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Homework Set 1

1.

y = y 4 /5 .

1. with(DEtools);

2. dfieldplot(diff(y(x)=y^(4/5),[y],x=0..4, y=-2..2);

1

2

2. Use Maple to generate direction fields for the following differential equations on the given interval.

(a) y = 2y; −2 ≤ x ≤ 2, 0 ≤ y ≤ 6.

> with(DEtools);

> dfieldplot(diff(y(x)=2*y,[y],x=-2..2, y=0..6);

> with(DEtools);

> dfieldplot(diff(y(x)=3*y*(1-y),[y],x=-2..3, y=-3..4);

3

3. For the differential equation in Problem 2(b), what can you say about the behavior of solutions as

x → ∞?

y = 3y(1 − y)

we see that the value of y determines whether a solution y(x) is increasing, decreasing, or constant

(that is to say, when y (x) is positive, negative, or zero).< 0 are decreasing.

1. If y > 1, then y < 0, and so solutions in the region y > 1 are always decreasing.

2. if y = 1, then y = 0, and so solutions for which y = 1 are constant and so stick to the line y = 1.

3. if 0 < y < 1, then y > 0, and so solutions in the region 0 < y < 1 are increasing.

4. if y = 0, then y = 0, and so solutions for which y = 0 are constant, and so stick to the line y = 0.

5. if y < 0, then y < 0, and so solutions in the region y

We thus have four basic classes of solutions. The solutions in the region y > 1 are always decreasing,

but they cannot pass through the line y = 1, since that corresponds to a constant solution. These

solutions asymptotically approach the line y = 1 as x → ∞. The solutions in the region 0 < y < 1

are always increasing, but they cannot increase past the line y = 1 because again y(x) = 1 is a

constant solution. These solutions must also asymptotically approach the line y = 1 (from below).

The solutions in the region y < 0 are always decreasing, these solutions must tend to −∞ as x → ∞.

4. Using the Euler Method, find an approximate value for y(1) for the following initial value problem (take

h = ∆x = 0.02):

dy

=x+y , y(0) = 1

dx

• We’ll do this problem by hand. In accordance with the initial condition y(0) = 1 we set x0 = 0 and

y0 = 1. To get the next pair of points on the solution curve we use the fact that the slope of the best

straight line fit to the solution curve at (x0 , y0 ) = (0, 1) must be

dy

m0 = = x0 + y0 = 0 + 1 = 1.

dx (x0 ,y0 )

Setting

x1 = x0 + ∆x = 0 + .2 = 0.2

4

we get an approximate value for y1 = y(x1 ) using the formula ∆y = m∆x; (for the case at hand, this

formula implies y1 = y0 + m0 ∆x)

y1 = y0 + m0 ∆x

= 1 + (1)(0.2)

= 1.2

Thus the next pair of points on the solution curve should be (x1 , y1 ) = (0.2, 1.2). Now we calculate

the slope of the best strainght line fit the to solution that passes through the point (x1 , y1 ):

dy

m1 = = x1 + y1 = 0.2 + 1.2 = 1.4

dx (x1 ,y1 )

Taking x2 = x1 + ∆x = 0.4, we calculate y2

y2 = y1 + m1 ∆x

= 1.2 + (1.4)(0.2)

= 1.48

We continue in this manner:

m2 = x2 + y2 = 0.4 + 1.48 = 1.88

x3 = x2 + ∆x = 0.4 + 0.2 = 0.6

y3 = y2 + m2 ∆x = 1.48 + (1.88)(0.2) = 1.856

m3 = x3 + y3 = 0.6 + 1.856 = 2.456

x4 = x3 + ∆x = 0.6 + 0.2 = 0.8

y4 = y3 + m3 ∆x = 1.856 + (2.456)(0.2) = 2.3472

m4 = x4 + y4 = 0.8 + 2.3472 = 3.1472

x5 = x4 + ∆x = 0.8 + 0.2

y5 = y4 + m4 ∆x = 2.3472 + (3.1472)(0.2) = 2.9766

Thus y(1) = y(x5 ) = y5 = 2.9766.

5. Using the Euler Method, find an approximate value for y(1) for the following initial value problem (take

h = ∆x = 0.1):

dy

= xey , y(0) = 0

dx

• For this problem we’ll resort to Maple. The algorithm used in the previous problem can generalzed

and applied to this problem as follows.

(i) In accordance with the initial condition y(0) = 0 set x0 = 0 and y0 = 0.

(ii) Set ∆x = 0.1.

(iii) We divide the interval [0, 1] into 10 = 1∆−x0 subintervals by setting

xn = 0 + n∆x n = 0, 1, . . . , 10

(iv) We set

yn = y (xn ) , n = 0.1, . . . , 10

Our goal is to calculate y10 = y (x10 ) = y(1).

(v) The slope of the solution passing through the point (xi , yi ) is determined by the right hand side

of the differential equation evaluated at (xi , yi):

dy

mi = = xey |(xi ,yi ) = xieyi

dx (xi ,yi )

5

(vi) Given a point (xi , yi ) on the solution curve we can approximate yi+1 by using the formula

∆y yi+1 − yi

mi = =

∆x ∆x

or, after solving for yi+1 is equivalent to

yi+1 = yi + mi ∆x

= yi + (xi eyi ) ∆x

Thus, yi+1 is completely determined by the preceding values xi and yi of, respectively, x and y.

(vii) Now we can explicitly state the algorithm by which we will calculate y(1) = y10 .

We set x0 = 0, y0 = 0 and ∆x = 0.1. For each i from 0 to 9 we will successively calculate

xi+1 = 0 + (i + 1)∆x

yi+1 = yi + (xi eyi ) ∆x.

Below is the Maple routine that accomplishes this.

> x[0] := 0;

> y[0] := 0;

> dx := 0.1;

> for i from 0 to 9 do

> x[i+1] := (i+1)*dx:

> y[i+1] := y[i]+ x[i]*exp(y[i]):

> od:

> y[10];

The result calculated by Maple is y10 = .5653922980.

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