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Facebook Interoperability An Analysis

1. Introduction Facebook is social-networking website, founded in 2004, that presently boasts over 34 million users worldwide [1]. Users are embodied by a profile page that provides a synopsis of them, and includes biographical and personal information describing their background and interests. Although these features form part of most social utility websites, Facebook extends the concept by introducing networks to which members can join and become part of. These online groupings form dynamic, user-defined and controlled environments that encourage interaction between members in novel and innovative ways. Other interesting features, such as friends, pokes, and gifts, have secured Facebook’s success as a novel means of digitized social interaction. More recently, the introduction of the development API has provided a platform from which members are able to generate custom components that can form part of the Facebook application. These additions have added a new dynamic to the website, and have simultaneously brought annoyance and elation from its users. The vast array of available applications, however, signals that the facilities provided by Facebook to aide in their development are in the very least useable, and potentially even helpful in creating interoperable services. 2. Criteria for Interoperability Simplicity The usefulness of an API is often a function of its simplicity. While it may at first seem favorable to provide mechanisms to access all aspects of a particular platform, this exceeding measure of consideration frequently renders these API’s as problematic and difficult to use. At present, the Facebook API consists of 29 methods, and represents a basic interface to the internals of Facebook [2]. These methods act on several distinct entities, such as fbml, friends, notifications, and photos, and represent mostly get and set actions that retrieve or modify particular elements. Although the size of the API may seem comparably small to other Internetbased API’s, it is able to provide a coverage that makes a large amount of useful information available to the developer. While the API does not provide access to certain content, it is sufficiently intricate to allow for developers to create complex applications for use within Facebook. Data Formats The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is a simple, flexible text markup language that is proving to be an increasingly important tool to facilitate the transportation (serialization) and storage of a varied range of data types [3]. These qualities have ensured its widespread adoption as a means to represent dynamic, structured data, and as such, is the format of choice for replies to Facebook API calls. Additionally, several other features of the standard indicate that its popularity is not the sole motivation surrounding its use. XML documents are able to be encoded

Data Encoding Encoding offers a mechanism to create direct mappings between dissimilar entities. As such. these are the standard encoding mechanisms for XML documents. Even though these differences exist. UTF8. While XML serves its purpose as a means to store and transmit structured data. UTF-8 encoding offers further advantages besides being the encoding of choice for XML processing. Its ability to efficiently represent a vast array of characters suggests its relevance to an application that attracts attention from across the globe. therefore.3). regardless of whether an associated XML declaration exists or not [7]. the ideals of interoperability are reinforced by ensuring that all responses from Facebook can be interpreted by all XML processors. data encoding pairs a sequence of characters from a particular character set with a numerical or alphanumerical representation that is better suited to computational storage and transmission [5]. The addition of custom applications to Facebook has further increased the significance of these encoding formats. User defined content is often varied and unpredictable. Most notably. All communication with the Facebook API assumes character encoding using the Unicode Transformation Format 8 (UTF-8) standard [6]. The unadorned tag structures that characterize XML documents can be easily parsed and interpreted by a variety of tools which are often freely available. without impacting on the simplicity of the API itself. allows for interoperability between Facebook and character sets used by the users and developers of these custom applications. The developer of the particular API specifies the preferential response format as being either XML or JSON. and Facebook returns its responses in the specified format. efficient encoding formats. all XML processors are explicitly required to process documents that are encoded in UTF-8 or UTF-16. other tools exists which attempt to accomplish much the same. As such. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is a lightweight data interchange format for representing objects and other data structures [4]. Once a request has been submitted to Facebook by means of a GET or POST request. Several encoding standards have evolved in recent decades in an attempt to represent a wider range of data in more efficient ways.using modern. Additionally. JSON is not a markup language. Older character sets. a response is sent in XML using UTF-8 encoding. both formats can be used to encapsulate the response generated by Facebook after an API call. such as UTF-8 (see section 2. by providing a means to receive responses in different formats. interoperability between supportive technologies is improved. This encoding mechanism has several advantages associated with it that makes its adoption a sensible choice when developing an interoperable API. or form part of existing programming languages. such as ASCII. are unable to symbolize rare or unusual items such as Asian alphabets or mathematical notations. As such. In computing. and vary greatly according to efficiency and scalability. ensuring that it can be deciphered by all XML processors that adhere to the XML specification [8]. . While it is often compared to XML. especially when generated by vernacularly dissimilar users and developers. and instead serves the primary purpose of data interchange [4].

a base level of interoperability is likely to remain that forms a foundation onto which more intricate services can be built. it creates implementations that are possibly opinionated. and embody a unified attempt to merge ideas in an attempt to provide a focused and descriptive solution. Additionally. The Facebook API exchanges information over HTTP using a REST-based protocol. it is broad enough to allow developers to gain critical information from the Facebook servers so that useful applications can be developed and maintained. Conclusion While the API that Facebook provides is described by means of a specification and not a standard. Although Facebook plans to include support for SOAP in later API releases [6]. in the most simplest of terms. implying that applications submit text within a POST request to the Facebook API server [6]. the protocols that facilitate communications and the encodings and encapsulation mechanisms all aide in creating an interface that is widely accessible and interoperable. .API as a Specification A Standard is a formal description that is endorsed. such as SOAP [10]. without having to install possibly unfamiliar protocols such as SOAP. This differs from a specification in that it represents a one-sided. 3. provide a specification which details the mechanisms that they provide in order to access content on their systems. describes any simple interface that uses XML or comparative technologies over HTTP without requiring the support of additional message layers. Facebook. Although the API provided by Facebook may be useful in many senses. validated and maintained by a standards body [9]. singular interpretation of the problem. and thereby detract from its interoperable qualities. support for REST will remain because of interoperability that it guarantees. however. Although future additions to the API are likely to include the use of more specialized technologies. especially considering its international appeal. Although the API doesn’t give access to every desirable function. They are generally regarded as a tangible means of expressing proposals regarding certain implementations of software. This simplistic yet effective approach to communication ensures that all parties aught to be able to send and receive data. Representational State Transfer (REST) is a protocol that. Transport Explicit communication and data exchanges have to occur between the custom applications and the Facebook API server in order for any methods to be called. The server then answers with an appropriate XML response. a collaboratively developed standard might prove more useful. Although this is considered as standard practice for proprietary organizations. it nevertheless appears to facilitate a certain degree of interoperability between Facebook and the custom applications that are written for its consumption.

Available Online: http://en.wikipedia. Essential XML Quick Reference.org/wiki/Json Last Accessed : 2007-08-19 Wikipedia.wikipedia. H. Internet Interoperability Lecture Notes. Facebook Developers FAQ.com/faq. Sperberg-McQueen. 2007.0 (Fourth Edition) Available Online: http://www. Maler. M. Paoli. References [1] Wikipedia.php Last Accessed : 2007-08-20 Skonnard. Facebook.facebook.net/cgi-bin/wiki.com/index. Available online: http://en. JSON Available Online: http://en. Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] Author Unknown. J. Character Encoding.developers.wikipedia. What is Rest? Available Online: http://rest.org/wiki/Character_encoding Last Accessed : 2007-08-19 Facebook.php/API Last Accessed : 2007-08-19 Author Unknown. C.4. A. E. F. Addison-Wesley.org/wiki/Facebook Last Accessed : 2007-08-19 Facebook. T. Gudgin.org/XML/ Last Accessed : 2007-08-20 Wikipedia. Extensible Markup Language Available Online: http://www.blueoxen. p12 Bray. The University of Cape Town. Yergeau.w3.facebook. API Available Online: http://wiki.org/TR/REC-xml/ Last Accessed : 2007-08-20 Suleman. Available Online: http://developers.pl?WhatIsREST Last Accessed : 2007-08-20 . Department of Computer Science.w3.

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