Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
1
V
GS
= V
DD
= 1.8 V
V
DS
> V
GS
−V
TH
(in order for M
1
to operate in saturation)
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
(1 kΩ)
= V
DD
−
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
(1 kΩ)
> V
GS
−V
TH
W
L
< 2.04
7.3
V
GS
= V
DD
−I
D
(100 Ω)
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
(1 kΩ + 100 Ω)
> V
GS
−V
TH
(in order for M
1
to operate in saturation)
V
DD
−I
D
(1 kΩ + 100 Ω) > V
DD
−I
D
(100 Ω) −V
TH
I
D
(1 kΩ + 100 Ω) < I
D
(100 Ω) +V
TH
I
D
(1 kΩ) < V
TH
I
D
< 400 µA
Since g
m
increases with I
D
, we should pick the maximum I
D
to determine the maximum transconduc
tance that M
1
can provide.
I
D,max
= 400 µA
g
m,max
=
2I
D,max
V
GS
−V
TH
=
2I
D,max
V
DD
−I
D,max
(100 Ω) −V
TH
= 0.588 mS
7.5
I
D1
= 0.5 mA
V
GS
= V
TH
+
2I
D1
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
= 0.612 V
V
GS
=
1
10
I
D1
R
2
R
2
= 12.243 kΩ
V
GS
= V
DD
−
1
10
I
D1
R
1
−
11
10
I
D1
R
S
R
1
= 21.557 kΩ
7.6
I
D
= 1 mA
g
m
=
2I
D
V
GS
−V
TH
=
1
100
V
GS
= 0.6 V
V
GS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
D
R
D
= 1.2 kΩ
7.8 First, let’s analyze the circuit excluding R
P
.
V
G
=
20 kΩ
10 kΩ + 20 kΩ
V
DD
= 1.2 V
V
GS
= V
G
−I
D
R
S
= V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
(1 kΩ + 200 Ω)
I
D
= 600 µA
V
GS
= 1.08 V
W
L
=
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
= 12.9758 ≈ 13
Now, let’s analyze the circuit with R
P
.
M
1
10 kΩ
V
DD
20 kΩ
1 kΩ I
D
+I
RP
R
P
I
RP
200 Ω R
S
V
G
= 1.2 V
I
D
+I
RP
=
V
DD
−V
DS
1 kΩ + 200 Ω
V
GS
= V
G
−(I
D
+I
RP
) R
S
= V
DS
+V
TH
V
G
−
V
DD
−V
DS
1 kΩ + 200 Ω
R
S
= V
DS
+V
TH
V
DS
= 0.6 V
V
GS
= 1 V
I
D
=
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
= 467 µA
I
D
+I
RP
= I
D
+
V
DS
R
P
=
V
DD
−V
DS
1 kΩ + 200 Ω
R
P
= 1.126 kΩ
7.9 First, let’s analyze the circuit excluding R
P
.
V
GS
= V
DD
= 1.8 V
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
(2 kΩ) = V
GS
−100 mV
V
DD
−
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
− V
TH
)
2
(2 kΩ) = V
GS
−100 mV
W
L
= 0.255
Now, let’s analyze the circuit with R
P
.
M
1
R
P
I
RP
2 kΩ 30 kΩ
V
DD
V
GS
= V
DD
−I
RP
(30 kΩ)
I
RP
=
V
GS
−V
DS
R
P
=
50 mV
R
P
V
GS
= V
DD
−(I
D
−I
RP
) (2 kΩ) + 50 mV
V
DD
− I
RP
(30 kΩ) = V
DD
−
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
−I
RP
(2 kΩ) + 50 mV
V
DD
− I
RP
(30 kΩ) = V
DD
−
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
DD
−I
RP
(30 kΩ) −V
TH
)
2
−I
RP
(2 kΩ) + 50 mV
I
RP
= 1.380 µA
R
P
=
50 mV
I
RP
= 36.222 kΩ
7.12 Since we’re not given V
DS
for the transistors, let’s assume λ = 0 for largesignal calculations. Let’s
also assume the transistors operate in saturation, since they’re being used as current sources.
I
X
=
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
1
L
1
(V
B1
−V
TH
)
2
= 0.5 mA
W
1
= 3.47 µm
I
Y
=
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
2
L
2
(V
B2
−V
TH
)
2
= 0.5 mA
W
2
= 1.95 µm
R
out1
= r
o1
=
1
λI
X
= 20 kΩ
R
out2
= r
o2
=
1
λI
Y
= 20 kΩ
Since I
X
= I
Y
and λ is the same for each current source, the output resistances of the current sources
are the same.
7.13 Looking into the source of M
1
we see a resistance of
1
gm
. Including λ in our analysis, we have
1
g
m
=
1
µ
p
C
ox
W
L
(V
X
−V
B1
− V
TH
) (1 +λV
X
)
= 372 Ω
7.17 (a) Assume M
1
is operating in saturation.
I
D
= 0.5 mA
V
GS
= V
TH
+
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
= 0.573 V
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
D
= 0.8 volt > V
GS
−V
TH
, verifying that M
1
is in saturation
(b)
A
v
= −g
m
R
D
= −
2I
D
V
GS
−V
TH
R
D
= −11.55
7.18 (a) Assume M
1
is operating in saturation.
I
D
= 0.25 mA
V
GS
= V
TH
+
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
= 0.55 V
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
D
= 1.3 V > V
GS
−V
TH
, verifying that M
1
is in saturation
(b)
V
GS
= 0.55 V
V
DS
> V
GS
−V
TH
(to ensure M
1
remains in saturation)
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
> V
GS
−V
TH
V
DD
−
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
R
D
> V
GS
−V
TH
W
L
<
2 (V
DD
−V
GS
+V
TH
)
µ
n
C
ox
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
R
D
= 366.67
= 3.3
20
0.18
Thus, W/L can increase by a factor of 3.3 while M
1
remains in saturation.
A
v
= −g
m
R
D
= −µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
) R
D
A
v,max
= −µ
n
C
ox
W
L
max
(V
GS
−V
TH
) R
D
= −22
7.19
P = V
DD
I
D
< 1 mW
I
D
< 556 µA
A
v
= −g
m
R
D
= −
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
R
D
= −5
W
L
<
20
0.18
R
D
> 1.006 kΩ
7.20 (a)
I
D1
= I
D2
= 0.5 mA
A
v
= −g
m1
(r
o1
r
o2
)
= −
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
1
I
D1
1
λ
1
I
D1
1
λ
2
I
D2
= −10
W
L
1
= 7.8125
(b)
V
DD
−V
B
= V
TH
+
2 I
D2

µ
p
C
ox
W
L
2
V
B
= 1.1 V
7.22 (a) If I
D1
and I
D2
remain constant while W and L double, then g
m1
∝
(W/L)
1
I
D1
will not change
(since it depends only on the ratio W/L), r
o1
∝
1
ID1
will not change, and r
o2
∝
1
ID2
will not
change. Thus, A
v
= −g
m1
(r
o1
r
o2
) will not change .
(b) If I
D1
, I
D2
, W, and L double, then g
m1
∝
(W/L)
1
I
D1
will increase by a factor of
√
2, r
o1
∝
1
ID1
will halve, and r
o2
∝
1
ID2
will halve. This means that r
o1
r
o2
will halve as well, meaning
A
v
= −g
m1
(r
o1
r
o2
) will decrease by a factor of
√
2 .
7.26 (a)
I
D1
= I
D2
= 0.5 mA
V
GS1
= V
TH
+
2I
D1
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
1
= 0.7 V
V
DS1
= V
GS1
−V
TH
(in order of M
1
to operate at the edge of saturation)
= V
DD
−V
GS2
V
GS2
= V
DD
−V
GS1
+V
TH
= V
TH
+
2I
D2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
2
W
L
2
= 4.13
(b)
A
v
= −
g
m1
g
m2
= −
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
1
I
D1
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
2
I
D2
= −
W
L
1
W
L
2
= −3.667
(c) Since (W/L)
1
is ﬁxed, we must minimize (W/L)
2
in order to maximize the magnitude of the gain
(based on the expression derived in part (b)). If we pick the size of M
2
so that M
1
operates at the
edge of saturation, then if M
2
were to be any smaller, V
GS2
would have to be larger (given the
same I
D2
), driving M
1
into triode. Thus, (W/L)
2
is its smallest possible value (without driving
M
1
into saturation) when M
1
is at the edge of saturation, meaning the gain is largest in magnitude
with this choice of (W/L)
2
.
7.27 (a)
A
v
= −
g
m1
g
m2
= −
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
1
I
D1
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
2
I
D2
= −
W
L
1
W
L
2
= −5
W
L
1
= 277.78
(b)
V
DS1
> V
GS1
−V
TH
(to ensure M
1
is in saturation)
V
DD
−V
GS2
> V
GS1
−V
TH
V
DD
−V
TH
−
2I
D2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
2
>
2I
D1
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
1
I
D1
= I
D2
< 1.512 mA
7.28 For this problem, recall that looking into the drain of a transistor with a grounded gate and source
we see a resistance of r
o
, and looking into either terminal of a diodeconnected transistor we see a
resistance of
1
gm
r
o
.
(a)
A
v
= −g
m1
r
o1
1
g
m2
r
o2
(b)
A
v
= −g
m1
r
o1
r
o2
1
g
m3
r
o3
(c)
A
v
= −g
m1
r
o1
r
o2
1
g
m3
r
o3
(d)
A
v
= −g
m2
r
o2
r
o1
1
g
m3
r
o3
(e)
A
v
= −g
m2
r
o2
r
o1
1
g
m3
r
o3
(f) Let’s draw a smallsignal model to ﬁnd the equivalent resistance seen looking up from the output.
−
v
t
+
i
t
+
v
gs2
−
R
D
g
m2
v
gs2
r
o2
i
t
= g
m2
v
gs2
+
v
t
−i
t
R
D
r
o2
v
gs2
= v
t
i
t
= g
m2
v
t
+
v
t
−i
t
R
D
r
o2
i
t
1 +
R
D
r
o2
= v
t
g
m2
+
1
r
o2
v
t
i
t
=
1 +
RD
ro2
g
m2
+
1
ro2
=
r
o2
+ R
D
1 +g
m2
r
o2
A
v
= −g
m1
r
o1
r
o2
+R
D
1 +g
m2
r
o2
7.30 (a) Assume M
1
is operating in saturation.
I
D
= 1 mA
I
D
R
S
= 200 mV
R
S
= 200 Ω
A
v
= −
R
D
1
gm
+R
S
= −
R
D
1
√
2µnCox
W
L
ID
+R
S
= −4
W
L
= 1000
V
GS
= V
TH
+
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
= 0.5 V
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
D
−I
D
R
S
= 0.6 V > V
GS
−V
TH
, verifying that M
1
is in saturation
Yes , the transistor operates in saturation.
(b) Assume M
1
is operating in saturation.
W
L
=
50
0.18
R
S
= 200 Ω
A
v
= −
R
D
1
√
2µnCox
W
L
ID
+R
S
= −4
R
D
= 1.179 kΩ
V
GS
= V
TH
+
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
= 0.590 V
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
D
−I
D
R
S
= 0.421 V > V
GS
−V
TH
, verifying that M
1
is in saturation
Yes , the transistor operates in saturation.
7.42 (a)
R
out
= R
D
= 500 Ω
V
G
= V
DD
V
D
> V
G
−V
TH
(in order for M
1
to operate in saturation)
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
> V
DD
−V
TH
I
D
< 0.8 mA
(b)
I
D
= 0.8 mA
R
in
=
1
g
m
=
1
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
= 50 Ω
W
L
= 1250
(c)
A
v
= g
m
R
D
g
m
=
1
50
S
R
D
= 500 Ω
A
v
= 10
7.43 (a)
I
D
= I
1
= 1 mA
V
G
= V
DD
V
D
= V
G
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
= V
G
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
R
D
= 300 Ω
(b)
R
D
= 300 Ω
A
v
= g
m
R
D
=
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
R
D
= 5
W
L
= 694.4
7.44 For this problem, recall that looking into the drain of a transistor with a grounded gate and source
we see a resistance of r
o
, and looking into either terminal of a diodeconnected transistor we see a
resistance of
1
gm
r
o
.
(a) Referring to Eq. (7.109) with R
D
=
1
gm2
and g
m
= g
m1
, we have
A
v
=
1
gm2
1
gm1
+R
S
(b) Let’s draw a smallsignal model to ﬁnd the equivalent resistance seen looking up from the output.
−
v
t
+
i
t
+
v
gs2
−
R
D
g
m2
v
gs2
i
t
= g
m2
v
gs2
v
gs2
= v
t
i
t
= g
m2
v
t
v
t
i
t
=
1
g
m2
A
v
=
g
m1
g
m2
(c) Referring to Eq. (7.119) with R
D
=
1
gm2
, R
3
= R
1
, and g
m
= g
m1
, we have
A
v
=
R
1
1
gm1
R
S
+R
1
1
gm1
g
m1
g
m2
(d)
A
v
= g
m1
R
D
+
1
g
m2
r
o3
(e)
A
v
= g
m1
R
D
+
1
g
m2
7.45 (a)
v
X
v
in
= −g
m1
R
D1
1
g
m2
v
out
v
X
= g
m2
R
D2
v
out
v
in
=
v
X
v
in
v
out
v
X
= −g
m1
g
m2
R
D2
R
D1
1
g
m2
(b)
lim
RD1→∞
−g
m1
g
m2
R
D2
R
D1
1
g
m2
= −g
m1
R
D2
This makes sense because the commonsource stage acts as a transconductance ampliﬁer with
a transconductance of g
m1
. The commongate stage acts as a current buﬀer with a current
gain of 1. Thus, the current g
m1
v
in
ﬂows through R
D2
, meaning v
out
= −g
m1
v
in
R
D2
, so that
vout
vin
= −g
m1
R
D2
.
This type of ampliﬁer (with R
D1
= ∞) is known as a cascode and will be studied in detail in
Chapter 9.
7.40
I
D
= 0.5 mA
R
in
=
1
g
m
=
1
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
= 50 Ω
W
L
= 2000
V
D
> V
G
−V
TH
(in order for M
1
to operate in saturation)
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
> V
b
− V
TH
R
D
< 2.4 kΩ
Since A
v
 ∝ R
D
, we need to maximize R
D
in order to maximize the gain. Thus, we should pick
R
D
= 2.4 kΩ . This corresponds to a voltage gain of A
v
= −g
m
R
D
= −48.
7.42 (a)
R
out
= R
D
= 500 Ω
V
G
= V
DD
V
D
> V
G
−V
TH
(in order for M
1
to operate in saturation)
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
> V
DD
−V
TH
I
D
< 0.8 mA
(b)
I
D
= 0.8 mA
R
in
=
1
g
m
=
1
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
= 50 Ω
W
L
= 1250
(c)
A
v
= g
m
R
D
g
m
=
1
50
S
R
D
= 500 Ω
A
v
= 10
7.43 (a)
I
D
= I
1
= 1 mA
V
G
= V
DD
V
D
= V
G
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
= V
G
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
R
D
= 300 Ω
(b)
R
D
= 300 Ω
A
v
= g
m
R
D
=
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
R
D
= 5
W
L
= 694.4
7.44 For this problem, recall that looking into the drain of a transistor with a grounded gate and source
we see a resistance of r
o
, and looking into either terminal of a diodeconnected transistor we see a
resistance of
1
gm
r
o
.
(a) Referring to Eq. (7.109) with R
D
=
1
gm2
and g
m
= g
m1
, we have
A
v
=
1
gm2
1
gm1
+R
S
(b) Let’s draw a smallsignal model to ﬁnd the equivalent resistance seen looking up from the output.
−
v
t
+
i
t
+
v
gs2
−
R
D
g
m2
v
gs2
i
t
= g
m2
v
gs2
v
gs2
= v
t
i
t
= g
m2
v
t
v
t
i
t
=
1
g
m2
A
v
=
g
m1
g
m2
(c) Referring to Eq. (7.119) with R
D
=
1
gm2
, R
3
= R
1
, and g
m
= g
m1
, we have
A
v
=
R
1
1
gm1
R
S
+R
1
1
gm1
g
m1
g
m2
(d)
A
v
= g
m1
R
D
+
1
g
m2
r
o3
(e)
A
v
= g
m1
R
D
+
1
g
m2
7.45 (a)
v
X
v
in
= −g
m1
R
D1
1
g
m2
v
out
v
X
= g
m2
R
D2
v
out
v
in
=
v
X
v
in
v
out
v
X
= −g
m1
g
m2
R
D2
R
D1
1
g
m2
(b)
lim
RD1→∞
−g
m1
g
m2
R
D2
R
D1
1
g
m2
= −g
m1
R
D2
This makes sense because the commonsource stage acts as a transconductance ampliﬁer with
a transconductance of g
m1
. The commongate stage acts as a current buﬀer with a current
gain of 1. Thus, the current g
m1
v
in
ﬂows through R
D2
, meaning v
out
= −g
m1
v
in
R
D2
, so that
vout
vin
= −g
m1
R
D2
.
This type of ampliﬁer (with R
D1
= ∞) is known as a cascode and will be studied in detail in
Chapter 9.
7.48 For smallsignal analysis, we can short the capacitors, producing the following equivalent circuit.
M
1
R
4
v
in
R
2
R
3
R
D
v
out
A
v
= g
m
(R
2
R
3
R
D
)
7.49
V
GS
= V
DS
V
GS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
S
= V
DD
−
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
(1 +λV
GS
) R
S
V
GS
= V
DS
= 0.7036 V
I
D
= 1.096 mA
A
v
=
r
o
R
S
1
gm
+r
o
R
S
g
m
=
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
= 6.981 mS
r
o
=
1
λI
D
= 9.121 kΩ
A
v
= 0.8628
7.50
A
v
=
R
S
1
gm
+R
S
=
R
S
1
µnCox
W
L
(VGS−VTH)
+R
S
= 0.8
V
GS
= 0.64 V
I
D
=
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
= 960 µA
V
G
= V
GS
+V
S
= V
GS
+I
D
R
S
= 1.12 V
7.55 For this problem, recall that looking into the drain of a transistor with a grounded gate and source
we see a resistance of r
o
, and looking into either terminal of a diodeconnected transistor we see a
resistance of
1
gm
r
o
.
(a)
A
v
=
r
o1
(R
S
+ r
o2
)
1
gm1
+ r
o1
(R
S
+ r
o2
)
(b) Looking down from the output we see an equivalent resistance of r
o2
+ (1 + g
m2
r
o2
) R
S
by Eq.
(7.110).
A
v
=
r
o1
[r
o2
+ (1 + g
m2
r
o2
) R
S
]
1
gm1
+ r
o1
[r
o2
+ (1 + g
m2
r
o2
) R
S
]
(c)
A
v
=
r
o1
1
gm2
1
gm1
+ r
o1
1
gm2
(d) Let’s draw a smallsignal model to ﬁnd the equivalent resistance seen looking down from the
output.
R
2
+
v
gs2
−
R
1
g
m2
v
gs2
r
o2
−
v
t
+
i
t
i
t
=
v
t
R
1
+ R
2
+ g
m2
v
gs2
+
v
t
r
o2
v
gs2
=
R
2
R
1
+ R
2
v
t
i
t
=
v
t
R
1
+ R
2
+ g
m2
R
2
R
1
+ R
2
v
t
+
v
t
r
o2
i
t
= v
t
1
R
1
+ R
2
+
g
m2
R
2
R
1
+ R
2
+
1
r
o2
v
t
i
t
= (R
1
+ R
2
)
R
1
+ R
2
g
m2
R
2
r
o2
A
v
=
r
o1
(R
1
+ R
2
)
R1+R2
gm2R2
r
o2
1
gm1
+ r
o1
(R
1
+ R
2
)
R1+R2
gm2R2
r
o2
(e)
A
v
=
r
o2
r
o3
1
gm1
1
gm2
+ r
o2
r
o3
1
gm1
(f) Looking up from the output we see an equivalent resistance of r
o2
+ (1 + g
m2
r
o2
) r
o3
by Eq.
(7.110).
A
v
=
r
o1
[r
o2
+ (1 + g
m2
r
o2
) r
o3
]
1
gm1
+ r
o1
[r
o2
+ (1 + g
m2
r
o2
) r
o3
]
7.58
P = V
DD
I
D
= 2 mW
I
D
= 1.11 mA
R
D
I
D
= 1 V
R
D
= 900 Ω
A
v
= −g
m
R
D
= −
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
R
D
= −5
W
L
= 69.44
7.60 Let’s let R
1
and R
2
consume exactly 5 % of the power budget (which means the branch containing R
D
,
M
1
, and R
S
will consume 95 % of the power budget). Let’s also assume V
ov
= V
GS
−V
TH
= 300 mV
exactly.
I
D
V
DD
= 0.95(2 mW)
I
D
= 1.056 mA
I
D
R
S
= 200 mV
R
S
= 189.5 Ω
V
ov
= V
GS
−V
TH
= 300 mV
I
D
=
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
V
2
ov
W
L
= 117.3
A
v
= −
R
D
1
gm
+R
S
= −
R
D
1
√
2µnCox
W
L
ID
+R
S
= −4
R
D
= 1.326 kΩ
V
2
DD
R
1
+R
2
= 0.05(2 mW)
R
1
+R
2
=
V
2
DD
0.1 mW
V
G
= V
GS
+I
D
R
S
= V
ov
+V
TH
+I
D
R
S
= 0.9 V
V
G
=
R
2
R
1
+R
2
V
DD
=
R
2
V
2
DD
0.1 mW
= 0.9 V
R
2
= 29.16 kΩ
R
1
= 3.24 kΩ
7.61 Let’s let R
1
and R
2
consume exactly 5 % of the power budget (which means the branch containing
R
D
, M
1
, and R
S
will consume 95 % of the power budget).
R
D
= 200 Ω
I
D
V
DD
= 0.95(6 mW)
I
D
= 3.167 mA
I
D
R
S
= V
ov
= V
GS
−V
TH
R
S
=
V
ov
I
D
g
m
=
2I
D
V
ov
A
v
= −
R
D
1
gm
+R
S
= −
R
D
Vov
2ID
+
Vov
ID
= −5
V
ov
= 84.44 mV
R
S
= 26.67 Ω
W
L
=
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
V
2
ov
= 4441
V
2
DD
R
1
+R
2
= 0.05(6 mW)
R
1
+R
2
=
V
2
DD
0.3 mW
V
G
= V
GS
+I
D
R
S
= V
ov
+V
TH
+I
D
R
S
= 0.5689 V
V
G
=
R
2
R
1
+R
2
V
DD
=
R
2
V
2
DD
0.3 mW
= 0.5689 V
R
2
= 6.144 kΩ
R
1
= 4.656 kΩ
7.62
R
in
= R
1
= 20 kΩ
P = V
DD
I
D
= 2 mW
I
D
= 1.11 mA
V
DS
= V
GS
−V
TH
+ 200 mV
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
= V
DD
−V
TH
+ 200 mV
R
D
= 180 Ω
A
v
= −g
m
R
D
= −
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
R
D
= −6
W
L
= 2500
V
GS
= V
TH
+
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
= 0.467 V
V
GS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
S
R
S
= 1.2 kΩ
1
2πfC
1
≪R
1
1
2πfC
1
=
1
10
R
1
f = 1 MHz
C
1
= 79.6 pF
1
2πfC
S
R
S
≪
1
g
m
1
2πfC
S
=
1
10
1
g
m
g
m
=
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
= 33.33 mS
C
S
= 52.9 nF
7.64 (a)
A
v
= −g
m1
(r
o1
R
G
r
o2
)
(b)
P = V
DD
I
D1
= 3 mW
I
D1
= I
D2
 = 1.67 mA
V
GS2
 = V
DS2
 = V
DS
=
V
DD
2
I
D2
 =
1
2
µ
p
C
ox
W
L
2
(V
GS2
 − V
TH
)
2
(1 +λ
p
V
DS2
)
W
L
2
= 113
A
v
= −g
m1
(r
o1
R
G
r
o2
)
R
G
= 10 (r
o1
r
o2
)
r
o1
=
1
λ
n
I
D1
= 6 kΩ
r
o2
=
1
λ
p
I
D2

= 3 kΩ
R
G
= 10 (r
o1
r
o2
) = 20 kΩ
A
v
= −
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
1
I
D1
(r
o1
R
G
r
o2
)
= −15
W
L
1
= 102.1
V
IN
= V
GS1
= V
TH
+
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
1
(1 +λ
n
V
DS1
)
= 0.787 V
7.66
P = V
DD
I
D1
= 1 mW
I
D1
= I
D2
 = 556 µA
V
ov1
= V
GS1
−V
TH
=
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
1
= 200 mV
W
L
1
= 138.9
A
v
= −
g
m1
g
m2
= −
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
1
I
D1
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
2
I
D2

= −
W
L
1
W
L
2
= −4
W
L
2
= 8.68
V
IN
= V
GS1
= V
ov1
+V
TH
= 0.6 V
7.67
P = V
DD
I
D
= 3 mW
I
D
= I
1
= 1.67 mA
R
in
=
1
g
m
=
1
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
= 50 Ω
W
L
= 600
A
v
= g
m
R
D
=
1
50 Ω
R
D
= 5
R
D
= 250 Ω
7.68
P = V
DD
I
D
= 2 mW
I
D
= 1.11 mA
V
D
= V
G
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
= V
G
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
V
G
= V
DD
A
v
= g
m
R
D
=
2I
D
V
GS
−V
TH
R
D
= 4
R
D
= A
v
V
GS
−V
TH
2I
D
V
DD
−I
D
A
v
V
GS
−V
TH
2I
D
= V
DD
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
V
GS
= 0.55 V
R
D
= 270 Ω
V
S
= V
DD
−V
GS
= I
D
R
S
R
S
= 1.125 kΩ
W
L
=
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
= 493.8
7.73
P = V
DD
I
D1
= 3 mW
I
D1
= I
D2
= 1.67 mA
A
v
=
r
o1
r
o2
1
gm1
+r
o1
r
o2
=
r
o1
r
o2
1
q
2µnCox(
W
L
)
1
ID1
+r
o1
r
o2
= 0.9
r
o1
= r
o2
=
1
λI
D1
= 6 kΩ
W
L
1
= 13.5
Let V
ov2
= V
GS2
− V
TH
= 0.3 V. Let’s assume that V
OUT
= V
DS2
= V
ov2
.
V
GS2
= V
b
= V
ov2
+V
TH
= 0.7 V
W
L
2
=
2I
D2
µ
n
C
ox
(V
GS2
−V
TH
)
2
(1 +λV
DS2
)
= 161
V
GS1
= V
TH
+
2I
D1
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
1
(1 +λV
DS1
)
V
DS1
= V
DD
−V
DS2
= 1.5 V
V
GS1
= 1.44 V
V
IN
= V
GS1
+V
DS2
= 1.74 V
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.