': nature
~: - seeker
fu? . siddha
~, - swan 'l:lRP=[

~. :iJUlT'1_

if' 'lPF1I1

. "'

~ - auspicious

fratr - friend.

"

~ sHence

~. - jewel

~~ - self protection

( I

(

39

Exercise 4

a. Conjugate the following in the present tense, active voice. 1F(1 ~I :Rl tl

;" b. Translate the following into English ~ . zyqcp: Q Cf,j.i(' 11<1 '>i<fil'f I

••••• " "'. • • • • • • • • • • • • • ,. • • •• • • • • • • • • .. • • • • • • • ~., ••• t - .

.................................................................................................

• • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • ". " •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ~ 0" •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ~ ••••••

40

.~ .• , ' .••....... ,.~ ..•.. ~, .• ~ .•••.•...... ",~", ~"'+ ... r. "f~+"'" •.• ' ••••• ,' "., I •••• , ••• ~~, ••••••••• 1'1

1 ••••••• , ••••••••••• ~ •• + ••••. , •••••• ,", •••••••••• r. +_~ __ .• _ •••••• ~~ •• _., .•• ,., •••••• , ,.~ •••••••

••••••• •••• ,.~ ••••••••• ' •••• ~'+."""""""""" I'" ••• 0: ••••• r"., .. ~~~ .•••• 1+ ••••••••••• ,_ ••••

c. Translate the following ',lto Samskrtam,

1. The people light the ramps for the festival.

2, The children please the father by their sport .

• • , .••.••••. , ••• " ••••••••.••• ~ ••••• , •• ' •••• , •••• , ••• , •••• I • I ~ •••.• ",' ••••••••• ' ••••.• ~ ••••••••• ' I • + •• " • ~

3, People go to the garden for the sake of flowers,

4, Rama releases the arrow and strikes Marlca.

5, Salutations to [svara.

6, You write poetry for the teacher.

7. Owing to the wind the leaves fall.

8, The tiger finds a deer for food.

9. The students go to the gurukulam for study,

10. The king comes for the yajiia,

41

LESSON 4.1

Visarga Sandhi

{:Lor ,\at the: end of a word become a visarqa ":". It is pronounced as an aspirated .sound. It is always preceded by a vowel and it's pronunciation depends on that of the preceding vowel.

1. sr + : + ·31· -7 aI: changes to 31T and the following ·31 is dropped. (refer Exeption 1- vowel sandhi .... ".)

e.g.:fucI: + ~ -7 fucit Z~tt -7 fucirS~1

2. ·41 + : + AVexcept 41 .. , the visarga is dropped.

e.g.: <JlT: + ~ -7 1Jl1 ~I

3. .:}, + : + SC ~ the vlsarqa changes to 3Tr

e.g.: ';:fl1: + ~1Jl1<l ~ ;rr:IT ~1{lqOI141

4. 3-TI +; + AV or SO -7 the visarga is dropped.

e .. g.: :::r{T: + ~. -7 -;pJ ~ I

;:m: + Tf~Rr -) -:n:T ~;fu I

5. AV except 3'f or3iT + : + AV or SC the visarga is replaced by,\ e. g.: :rrurqfff: + 3TC«l-) 'I 0 I q If! '( iSRj i

l]Q: +~ .:) ~I

.6. AV + : + ~ or "lJ{ the Visarga is replaced optionally by an ardha-visarga pronounced as 'kkh' called Rn$I'lJj;q I

e.g.: U'G': + cniTfu -7"Ull: ~ = U1l ~ I

m: + iJFffu -7 '-1'li: ~ = 'W1 ~ I

7. AV + : + ~ or ~the visarga is replaced optionally by an ardhavisarga pronounced as 'ff called ~ I

. ~ . n. ~

e.g.: U1f; + 'fiffi'f -7 Utl': ~ ::: UJq" ~ I

<'[~: + ~m -~ 0'[::'1: ~ :;; ~ ~ I

42

8. AV + : + hard consonants - 'i{_ , ~ , ~ , q_ , q_, 'l.f. ' Vl, "' or "fl, (i.e., any hard consonant other than ~ , '4_ , -.::r., , 1fiJ the visarga is replaced by ~ and that 1\ undergoes further changes as described below:

a. AV+ :: + "q or ~ ~ ~ is replaced b~ 111 e.9.:"{l1i: + '"1' '" -ntiff
b. AV+ : + ~ or <t 4 ~~ is replaced b;: ''{ e.g.:w': + ifq,-ff '" ~rl
c. AV+ : + It or Iq 4 ~ is replaced by 'B~ e.g.: -::rt1: +ir,..~
d .. AV+: +~ -) '!. is replaced by ~~ e.g.: ":fl1: + ~ "
or by visarga ;:l1::!~~lql~ /~: ~
e. AV,. : +~ ~ ~ IS replaced by 1. e.g.: -::rt1:: +~'"
or by visarga ,,11'1 tq u '1':9 14 / -;P::[:
~
f. AV+ : + 'ft -7 ~ is replaced by ~ e.g.:""fq": + <'I<::I~lql<i .=
or by visarga .. p::n;:H; If-\,ICII "I / -;P::[:
B~I~IClI<i
-7 e.g.:~:: + &'l111IQII1I"lIl::J, =
g. AV+: +~ (1_ is replaced by
vlsarqa only ('fl:l'rf-q: ej10jQIQI"lI"l 9. The \. that is followed by \. is dropped and the preceding -3-T, ~, "3 is lengthened: e.g.: m: + ~: "'ff\_. + 1f1T

10. The visarga following "H~ and qq: is dropped when followed by any other vowel other than 31" and consonant.

e.g.:~: + ~ -7 "H ~fu I

~: + dQfcFnm -7 ~ "31:r~ I

~: + ~ -7 "ff 'IT~If.:1 I

~: + cm:-: -) ~ em': I

when followed by 31: e.g.:"H: + 3liifl144(1 ~: +~:

-) m+.3=~ -) mS~1

-) ~ + ~f1: -) ~s*: I

Exercise 4.1

L Join the Sandhi:
\, ~: + '3ClTQI
~, ';{ffi:£f: + 31fi:f I
~, 'Q'f'.f: + l:f<ITo I
'6, me:: + &ftuT: I
~, <fIDf: + ~I
6" f-<1W:. + il;fu I
\9, ~: + ~<fl
,-
c. ~: + ~I
"
Q ~: + ~I
'.'
Zo, ~: + .31<>rr:r.1
ZZ, ~: + ~I
\~, ~r: + ~:I
,
'<, 'I, V)1:'liT: + 'ftizt:!, I
Z't,~: + ~I
~~, C9TTI: + '3ft::m: I
\6., ~: + ~:I
Z \9. tTR<fr: + 'lorn I
~G, "q~r + 0,-..
3"'4 11?if1l{ I
Z~.1fT: + "tftf<=rl
,;(0.1JiT: + ~I
~Z, .wrn: + mqful
';( ~, 1'1=1: + ~I
~'i}. fer@]: + ;mIT I ........ , .

43

46

LESSON 5

The Ablative and Genitive Cases and Masculine Nouns Ending in ~ and ";j

I. The Ablative case: ~ fcr,:rfu;:)

• The Ablative case is used:

a. to indicate the thing from which something is separated:

e .. g.: 1. ~ CJ&m'!. 'T<:'Ifc, I The fruit falls from the tree.'

h. to indicate the source or place of origin from which the action begins.

e.g.: 1. ;fI..IQ: ~ "lfG3fn- I

The sage goes from forest.

2. CfWT: 11'll(.'5lti, 3l1'1iijfi'f I

Krsna comes from the city of Gokula,

c. to govern tile verbs meaning 'to resist from', 'to protect', 'to be afraid of.

e . 9 . : 1. im: ";:f{fi 'J;:"@R't ~~:rf(l" I

lsvara protects men from misery.

2. ~: W~: y~,qfu 1

The boy is afraid of thieves.

d. to express the cause or motive of an action. (see Instrumental case)

e.g.: 1. ~mpfrr: -;:ff fJGrR I

Out of anger, the hero gives pain to (teases) the man.

2. 'f1t:q'16 fit "ftJfu firoJq: 'irqfu 1

Out of delusionarises loss of memory.

47

r'

e. With the following prepositions: r: ~ - before, to the east at e.g.: ~ Pit q 'Wlf?r I

He sees the moon to the east of the mountain.

2. ::rdr - without

e.g.: .;;r;;rrq_';ff"ff ;:;:ftq; ;:r ~ I

A living being does not Jive without food.

3. fcr;rr - without

e.g.: .~ feAT C[:ff: -::r ~nqfu I

A tree does not live without water. (Also ';'if0 fCfRT or ~ fu';:rr)

4. ~. before e.g.:~¥~~1

You eat food before studying.

5. ~ - after

e.g.: ~ 3i.,~, tm ,-qfu I

After gettin~1 up, he salutes I§vara.

6. 3iT 'I::r~ - until I since I beginning from e.g.:~: wfcr 3n -::rt'R1: ';if.1T: ffi1ZIR=f I

Beginning from babies upto the men, the people are tired.

7; qfu: - outside

e.g.: 1I1l1RL. ~: ~: c:rn1'?(r I

The jackals live outside the village.

48

More Examples

1{Cfiqi'1~ll
3lICfiI~!ln ~ ~ I I ;;rq: !~I~IGI('I ~~!
fTrt lJI1t ~! -r W-T: ~ .frq-q 31Zfu 1
fuel :q~t:t
~~,,"~><jI'1, ~:~I 1~mTf.;~1
~~crnful 1{§1~~~¥:~~1
..r~. "
~;~:~I l~hzr;~~1
~;~-rrnRr1 1~:'~~: ~I II. The Genitive Case ~ fu .. rfu;;) • The Genitive case is used:

a. to express the relation of ens noun to another in a sentence.

The Genitive case has no relation with the verb.

e.g.: 1. tmFf 'I."fij1; I The devotee of Isvara.

2. ffiT: 'lIT@T 1 The branch of the tree.

3. ~ "9;"5!; 1 Th.8 son of Dasaratha.

b. to indicate the relation between nouns expressing the meaning of the preposition 'of.

e.g.: 1. ¢1!tQulfZl ~r 'fT: :«'fIR 'lrmfu I

The king gives jewels to tile son of the brahrnana.

e.g.: 2. "Uli: 1]<.1: ~ riff I

Ruma calls the sons of the guru.

c. Samskrtam has no verb meaning equivalent to the English expression "to have" (in the sense of possession or ownership ).

e.g.: "the students have books", must be written as:

e.q.: 1. ~ 9/"<'1Cfllf-i 'l.rc.W~ I. .

Of the students (there) are books.

2. ~ Tf: 3:rffu-1

Of the king, there is a son.

· d. With the follcwinq prepositions: .1. m. - above

irtTRP"{ dGft -&I: ~. I

The sun moves above the clouds

2. 3111: - below

~ -mT: 3={'"q: ~: ~ fcp;fu I

The poet finds the arrow undera heap of grass

3. -qm: - in front of ~ "TSf: CWl": .~ I

There are trees in front of the house.

4. -q~ - behind

sm,ili\f<l -qrnrt~; ~ I The boys sit behind the palace.

s. tRrf: - beyond

~ -qu:r: ~: fugfu-)

The mountain stands beyond the forest.

6. am I ~~"'fq"~ - in the presence of ':B: "B11P;l I .mr~: ~ I

The people sit in the presence of the sage ..

7 .. ~ - for the sake of ~~~:,mf~l

The friend cooks food for the sake of guests.

49

50

More Examples

I
~Cfiq:tFP1
-,
1]Tr: ~~:I ~~~~:l
~m:ct~: qNful rrm:zr 'I}!5fJl ~I
~ 'q"j1J'fr ~: ~I
fu OJ ..-:r::111

~: ~H;rQTIJ:g~~1 EF'"it: r-;
~: ~I
~~: ~~I ,
o;;<J: ~ifirnlq<:JI~lq 1:11: "I1T[0:
~~11,
~ crq;:t w:TJUTIt.1 ]:-"'.,
-itttRt ~ ~ ~ I - , ,
. ~~~_~~:I
~: ~fmw[~1 lit Masculine nouns in land 73

There is a great similarity between the declension of masculine nouns in ~ and that of masculine nouns in ::So When the masculine nouns in ~ have ~, t '1. and J::J:, the masculine nouns in '6 have ::3', '3}, q_ and ·:J.n respectively.

~Cf)m;::\'l~: -m~: 3chl{I'fl .. : - 'J<'~:

Masculine noun ending in ~ #) Masc. noun ending 1n::3' (pi)
Nominative m: W n-'-f: ~W: 1]0 'T""f:
~ lriT " .~ 'J{<' lJF-1
Accusative w:'f.
Instrumental ~ ~T11 Wf\1: ~ ~ T'f'ii:
Dative m ~ ~. ~it 'j<''''-1I'i_ ~:
.
it: ~ ~: :m: 'F"RT:
Ablative 'j<''"''''II't
Genitive 'rt: ~: ~l <Rr: ryqT: ~
~ -e ~ 7]ti 7]Cfr: p;q
Locative ~:
Vocative rt ~ ~: :Fr 1JF TC": 51

Examples

~. 1f1<l:m-w:T mli ~ I :(.~:~~l

~. -rpq: ۤ15IIOII"l ~";:f ~l

Vocabulary

Masculine Nouns ending in 31

~: - seed 'TI0<fi: - protector
3T'TIl'l-T: - fault, mistake '<frtr: - knowledge
3~: - lack of 'qIfT4: - Bhagiratha
discrimination 'I1Z: - police
~: - teacher 'lK: - difference
3TIs;lT.f: - hermitage =r= - man
~: advice I teaching <:f!;1: Yaksa
d'ml~: relief "{~1'<n: - protector
<fiUT: - ear Tm;r: - obstacle
$ht4: - anger ~: - exalted
<h'I<!)lt0: . - uproar OO"'IIT: - good conduct
~: - fever ~: - ocean
1fjq: - island, continent ~: - delusion
~: - adharmlc person ~: - doubt
Qll: - duty I virtue U-~: - destroyer
~: - sailor m~; - caravan, crowd
::rm: - destruction ~: - Sumantra
~: - defeat ~: - sun
favour, offering !>.ro.. soldier
~: - ~: -
>r!1f: - wiseman 5.2

Masculine Nouns ending in ~

~.

.~...P-.+:;..,.

~.~rnq ~.

~~,

~IC

~: ~: q;fu:

Cfifcr: fTrft; ~~:

• fire

• guest

-eAemy

· ocean

- sage

- quarrel

- poet

- mountain

- Dasaratha's son

Masculine Nouns ~nding in'B" ~:

"Wq: <yi":

"RF: 1"fn(]: ~: ~: oms:

- moon

- arrow

- teacher

- tree

- axe

- beast

- friend

· arm

Neuter Nouns ending in ·31

~.... - sunrise

~ - medicine

~ - cause

*,"r:sI 'l'jur'{ playground

~ - ghee

~ eternal

~ evidence!

authority

'/,Frtrf'o: crrftrr: ~~1: ~: cx11T1T:

m: m~T; '0Rfzr:

F1~: 'T1SX:

CR:' . ~.'

-;:fr<:{: ·ltrlJ: l~r~{: ~:

~ q~

1.~

~

~ fCfU11

"

<TR

,..

- Lord of Wealth

- hand

- Brhaspati

- sage

- disease

- sun

- h€8P

- charioteer

- drop

- seeker of truth

- boy

• wind - baby

-e saint

- cause

effort -seed

- fear

kingdom - saying

- obstacle

- enrnrty

Prepositions governing the ablative

3~ ,- after ~

'311 - until, .ioto

-except, without • since

Prepositions governing the genitive

,am in the presence of tf«f:

- below

• above

for the sake of

Indeclinable

- most

- inferior

- thus

~ - like, similar

Exercise 5

a. Decline the following: ljR:, ~:, ~: I C'.fT<l: I

53

- before, to the east

- before 'outside - without

- beyond

- behind

- in front of

in the presence of

• only

- but I on the other hand

b. Translate the following into English after breaking the sandhis: ~. ~ ~ 'i'RRT ~ CfilZUt <qqfu'l

54

4+.*4 •• ~ ••• 'I •••• +.+4~~~~ ••• ~ ••• I •••••••••••••••••••••

..... - .

••••••••• , .•••• '" ~ •••• ~ •. ,' •.••••• i ••• i ..... ~, ••• ~.+ .•.•.......•. ~ ••••• t ••••.•.•••.•••• _ ••• ~£_ ••• ~ ••

•• • • _. r' ••.•....•... _ ..••••••••••••••••••• , ••• I • I •••••••••••••• I ••••••••••• ~. ~ •• , •••••••• ~

'_" ••. , • I-I •• " •••• _, ••• _ •• _ ~ •• _ •.• ' •• ,' ' ••••• ~." .,.", ••••• __ • :, ••• ". + •••••••• " ••• _ •••• I ••• I , ••••••••

•••• • ',. 4 " , .••• ~ ~ •••• ' ••• I,'. , 1·1 •••• I •••• , •••••• "_ '"+ _, •• ,"" : • , •••••• ~.,'. ~ ••

••••• ~ •• , •• '.' • ', ••• , ••••••• , • ~ + • ~ • 't" , ••••• I • I • , ••• 1·1 ••• I .' I • + I_I + + ~ +. J •• + •• i ' .

'.' . : '. " ~. ~.~ ~ ~ .. ' , . ~ ~ .. ~ .. , '.' ~ ~ ~ ' ".' .

c. Translate thefol!owing into Samskrtam andjointhe sandhis: 1, The teacher praises the conduct of the two sons of Hari.

~~" •. 4','4 I.' •••• ~~ ~~~.~ I I. I I I I I I 1.1 i I I.'. ,., ••••••• ' •• ~"~~,~"~,.",,,, __

2. The Yaksas are the servants of the god of wealth .

• r < ~ ,. ~ • , .•••• I I •••• ' •• __ ." ~ • ~ ' •. ~ , • ;. .••• i I I , • I •••••••••• _ •••• _ ••• ~ • ~ •••• , • ,~ , ••••• , •••••.•• _ •• '"

3., Ravana sees the strength of the monkeys and burns ({l'TJ with anger.

4. Out of fear bf the cat, the mouse trembles.

5. The thief cuts the tree from the Gurukulam.

6. For the good health of the, child she gives gllee.

7. The father gets angl~j because of the uproar of the son.

8. Among all charities the charity of knowledge. is exalted.

9. Sr. Krsna is the protector of Psndavas and destroyer of adhllrmic people.

10. Wittl my friends I go from the village to the city to buy presents.

55

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