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VIth SEMESTER, B.Arch
Apart from the planning interventions a suitable mechanism needs to be worked out to monitor the development of physical and social infrastructure. At either end of the spectrum. there is pressure for cities to engage in the global economy just as new information and communication technologies make it increasingly easy to do so. The sudden outburst in the urban population without proper infrastructure and resources can lead to devastating results. imagination and efforts. and more so in the developing countries. Unlike their western counterparts the Indian urban settlements never had the fortune (or the misfortune) of being reduced as ruins of war and thereby necessitating the need for fresh development and renewal. all of which that are becoming increasingly mobile across the global stage. Abstract: The world is becoming increasingly urban. cities in the developing world are swelling with rural-urban migrations and squatter areas alongside rising prosperity. True wealth of cities is found in the progressive endogenous development of assets such as cultural heritage. multinational companies and talented human resources.AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NEED. 2 . Cities are potential engines of economic growth for their countries. IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN RENEWAL IN INDIAN CONTEXT. human resources and urban infrastructure rather than in soliciting outside capital. as well as celebrations of collective human hope. Cities now compete for financial investments. While cities in the developed world are readjusting to post-industrial economies and shrinking populations at this time in history. The need of the hour is to academically establish an understanding and identifying the suitable indicators for sustainable urban renewal. In India there is an amazing amalgamation of infrastructure from several centuries in form of haphazardly built layers of urban fabric under which the common urbanite of India feels suffocated and crushed.
IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN RENEWAL IN INDIAN CONTEXT. Over the past two decades. structure. Tackling this problem of urban inadequacies and facilitating the lives of the urban poor into one of comfort will only encourage further migration. usually as the result of a cooperative effort by private developers and local government. the country has been successful on a number of fronts. The solution to the urban poverty lies in the villages. * The redevelopment or rehabilitation of real property in a city. * Programs to revitalize old. Over the past 62 years. Sem 6. 3 . JNNURM. Importance and Application of Sustainable Urban Renewal in Indian context. and processes in any rural area. Pouring vast sums of money in the cities for improving the lives of urban poor and finding them jobs would be treating the symptoms instead of the malaise. Definitions: * The clearing and rebuilding and redevelopment of urban slums. * The procedure of condemning private land as a blighted area and having it torn down and rebuilt. As Kemp Ronald Hope Sr. Keywords: Physical Infrastructure.K. India has made sustained progress on a scale. A low-income country with mass poverty at the time of Independence in 1947. size and pace that is unprecedented in its own history. Says in his book Development in the Third World "rural development means the far reaching transformation of social and economic institutions. Stream: Urban Economics and Sociology Paper: An Introduction to the Need. It is in this context the government should work for the development of rural segment as an overall national economic strategy. Social Infrastructure. Done by: Venkatesh. The city slums and the inadequate and over strained urban facilities are manifestations of the migration of the poor and the poverty in villages. Hence the international conceptions of renewal and redevelopment require a fresh improvisation in Indian context.R.AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NEED. India now has a diminishing pool of very poor people and is poised to cross the threshold to join the ranks of the world’s middle-income countries. blighted sections of inner cities. Sustainable Urban Renewal. relationships.
IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN RENEWAL IN INDIAN CONTEXT.AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NEED. SYNOPSIS: Introduction History Municipal governments The 74th Constitutional Amendment Act The Municipal Corporation The Kolkata model Municipal councils Local government functions The National Urban Renewal Mission Importance Need & Background Contextual backdrop Need for Urban Sector Development Investment Requirements in the Urban Sector Need for Reform Initiatives Harnessing the Potential of Reforms in Urban Infrastructure Need for National-Level Reform-Linked Investments Need for Sustainable Infrastructure Development Need for Efficiency Enhancement 4 .
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NEED. IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN RENEWAL IN INDIAN CONTEXT. Rationale for the JNNURM Government Initiative Application Mission Statement Objectives of the Mission Scope of the Mission Strategy of the Mission Duration of the Mission Expected outcomes of JNNURM References 5 .
Subsequently. 2. Municipal governments: Evolution from the British era: The first municipal mechanism created during British rule was the Municipal Corporation introduced in Madras (Chennai today) in 1688. It made provision for ward committees in areas exceeding 300. West Bengal’s commitment to local government in fact had an important role to play in the national recognition accorded local government. The current form and structure of municipal bodies is based on Lord Ripon’s Resolution on local self-government adopted in 1882. The 74th Constitutional Amendment Act: The 1992 Act provided for the Twelfth Schedule which listed the functions of urban local units. In the context of the Indian Constitution. In other states. 1882. even though the urban areas multiplied along with their increasingly complex problems. Federal recognition of local government was substantively expressed in the 74th Constitution Amendment Act of 1992. local government bodies are the subject of the State List and are thereby governed by State Statutes. History: 1. on the subject of local self-government covering the structure and establishment of local bodies.000 and the specification of the powers and responsibilities of municipal units and the ward committees. the mechanisms in existence today are rooted in the period during which it was a colony of the United Kingdom. has always had local councils of some sort. A major foundation of the British roots of Indian local government was Lord Ripon’s resolution of May. finances and powers. their functions. it could be said that even by 2004. like many other regions. which was followed by municipal corporations in Bombay (Mumbai today) and Calcutta (Kolkata today) by 1762. There is a requirement 6 . regulation and development powers. Introduction: India. IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN RENEWAL IN INDIAN CONTEXT. the state of West Bengal distinguished itself by its commitment to having regular local elections once the current ruling party of West Bengal came to power in the 1970s. or in the case of Union Territories. For that reason. This is the root of local self-government in postIndependence India. Lord Mayo’s Resolution of 1870 called for the introduction of an elected President in the municipalities. these bodies were frequently superseded for long periods by state governments. Its commitment inspired the 74th Amendment Act that formerly gave constitutional recognition to local government. by the Union Parliament.AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NEED. along with their planning. Local government was generally not a level that was maintained with commitment and sufficiently empowered in the post-Independence era. Since then the structure of municipal bodies has essentially remained the same.
The Kolkata model: An alternative model to the prevailing Commissioner model is the one implemented in Kolkata.AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NEED. This model was introduced in 1984 and is known as the Mayor-in-Council form of city governance that can be described as a cabinet government replicating the formula operating at the state and national levels. IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN RENEWAL IN INDIAN CONTEXT. The Municipal Council. The Municipal Commissioner serves as the Principal Executive Officer subject to the control and supervision of the Mayor as the Chief Executive Officer in this model. with the municipal acts prescribing both the maximum and the minimum number of councillors with terms in office varying from three to five years. State statutes govern Municipal Councils. 4. Municipal councils: Municipal Councils are units designated for smaller areas than the Municipal Corporations. powers and responsibilities to be carried out by the municipal government. regulation of offensive. 3. The Municipal corporation (Mayor and councilors): This model is also known as the Commissioner system. 7 . West Bengal. It is in essence a hybrid between a mayor-council CAO system and the integrated federated framework. taking its name from the role of the city administrator who is generally a state-appointed officer. Obligatory functions include: supply of pure and wholesome water. This system is composed of a Mayor and a ten-member cabinet with individual portfolios chosen from among the elected councilors (in the context of Kolkata there are 141 wards in a single member ward system. In some states the council Presidents is elected directly by the citizens. Local government functions: All municipal acts in India provide for functions. places and sewers. dangerous or obnoxious trades and callings or practices. These are divided into two categories. 5. should it be dissolved for any reason. made therein for the holding of timely periodical elections and for the reconstitution of a municipal government within six months. the President elected by the councillors from among themselves. rather than a multiple member ward system). lighting and watering of public streets. the Committees and the Executive/Chief Officer constitute the structure of this type of municipal government. cleaning of public streets. In a number of states the term of the President varies from one to three years and is not coterminous with that of the council. which is renewable. obligatory or discretionary. In such a system the Mayor in the Municipal Corporation is usually chosen through indirect election by the councilors from among themselves for a term of one year. The size of each Municipal Council varies from state to state. 6. construction and maintenance of public streets.
registration of births and deaths. The goal of NURM. removing obstructions and projections in public streets. maintenance or support of public hospitals. While launching long ago the Rs. Importance: While improving the urban infrastructure is very much essential. The National Urban Renewal Mission: In urban areas in the post-1992 Act era there remains a need for coordination between the various agencies that operate in the same environment. Discretionary functions include: Laying out of areas. leper homes. joblessness and crime.1 lakh-crore Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission aimed at improving the urban infrastructure and urban basic services in over 60 cities. There is relentless and rapid urbanization and the faster proliferation of slums. provision of transport facilities with the municipality. The centrally devised program has identified over 60 Indian cities for the improvement program. IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN RENEWAL IN INDIAN CONTEXT. is to upgrade urban infrastructure and to further reform the urban situation. which calls for the creation of other arrangements for improving service delivery. public exhibitions. and there remains the requirement that there be developed some coherence with clear demarcation of responsibilities and accountability. 7. establishment and maintenance of primary schools. public entertainment. housing for low income groups.AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NEED. gardens. which may also affect the environment by adding even more confusion to the situation preceding it. conducting surveys. Ramesh Ramanathan encapsulated the confusion and patent lack of coordination that can result thereby in his article in the Financial Express entitled “Too many cooks in the urban services kitchen”. urban poverty. or in the alternative that some of these agencies be consolidated with urban government. it cannot be at the expense of development of rural side. libraries. We feel the need for providing the urban poor the land rights at affordable 8 . orphanages and rescue homes for women. Such agencies are rooted in India’s pre-Independence era. planting and maintenance of roadside and other trees. our Prime Minister lamented at the continued failure "to address the needs of the poor such as drinking water supply. sanitation. construction and maintenance of public parks. securing or removal of dangerous buildings or places. promotion of welfare of municipal employees. a National Urban Renewal Mission (NURM) was announced. rest houses. bridges and other places. museums. organizing public receptions. however. and public buildings. 2005. and naming streets and numbering houses. housing and social services to an increasing share of urban population. In December.
rates. Even auto industries tend to cluster around big metropolitan cities. jobless and with no social security. But there is another side to this chronic problem that has to be tackled differently. There has been no foreign investment in agricultural and farm sectors resulting in very limited opportunities to the rural unemployed. particularly foreign. Investors. economic. The trade liberalization without a corresponding emphasis on the rural sector is forcing lakhs off their lands. Such urbanization has already brought in its wake significant social. Such an internal migration can be considered as a natural phenomenon where the surplus labor is lured from the villages to provide the much needed manpower for urban industrial growth. They are not concerned about equitable development across the country. The percentage of urban population to the total which was 26% in 1991 (Census 2001) is expected to grow to almost near 50% by 2030. and the livelihoods of small farmers and landless laborers are put in great jeopardy. IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN RENEWAL IN INDIAN CONTEXT. It is just not possible to sustain urban development despite all good intentions and investment of money for infrastructure to meet such a stupendous growth. they look for greener pastures in the cities based mostly on hearsay and shift in large numbers to the harsh cities with nothing but high hopes and low skills. The opening of the economy has not helped growth of the vital agrarian sector and this segment is lagging considerably behind the services and manufacturing segments. This is sure to result in urban centers breaking in their seams setting in the decay process sooner or later. Although poor people in such marginal environments have an astonishing capacity to cope with hunger and poverty there is a limit beyond which the suffering cannot be endured. But this has not happened as was expected. Landless. IT industry crowd only around a few places and is not spread out in the interior parts. Rural poverty may even appear preferable when they are forced to live in overcrowded city 9 . are choosy about the places and the type industry where they wish to invest.AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NEED. illiterate unskilled men provide a hunting ground for undesirable groups to recruit.It is pertinent to note that all this growth is not scattered in smaller cities adjacent to the villages but largely to the bigger and metropolitan cities. The liberalization that has been ushered since early Nineties has been urban-centric and that too in selected places and sectors where the demand is only for those with skills. The migration of lakhs of rural people from villages to the cities swelling the populations has been there ever since the industrialization of the country commenced but is more pronounced since the liberalization process was ushered in early Nineties. finding a shelter to live and a job to earn is much more difficult. This can also be viewed as socially beneficial because people were being shifted from locations where their earnings were poor and living conditions harsh to places where life could be easier and more comfortable. They find later that surviving in cities. and political problems. Close to ports. The service sector too is naturally prone to big cities. A large army of jobless. These sound good and are perhaps very necessary. The urban growth is much more than what it can absorb and provide jobs.
The villages of India are not in the growth picture at all. As Kemp Ronald Hope Sr. This lop sided development strategy cannot halt the unprecedented growth of urban centers and the concomitant slums. it cannot be at the expense of development of rural side. relationships. Tackling this problem of urban inadequacies and facilitating the lives of the urban poor into one of comfort will only encourage further migration. and processes in any rural area. Says in his book Development in the Third World "rural development means the far reaching transformation of social and economic institutions. structure. The unskilled jobs that can be found or generated are far less than the numbers that migrate. The urban explosion is not a sequel to any demand for the unskilled labor in the cities but is the result of impoverished villages with little avenue for reasonable work throughout the year. The city slums and the inadequate and over strained urban facilities are manifestations of the migration of the poor and the poverty in villages. This is never in their radar and its growth is naturally sluggish at a meager 2%. but as balanced social and economic 10 . With agricultural growth on a low key we cannot stop the rural-urban migration and the day is not far when the food security that we pride ourselves today may also be in danger. Rural labor will become scarce and urban population will grow unbridled with most remaining jobless or in informal sectors. Such a denouement is the result of skewed policies of the government. The level of migration to cities has assumed dropsically proportions that it can no longer be seen as beneficial. it looks unfair to have the lion’s share of the economic benefits going to the urban regions that house only 25% of the people. It is in this context the government should work for the development of rural segment as an overall national economic strategy. Pouring vast sums of money in the cities for improving the lives of urban poor and finding them jobs would be treating the symptoms instead of the malaise. They only heighten the unemployment problem in urban cities depriving at the same time the rural areas of labour force when needed. IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN RENEWAL IN INDIAN CONTEXT. It conceives of the cardinal aim of rural development not simply as agricultural and economic growth in the narrow sense. It is true the urban poverty is more visible than the rural one. The economic experts who shape the destiny of the country are working to attain an 9% growth but talk very little about the growth of agriculture. While improving the urban infrastructure is very much essential not only to attract investors but also to ensure sustained development of the urban areas. slums with no potable water facilities in poor hygienic surroundings leaving behind their long bonds with villages and its simple people. The emphasis in our economic growth has been slanted toward the capital and knowledge intensive urban centers.AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NEED. It places a heavy fiscal burden on both the central and state governments for providing urban services as can be seen from proposals like JNNURM. The solution to the urban poverty lies in the villages. With 75% of India’s population in villages. There is a need for proper balancing of the requirements.
planned development of identified cities with focus on efficiency in urban infrastructure and services delivery. lighting. sanitation. India's long-neglected cities. sanitation. sidewalks. under a mandate from Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The mission would also require commitments on issues like regulatory framework for civic amenities. There should be a strong commitment to usher policy changes that would secure equitable distribution of land rights. development. The center is expected to contribute over a third of the investment. Manmohan Singh had mooted a national urban renewal mission. public spaces.25 billion) for urban renewal in the national budget. wide spread improvement in health. improvement of agricultural technology and the type of crops to be produced.500 crore 11 . officials said.including generation of new employment. The seven megacities are New Delhi. In his first address to the nation a month after taking over. energy and housing. The policies of the government should reflect such an integrated rural development with the money found for this purpose. nutrition and housing. Apart from seven mega-cities. Bangalore and Ahmedabad. community participation. The National Urban Renewal Mission is part of a $30-billion mega-blueprint coordinated by the Planning Commission. parks and greenery. roads. This alone will contain the urban migration to some extent. IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN RENEWAL IN INDIAN CONTEXT. The projects could include urban metro rail systems like those proposed for Mumbai and Bangalore and the expressways in National Capital Territory and express sea-links as in India's financial capital. equitable distribution of income. greatly broadened opportunities for all individuals to realize their full potential through education and a strong voice for all the rural people in shaping the decisions and actions that affect their lives.AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NEED. as also from local bodies and financial institutions. Kolkata. The Rs 5. Government initiative: The National Urban Renewal Mission (NURM) is to be a reforms-driven. and covers some 60 cities over the next five years. fast-track. the mission will also require reforms by states in areas like stamp duty. property tax and issue of automobile licenses. Chennai. had contributed to pollution. Singh said. saying unplanned growth in cities was making life in urban India "a living hell" for many. officials said. In addition to covering physical infrastructure in cities like water. and accountability of local governments towards citizens. accountability standards and e-governance projects for land records. market pricing of crops produced by subsistence farmers and transportation networks. The available scant resources should also take care of rural development concurrently with urban development and directed at the unemployed. rent control and repeal of urban land ceiling. crime and absence of infrastructure like access to drinking water. could get a boost with an outlay of Rs 55 billion ($1. while the rest are important urban centers with crumbling infrastructure and sizeable population. the mission will cover around 30 others with a population of over one million. officials added. Hyderabad. Mumbai. with their poor infrastructure and quality of life that falls far short of global benchmarks. while the rest is expected to be generated by concerned states. Such unplanned growth.
650 crore.AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NEED. 12 . IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN RENEWAL IN INDIAN CONTEXT. budgetary allocation made for the National Urban Renewal Mission 2005-06 includes a grant component of Rs 1.
IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN RENEWAL IN INDIAN CONTEXT. 13 .AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NEED.
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NEED. Need & Background: Contextual backdrop: (1) Need for Urban Sector Development: According to the 2001 census. Urban economic activities are dependent on infrastructure. telecom. This includes investment in basic infrastructure and services.20. It is well recognized that in order to fructify these investments. However. the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs)1 would require a total investments of Rs. IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN RENEWAL IN INDIAN CONTEXT. a national level initiative is required that would bring together the State Governments and enable ULBs catalyze investment flows in the urban infrastructure sector. 1. coupled with civic infrastructure. As a result of the liberalization policies adopted by the Government of India is expected to increase the share of the urban population may increase to about 40 per cent of total population by the year 2021. that is. such as power. annual funding requirement of Rs. (2) Investment Requirements in the Urban Sector: It is estimated that over a seven-year period. such as sanitation and solid waste management. It is estimated that by the year 2011. 17. water supply and mass transportation. urban areas would contribute about 65 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). India has a population of 1027 million with approximately 28per cent or 285 million people living in urban areas.536 crores.219 crores. roads. 14 . this higher productivity is contingent upon the availability and quality of infrastructure services.
Need for Reform Initiatives: (1) Harnessing the Potential of Reforms in Urban Infrastructure: While several reform initiatives have being taken e. it is proposed to take up a comprehensive program of urban renewal and expansion of social housing in towns and cities. Rationale for the JNNURM: (1) National Common Minimum Program of the Government of India: The National Common Minimum Program attaches the highest priority to the development and expansion of physical infrastructure.AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NEED. there is an urgent need to take measures to enhance efficiencies in urban service deliveries. paying attention to the needs of slum dwellers. IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN RENEWAL IN INDIAN CONTEXT. such as the enactment of a model municipal law. 1976 (ULCRA) etc. the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act and model municipal law. (2) Need for National-Level Reform-Linked Investments: There is a need to integrate the reform initiatives and scale up the effort to catalyze investment in urban infrastructure across States in the country. (4) Need for Efficiency Enhancement: Concurrent with statutory reforms. 15 . There is a felt need to set up an initiative that will provide reform-linked assistance to State Governments and ULBs in the country. It is therefore necessary that a link be established between asset creation and management. This is proposed to be secured through an agenda of reforms. (3) Need for Sustainable Infrastructure Development: Another crucial aspect requiring immediate attention is that physical infrastructure assets created in urban areas have generally been languishing due to inadequate attention and/or improper O&M. as both are important components for ensuring sustained service delivery. reduction in stamp duty.g. repeal of the Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act. there is potential for further reform-oriented steps in order to meet the development objectives. Reform initiatives also need to be taken further and articulated by the State Governments in order to create an investor-friendly environment.. The fiscal flows to the sector have laid emphasis only on the creation of physical assets. Accordingly. Not much effort has been made either to manage these assets efficiently or to achieve self-sustainability.
(e) Scale-up delivery of civic amenities and provision of utilities with emphasis on universal access to the urban poor. 2. and (ii) strengthen the existing policies in order to achieve these goals.. to an expanded vision of development as a key to sustaining social and economic progress. For the cities to realize their full potential and become effective engines of growth. (3) Need for a Mission-led Initiative: Since cities and towns in India constitute the second largest urban system in the world. 16 . Objectives of the Mission: (1) The objectives of the JNNURM are to ensure that the following are achieved in the urban (a) Focused attention to integrated development of infrastructure services in cities covered under (b) Establishment of linkages between asset-creation and asset-management through a slew of reforms for long-term project sustainability. (2) Commitment to Achieving the Millennium Development Goals: The Millennium Development Goals commit the international community. the Government of India proposes to: (i) facilitate investments in the urban sector. community participation. and ensuring delivery of other existing universal services of the government for education. (f ) Special focus on urban renewal program for the old city areas to reduce congestion. Focus is to be on efficiency in urban infrastructure and service delivery mechanisms. Mission Statement: The aim is to encourage reforms and fast track planned development of identified cities. As a part of its commitment to meet the Millennium Development Goals. (c) Ensuring adequate funds to meet the deficiencies in urban infrastructural services. and contribute over 50 per cent of the country’s GDP. IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN RENEWAL IN INDIAN CONTEXT. Application: Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission- 1. and (g) Provision of basic services to the urban poor including security of tenure at affordable prices. water supply and sanitation. they are central to economic growth. it is necessary that focused attention be given to the improvement of infrastructure. and accountability of ULBs/ Parasternal agencies towards citizens. (d) Planned development of identified cities including per-urban areas. health and social security. improved housing. outgrowths and urban corridors leading to dispersed urbanization.AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NEED. including India.
solid waste management. The main thrust of the Sub-Mission will be on infrastructure projects relating to water supply and sanitation. road network. and financing plans. urban transport and redevelopment of old city areas with a view to upgrading infrastructure therein. (2) Preparing Projects: The CDP would facilitate identification of projects. Strategy of the Mission: The objectives of the Mission shall be met through the adoption of the following strategy: (1) Preparing City Development Plan: Every city will be expected to formulate a City Development Plan (CDP) indicating policies. etc. The funds for identified projects across cities would be disbursed to the ULB/Parasternal agency through the designated State Level Nodal Agency (SLNA) as soft loan or 17 . 3. It is essential that projects are planned in a manner that optimizes the life-cycle cost of projects. over the planning horizon.Mission Directorate for Urban Infrastructure and Governance. The Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) / parasternal agencies will be required to prepare Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) for undertaking projects in the identified spheres. The main thrust of the Sub-Mission will be on integrated development of slums through projects for providing shelter. A revolving fund would be created to meet the O&M requirements of assets created. (2) Sub-Mission for Basic Services to the Urban Poor: This will be administered by the Ministry of Urban Employment and Poverty Alleviation through the Sub-Mission Directorate for Basic Services to the Urban Poor. 4. sewerage. IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN RENEWAL IN INDIAN CONTEXT. Funds from the Central and State Government will flow directly to the nodal agency designated by the State.AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NEED. shifting industrial and commercial establishments to conforming areas. The life-cycle cost of a project would cover the capital outlays and the attendant O&M costs to ensure that assets are in good working condition. projects would need to be developed in a manner that would ensure and demonstrate optimization of the life-cycle costs over the planning horizon of the project. Scope of the Mission: The Mission shall comprise two Sub. basic services and other related civic amenities with a view to providing utilities to the urban poor. programs and strategies.Missions. In order to seek JNNURM assistance. as grants-in-aid. namely: (1) Sub-Mission for Urban Infrastructure and Governance: This will be administered by the Ministry of Urban Development through the Sub. (3) Release and Leveraging of Funds: It is expected that the JNNURM assistance would serve to catalyze the flow of investment into the urban infrastructure sector across the country.
implementation and financing of projects. 6. Duration of the Mission: The duration of the Mission would be seven years beginning from the year 2005-06. the program calibrated suitably. through Public Private Partnership (PPP) 5. financial management systems designed and adopted for all urban service and governance functions (2) City-wide framework for planning and governance will be established and become operational (3) All urban residents will be able to obtain access to a basic level of urban services (4) Financially self-sustaining agencies for urban governance and service delivery will be established. 18 .AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NEED. management. through reforms to major revenue instruments (5) Local services and governance will be conducted in a manner that is transparent and accountable (6) E-governance applications will be introduced in core functions of ULBs/Parasternal resulting in reduced cost and time of service delivery processes. Evaluation of the experience of implementation of the Mission would be undertaken before the commencement of Eleventh Five Year Plan and if necessary. Expected Outcomes of the JNNURM: On completion of the Mission period. private sector efficiencies can be inducted in development. (4) Incorporating Private Sector Efficiencies: In order to optimize the life-cycle costs over the planning horizon. The SLNA / ULBs in turn would leverage additional resources from other sources. IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN RENEWAL IN INDIAN CONTEXT. it is expected that ULBs and parasternal agencies will have achieved the following: (1) Modern and transparent budgeting. grant-cum-loan or grant. accounting.
References: 1. "Urban renewal mission may not arrest urban migration" By: K Parthasarathi. World Bank .AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NEED. by diktat" By Vinay Baindur (05 September 2005) Images courtesy: Deviant Art .http://jnnurm. Official site of Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission . Official site of NIUA (National Institute of Urban Affairs) .worldbank.org/ 3.nic.niua.com 19 . (July 26. "For the people.in/ 3.http://www.in/ 2.http://deviantart.com 6.wordpress. 2007) 5. "Urban local government in India-carries characteristics of its colonial heritage out of step with its current needs" http://pakistanpal.com/ 4.org. IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN RENEWAL IN INDIAN CONTEXT.blogspot. Blog .http://www.http://cityrenewal.
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