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A relation R from a set A to a set B is a subset of A B obtained by describing a relationship between the first element a and the second element b of the ordered pairs in A B. That is, R {(a, b) A B, a A, b B} The domain of a relation R from set A to set B is the set of all first elements of the ordered pairs in R. The range of a relation R from set A to set B is the set of all second elements of the ordered pairs in R. The whole set B is called the co-domain of R. Range Co-domain A relation R in a set A is called an empty relation, if no element of A is related to any element of A. In this case, R = A A Example: Consider a relation R in set A = {3, 4, 5} given by R = {(a, b): ab < 25, where a, b A}. It can be observed that no pair (a, b) satisfies this condition. Therefore, R is an empty relation. A relation R in a set A is called a universal relation, if each element of A is related to every element of A. In this case, R = A A Example: Consider a relation R in the set A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} given by R = {(a, b): a + b is an even number}. Here, we may observe that all pairs (a, b) satisfy the condition R. Therefore, R is a universal relation. Both the empty and the universal relation are called trivial relations. A relation R in a set A is called reflexive, if (a, a) R for every a R. Example: Consider a relation R in the set A, where A = {2, 3, 4}, given by R = {(a, b): ab = 4, 27 or 256}. Here, we may observe that R = {(2, 2), (3, 3), and (4, 4)}. Since each element of R is related to itself (2 is related 2, 3 is related to 3, and 4 is related to 4), R is a reflexive relation. A relation R in a set A is called symmetric, if (a1, a2) R (a2, a1) R, a1, a2 R Example: Consider a relation R in the set A, where A is the set of natural numbers, given by R = {(a, b): 2 ≤ ab < 20}. Here, it can be observed that (b, a) R since 2 ≤ ba < 20 [since for natural numbers a and b, ab = ba] Therefore, the relation R symmetric.

Since R is reflexive. d) is related to (e. and (c. if the image of distinct elements of X under f are distinct. if x1. if A. (a + d) + (c + f) = (b + c) + (d + e) a + f = b + e. b) is related to (a. If (a. a3) R for all a1. then f is called a many-one function. In other words. A relation R in a set A is called transitive. a3) R (a1. Given an arbitrary equivalence relation R in an arbitrary set X. No element of Ai is related to any element of Aj . Hence. This relation will be an equivalence relation. This shows that (c. If the function f is not one-one. b) since a + b = b + a. f). symmetric. then we also have A C. d) is related to (a. a2) R and (a2. Therefore. where f (x) = y A function f: X Y is said to be one-one or injective. i ≠ j Aj = X and Ai Aj= . B): A is a subset of B} Now. Therefore. Now. b). b) and (c. R is reflexive. the relation R is a symmetric relation. for all i. d). b) is related to (c. then x1 = x2. R is an equivalence relation. if R is altogether reflexive. if (a1. then a + d = b + c c + b = d + a. d) be two ordered pairs of numbers such that the relation between them is given by a + d = b + c. f). Example: Let (a. such that A B and B C. R divides X into mutually disjoint subsets Ai called partitions or subdivisions of X satisfying: All elements of Ai are related to each other. A function f from set X to Y is a specific type of relation in which every element x of X has one and only one image y in set Y. This shows that (a. Hence. and transitive. b) is related to (c. and transitive. Let us prove this. and C are three sets in R. R is symmetric. We write the function f as f: X Y. a2. symmetric. a3 A Example: Let us consider a relation R in the set of all subsets with respect to a universal set U given by R = {(A. x2 X and f (x1) = f (x2). The one-one and many-one functions can be illustrated by the following figures: . then a + d = b + c and c + f = d + e. R is transitive. i ≠ j The subsets Ai are called equivalence classes. (a. b) is related to (e. Let (a. A relation R in a set A is said to be an equivalence relation. d). B.

Since f is both one-one and onto. f is one-one. if it is both one-one and onto. for any y in N. if y Y such that there exists x X such that f (x) = y The onto and many-one functions can be illustrated by the following figures: A function f: X Y is said to be bijective. there exists 3 y 1 in R such that f 3 y 1 3 y 1 1 y . Therefore. f is bijective. f is onto. x13 x1 3 x2 x2 3 Therefore. Also. A bijective function can be illustrated by the following figure: Example: Show that the function f: R Solution: Let x1. x2 R For f (x1) = f (x2). . A function f: X Y can be defined as an onto (subjective) function. we have 3 x13 1 x2 1 N given by f (x) = x3 – 1 is bijective.

if f: R 1 and g (x) = x3 + 1 Solution: gof g f x g x2 1 x2 1 3 R and g: R R are given by f (x) = x2 – 1 x6 1 3x 4 3x 2 1 x 2 x 4 3x 2 3 fog f g x f x3 1 x3 1 2 1 x6 2 x3 1 1 x3 x3 2 A function f: X Y is said to be invertible. In this case. . Composite function: Let f: A B and g: B C be two functions. Solution: Let x1. find f–1. i. is defined as a function from A to C given by gof (x) = g (f (x)). Also. x A Example: Find gof and fog. if and only if f is bijective. gof. f is one-one. x2 R+ x 3 1 {0} N defined as f (x) = x3 + 1 is an invertible {0} and f (x1) = f (x2) 1 x 3 x2 3 2 1 x13 x1 x2 Therefore. if there exists a function g: Y X such that gof = IX and fog = IY. g is called inverse of f and is written as g = f–1 A function f is invertible.e. The composition of f and g. Example: Show that f: R+ function.

if it exists. if a b = b a An operation on a set A is associative. f is onto. Find the identity element of . b. Example: Show that is a binary operation defined on R – {0} by a b = ab Also show that is both commutative and associative. Let a. c A A A. we have gof x I R {0} and fog (y) = IN f 1 g 3 y 1 A binary operation on a set A is a function from A A to A a. a b=b a Hence. This shows that f is invertible.Also. b. if there exists b A such that a b = e = b a. Hence. there exists Therefore. c R – {0} Now. a b = ab and b a = ba Since ab = ba. if is invertible. c Therefore. where e is the identity for . Find the inverse of a where a R – {0}. f is bijective. is commutative. if (a b) c = a (b c) An element e A is the identity element for binary operation : A e=a=e a a A An element a A is invertible for binary operation : A A A. b A a. gof x fog y g f x f g y g x3 1 f 3 3 y 1 R+ {0} such that f 3 y 1 =x R+ 3 {0} such that g y 1 3 3 y 1 x3 1 3 x 1 y y 1 y 1 Therefore. is a binary operation. b. if a An operation on a set A is commutative. Let us consider a function g: N Now. for any y in N. Now. a (b c) = a (bc) = abc (a b) c = (ab) * c = abc a (b c) = (a b) c R . Solution: The operation is defined for a. The element b is called inverse of a and is denoted by a–1.

Now. 1 R – {0} and a 1 = a 1 = a and 1 a = 1 a = a Therefore.com. a 1 = 1 a = a Thus. 1 is the identity element for the binary operation .Hence. email it to us at revision-notes@meritnation. Now. since a R – {0}. and we’ll add it to this note under your name! . 1 a R {0} However. a 1 a 1 1 1 a Contribute to this Revision Note: If you find anything of importance missing from this note. is associative. a Therefore.

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