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Byco Oil Pakistan Limited
Mouza Kund Plant, Sub Tehsil Gadani, District Lasbella, Balochistan - Pakistan
REPORT ON MY INTERNSHIP AT BOPL
By: WAQAS ALI TUNIO
STUDENT OF FINAL YEAR, DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, Q UAID-E -AWAM UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, NAWABSHAH - PAKISTAN
INTERNSHIP DURATION: FOUR WEEKS (FROM 8TH JUNE 2010 TO 8TH JULY 2010)
Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www.byco.com.pk 1
byco.pk 2 . A Short Introduction of Company BOPL Plant Orientation Knowledge Gained and Key Learning Refinery Process Digrams Inspection Refurshment Steps NDT Techniques o Hydrotesting o Magnetic Particle Inspection o Dye Penetrant Test o UT Thickness Measurement Stationary Equipments Piping o Difference between pipe and tube o Pipe Fittings o Flange Types Tanks Valves Cooling Tower Heat Exchanger o Shell and Tube HX Furnace Boiler Process Columns Vessels o Desalter Packing Sealing Lubrication Mechanical Seal Rotary Equipment Pumps Turbines Governors Rotors Compressors o Types of compressors Instrument Air Air Cooler Heat Exchangers or Fin-Fan Coolers Fans Welding My Experience at BOPL Conclusion Page no. 3 4 5 6 7 11 32 37 38 39 Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio Contents Acknowledgement Objective BOPL.com.
Mechanical Manager in particular. Mr. I would like to also thank my mentors/supervisors who supported all along during my stay and who never mind my questions and guided me through all the phases of my training. Basit Sultan. Mr.pk 3 . Hassan. I’m very thankful to the BOPL authorities for giving me such a great opportunity to learn at the plant as an intern. Adeel and others. Asad. Mr. Khalid. Faisal. Ashar Mirza.byco. Mr. Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www.com. Mr. I would like to mention the names of Mr. This internship will go long way in shaping my career in future.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio Acknowledgement This highly informative and interactive internship would not have been possible without the active support of the Management of BOPL in general and the cooperation of Mr.
com. technology. design engineering. materials of construction.pk 4 . Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www.byco. operation and maintenance of the plant. damage mechanism.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio Objective The main objective of this internship was to learn about the working of an Oil Refinery and get insight of the processes involved. inspection. exchangers. My particular interest was to learn more about the vessel. their materials and what type of damage mechanism occur in the refinery processes.
on 100 acres leased Site in Mouza Kund estate. from United Kingdom. increased LPG recovery and further enhancement in the recovery of High Speed Diesel.000 bpd.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio BPPL. Byco Oil Pakistan Limited – ORB-2 It is a relocated Hydroskimming petroleum refinery with a crude refining capacity of 115.byco. while the previous one was of PARCO with refining capacity of 96. It is now the largest refinery of Pakistan. Other improvements included lower fuel and water usage. Lasbela. Good Maintenance and Operations ensured 100% availability of the crude oil processing capacity at the Oil Refining Business (ORB).pk 5 . A Short Introduction of Company Byco Pakistan Limited – ORB-1 At present. The project is being set-up next to Byco’s existing refinery.000 bpd. Balochistan.com. owned by Byco at District Hub. the Company receives limited quantity of local crude oil and blends it with imported crude oil while retaining product quality and yields. to implement as the trading scenario changes for the better. The Company is completing studies to increase the processing capacity above 35. Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www.000 bpd.
pk 6 .byco.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio BOPL Plant Orientation Plant 1: Crude Unit Plant 2: Vacuum Unit Plant 4: Hydrotreater Plant 6: Naptha Hydrotreater Plant 7: Platformer Unit Plant 8: Gas Plant Plant 9: Amine and Sulphur Unit Plant 11: Reformate Splitter Plant 14: Sulphur Recovery Unit Plant 15: Common Facilities Plant 16: Isomerization Unit Plant 19: Flare Unit Utilities Plant Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www.com.
Over time changes to either product requirements or available crude oil can result in changes to the refining processes necessary in the refinery. It is most effective and detailed diagram for the understanding purpose of the process and instrumentation of the process. separation processes and conversion processes. It only keeps into account the flow or process as it proceed without keeping into consideration the each and individual component that comes across the flow. Diagrams Following are the types of diagrams normally used PFD: Process Flow Diagrams (PFD).com. P&ID: It is read as piping and instrumentation diagram. There are many processes available to the refiner and the final processes chosen is determined by the products required (both quantity and quality) and the crude oil available.byco. It gives the detail of piping. This diagram will show which instruments are used during the flow Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. Refining involves two major branches.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio Knowledge Gained and Key Learning General Introduction – Refining Process Refining is the manufacture of petroleum products from crude oil.pk 7 .
Assembling 10. OWS Generate 7. Final Run Repairs may be carried out at surface.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio but it does not determines the exact and ACTUAL position of the instrument in terms of coordinates. Post Cleaining Inspection (PCI) 6. like thickness repair by buildup or patch work. Nozzle Repairs: in such type of repairs usually the flanges may be damaged and must be repaired. The usually repairs that are generally encountered in static Equipments are as under: Thickness variation: Generally the wall thickness of inside or outside of the components may corroded or due to some dents its thickness generally reduced and may not met our standards so it is recommended to either Build up such portion or either patch work may be done on that particular portion to met our required thickness. Sandblasting 2. Mechanical Refurbishment 8. Isometrics: It gives the exact dimensioning of the whole piping and instrumentation system in 3D coordinates that helps in the erection of the plant.pk 8 . It may also be done with edges of nozzles and flanges etc. Paint 3.com. Tesing 9. Dismantling 4. Inspection Refurbishment Steps 1.byco. Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. Cleaning (Mechanical) 5.
Magnetic Particle Inspection Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) process for detecting surface and subsurface discontinuities in ferrous materials. The magnetic lines of force are perpendicular to the direction of the electrical current which may be either alternating current (AC) or some form of direct current (DC) (rectified AC). The presence of a surface or subsurface discontinuity in the material allows the magnetic flux to leak. what may have caused it.byco. If an area of flux leakage is present the particles will be attracted to this area.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio NDT Techniques Hydrotesting Hydrotesting of a pipeline is carried out mainly to check the integrity of the pipeline to ensure that the pipeline can be operated at its Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) and is free from any major defects which could affect the pipeline during operation. The particles will build up at the area of leakage and form what is known as an indication. The process puts a magnetic field into the part. and what action should be taken if any. It is the most conventional and economical method to test pipelines before or during Operations. The particles may be dry or in a wet suspension. Direct magnetization occurs when the electrical current is passed through the test object and a magnetic field is formed in the material. The piece can be magnetized by direct or indirect magnetization. Ferrous iron particles are applied to the part. Dye Penetrant Test Liquid penetrant testing is a non-destructive method used to detect surface breaking defects in any nonporous material. Indirect magnetization occurs when no electrical current is passed through the test object. The indication can then be evaluated to determine what it is. Liquid penetrant is applied to the surface and is drawn into defects by Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. but a magnetic field is applied from an outside source.pk 9 .com.
4. Penetrant is applied to the surface. Section of material with a surface-breaking crack that is not visible to the naked eye. Excess Penetrant Removal 4. Visible and Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Examinations are Non-Destructive methods of revealing discontinuities that are open to the surfaces of solid and essentially non-porous materials. pressure vessels. above paint (thru-coat or echo to echo functions) as well as on surfaces with intense local corrosion without any surface smoothing required (use of pencil type probes). chalk powder suspension) sprayed on to reveal defects Dye can be UV active so viewing under UV illumination reveals cracks 1.com. The instruments that are used for the measurement are portable and light with possibilities of saving the measurements data in a data logger. Once a preset dwell time has passed. Visual inspection is then performed.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio capillary action. boilers. Pre-cleaning 2. ferrous or non-ferrous.byco. Developer is applied. 3. by its experienced and certified inspectors. Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. Steps for DPT 1. rendering the crack visible. Application Penetrant of 3.g.pk 10 . on high temperature environments. Thickness measurement is achieved by placing the UT probe on the object surface. Excess penetrant is removed. excess penetrant is removed and developer applied to draw out penetrant from defects. on very thin plates. 2. Strong dye sprayed onto surface drawn into cracks and pores by capillary action Surplus is wiped off Developer (e. Local or general reductions of thickness can be located and measured with high precision. Application of Developer 5. tanks etc. The use of different probes offers the capability to perform thickness measurements in inaccessible surfaces. Post Cleaning UT Thickness Measurement One of the most widespread NDT methods in mechanical equipment of industrial installations for the characterization of erosion and deterioration is the thickness measurements with the Ultrasonic method. Inspection 6. Envirocoustics offers high level thickness measurement services on pipes.
visual examination and vacuum testing. This testing requires the filling of the tank with water and leaving it for a couple of days so that a hydrostatic pressure acts on the base that can be calculated by: P = ρgH Where.pk 11 . box's base was provided with a rubber base. a box with a plastic window was placed on the floor welds and a vacuum was created under the box as the pressure was reduced from 760 mm of Hg to 20 mm of Hg. To overcome the gaps created by the lap joints. thorough examinations were being conducted to ensure the rigidity and safety of the tank.com.byco. I was able to see the vacuum testing. I was told that few tests mentioned in the API 650 plans are done. Hydro-testing is also done in tanks. The test could determine any leakages in the floor welding. In it. ultrasonic examination. In refinery the inspection of such stationary equipments are carried out with great concentration and accuracy because a small disturbance may results in big looses. P = hydrostatic pressure ρ = density (water) g = gravitational acceleration H = height of fill (water) Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. radiographic examination. where as the small motion (such as vibration) may cause great accidents. magnetic particle examination. For this purpose. liquid penetration test.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio Inspection of static equipments Static Equipments are those which are stationary having no movement in them during operation. Inspection of tanks At the completion of each tank's construction. They include joints inspection.
fins and alignment of the fans Tube inspection Tubes of the fin fans are generally inspected by the hydro testing Method in order to inspect any leakage and pin holes in the tubes. means visualizing its surface like (pitting.byco. Visual inspection Inspection which is usually by the naked eye.T) For Welded Joints & Pin Holes: Die penetrating test (D. rated for pressure or just atmospheric pressure.P. dent.pk 12 .BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio Used tanks are carbon steel vessels with enamel or glass coating on the wetted parts.and close visualization of tubes and shell the nozzles and fittings of the tubes some of the tests are as follows: For leakages: HYDROTESTING (H. decreasing in thickness. Tanks are vessels that hold liquids. Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. pinholes etc) Shell & tube inspection Inspection of shell and tubes of the heat exchangers are generally made by performing detailed tests on them .com. The type of glass that is used is very resistant to many types of corrosive materials that would corrode alloy material.T) After the detailed inspection and testing it is assisted by the quality control department and is allowed for erection INSPECTION OF FIN FAN COOLERS At BOPL the inspection of fin fan coolers are somehow carried in a similar way to that of the Heat Exchanger following steps are followed for the inspection of the fin fans. combining the corrosion resistance of glass with the working strength of steel. We have hundreds of used stainless steel tanks available in various sizes and capacities. Visual inspection Inspection by naked eye complete visual inspection includes the close look on the corrosion on the surface. pitting of the tubes. They can be vertical or horizontal. Inspection of heat exchanger Heat exchanger first allowed to clean before its inspection firstly it is send to sand blasting yard where the sand with high pressure is used to remove the dirt and corrosion present on its surface and then a light coat of paint is done to maximize the defects on the heat exchanger and finally it is send to detailed inspection. agitated or just for storage.
BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio INSPECTION OF COOLING TOWERS Measured Parameters The performance of cooling towers is evaluated to assess present levels of approach and range against their design values.byco. portable monitoring instruments are used to measure the following parameters: • Wet bulb temperature of air • Dry bulb temperature of air • Cooling tower inlet water temperature • Cooling tower outlet water temperature • Exhaust air temperature • Electrical readings of pump and fan motors • Water flow rate • Air flow rate Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www.com. During the performance evaluation.pk 13 . identify areas of energy wastage and to suggest improvements.
pk 14 .BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio INSPECTION OF PIPING SYSTEM: Inspection of pipe lines is generally a difficult job but the inspection of piping system uses following techniques: • • 1. Visual Inspection (For on-surface Inspection) 2. Inside inspection (For sub-surface Inspection) NDT Techniques used in inspection • (a) MPI (Magnetic Particle Inspection): This type of technique is used for the sub surface Inspection of pipes • (b) DPT(Di-Penetrating testing): Technique used to inspect welded joints leakages • (c)Radiography (RT) Such techniques are used for critical piping systems • (D)Hydro testing (HT) Used finally before finalizing of the system by holding the pressurized water for half an hour and monitoring the pressure drop in the line.com.byco. Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www.
BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio OPERATION DEPARTMENT FLOWCHART Operation department carries out the overall operations that are being carried out in the refinery by various units or sections for the proper working of the plant in order to accrue the desired product.com.byco.pk 15 . The following flow chart also shows the movement of operations in BOPL Feed Crude tank Booster pumps Charge Pump Old Train Exchanger 1 New Train Exchanger 1 LSU Light naphtha Desalter 1 Desalter 2 NHT\Plat former Unit Heavy naphtha Old train Exchanger 2 Splitter (Reformer) New Train Exchanger 2 Merox Unit Total Naphtha Pre flash Unit R u n D o w n Kero Crude Tank Crude Oil 34TH tray HSD Heat Exchanger trains Furnace Fuel oil Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www.
byco. OD Tube. ID. These devices are launched from piglauncher stations and travel through the pipeline to be received at any other station down-stream. Also. or inside diameter and wall thickness. whereas pipe is more common elsewhere in the world. also known as. or by nominal. the term tubing can be applied to non-cylindrical shapes (i. and in colder climates wax buildup may occur within a pipeline.e. scrapers or Go-devils.pk 16 . Both pipe and tube imply a level of rigidity and permanence. square tubing). What is the difference between a pipe and a tube? Pipe is used as a vessel and is measured by ID (inside diameter). Pipe is measuring with nominal bore i.e. cleaning wax deposits and material that may have accumulated inside the line. The terms pipe and tube are almost interchangeable. Many industrial and government standards exist for the production of pipe and tubing. Tubing is usually structural and is measured by OD (outside diameter). A tube is often made to custom sizes and may often have more specific sizes and tolerances than pipe.e. outside. or paraffin.com. Often these pipelines are inspected and cleaned using pipeline inspection gauges pigs. whereas a hose is usually portable and flexible. Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. wall thickness).BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio Piping A pipe is a tube or hollow cylinder used to convey materials or as a structural component. such as nominal pipe size (in the United States). Pipe is designated with its Inner Diameter whereas Tube is designated with Outer Diameter. Tube is flexible Pipe is Rigid. Pipe may be specified by standard pipe size designations. A pipe is generally specified by the internal diameter (ID) whereas a tube is usually defined by the outside diameter (OD) but may be specified by any combination of dimensions (OD. NB pipe and tube is measuring with Outer dia i. Both pipe and tube are the materials which carries substance through them internally and also using them for the heat transfer. Crude oil contains varying amounts of wax. The term tube is more widely used in the United States.
45°: Elbow configured for a 45° change in direction. Elbow . Elbow . does not include true expansion fittings. Elbow .BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio Pipe Fittings Adapter: A fitting designed to connect different types of hose. Cap: Designed to attach over the outside of a tube end to dead-end the flow. Coupling / Connector / Hose Mender: Fitting designed to join two pieces of tubing or hose.com. brazing. adhesives. typically mating with a socket to seal or connect tubing. Gland: The male component of a tube connection. Ferrules can be compressible and used as the sealing component of a compression fitting. tubing or pipe together. Elbows are also called "Ells". Ferrule: Sleeve-type fitting that slips over two ends to join them. Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www.90°: Allows for a 90° change in direction. Attachment techniques include welding. Bulkhead Fitting: Fitting designed to be mounted in a wall or bulkhead and to allow tube connection on either side of barrier. Elbow – Reducing: Joins two pieces of pipe (usually 90°) of different sizes.pk 17 . Cross / 4-Way: Fitting with four connection ports. They are also used as weldable connection fittings. such as 30° or 60°. typically in the shape of a cross. Expansion Joint / Coupling: Expansion joints and couplings connect sections of tube and provide allowance for movement due to service load. shock or thermal cycles.Other Angle: Any other angle elbow. Coupling – Flexible: Coupling with some amount of flexibility. frequently includes a curve or radius. and threads depending on application and material. Compression Fitting: A compression fitting tightens down a sleeve or ferrule over a joint to prevent leakage. push-fit.byco. Crimp Socket: Sleeve or socket to be crimped over a hose end to attach it to a fitting.
Plug: Designed to insert into the end of hose or tubing to dead-end the flow. Union: Three-part fitting that connects two pieces of tube and allows for disconnection without cutting. Its center line is same Eccentric Reducer: Non-Conical in shape. Side Outlet – Elbow: Elbow with an additional outlet at the corner perpendicular to the plane of the elbow for a total of three outlets. Pipe Racks Pipe racks are steel made structures on which the piping system rests. concentric reducers join tube sections on the same axis. Return / Trap: Most commonly in a 180° "U" shape. eccentric reducers join tube sections that are parallel but not aligned. Tee – Equal: Three-port fitting in the shape of a "T".pk 18 . Reducer – Eccentric: Fitting with different size ends to mate hose or tubing of different diameter. Offset: Fitting between runs of tube that are parallel but not aligned. typically with male threaded ends. Low to ground pipe lines is called sleepers.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio Nipple: Common description of a short.byco. straight connector fitting. it may also include size reduction from one of the run ports to the other. Its center line is not same. Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. Tee – Reducing: Typically. Side Outlet – Tee: Tee with an additional outlet at the junction perpendicular to the plane of the tee for a total of four outlets. Wye – Equal: Three-port fitting in the general shape of the letter "Y" or in which a branch departs the run at an angle other than 90°. Tee – Bullhead: Tee fitting in which the branch port is larger than the run ports.com. The designation "Equal" refers to the three outlets being the same size. Wye – Reducing: Wye for which the branch outlet is smaller than the run outlets. High from the ground are pipe racks. Reducer – Concentric: Fitting with different size ends to mate hose or tubing of different diameter. Reducers There are two types of reducers: Concentric Reducer: Conical in shape. These fittings can be used to reverse tube flow direction or combined as a trap for gas or odors. this describes a tee fitting in which the branch port is smaller than the ports of the run. Standard configuration ("Equal") indicates that the straight-through path (typically called the "run") and the perpendicular section ("branch") all have the same size ports.
which reduces turbulence and erosion inside the pipeline. Socket Weld: This flange is counter bored to accept the pipe before being fillet welded. A metal ring is compressed into a hexagonal groove on the face of the flange to make the seal. choke or other piece of equipment.byco. coated carbon steel. It is used to connect other threaded components in low pressure. Blind: This flange is used to blank off pipelines. Flanges are usually welded or screwed into such systems and then joined with bolts.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio Flange Types A flange allows two pipes to be mechanically connected together. inspection or modification. pumps and other equipment to form a pipework system. valves. The bores of both pipe and flange match. It is sometimes referred to as a blanking flange.pk 19 . Weld Neck: This flange is circumferentially welded into the system at its neck which means that the integrity of the butt welded area can be easily examined by radiography. Blind Flange: It is closed. Lap Joint: These flanges are always used with either a stub end or taft which is butt welded to the pipe with the flange loose behind it. To reduce cost these flanges can be supplied without a hub and/or in treated. This jointing method can be employed on Weld Neck. Slip-on flanges are easy to use in fabricated applications. Slip-on raised face flange Slip-on flat face flange Raised Face Flange: For high pressure Flat-Face Flange: For low pressure Orifice Flange A Flange is a method of connecting pipes. Threaded: This flange is referred to as either threaded or screwed. No welding is required. It also provides easy access for cleaning. valves and pumps. Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. tee. or a pipe to be mechanically connected to a valve. Ring Type: This is a method of ensuring leak proof flange connection at high pressures. The weld neck is therefore favoured in critical applications Slip-on: This flange is slipped over the pipe and then fillet welded. This means the stub end or taft always makes the face. The lap joint is favoured in low pressure applications because it is easily assembled and aligned. The bore of the pipe and flange are both the same therefore giving good flow characteristics.com. it can also be used as an inspection cover. Slip-on and Blind Flanges. non-critical applications.
hydrogen. kerosene. Other classification which can be made for storage tanks are based upon their location in a refinery: COT. water tanks etc) As flash-points of fuels go very low the tanks are usually spherical (known as spheres).crude oil tankages PIT. slop oil). These are insulated to prevent the clogging of certain materials.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio Tanks Tanks for a particular fluid are chosen according to the flash-point of that substance. Dome roof tanks are meant for tanks having slightly higher storage pressure than that of atmosphere (eg. nitrogen. bitumen etc. water. 2. Generally in refineries and especially for liquid fuels. Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. oxygen etc. diesel. and floating roof tanks. gasolene.byco.these are usually mini tanks which are found in the production units of a refinery(as neutralisation tanks .com. Medium flash point liquids such as naphtha. fuel oil. for storage water etc OSBL tanks. obviously these are the easiest storage tanks to be constructed. open roof type tank. MS.) Cone roofs. FR tanks do not have a fixed roof (it is open in the top) and has a floating roof only. Fixed roof tanks are meant for liquids with very high flash points. (eg. hexane. tom store LPG.dispatch area tankages UTILITIES. ethanol). usually to store ore slurries. IFR tanks are used for liquids with low flash-points(eg. 1.the first 3 types come under out side battery limit tankages ISBL tanks. One of the common types found in mining areas is. This floating roof traps the vapor from low flash-point fuels. crude oil etc are stored in these tanks.tanks made in the powerplant area. Floating roofs are supported with legs on which they rest. Floating roof tanks are broadly divided into external floating roof tanks (usually called as floating roof tanks:FR Tanks) and internal floating roof types(IFR Tanks). dome roofs and umbrella roofs are usual. These tanks are nothing but cone roof tanks with a floating roof inside which travels up and down along with the liquid level.product and intermediate storage tankages DISPATCH. there are fixed roof tanks. ATF. wherein the heat is provided by steam coils within the tanks.pk 20 .
and safety devices fitted to hot water systems.byco. They allow the flow to occur in one direction only. examples of this type of valve found commonly are safety valves fitted to hot water systems or steam boilers. lever or pedal. including industrial. Following are few types of check valves: Swing non-returnable valve Lift non-returnable valve Ball non-returnable valve Pin non-returnable valve Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. Oil and gas.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio Valves A valve is a device that regulates the flow of a fluid (gases. temperature or flow. TYPES OF VALVES Gate valve Plug valve Globe valve Check valve Butterfly valve Ball valve Needle valve Pressure Safety Valve Non-Return Valve Valves are used to control the flow and direction of fluid and the amount of flow. such as taps for hot and cold water are the most noticeable types of valves. but are usually discussed as a separate category. closing. Valves are technically pipe fittings. Other valves encountered on a daily basis include gas control valves on cookers and barbecues. residential.com. or partially obstructing various passageways. There are various types of valves such as: Check Valves Check valves are used to control the direction of flow. When 10% tubes are plugged then it’s time to replace the heat exchanger. commercial. small valves fitted to washing machines and dishwashers. and transportation.pk 21 . or liquids) by opening. fluidized solids. mining. These changes may act upon a diaphram or a piston which in turn activates the valve. slurries. Valves may be operated manually. Valves are used in a variety of contexts. sewerage and chemical manufacturing are the industries in which the majority of valves are used. military. water reticulation. power generation. either by a hand wheel. driven by changes in pressure. Valves may also be automatic. And the tubes found to be leaking are plugged by welding them at both ends. Plumbing valves.
Plug Valve 3.com.byco. Packing should be maintained. Following are few types of stop valves: 1. or rectangular structures (as in Image 2) that can be over 40 metres tall and 80 metres long. Commonly used throttle valve is butterfly valve.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio Stop Valves These are used to stop and open the flow of fluid through a pipe. Cooling Tower Definition Cooling towers cool the warm water by contacting it with ambient air. 3. Smaller towers are Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. Globe Valve Cooling towers are heat exchangers that are used to dissipate large heat loads to the atmosphere. power stations and building cooling. Fouling should be removed. The problems may be of the following types 1. Throttle Valves These are used to control the amount of the flow through the valve. 2. Valves seats are to be changed from time to time. Cooling tower is used to reduce the temperature of the process water in order to reprocess the water: Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere. chemical plants.pk 22 . Maintenance of Valves Valves maintenance must be carried out time to time. Gate Valve 2. The towers vary in size from small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid structures (as in Image 1) that can be up to 200 metres tall and 100 metres in diameter. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the drybulb air temperature. Common applications include cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries.
2.000 cubic metres of water per hour through its cooling tower system All cooling towers that are used to remove heat from an industrial process or chemical reaction are referred to as industrial process cooling towers (IPCT). cooler outside air.byco. A hybrid type that appears like a natural draft though airflow is assisted by a fan. Fan assisted natural draft. power generation cycles. moist air naturally rises due to the density differential to the dry. This moist air buoyancy produces a current of air through the tower. This fan/fill geometry is also known as blow-through.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio normally factory-built. Types of Cooling Towers:. 4. Counterflow: In a counterflow design the air flow is directly opposite to the water flow .000 metric tonnes of crude oil per day (300. Warm moist air is less dense than drier air at the same pressure. 3. Process The warm water is pumped to the top of the cooling towers and is distributed across the distribution deck where it flows through a series of nozzles onto the top of the tower. creating high entering and low exiting air velocities. there are three types of cooling towers: Natural draft. which uses power driven fan motors to force or draw air through the tower. Applications They are used in a variety of settings.com.000 barrels per day) circulates about 80. Categorization by Air-to-Water flow Crossflow: Crossflow is a design in which the air flow is directed perpendicular to the water flow. o Induced draft: A mechanical draft tower with a fan at the discharge which pulls air through tower. The fan forces air into the tower. Induced fan Fills Spraying nozzles Draft simulators Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. Mechanical draft. A typical large refinery processing 40. Air flow first enters an open area beneath the fill media and is then drawn up vertically. which utilizes buoyancy via a tall chimney. Main parts of the cooling towers: 1.pk 23 . o Forced draft: A mechanical draft tower with a blower type fan at the intake. Petroleum refineries also have very large cooling tower systems. With respect to drawing air through the tower. and air conditioning cycles. Water flows (perpendicular to the air) through the fill by gravity. The fan induces hot moist air out the discharge. This fan/fill arrangement is also known as draw-through. while larger ones are constructed on site. Warm. Air flow enters one or more vertical faces of the cooling tower to meet the fill material. including process cooling.
com. There are various types of heat exchangers such as: 1. Sedimentation Corrosion Algae growing Salt deposit Coking Chemical reaction The techniques which are used during operation fouling encountered in heat exchangers are as under: 1.pk 24 . Mechanical cleaning 2. 3. Chemical cleaning In case of leakage of the tubes inside the heat exchangers. 5. After a period of use the fouling factors arise in the exchangers that is the rusting and a layer of foreign items get settled at the bottom decreasing the flow rate. It saves time. 2. It plays an important role in increasing the efficiency of the process. Visual Inspection Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. 2. 4. Heat recovery is a supporting unit. 3.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio HEAT EXCHANGERS Heat Exchanger Heat exchangers are used to create the temperature drop or rise in fluids. 4. Hydro blasting 3. 6. The fouling can arise due to following factors: 1. Soap film test 2. we take following actions: 1. 5.byco. Shell and tube Plate type U-tube Kettle type Straight It saves fuel. It has nothing to do in the main process.
: train locomotive. or steam for driving turbines – in ships for propulsion and in power stations for generating electricity. Stack The flue gas stack is a cylindrical structure at the top of all the heat transfer chambers. cylindrical furnace as above is located in the floor and fires upward. cylindrical furnace. and the tubes are finned to increase heat transfer.pk 25 . placed along the refractory wall. Convection section: The convection section is located above the radiant section where it is cooler to recover additional heat. the tubes are vertical. Some furnaces have side fired burners.com. Studs are used to hold the insulation together and on the wall of the furnace. or arranged in cells. Burner: The burner in the vertical. in the middle.g. coke. and openhearth furnace. etc. The first two tube rows in the bottom of the convection section and at the top of the radiant. The burner tile is made of high temperature refractory and is where the flame is contained in. Heat transfer takes place by convection here. to produce hot water. gas. The breeching directly below it collects the flue Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. Furnaces are used in conjunction with boilers for heating. PARTS OF FURNACE Radiant section: The Radiant section is where the tubes receive almost all its heat by radiation from the flame.byco. electric furnace. In a vertical.. The largest furnaces are those used for smelting and refining metals. Tubes can be vertical or horizontal. e.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio FURNACE Structure in which fuel such as coal. or oil is burned to produce heat for various purposes. such as the blast furnace.
They are also called steam generators. and is occasionally opened to use the pressure in the boiler to push these particulates out. In some cases. 26 Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. castable refractories and ceramic fibre. Water Tube Boiler: Water tube boiler is a type of boiler in which water circulates in tubes heated externally by the fire. Water level indicators: They show the operator the level of fluid in the boiler.pk . Bottom blowdown valves: They provide a means for removing solid particulates that condense and lay on the bottom of a boiler.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio gas and brings it up high into the atmosphere where it will not endanger personnel. Refractory materials such as firebrick. by the direct application of energy from the combustion of fuels. Damper: A damper is a valve or plate that stops or regulates the flow of air inside a furnace. As the name implies. from electricity or nuclear energy. Ceramic fibre is commonly used for the roof and wall of the furnace. a damper closes off the flue to keep the weather (and birds and other animals) out and warm or cool air in. Insulation: Insulation is an important part of the furnace because it prevents excessive heat loss. 3.byco. In a funace. but also sometimes in the winter between uses. heating the water and ultimately creating steam. for use external to itself." Boilers are used to produce steam. or any combination thereof. 4. Fuel is burned inside the furnace. Water tube boilers are used for high-pressure boilers. 5. under pressure or vacuum. this valve is usually located directly on the bottom of the boiler. steam is superheated. Parts of Boiler 1. Commonly used types of boilers are Fire Tube Boiler: Fire-tube boiler is a type of boiler in which hot gases from a fire pass through one or more tubes running through a sealed container of water. steam or vapor is generated. Steam Drum Economizer Primary Super Heater Secondary Super Heater Burners Down comers Risers Boiler Fittings and Accessories: Safety valve: It is used to relieve pressure and prevent possible explosion of a boiler. creating hot gas which heats water in the steam-generating tubes. 7. BOILER A boiler is defined as "a closed vessel in which water or other liquid is heated. This in turn is a process steam. 2. 6. also known as a sight glass.com. The floor of the furnace is normally castable type refractories while those on the walls are nailed or glued in place. This is usually done in the summer. are used for insulation. The heat energy from the gases passes through the sides of the tubes by thermal conduction. the damper may also be partly closed to help control the rate of combustion. water gauge or water column is provided.
A series of screen. Its purpose is to prevent the water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).a condition known as priming. Circulating pump: It is designed to circulate water back to the boiler after it has expelled some of its heat.byco. This may be fitted to the side of the boiler. It does not prevent limescale formation but causes the lime scale to be precipitated in a powdery form which is easily washed out of the boiler.com. Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater line. Saturation would lead to foaming and cause water droplets to be carried over with the steam . Steam drum internals. or may be damaged by. Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. . or to the top of the boiler. Chemical injection line: A connection to add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH. dry steam.pk 27 . Surface blowdown line: It provides a means for removing foam or other lightweight noncondensible substances that tend to float on top of the water inside the boiler. mounted on top of the boiler.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio Continuous blowdown valve: This allows a small quantity of water to escape continuously. Top feed: A check valve (clack valve) in the feedwater line. Desuperheater tubes or bundles: A series of tubes or bundles of tubes in the water drum or the steam drum designed to cool superheated steam. just below the water level. It is intended to reduce the nuisance of limescale. Thus is to supply auxiliary equipment that doesn't need.
com. In general.byco.pk 28 . the apparatus consists of a cylindrical vessel with internals designed to obtain multiple contacting of ascending vapor and descending Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio Process Columns A tall metal cylinder internally fitted with perforated horizontal plates used to promote separation of miscible liquids ascending in the cylinder as vapor. An apparatus used widely for countercurrent contacting of vapor and liquid to effect separations by distillation or absorption.
changes in composition produce heat effects and volume changes. They operate at pressures as low as a few millimeters of mercury and as high as 3000 lb/in. They are made of steel and other metals. and a liquid heater (reboiler) is used to generate vapor for introduction at the bottom. The sieve plate can be designed with downcomers similar to those used for bubble-cap trays. It is often used in small industrial plants.2 (2 megapascals) at temperatures from −300 to 700°F (−180 to 370°C).byco. so that there is a temperature gradient and a variation in vapor. Expanded metal or woven mats are also used as packing. and even of such materials as bonded carbon and plastics. The packed column is a bed or succession of beds made up of small solid shapes over which liquid and vapor flow intortuous countercurrent paths. together with means for introducing or generating liquid at the top and vapor at the bottom. The perforated or sieve plate is a horizontal deck with a multiplicity of round holes or rectangular slots for distribution of vapor through the liquid. the absorption oil is the top liquid and the feed gas is the bottom vapor. In a simple absorber. but in larger sizes usually has horizontal redistribution decks to collect and redistribute the liquid over the bed at successive intervals of height. The packed column is used without downcomers. or it can be made without downcomers so that both liquid and vapor flow through the perforationsin the deck. In all cases.pk 29 . Liquid flows by gravity downward from plate to plate through separate passages known as downcomers. of ceramics and glass. A variety of internal devices have been used to obtain more efficient contacting of vapor and liquid. Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. The most widely used devices are the bubble-cap plate. Distillation columns used in industrial plants range in diameter from a few inches to 40 ft (12 m) and in height from 10 to 200 ft (3 to 60 m). The bubble-cap plate is a horizontal deck with a large number of chimneys over which circular or rectangular caps are mounted to channel and distribute the vapor through the liquid. and liquid flows from top to bottom of the column.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio liquid. In a column that can be applied to distillation. a vapor condenser is used to produce liquid (reflux) which is returned to the top. These changes affect the internal flow rates from point to point throughout the column and must be considered in its design. The packed column is widely used in laboratories. and the packed column. especially where corrosion is severe and ceramic or glass materials must be chosen. the perforated or sieve plate.com.
propane. pneumatic reservoir. nuclear reactor vessel. hydraulic reservoir under pressure.com. their design. The desalting is usually the first Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www.pk 30 . some is left behind and must be removed to stop it causing problems (like clogging up the heat exchangers). manufacture. The crude oil is mixed with water which dissolves the salt. distillation towers. For these reasons. road vehicle airbrake reservoir and storage vessels for liquified gases such as ammonia. The salty water is pulled to the bottom and the cleaned oil floats on top. autoclaves and many other vessels in mining or oil refineries and petrochemical plants. but involves parameters such as maximum safe operating pressure and temperature. not in the crude oil itself. including salt. rail vehicle airbrake reservoir. Other examples of pressure vessels are: diving cylinder. A desaulter is a process unit on an oil refinery that removes salt from the crude oil. habitat of a submarine. habitat of a space ship. The pressure differential is potentially dangerous and many fatal accidents have occurred in the history of their development and operation.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio Vessels A pressure vessel is a closed container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure different from the ambient pressure.byco. The oil and water mixture is then separated using large charged plates. chlorine. However. the definition of a pressure vessel varies from country to country. Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the private sector. Much of this is removed at the well head. and operation are regulated by engineering authorities backed up by laws. butane and LPG. The salt is dissolved in the water in the crude oil. recompression chamber. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receivers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Consequently. DESAULTER Crude oil contains a number of impurities.
or to reduce the salinity of river water prior to its crossing an international border. Sand. usually to comply with the terms of a treaty. Another specification is Basic sediment and water The term desalter may also refer to a water desalination facility used to treat brackish water from agricultural runoff. Oil Lubrication 3. which in turn allows the formation of hydrochloric acid. 2. Salt deposit and Foul Heat Exchangers Water Heat of Vaporization reduces crude Pre-Heat capacity Sodium.. Labyrinth Seal Packing 3.com. By removing the suspended solids. Silts. The high temperatures that occur downstream in the process could cause water hydrolysis. 1. etc. 4. Desalters are also used to treat groundwater reservoirs in areas impacted by cattle feedlots and dairies. Lubrication Lubrication may be of following types: 1. 4. 3. 5.e. Forced Lubrication Mechanical Seal Mechanical seals are of following types: 1. Arsenic and Other Metals can poison Catalysts Environmental Compliance. mentioned below: 1. The salt content after the desalter is usually measured in PTB pounds of salt per thousand barrels of crude oil. Hard face Soft face Spring O-ring The salts that are most frequently present in crude oil are Calcium. Combination of Carbon Ring and Labyrinth Seal Packing Sealing Packing can be mechanical. This may be done either to produce potable water for human or animal consumption. Stationary seal ring Rotating seal ring Seal ring gasket Seal ring packing Retainer with driving screw Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www.byco. Self Lubrication 2.pk 31 . If these compounds are not removed from the oil several problems arise in the refining process. 3.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio process in crude oil refining. i.Sodium and Magnesium Chlorides. 2. Why Desalt Crude? Packing Packing is provided to avoid leakage. which might otherwise become an issue in flue gas opacity norms. Carbon Ring Packing 2.
Centrifugal Pumps Impeller Types Impellers of the pumps are of three types: 1. A device similar to a turbine but operating in reverse is a compressor or pump. Positive Displacement Pumps 2.pk 32 .com. Pumps Pumps are used to increase the pressure of liquids. and water turbines usually have a casing around the blades that contains and controls the working fluid. 5. 2. Types Various types of pumps commonly used are: 1. such as gases. Pumps fall into two major groups: positive displacement pumps and rotodynamic pumps. 4. causing a flow. The simplest turbines have one moving part. a rotor assembly. they only displace fluid.byco. Early turbine examples are windmills and water wheels. Shaft Sleeve Impeller Inner Ring Volute Casing Gland Packing Impeller Blade Turbines Turbines are used to convert the velocity of air into mechanical work. 6. One common misconception about pumps is the thought that they create pressure. or the blades react to the flow.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio Pumps A pump is a device used to move fluids. steam. 7. A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid or air flow. Gas. The axial compressor in many gas turbine engines is a common example. 3. Pumps alone do not create pressure. Partially Closed Impeller 3. Closed Impeller Components 1. so that they rotate and impart energy to the rotor. Their names describe the method for moving a fluid. liquids or slurries. A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. which is a shaft with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades. Open Impeller 2. Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. Adding resistance to flow causes pressure.
Buildup Rotors Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. Governors Governors are used in turbines to regulate the amount of flow. Commonly used types of rotors are: 1. Condensing and Non-condensing Turbines Condensing turbines have less exhaust pressure than atmospheric where as non-condensing turbines have greater exhaust pressure. Several physical principles are employed by turbines to collect this energy: Impulse Turbines This type of turbine has direct impact of steam and has satisfactory nozzles.byco. Extraction and Induction Turbines Steam can be induced and extracted before exhaust. 4. Fly Ball Governor Board Governor Hydraulic Governor Oil Relay Governor Rotors Rotors are the moving buckets that increase the pressure in turbines. Commonly used governors are listed below: 1.pk 33 .com. Reaction Turbines Reaction turbines have larger expansions occurring in the buckets in other words have larger pressure drop. 2. 3. The fluid may be compressible or incompressible. In multistage there are stationary diaphragms in between moving rotor blades. Single Stage and Multi-Stage Turbines Turbines discussed above can be used either as single or multistage. Solid Rotors 2.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio TYPES OF TURBINES A working fluid contains potential energy (pressure head) and kinetic energy (velocity head).
the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas. three air compressors are used. One Air Dryer System 3. To exert certain amount of pressure to keep the resins at their place in demineralization system. Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. Air Compression System The major components of this system are: 1. Three Air Compressors 2. In petroleum refineries. This air is used where corrosion is not affordable. To supply oxygen. natural gas processing plants.pk 34 . One Instrument Air Vessel Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www.com. so the main action of a pump is to pressurize and transport liquids. Liquids are relatively incompressible. Instrument Air It is moisture free air used in SOVs and control valves. As gases are compressible. supply and distribution of instrument air and service air.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio COMPRESSORS A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. Compressed air system is used for the treatment. and similar large industrial plants for compressing intermediate and end product gases. Types of compressors: Centrifugal compressors Diagonal or mixed-flow compressors Axial-flow compressors Reciprocating compressors Rotary screw compressors Rotary vane compressors Scroll compressors Diaphragm compressorsAir Compressors At BOPL. It is used: For cleaning of equipments. Service Air Service air is that air which has moisture in it. petrochemical and chemical plants.byco.
BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers or Fin-Fan Coolers An air cooled heat exchanger. 2. Air cooled heat exchangers are used for two primary reasons: 1. is simply a pressure vessel which cools a circulating fluid within finned tubes by forcing ambient air over the exterior of the tubes.pk 35 . Applications Forced and induced draft air cooled heat exchangers Recirculation and shoe-box air cooled heat exchangers Hydrocarbon process and steam condensers Large engine radiators Turbine lube oil coolers Turbine intercoolers Natural gas and vapor coolers Combustion pre-heaters Flue gas re-heaters Lethal service Unique customizations Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. A common example of an air cooler is a car’s radiator. Please refer to the above interactive picture for additional information.byco.com. They increase plant efficiency They are a "green" solution as compared to cooling towers and shell and tube heat exchangers because they do not require an auxiliary water supply (water lost due to drift and evaporation. plus no water treatment chemicals are required). or ACHE.
pk 36 . Induced draft: A induced draft fan is a fan at the discharge which pulls air through tower. cooling or any otherway. creating high entering and low exiting air velocities. ventilation. The fan forces air into the tower. Forced draft: A forced draft fan is a fan with a blower type fan at the intake.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio FANS A mechanical fan is an electrically powered device used to produce an airflow for the purpose of creature comfort (particularly in the heat). Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. The fan induces hot moist air out the discharge. exhaust. g towers. This fan/fill geometry is also known as blowthrough. This fan/fill arrangement is also known as draw-through.byco.com.
Tacking is a temporary welding on the piece of metal to connect to pipes. and then the rolled sheet is tacked. that normally is a field welding. When a rolled sheet is there to make a pipe. which are lengths of pipe is called spools or spools are pipes and fittings fabricated for specific jobs. or on the bevel.byco. Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. When tacking is done. When a pipe is made. and when two pipes are connected. a high-low gauge is used to check the ID of the pipe to make sure that the pipe is tacked properly and there would be no problem in rate of flow and pressure and after that permanent welding is done. When two pipes are joined together. but I saw here that welders never liked wide welds.1-Structural Welding Code. Pipe spools. The most common welding procedure used is oxyacetylene welding. in that after tacking. are also welded in the same manner. but when a fitting is welded.5mm-3mm between two bevels.5mm to 3mm.pk 37 .BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio Welding The welding in general is AWS (American Welding Society) D1.5 degree and the acceptable distance of the pipe and fitting to be welded is 2. On the Isometric drawings. then the beveling is at 37. it’s equal to 25mm. in which the amount of diameter inches of welding being done is counted. beveling is done. then permanent welding is done.com. which is an inclination of 30 degree at the end of the sheet. There is a space of 2. that welding is a shop welding. weld map is drawn. The amount of welding done is measured in diameter inches.
something which foster the learning environment and proved to be a big motivation to ask more questions resulting in more learning. we have given ample opportunities to see and experience the process equipment and plant. everyone at the plant was very cooperative. And despite the busy project phase. Overall.pk 38 .byco. The other good feature of this internship was the availability of transport and sumptuous lunch. This picture was taken inside a Tank during our visit at Byco Chemical Pakistan Limited Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www. enjoyed my time here and wish to come back here for real work. it’s been a great learning experience. Nevertheless it was worth to spend summer here at BOPL. Alhamdulillah.BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio My Experience at BOPL It has been a great time at BOPL and my learning was quite high in those 4 weeks that I had spent at BOPL.com.
I realized that working in field is quite challenging and demanding and equally rewarding. I believe that refinery is a safety critical operation and require high level of expertise and top class operational and technical know how to run this operation.com.byco.pk 39 .BOPL Internship Report By Waqas Ali Tunio Conclusion It was a good learning experience at BOPL. Byco Oil Pakistan Limited | www.
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