# 7.

1
V
GS
= V
DD
= 1.8 V
V
DS
> V
GS
−V
TH
(in order for M
1
to operate in saturation)
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
(1 kΩ)
= V
DD

1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
(1 kΩ)
> V
GS
−V
TH
W
L
< 2.04
7.3
V
GS
= V
DD
−I
D
(100 Ω)
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
(1 kΩ + 100 Ω)
> V
GS
−V
TH
(in order for M
1
to operate in saturation)
V
DD
−I
D
(1 kΩ + 100 Ω) > V
DD
−I
D
(100 Ω) −V
TH
I
D
(1 kΩ + 100 Ω) < I
D
(100 Ω) +V
TH
I
D
(1 kΩ) < V
TH
I
D
< 400 µA
Since g
m
increases with I
D
, we should pick the maximum I
D
to determine the maximum transconduc-
tance that M
1
can provide.
I
D,max
= 400 µA
g
m,max
=
2I
D,max
V
GS
−V
TH
=
2I
D,max
V
DD
−I
D,max
(100 Ω) −V
TH
= 0.588 mS
7.5
I
D1
= 0.5 mA
V
GS
= V
TH
+

2I
D1
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
= 0.612 V
V
GS
=
1
10
I
D1
R
2
R
2
= 12.243 kΩ
V
GS
= V
DD

1
10
I
D1
R
1

11
10
I
D1
R
S
R
1
= 21.557 kΩ
7.6
I
D
= 1 mA
g
m
=
2I
D
V
GS
−V
TH
=
1
100
V
GS
= 0.6 V
V
GS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
D
R
D
= 1.2 kΩ
7.8 First, let’s analyze the circuit excluding R
P
.
V
G
=
20 kΩ
10 kΩ + 20 kΩ
V
DD
= 1.2 V
V
GS
= V
G
−I
D
R
S
= V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
(1 kΩ + 200 Ω)
I
D
= 600 µA
V
GS
= 1.08 V
W
L
=
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
= 12.9758 ≈ 13
Now, let’s analyze the circuit with R
P
.
M
1
10 kΩ
V
DD
20 kΩ
1 kΩ I
D
+I
RP
R
P
I
RP
200 Ω R
S
V
G
= 1.2 V
I
D
+I
RP
=
V
DD
−V
DS
1 kΩ + 200 Ω
V
GS
= V
G
−(I
D
+I
RP
) R
S
= V
DS
+V
TH
V
G

V
DD
−V
DS
1 kΩ + 200 Ω
R
S
= V
DS
+V
TH
V
DS
= 0.6 V
V
GS
= 1 V
I
D
=
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
= 467 µA
I
D
+I
RP
= I
D
+
V
DS
R
P
=
V
DD
−V
DS
1 kΩ + 200 Ω
R
P
= 1.126 kΩ
7.9 First, let’s analyze the circuit excluding R
P
.
V
GS
= V
DD
= 1.8 V
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
(2 kΩ) = V
GS
−100 mV
V
DD

1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
− V
TH
)
2
(2 kΩ) = V
GS
−100 mV
W
L
= 0.255
Now, let’s analyze the circuit with R
P
.
M
1
R
P
I
RP
2 kΩ 30 kΩ
V
DD
V
GS
= V
DD
−I
RP
(30 kΩ)
I
RP
=
V
GS
−V
DS
R
P
=
50 mV
R
P
V
GS
= V
DD
−(I
D
−I
RP
) (2 kΩ) + 50 mV
V
DD
− I
RP
(30 kΩ) = V
DD

1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
−I
RP

(2 kΩ) + 50 mV
V
DD
− I
RP
(30 kΩ) = V
DD

1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
DD
−I
RP
(30 kΩ) −V
TH
)
2
−I
RP

(2 kΩ) + 50 mV
I
RP
= 1.380 µA
R
P
=
50 mV
I
RP
= 36.222 kΩ
7.12 Since we’re not given V
DS
for the transistors, let’s assume λ = 0 for large-signal calculations. Let’s
also assume the transistors operate in saturation, since they’re being used as current sources.
I
X
=
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
1
L
1
(V
B1
−V
TH
)
2
= 0.5 mA
W
1
= 3.47 µm
I
Y
=
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
2
L
2
(V
B2
−V
TH
)
2
= 0.5 mA
W
2
= 1.95 µm
R
out1
= r
o1
=
1
λI
X
= 20 kΩ
R
out2
= r
o2
=
1
λI
Y
= 20 kΩ
Since I
X
= I
Y
and λ is the same for each current source, the output resistances of the current sources
are the same.
7.13 Looking into the source of M
1
we see a resistance of
1
gm
. Including λ in our analysis, we have
1
g
m
=
1
µ
p
C
ox
W
L
(V
X
−V
B1
− |V
TH
|) (1 +λV
X
)
= 372 Ω
7.17 (a) Assume M
1
is operating in saturation.
I
D
= 0.5 mA
V
GS
= V
TH
+

2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
= 0.573 V
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
D
= 0.8 volt > V
GS
−V
TH
, verifying that M
1
is in saturation
(b)
A
v
= −g
m
R
D
= −
2I
D
V
GS
−V
TH
R
D
= −11.55
7.18 (a) Assume M
1
is operating in saturation.
I
D
= 0.25 mA
V
GS
= V
TH
+

2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
= 0.55 V
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
D
= 1.3 V > V
GS
−V
TH
, verifying that M
1
is in saturation
(b)
V
GS
= 0.55 V
V
DS
> V
GS
−V
TH
(to ensure M
1
remains in saturation)
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
> V
GS
−V
TH
V
DD

1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
R
D
> V
GS
−V
TH
W
L
<
2 (V
DD
−V
GS
+V
TH
)
µ
n
C
ox
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
R
D
= 366.67
= 3.3
20
0.18
Thus, W/L can increase by a factor of 3.3 while M
1
remains in saturation.
A
v
= −g
m
R
D
= −µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
) R
D
A
v,max
= −µ
n
C
ox

W
L

max
(V
GS
−V
TH
) R
D
= −22
7.19
P = V
DD
I
D
< 1 mW
I
D
< 556 µA
A
v
= −g
m
R
D
= −

n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
R
D
= −5
W
L
<
20
0.18
R
D
> 1.006 kΩ
7.20 (a)
I
D1
= I
D2
= 0.5 mA
A
v
= −g
m1
(r
o1
r
o2
)
= −

n
C
ox

W
L

1
I
D1

1
λ
1
I
D1

1
λ
2
I
D2

= −10

W
L

1
= 7.8125
(b)
V
DD
−V
B
= V
TH
+

2 |I
D2
|
µ
p
C
ox

W
L

2
V
B
= 1.1 V
7.22 (a) If I
D1
and I
D2
remain constant while W and L double, then g
m1

(W/L)
1
I
D1
will not change
(since it depends only on the ratio W/L), r
o1

1
ID1
will not change, and r
o2

1
ID2
will not
change. Thus, A
v
= −g
m1
(r
o1
r
o2
) will not change .
(b) If I
D1
, I
D2
, W, and L double, then g
m1

(W/L)
1
I
D1
will increase by a factor of

2, r
o1

1
ID1
will halve, and r
o2

1
ID2
will halve. This means that r
o1
r
o2
will halve as well, meaning
A
v
= −g
m1
(r
o1
r
o2
) will decrease by a factor of

2 .
7.26 (a)
I
D1
= I
D2
= 0.5 mA
V
GS1
= V
TH
+

2I
D1
µ
n
C
ox

W
L

1
= 0.7 V
V
DS1
= V
GS1
−V
TH
(in order of M
1
to operate at the edge of saturation)
= V
DD
−V
GS2
V
GS2
= V
DD
−V
GS1
+V
TH
= V
TH
+

2I
D2
µ
n
C
ox

W
L

2

W
L

2
= 4.13
(b)
A
v
= −
g
m1
g
m2
= −

n
C
ox

W
L

1
I
D1

n
C
ox

W
L

2
I
D2
= −

W
L

1

W
L

2
= −3.667
(c) Since (W/L)
1
is ﬁxed, we must minimize (W/L)
2
in order to maximize the magnitude of the gain
(based on the expression derived in part (b)). If we pick the size of M
2
so that M
1
operates at the
edge of saturation, then if M
2
were to be any smaller, V
GS2
would have to be larger (given the
same I
D2
), driving M
1
into triode. Thus, (W/L)
2
is its smallest possible value (without driving
M
1
into saturation) when M
1
is at the edge of saturation, meaning the gain is largest in magnitude
with this choice of (W/L)
2
.
7.27 (a)
A
v
= −
g
m1
g
m2
= −

n
C
ox

W
L

1
I
D1

n
C
ox

W
L

2
I
D2
= −

W
L

1

W
L

2
= −5

W
L

1
= 277.78
(b)
V
DS1
> V
GS1
−V
TH
(to ensure M
1
is in saturation)
V
DD
−V
GS2
> V
GS1
−V
TH
V
DD
−V
TH

2I
D2
µ
n
C
ox

W
L

2
>

2I
D1
µ
n
C
ox

W
L

1
I
D1
= I
D2
< 1.512 mA
7.28 For this problem, recall that looking into the drain of a transistor with a grounded gate and source
we see a resistance of r
o
, and looking into either terminal of a diode-connected transistor we see a
resistance of
1
gm
r
o
.
(a)
A
v
= −g
m1

r
o1

1
g
m2
r
o2

(b)
A
v
= −g
m1

r
o1
r
o2

1
g
m3
r
o3

(c)
A
v
= −g
m1

r
o1
r
o2

1
g
m3
r
o3

(d)
A
v
= −g
m2

r
o2
r
o1

1
g
m3
r
o3

(e)
A
v
= −g
m2

r
o2
r
o1

1
g
m3
r
o3

(f) Let’s draw a small-signal model to ﬁnd the equivalent resistance seen looking up from the output.

v
t
+
i
t
+
v
gs2

R
D
g
m2
v
gs2
r
o2
i
t
= g
m2
v
gs2
+
v
t
−i
t
R
D
r
o2
v
gs2
= v
t
i
t
= g
m2
v
t
+
v
t
−i
t
R
D
r
o2
i
t

1 +
R
D
r
o2

= v
t

g
m2
+
1
r
o2

v
t
i
t
=
1 +
RD
ro2
g
m2
+
1
ro2
=
r
o2
+ R
D
1 +g
m2
r
o2
A
v
= −g
m1

r
o1

r
o2
+R
D
1 +g
m2
r
o2

7.30 (a) Assume M
1
is operating in saturation.
I
D
= 1 mA
I
D
R
S
= 200 mV
R
S
= 200 Ω
A
v
= −
R
D
1
gm
+R
S
= −
R
D
1

2µnCox
W
L
ID
+R
S
= −4
W
L
= 1000
V
GS
= V
TH
+

2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
= 0.5 V
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
D
−I
D
R
S
= 0.6 V > V
GS
−V
TH
, verifying that M
1
is in saturation
Yes , the transistor operates in saturation.
(b) Assume M
1
is operating in saturation.
W
L
=
50
0.18
R
S
= 200 Ω
A
v
= −
R
D
1

2µnCox
W
L
ID
+R
S
= −4
R
D
= 1.179 kΩ
V
GS
= V
TH
+

2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
= 0.590 V
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
D
−I
D
R
S
= 0.421 V > V
GS
−V
TH
, verifying that M
1
is in saturation
Yes , the transistor operates in saturation.
7.42 (a)
R
out
= R
D
= 500 Ω
V
G
= V
DD
V
D
> V
G
−V
TH
(in order for M
1
to operate in saturation)
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
> V
DD
−V
TH
I
D
< 0.8 mA
(b)
I
D
= 0.8 mA
R
in
=
1
g
m
=
1

n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
= 50 Ω
W
L
= 1250
(c)
A
v
= g
m
R
D
g
m
=
1
50
S
R
D
= 500 Ω
A
v
= 10
7.43 (a)
I
D
= I
1
= 1 mA
V
G
= V
DD
V
D
= V
G
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
= V
G
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
R
D
= 300 Ω
(b)
R
D
= 300 Ω
A
v
= g
m
R
D
=

n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
R
D
= 5
W
L
= 694.4
7.44 For this problem, recall that looking into the drain of a transistor with a grounded gate and source
we see a resistance of r
o
, and looking into either terminal of a diode-connected transistor we see a
resistance of
1
gm
r
o
.
(a) Referring to Eq. (7.109) with R
D
=
1
gm2
and g
m
= g
m1
, we have
A
v
=
1
gm2
1
gm1
+R
S
(b) Let’s draw a small-signal model to ﬁnd the equivalent resistance seen looking up from the output.

v
t
+
i
t
+
v
gs2

R
D
g
m2
v
gs2
i
t
= g
m2
v
gs2
v
gs2
= v
t
i
t
= g
m2
v
t
v
t
i
t
=
1
g
m2
A
v
=
g
m1
g
m2
(c) Referring to Eq. (7.119) with R
D
=
1
gm2
, R
3
= R
1
, and g
m
= g
m1
, we have
A
v
=
R
1

1
gm1
R
S
+R
1

1
gm1
g
m1
g
m2
(d)
A
v
= g
m1

R
D
+
1
g
m2
r
o3

(e)
A
v
= g
m1

R
D
+
1
g
m2

7.45 (a)
v
X
v
in
= −g
m1

R
D1

1
g
m2

v
out
v
X
= g
m2
R
D2
v
out
v
in
=
v
X
v
in
v
out
v
X
= −g
m1
g
m2
R
D2

R
D1

1
g
m2

(b)
lim
RD1→∞
−g
m1
g
m2
R
D2

R
D1

1
g
m2

= −g
m1
R
D2
This makes sense because the common-source stage acts as a transconductance ampliﬁer with
a transconductance of g
m1
. The common-gate stage acts as a current buﬀer with a current
gain of 1. Thus, the current g
m1
v
in
ﬂows through R
D2
, meaning v
out
= −g
m1
v
in
R
D2
, so that
vout
vin
= −g
m1
R
D2
.
This type of ampliﬁer (with R
D1
= ∞) is known as a cascode and will be studied in detail in
Chapter 9.
7.40
I
D
= 0.5 mA
R
in
=
1
g
m
=
1

n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
= 50 Ω
W
L
= 2000
V
D
> V
G
−V
TH
(in order for M
1
to operate in saturation)
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
> V
b
− V
TH
R
D
< 2.4 kΩ
Since |A
v
| ∝ R
D
, we need to maximize R
D
in order to maximize the gain. Thus, we should pick
R
D
= 2.4 kΩ . This corresponds to a voltage gain of A
v
= −g
m
R
D
= −48.
7.42 (a)
R
out
= R
D
= 500 Ω
V
G
= V
DD
V
D
> V
G
−V
TH
(in order for M
1
to operate in saturation)
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
> V
DD
−V
TH
I
D
< 0.8 mA
(b)
I
D
= 0.8 mA
R
in
=
1
g
m
=
1

n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
= 50 Ω
W
L
= 1250
(c)
A
v
= g
m
R
D
g
m
=
1
50
S
R
D
= 500 Ω
A
v
= 10
7.43 (a)
I
D
= I
1
= 1 mA
V
G
= V
DD
V
D
= V
G
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
= V
G
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
R
D
= 300 Ω
(b)
R
D
= 300 Ω
A
v
= g
m
R
D
=

n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
R
D
= 5
W
L
= 694.4
7.44 For this problem, recall that looking into the drain of a transistor with a grounded gate and source
we see a resistance of r
o
, and looking into either terminal of a diode-connected transistor we see a
resistance of
1
gm
r
o
.
(a) Referring to Eq. (7.109) with R
D
=
1
gm2
and g
m
= g
m1
, we have
A
v
=
1
gm2
1
gm1
+R
S
(b) Let’s draw a small-signal model to ﬁnd the equivalent resistance seen looking up from the output.

v
t
+
i
t
+
v
gs2

R
D
g
m2
v
gs2
i
t
= g
m2
v
gs2
v
gs2
= v
t
i
t
= g
m2
v
t
v
t
i
t
=
1
g
m2
A
v
=
g
m1
g
m2
(c) Referring to Eq. (7.119) with R
D
=
1
gm2
, R
3
= R
1
, and g
m
= g
m1
, we have
A
v
=
R
1

1
gm1
R
S
+R
1

1
gm1
g
m1
g
m2
(d)
A
v
= g
m1

R
D
+
1
g
m2
r
o3

(e)
A
v
= g
m1

R
D
+
1
g
m2

7.45 (a)
v
X
v
in
= −g
m1

R
D1

1
g
m2

v
out
v
X
= g
m2
R
D2
v
out
v
in
=
v
X
v
in
v
out
v
X
= −g
m1
g
m2
R
D2

R
D1

1
g
m2

(b)
lim
RD1→∞
−g
m1
g
m2
R
D2

R
D1

1
g
m2

= −g
m1
R
D2
This makes sense because the common-source stage acts as a transconductance ampliﬁer with
a transconductance of g
m1
. The common-gate stage acts as a current buﬀer with a current
gain of 1. Thus, the current g
m1
v
in
ﬂows through R
D2
, meaning v
out
= −g
m1
v
in
R
D2
, so that
vout
vin
= −g
m1
R
D2
.
This type of ampliﬁer (with R
D1
= ∞) is known as a cascode and will be studied in detail in
Chapter 9.
7.48 For small-signal analysis, we can short the capacitors, producing the following equivalent circuit.
M
1
R
4
v
in
R
2
R
3
R
D
v
out
A
v
= g
m
(R
2
R
3
R
D
)
7.49
V
GS
= V
DS
V
GS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
S
= V
DD

1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
(1 +λV
GS
) R
S
V
GS
= V
DS
= 0.7036 V
I
D
= 1.096 mA
A
v
=
r
o
R
S
1
gm
+r
o
R
S
g
m
=

n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
= 6.981 mS
r
o
=
1
λI
D
= 9.121 kΩ
A
v
= 0.8628
7.50
A
v
=
R
S
1
gm
+R
S
=
R
S
1
µnCox
W
L
(VGS−VTH)
+R
S
= 0.8
V
GS
= 0.64 V
I
D
=
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
= 960 µA
V
G
= V
GS
+V
S
= V
GS
+I
D
R
S
= 1.12 V
7.55 For this problem, recall that looking into the drain of a transistor with a grounded gate and source
we see a resistance of r
o
, and looking into either terminal of a diode-connected transistor we see a
resistance of
1
gm
r
o
.
(a)
A
v
=
r
o1
(R
S
+ r
o2
)
1
gm1
+ r
o1
(R
S
+ r
o2
)
(b) Looking down from the output we see an equivalent resistance of r
o2
+ (1 + g
m2
r
o2
) R
S
by Eq.
(7.110).
A
v
=
r
o1
[r
o2
+ (1 + g
m2
r
o2
) R
S
]
1
gm1
+ r
o1
[r
o2
+ (1 + g
m2
r
o2
) R
S
]
(c)
A
v
=
r
o1

1
gm2
1
gm1
+ r
o1

1
gm2
(d) Let’s draw a small-signal model to ﬁnd the equivalent resistance seen looking down from the
output.
R
2
+
v
gs2

R
1
g
m2
v
gs2
r
o2

v
t
+
i
t
i
t
=
v
t
R
1
+ R
2
+ g
m2
v
gs2
+
v
t
r
o2
v
gs2
=
R
2
R
1
+ R
2
v
t
i
t
=
v
t
R
1
+ R
2
+ g
m2
R
2
R
1
+ R
2
v
t
+
v
t
r
o2
i
t
= v
t

1
R
1
+ R
2
+
g
m2
R
2
R
1
+ R
2
+
1
r
o2

v
t
i
t
= (R
1
+ R
2
)

R
1
+ R
2
g
m2
R
2

r
o2
A
v
=
r
o1
(R
1
+ R
2
)

R1+R2
gm2R2

r
o2
1
gm1
+ r
o1
(R
1
+ R
2
)

R1+R2
gm2R2

r
o2
(e)
A
v
=
r
o2
r
o3

1
gm1
1
gm2
+ r
o2
r
o3

1
gm1
(f) Looking up from the output we see an equivalent resistance of r
o2
+ (1 + g
m2
r
o2
) r
o3
by Eq.
(7.110).
A
v
=
r
o1
[r
o2
+ (1 + g
m2
r
o2
) r
o3
]
1
gm1
+ r
o1
[r
o2
+ (1 + g
m2
r
o2
) r
o3
]
7.58
P = V
DD
I
D
= 2 mW
I
D
= 1.11 mA
R
D
I
D
= 1 V
R
D
= 900 Ω
A
v
= −g
m
R
D
= −

n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
R
D
= −5
W
L
= 69.44
7.60 Let’s let R
1
and R
2
consume exactly 5 % of the power budget (which means the branch containing R
D
,
M
1
, and R
S
will consume 95 % of the power budget). Let’s also assume V
ov
= V
GS
−V
TH
= 300 mV
exactly.
I
D
V
DD
= 0.95(2 mW)
I
D
= 1.056 mA
I
D
R
S
= 200 mV
R
S
= 189.5 Ω
V
ov
= V
GS
−V
TH
= 300 mV
I
D
=
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
V
2
ov
W
L
= 117.3
A
v
= −
R
D
1
gm
+R
S
= −
R
D
1

2µnCox
W
L
ID
+R
S
= −4
R
D
= 1.326 kΩ
V
2
DD
R
1
+R
2
= 0.05(2 mW)
R
1
+R
2
=
V
2
DD
0.1 mW
V
G
= V
GS
+I
D
R
S
= V
ov
+V
TH
+I
D
R
S
= 0.9 V
V
G
=
R
2
R
1
+R
2
V
DD
=
R
2
V
2
DD
0.1 mW
= 0.9 V
R
2
= 29.16 kΩ
R
1
= 3.24 kΩ
7.61 Let’s let R
1
and R
2
consume exactly 5 % of the power budget (which means the branch containing
R
D
, M
1
, and R
S
will consume 95 % of the power budget).
R
D
= 200 Ω
I
D
V
DD
= 0.95(6 mW)
I
D
= 3.167 mA
I
D
R
S
= V
ov
= V
GS
−V
TH
R
S
=
V
ov
I
D
g
m
=
2I
D
V
ov
A
v
= −
R
D
1
gm
+R
S
= −
R
D
Vov
2ID
+
Vov
ID
= −5
V
ov
= 84.44 mV
R
S
= 26.67 Ω
W
L
=
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
V
2
ov
= 4441
V
2
DD
R
1
+R
2
= 0.05(6 mW)
R
1
+R
2
=
V
2
DD
0.3 mW
V
G
= V
GS
+I
D
R
S
= V
ov
+V
TH
+I
D
R
S
= 0.5689 V
V
G
=
R
2
R
1
+R
2
V
DD
=
R
2
V
2
DD
0.3 mW
= 0.5689 V
R
2
= 6.144 kΩ
R
1
= 4.656 kΩ
7.62
R
in
= R
1
= 20 kΩ
P = V
DD
I
D
= 2 mW
I
D
= 1.11 mA
V
DS
= V
GS
−V
TH
+ 200 mV
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
= V
DD
−V
TH
+ 200 mV
R
D
= 180 Ω
A
v
= −g
m
R
D
= −

n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
R
D
= −6
W
L
= 2500
V
GS
= V
TH
+

2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
= 0.467 V
V
GS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
S
R
S
= 1.2 kΩ
1
2πfC
1
≪R
1
1
2πfC
1
=
1
10
R
1
f = 1 MHz
C
1
= 79.6 pF
1
2πfC
S
R
S

1
g
m
1
2πfC
S
=
1
10
1
g
m
g
m
=

n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
= 33.33 mS
C
S
= 52.9 nF
7.64 (a)
A
v
= −g
m1
(r
o1
R
G
r
o2
)
(b)
P = V
DD
I
D1
= 3 mW
I
D1
= |I
D2
| = 1.67 mA
|V
GS2
| = |V
DS2
| = V
DS
=
V
DD
2
|I
D2
| =
1
2
µ
p
C
ox

W
L

2
(|V
GS2
| − |V
TH
|)
2
(1 +λ
p
|V
DS2
|)

W
L

2
= 113
A
v
= −g
m1
(r
o1
R
G
r
o2
)
R
G
= 10 (r
o1
r
o2
)
r
o1
=
1
λ
n
I
D1
= 6 kΩ
r
o2
=
1
λ
p
|I
D2
|
= 3 kΩ
R
G
= 10 (r
o1
r
o2
) = 20 kΩ
A
v
= −

n
C
ox

W
L

1
I
D1
(r
o1
R
G
r
o2
)
= −15

W
L

1
= 102.1
V
IN
= V
GS1
= V
TH
+

2I
D
µ
n
C
ox

W
L

1
(1 +λ
n
V
DS1
)
= 0.787 V
7.66
P = V
DD
I
D1
= 1 mW
I
D1
= |I
D2
| = 556 µA
V
ov1
= V
GS1
−V
TH
=

2I
D
µ
n
C
ox

W
L

1
= 200 mV

W
L

1
= 138.9
A
v
= −
g
m1
g
m2
= −

n
C
ox

W
L

1
I
D1

n
C
ox

W
L

2
|I
D2
|
= −

W
L

1

W
L

2
= −4

W
L

2
= 8.68
V
IN
= V
GS1
= V
ov1
+V
TH
= 0.6 V
7.67
P = V
DD
I
D
= 3 mW
I
D
= I
1
= 1.67 mA
R
in
=
1
g
m
=
1

n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
= 50 Ω
W
L
= 600
A
v
= g
m
R
D
=
1
50 Ω
R
D
= 5
R
D
= 250 Ω
7.68
P = V
DD
I
D
= 2 mW
I
D
= 1.11 mA
V
D
= V
G
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
= V
G
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
V
G
= V
DD
A
v
= g
m
R
D
=
2I
D
V
GS
−V
TH
R
D
= 4
R
D
= A
v
V
GS
−V
TH
2I
D
V
DD
−I
D
A
v
V
GS
−V
TH
2I
D
= V
DD
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
V
GS
= 0.55 V
R
D
= 270 Ω
V
S
= V
DD
−V
GS
= I
D
R
S
R
S
= 1.125 kΩ
W
L
=
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
= 493.8
7.73
P = V
DD
I
D1
= 3 mW
I
D1
= I
D2
= 1.67 mA
A
v
=
r
o1
r
o2
1
gm1
+r
o1
r
o2
=
r
o1
r
o2
1
q
2µnCox(
W
L
)
1
ID1
+r
o1
r
o2
= 0.9
r
o1
= r
o2
=
1
λI
D1
= 6 kΩ

W
L

1
= 13.5
Let V
ov2
= V
GS2
− V
TH
= 0.3 V. Let’s assume that V
OUT
= V
DS2
= V
ov2
.
V
GS2
= V
b
= V
ov2
+V
TH
= 0.7 V

W
L

2
=
2I
D2
µ
n
C
ox
(V
GS2
−V
TH
)
2
(1 +λV
DS2
)
= 161
V
GS1
= V
TH
+

2I
D1
µ
n
C
ox

W
L

1
(1 +λV
DS1
)
V
DS1
= V
DD
−V
DS2
= 1.5 V
V
GS1
= 1.44 V
V
IN
= V
GS1
+V
DS2
= 1.74 V