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1surface_tension_MHCET-Surface-Tension

1surface_tension_MHCET-Surface-Tension

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Surface tension Surface tension

By
Nitin Oke
For
Safe Hands
Few things you need to know
‡01. Cohesive force: Force of attraction
/ repulsion between the molecules of
the same substance is called as
cohesive force.
‡02. Adhesive force: Force of
attraction between the molecules of
different substances is called as
adhesive force.
‡In general the intermolecular force is
of the order of 10
-11
N where as
gravitational force is 10
-50
N
‡Intermolecular distances are of the
order of 10
-10
m
‡ Range of molecular attraction: Maximum
distance up to which cohesive force
exerted by molecule is effective is called as
range of molecular attraction. Range of
molecular attraction is generally of the
order of 10
²9
m in case of solids and
liquids.
Sphere of influence
:An imaginary sphere
of radius equal to
molecular range
drawn with molecule
as center is called as
sphere of influence.
Surface Energy. Potential energy per unit
surface area of liquid surface is called as
surface energy.
‡ It is clear that molecule on the surface of
liquid possesses more potential energy than a
molecule in the interior of a liquid. To reduce
this energy liquid will try to reduce surface
area
‡ The tendency of liquid to reduce its surface
area is called as Surface tension.
¬vv¡=·÷ f÷u·1·u
‡ If surface area is to be reduced then the
force must act in tangential direction to
surface. This force must act at ¶endµ of liquid
surface hence it is defined as ²
‡ Force due to Surface Tension: Tangential
Force per unit length acting at right angle on
either side of imaginary line drawn on the
free surface of liquid is called as surface
tension of liquid.
‡ T = F/L SI unit of surface tension is N/m.
CGS unit of surface tension is dyne/cm this
unit is same as that of force constant
‡ [T] = [ML
0
T
-2
]
¬vv¡=·÷ f÷u·1·u
¬vv¡=·÷ f÷u·1·u
r 2
F
T
T
!
r 4
F
T
T
!
a 4
F
T !
a 8
F
T !
Relation between surface tension & surface energy:
‡ Consider an open
rectangular frame ABCD of
a wire.
‡ Wire PQ is able to slide
over the rectangular frame
without friction. Length of
wire PQ is equal to ¶L¶.
‡ Let rectangular frame
ABCD is dipped in soap
solution. Soap Film is
formed in the region ABQP.
Due to surface tension
soap film tries to contract
in area.
$ '
% &
3
4
Relation between surface tension & surface energy:
‡Therefore a force ´Fµ acts
On wire PQ. Direction of this
force is towards AB.
Magnitude of force ¶F· =T
(2L) Factor ¶2· is because,
soap film has two surfaces
front surface & back surface
in contact with wire.
‡Let wire PQ is pulled away
from AB in order to increase
area of film. Mechanical
force required to pull the
wire PQ is F
·
As PQ slides
over ABCD without friction &
acceleration
$ '
% &
3
4
F = F
·
in magnitude but F = -F·
@F· = T x 2l.
If wire PQ is displaced through dx. Then work
done during this displacement:
dW = F·. dx = - T 2 L dx = ² T.dA
(Where dA = 2L.dx) dW = ² T.dA.
ͷ7K1· »·vk d·u÷ 1· ·f·v÷d 1u fK÷ ¡·vm ·¡
r·f÷uf1=! ÷u÷vav.
ͷ ,¡ d$ 1m
?
fK÷u 7 " 7Kv· ·vv¡=·÷
f÷u·1·u 1· =m·vuf ·¡ »·vk d·u÷ 1u ·vd÷v f·
1u·v÷=·÷ ·vv¡=·÷ =v÷= fKv·vaK ·u÷ vu1f =v÷=.
ͷ¬, vu1f ·¡ ·vv¡=·÷ f÷u·1·u 1· =!·· 1/m
?
.
‡ Work done in
(i) forming a soap bubble of radius R is
T. dA = T. 2.(4TR
2
) = T. 8TR
2
during
formation of soup bubble energy will
be absorbed, due to which the
temperature will fall down in
adiabatic process, chemically such
reactions are called as endothermic
reactions.
5
‡ Work done in
(ii) breaking a big drop of radius R in n drops of
equal radius ¶r· is
W= 4TR
2
T (n
1/ 3
² 1)
= 4Tr
2
T (n ² n
2/ 3
)
When a big drop is broken into large number of
small drops, then energy is absorbed because
the surface area increases.
Above result is obtained by using
(4/3)Tn.r
3
=(4/3) TR
3
Energy liberated in combining n
equal drops of radius r to form a big
drop of radius R is obtained by using
(4/3)TR
3
=n.(4/3)Tr
3
R
3
=n.r
3
hence R
2
=n
2/3
r
2
E = 4TR
2
T (n
1/ 3
² 1)
= 4Tr
2
T (n ² n
2/ 3
)
When a large number of drops
combine to form a big drop, then the
energy will be liberated because the
surface area decreases, due to
which the temperature will increase
in adiabatic process, chemically
such reactions are called as
exothermic reactions.
Angle of contact
When a liquid is in contact with solid, the liquid
surface at the point of contact is curved. The angle
between the tangent drawn to liquid surface at
point of contact and solid surface measured inside
the liquid is called as angle of contact. Angle of
contact may have any value between 0
0
and 135
0
.
Angle of contact
‡ Angle of contact is constant for given solid liquid
pair. For liquid, which merely wets the solid, angle
of contact is 90
o
e.g. water + silver.
‡ liquid, which partially wets the solid, angle of
contact is acute Kerosene + glass or usual water +
glass
‡ liquids which completely wets the solid angle of
contact is 0
o
eg. Pure Water + glass,
‡ For liquid, which does not wet the solid, angle of
contact is obtuse e.g. mercury + glass.
Explanation of angle of contact
Various forces acting on molecule ¶A· are
‡ Negligible weight of molecule , which acts
vertically down ward
‡ Adhesive force F
A
by solid molecule acting at
right angle to solid.
‡ Cohesive force F
C
in side liquid by molecules of
same liquid act at 45
o
to surface.
‡ Adhesive force by air molecules which is very
small and hence it is neglected. This force is
negligible because very small number of air
molecules are present in sphere of influence.
Direction of resultant vector decides shape of
liquid at the point of contact in particular the
liquid surface must be normal to resultant.
Explanation of angle of contact
)
$
ma
)
&
Explanation of angle of contact
)
$
ma
)
&
If F
A
is too large than F
C
then
angle of contact is zero liquid
weights the solid completely.
Explanation of angle of contact
If F
c
is too large than F
A
then angle of contact is
zero liquid weights the solid
completely.
)
$
ma
)
&
Explanation of angle of contact
)
$
ma
)
&
If F
A
= F
C
then angle of
contact is 67.5
0
liquid just
weights the solid.
Explanation of angle of contact
)
$
ma
)
&
If ˜2.F
A
= F
C
then angle of contact
is 90
0
liquid just weights the solid.
If ˜2.F
A
> F
C
then R will turn
outward hence liquid surface will
be concave
If ˜2.FA < FC then R will turn
outward hence liquid surface will
be convex
51·÷ ·¡ !1uv1d 1u &=r1!!=vv fv¦÷
$··÷uf ¡·vmv!=
ͷ7K÷
rK÷u·m÷u·u
·¡ v1·÷ ·v
¡=!! ·¡ =
!1uv1d 1u =
·=r1!!=vv
fv¦÷ 1·
ku·»u =·
·=r1!!=v1fv.
&=r1!!=v1fv
ͷ)···U »÷1aKf ·¡ !1¡f÷d !1uv1d
··!vmu
Tv
?
K ·| Tv
?
v ͮ '¹4
Tv
`
/`)]Va
)
7
).···U
). ·1uU
K
v
Tv
?
K
·Tv
?
v
·'¹4 Tv
`
/`)
&=r1!!=v1fv
)
7
K
v
7¹?Tv) ··· U Tv
?
¹Kͮv/`)
Va
7 v|K·¹v/`)] Va ··· U /?
$ vKVa /? ··· U
K ? 7··· U/ v V a
ͷ)···U »÷1aKf ·¡ !1¡f÷d !1uv1d ··!vmu
Tv
?
K ·| Tv
?
v ͮ '¹4 Tv
`
/`)]
Va
2Tr is called
wetted perimeter
71!f ·¡ &=r1!!=vv
U
L=h/cosU
&=r1!!=vv ·¡ ·K·vf !÷uafK
L=h/cosU
&=r1!!=vv ·¡ ·K·vf !÷uafK
h
1
R
1
=h
2
R
2
as
h decreases
R increases
¬K=r÷ ·¡ dv·r
‡ Phenomenon of surface tension is
observed along a surface separating any
two media. Consider a liquid drop in
equilibrium on flat solid surface.
‡ Let T
1
is surface tension for solid-liquid
interface T
2
is surface tension for air-solid
interface T
3
is surface tension for air-
liquid interface. Angle of contact U is
always from liquid side.
U
7
?
7
1
7
`
ma
¬K=r÷ ·¡ dv·r
U
7
`
7
1
7
?
ͷ,u ÷uv1!1¦v1vm fK÷ K·v1··uf=! =ud
v÷vf1·=! ¡·v·÷· mv·f ¦÷ 1u
÷uv1!1¦v1vm.7Kv·
‡ T
2
= T
1
+ T
3
cosU
ͷ···U = (T
2
- T
1
)/ T
3
T
3
cosU
T
3
sinU
···U = (T
2
- T
1
)/ T
3
i) When T
2
> T
1
; cosU is positive, U is acute.
U
7
?
7
1
7
`
···U = (T
2
- T
1
)/ T
3
i) When T
2
< T
1
; cosU is negative, U is obtuse.
U
7
?
7
1
7
`
···U = (T
2
- T
1
)/ T
3
i) When T
2
= T
1
; cosU is zero, U is 90
o
.
U
7
?
7
1
7
`
···U = (T
2
- T
1
)/ T
3
i) When T
2
- T
1
> T
3
;cosU is not possible as > 1
Liquid drop can never have equilibrium and
will spred over the entier surface.
1·f=¦!÷ u·f÷·
ͷ"K÷u = ¦v¦¦!÷ 1·
¡·vm÷d fK÷
rv÷··vv÷ 1u·1d÷
fK÷ ¦v¦¦!÷ 1· 47/5
ͷ"K÷u = ¦v¦¦!÷ 1·
¡·vm÷d 1u·1d÷
fK÷ !1uv1d fK÷
rv÷··vv÷ 1u·1d÷
fK÷ ¦v¦¦!÷ 1· ?7/5
3
·
· 47/5
3
·
· ?7/5
3
·
· 47/5
1·f=¦!÷ u·f÷·
ͷ"K÷u = !1uv1d
dv·r 1· ¡·vm÷d
fK÷ ÷x·÷··
rv÷··vv÷ 1u·1d÷
fK÷ dv·r 1·
?7/5
3
·
· ?7/5
47/5 KVa
K
1·f=¦!÷ u·f÷·
R
1
R
2
R
1 2
R
1
R
1
R
1
!
1·f=¦!÷ u·f÷·
R is radius of interface of two bubbles
of radius R
1
and R
2
.This is due to fact
that P on interface is difference of
pressure of two faces
R
1
R
2
2
2
2
1
2
R R R !
R
Bubbles coalescing with each other
isothermally in vacuum
1·f=¦!÷ u·f÷·
(¡¡÷·f ·¡ f÷mr÷v=fvv÷
ͷ2v÷v = ·m=!! v=ua÷ ·¡ f÷mr÷v=fvv÷
fK÷ ·vv¡=·÷ f÷u·1·u d÷·v÷=·÷·
!1u÷=v!v =· f÷mr÷v=fvv÷
1u·v÷=·÷·. 5÷·v!f ¦v 1=÷a÷v
ͷ7 7

¹1·Ef) »K÷v÷ E 1·
f÷mr÷v=fvv÷ ··÷¡¡1·1÷uf ·¡
·vv¡=·÷ f÷u·1·u.
ͷ(·fv·· ¡·vmv!= 1· 7
f
K¹f
·
· f)
»K÷v÷ f
·
1· ·v1f1·=! f÷mr÷v=fvv÷
ͷ7K÷ ¡·vmv!= »=· ··vv÷·f÷d ¦v
&=!!÷ud÷v =· 7
f
K¹f
·
· f · k)
(¡¡÷·f ·¡ f÷mr÷v=fvv÷
ͷ0·d1¡1÷d ¦v 5=m·=v =ud ¬K1÷!d·
7.¹0.\.x)
`/?
K.¹f
·
· f · d)
"K÷v÷ f

1· ·v1f1·=! f÷mr÷v=fvv÷. x
1· ··÷¡¡1·1÷uf ·¡ =····1=f1·u ·¡
!1uv1d =f f.͵d͵ 1· = ··u·f=uf ¹
¬ < d < 8 ¡·v m··f ·¡ !1uv1d·) 0
1· m·!÷·v!=v »÷1aKf \ 1· v·!vm÷
=ud K 1· ··u·f=uf
¹?.1?< K <?.??)
ͷ)÷vav··uͳ· ¡·vmv!= 1· ¡·v »1d÷
v=ua÷ ·¡ f÷mr÷v=fvv÷ v=v1=f1·u
7 |¹U

·U)/U

]
u
(¡¡÷·f ·¡ 1mrvv1fv
ͷ,f 1· ¡·vud fK=f »K÷u =u 1u·va=u1·
·v¦·f=u·÷ ·v·K =· ··d1vm ·K!·v1d÷
¹··mm·u ·=!f) 1· d1···!v÷d 1u »=f÷v. fK÷
·vv¡=·÷ f÷u·1·u ·¡ »=f÷v 1u·v÷=·÷·.
ͷ2u fK÷ ·fK÷v K=ud. »K÷u =u ·va=u1·
·v¦·f=u·÷ ·v·K =· ··=r ··!vf1·u 1· =dd÷d
f· »=f÷v. fK÷ ·vv¡=·÷ f÷u·1·u ·¡ »=f÷v
d÷·v÷=·÷·.
ͷ*÷u÷v=!!v 1¡ K1aK!v ··!v¦!÷ ·v¦·f=u·÷ 1·
=dd÷d f· = !1uv1d 1f· ·vv¡=·÷ f÷u·1·u
1u·v÷=·÷·.
ͷ$u 1mrvv1fv 1u··!v¦!÷ 1u = !1uv1d
a÷u÷v=!!v d÷·v÷=·÷· fK÷ ·vv¡=·÷ f÷u·1·u
)·v ÷v÷vvfK1ua !1·f÷d ¦÷!·»
fK÷ v÷=··u 1· ·vv¡=·÷
f÷u·1·u
ͷ%!·ff1ua r=r÷v =¦··v¦· 1uk
ͷ7·»÷! ·=u ··=k »=f÷v dv÷ f· ¡1¦v·v·
·fvv·fvv÷
ͷ¬=r v1·÷· 1u r!=uf·
ͷ)1÷!d· =v÷ r!·vaK÷d f· =v·1d
÷v=r·v=f1·u ·¡ »=f÷v 1u·1d÷ fK÷ ¡1÷!d
ͷ"=f÷v ···÷· ¡v·m ÷=vfK÷u r·f v·÷d
dvv1ua ·vmm÷v d=v·
ͷ¬r·ua÷ v÷f=1u· »=f÷v
)·v ÷v÷vvfK1ua !1·f÷d ¦÷!·»
fK÷ v÷=··u 1· ·vv¡=·÷
f÷u·1·u
ͷ+=1v ·¡ ¦vv·K ·rv÷=d· ·vf 1u »=f÷v ¦vf
=· f=k÷u ·vf fK÷v ·!1ua f·a÷fK÷v
ͷ/1uv1d dv·r· =v÷ ·rK÷v1·=! 1u =¦·÷u·÷
·¡ av=v1fv.
ͷ1÷÷d!÷ ¡!·=f· ·u !1uv1d ·vv¡=·÷
ͷ21! ·rv÷=d· ·u ··!d »=f÷v
ͷ,uk r=1u K=· ·r!1f u1¦
ͷ'vv1ua ··!d÷v1ua ·¡ »1v÷ fK÷ ¡!vx 1·
=rr!1÷d ¦÷¡·v÷ ··!d÷v1ua.

Few things you need to know
‡01. Cohesive force: Force of attraction / repulsion between the molecules of the same substance is called as cohesive force. ‡02. Adhesive force: Force of attraction between the molecules of different substances is called as adhesive force. ‡In general the intermolecular force is of the order of 10-11N where as gravitational force is 10-50N ‡Intermolecular distances are of the order of 10-10m

‡ Range of molecular attraction: Maximum distance up to which cohesive force exerted by molecule is effective is called as range of molecular attraction. Range of molecular attraction is generally of the order of 10 ²9 m in case of solids and liquids. Sphere of influence :An imaginary sphere of radius equal to molecular range drawn with molecule as center is called as sphere of influence.

Surface Energy. Potential energy per unit surface area of liquid surface is called as surface energy. ‡ It is clear that molecule on the surface of liquid possesses more potential energy than a molecule in the interior of a liquid. To reduce this energy liquid will try to reduce surface area ‡ The tendency of liquid to reduce its surface area is called as Surface tension.

6XUIDFHWHQVLRQ ‡ If surface area is to be reduced then the force must act in tangential direction to surface. This force must act at ¶endµ of liquid surface hence it is defined as ² ‡ Force due to Surface Tension: Tangential Force per unit length acting at right angle on either side of imaginary line drawn on the free surface of liquid is called as surface tension of liquid. CGS unit of surface tension is dyne/cm this unit is same as that of force constant ‡ [T] = [ML0T-2] . ‡ T = F/L SI unit of surface tension is N/m.

6XUIDFHWHQVLRQ .

6XUIDFHWHQVLRQ F F T! 4a r 8T 2 4 .

Soap Film is formed in the region ABQP. 3 ' 4 & . Due to surface tension soap film tries to contract in area. Length of % wire PQ is equal to ¶L¶. ‡ Wire PQ is able to slide over the rectangular frame without friction.Relation between surface tension & surface energy: ‡ Consider an open rectangular frame ABCD of $ a wire. ‡ Let rectangular frame ABCD is dipped in soap solution.

Relation between surface tension & surface energy: ‡Therefore a force ´Fµ acts On wire PQ. Mechanical force required to pull the wire PQ is F· As PQ slides over ABCD without friction & acceleration 3 ' 4 & . ‡Let wire PQ is pulled away from AB in order to increase area of film. soap film has two surfaces % front surface & back surface in contact with wire. Magnitude of force ¶F· =T (2L) Factor ¶2· is because. Direction of this $ force is towards AB.

dx) dW = ² T.T 2 L dx = ² T. dx = .dA. If wire PQ is displaced through dx.dA (Where dA = 2L. Then work done during this displacement: dW = F·.XQLWRIVXUIDFHWHQVLRQLVDOVR-P .IG$ P WKHQ7 :7KXVVXUIDFH WHQVLRQLVDPRXQWRIZRUNGRQHLQRUGHUWR LQFUHDVHVXUIDFHDUHDWKURXJKRQHXQLWDUHD 6.F = F· in magnitude but F = -F· @F· = T x 2l. 7KLVZRUNGRQHLVVWRUHGLQWKHIRUPRI SRWHQWLDOHQHUJ\ .

chemically such reactions are called as endothermic reactions. due to which the temperature will fall down in adiabatic process. 8TR2 during formation of soup bubble energy will be absorbed.(4TR2 ) = T.‡ Work done in (i) forming a soap bubble of radius R is T. 5 . dA = T. 2.

Above result is obtained by using (4/3)Tn.‡ Work done in (ii) breaking a big drop of radius R in n drops of equal radius ¶r· is W = 4TR2T (n 1/ 3 ² 1) = 4Tr2T (n ² n 2/ 3) When a big drop is broken into large number of small drops.r3=(4/3) TR3 . then energy is absorbed because the surface area increases.

due to which the temperature will increase in adiabatic process.r3 hence R2 =n2/3r2 E = 4TR2T (n 1/ 3 ² 1) = 4Tr2T (n ² n 2/ 3) When a large number of drops combine to form a big drop.(4/3)Tr3 R3 =n.Energy liberated in combining n equal drops of radius r to form a big drop of radius R is obtained by using (4/3)TR3 =n. then the energy will be liberated because the surface area decreases. chemically such reactions are called as exothermic reactions. .

The angle between the tangent drawn to liquid surface at point of contact and solid surface measured inside the liquid is called as angle of contact.Angle of contact When a liquid is in contact with solid. the liquid surface at the point of contact is curved. . Angle of contact may have any value between 00 and 1350.

For liquid.g. which partially wets the solid. ‡ For liquid. angle of contact is 90o e. Pure Water + glass.Angle of contact ‡ Angle of contact is constant for given solid liquid pair. which does not wet the solid. . mercury + glass. ‡ liquid. angle of contact is obtuse e. water + silver.g. which merely wets the solid. angle of contact is acute Kerosene + glass or usual water + glass ‡ liquids which completely wets the solid angle of contact is 0o eg.

This force is negligible because very small number of air molecules are present in sphere of influence. which acts vertically down ward ‡ Adhesive force FA by solid molecule acting at right angle to solid. ‡ Cohesive force FC in side liquid by molecules of same liquid act at 45o to surface. .Explanation of angle of contact Various forces acting on molecule ¶A· are ‡ Negligible weight of molecule . Direction of resultant vector decides shape of liquid at the point of contact in particular the liquid surface must be normal to resultant. ‡ Adhesive force by air molecules which is very small and hence it is neglected.

Explanation of angle of contact )$ )& PJ .

Explanation of angle of contact )$ If FA is too large than FC then angle of contact is zero liquid weights the solid completely. )& PJ .

)& PJ .Explanation of angle of contact )$ If Fc is too large than FA then angle of contact is zero liquid weights the solid completely.

50 liquid just weights the solid.Explanation of angle of contact )$ If FA = FC then angle of contact is 67. )& PJ .

If ˜2.FA = FC then angle of contact is 900 liquid just weights the solid.FA < FC then R will turn outward hence liquid surface will be convex )& PJ .Explanation of angle of contact )$ If ˜2.FA > FC then R will turn outward hence liquid surface will be concave If ˜2.

5LVHRIOLTXLGLQ&DSLOODU\WXEH $VFHQWIRUPXOD 7KH SKHQRPHQRQ RIULVHRU IDOORID OLTXLGLQD FDSLOODU\ WXEHLV NQRZQ DV FDSLOODULW\ .

&DSLOODULW\ )FRVU ZHLJKWRIOLIWHGOLTXLG FROXPQ )FRVU K>TUU    TU TU.

@VJ  TU.

)VLQU  TU U )7 K U TUK .

&DSLOODULW\ )FRVU ZHLJKWRIOLIWHGOLTXLGFROXPQ TUK>TUU  TU.

@ VJ 7 TU.

FRVU TU K U.

 U )7 K VJ 7 U>K U.

@VJFRVU  $ UKVJFRVU K 7FRVUUV J 2Tr is called wetted perimeter .

7LOWRI&DSLOODU\ U L=h/cosU .

&DSLOODU\RIVKRUWOHQJWK L=h/cosU .

&DSLOODU\RIVKRUWOHQJWK h1R1=h2R2 as h decreases R increases .

6KDSHRIGURS 7 ‡ Phenomenon of surface tension is U observed along a surface separating any 7 7 two media. Angle of contact U is always from liquid side. ‡ Let T1 is surface tension for solid-liquid interface T2 is surface tension for air-solid interface T3 is surface tension for airliquid interface. Consider a liquid drop in PJ equilibrium on flat solid surface. .

QHTXLOLEULXPWKHKRUL]RQWDODQG YHUWLFDOIRUFHVPXVWEHLQ HTXLOLEULXP7KXV ‡ T2 = T1 + T3 cosU FRVU = (T2 .T1 )/ T3 .6KDSHRIGURS T3 sinU 7 U T3 cosU 7 7 .

T1 )/ T3 i) When T2 > T1.7 U 7 7 FRVU = (T2 . cosU is positive. . U is acute.

cosU is negative. U is obtuse.7 U 7 7 FRVU = (T2 .T1 )/ T3 i) When T2 < T1. .

7 U 7 7 FRVU = (T2 . U is 90o. cosU is zero. .T1 )/ T3 i) When T2 = T1.

cosU is not possible as > 1 Liquid drop can never have equilibrium and will spred over the entier surface. .FRVU = (T2 .T1 )/ T3 i) When T2 .T1 > T3 .

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