AIRCRAFT LANDING GEAR

LANDING GEAR  

is a structure which installed on the aircraft for the ground and also allows the aircraft to land safely. Landing gear also provides mobility to the aircraft purpose to support the weight of the aircraft whiles it on ground or water. Aircrafts require landing gear for taxiing, takeoff, and landing. Initially aircrafts used skids as its landing gear. Times after times, wheels were attached to the skids. Since that time, various arrangements have been used for wheels and structures to connect them to the airplane.

TYPES OF LANDING GEAR
Conventional landing gear  Tricycle landing gear  Tandem landing gear 

Because the tailwheel is castered--free to castered--free move in any direction--the plane is very difficult direction--the to control when landing or taking off. Without a wheel at the nose of the plane. The two main wheels are fastened to the fuselage by struts. This type of landing gear is most often seen in older general aviation airplanes. . it easily pitches over if brakes are applied too soon.Conventional landing gear  consists of two wheels forward of the aircraft's center of gravity and a third small wheel at the tail.

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This wheel is steered by the pilot through a connection to the rudder pedals.History  In early aircraft. In most modern aircraft. . articulated wheel assembly is attached to the rearmost part of the airframe in place of the skid. a small. allowing the rudder and tail wheel to move together. a tail skid made of metal or wood was used to support the tail on the ground.

they will fit into some hangars more easily If a tailwheel fails on landing. due to their lower tail. This is not the case in the event of a nosewheel failure. which usually results in propeller damage. the damage to the aircraft will be minimal.Advantages     tailwheel has less parasite drag less expensive to buy and maintain Tailwheel aircraft are easier to man-handle on manthe ground and. .

in some cases completing a full circle. . tires. wingtips and propeller. Avoiding ground loops requires increased pilot training and skill. A ground loop occurs when directional control is lost on the ground and the tail of the aircraft passes the nose.Disadvantages   Tail wheel aircraft are much more subject to "nose-over" "noseaccidents. due to main wheels becoming stuck in holes or injudicious application of brakes by the pilot Conventional geared aircraft are much more susceptible to ground looping. This event can result in damage to the aircraft's undercarriage.

 .  Conventional geared aircraft require more training time for student pilots to master.Tail wheel aircraft are more difficult to taxi during high wind conditions. They also suffer from lower crosswind capability and in some wind conditions may be unable to use crosswind runways or singlesingle-runway airports. due to the higher angle of attack on the wings.

The tricycle undercarriage includes two main gears just aft of the center of gravity and a smaller auxiliary gear near the nose.TRICYCLE LANDING GEAR  Tricycle gear is the most popular landing gear arrangements. .

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The forward CG keeps the airplane moving forward in a straight line rather than ground looping. It permits better forward visibility for the pilot during takeoff. landing. and taxiing. It tends to prevent ground looping (swerving) by providing more directional stability during ground operation since the aircraft¶s center of gravity (CG) is forward of the main wheels.Advantages    It allows more forceful application of the brakes during landings at high speeds without causing the aircraft to nose over. .

The tandem landing gear allows the use of a highly flexible wing.TANDEM LANDING GEAR  is used for very large aircraft like the B-52 Bbomber and the U-2 Ureconnaissance/research aircraft. . The main landing gear is in two sets that are located one behind the other on the fuselage. but it may also require the use of small wheels on the tips of the wings to keep the wings from scraping the ground.

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Another Types of Landing Gear Quadricycle  Unconventional  Bogey  .

The most significant advantage of quadricycle gear is that the plane's floor can be very close to the ground for easier loading and unloading of cargo. However. . this benefit comes at the price of much higher weight and drag than bicycle gear. Like tricycle gear. crosswinds. the quadricycle undercarriage also requires a very flat attitude during takeoff and landing.QUADRICYCLE  Quadricycle gear are also very similar to the tricycle arrangement except there are four main gear roughly equal in size and mounted along the fuselage. and proper alignment with the runway. This arrangement is also very sensitive to roll.

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Other than skids.UNCONVENTIONAL  Aircraft that have to land on water are fitted with skids rather than wheels. skis and floats also the unconventional gears. These skids are the unconventional landing gears for the aircraft. . Some planes had interchangeable skids and wheels so that the plane could be used to land both on land and on water.

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This additional tire is particularly useful on carrier-based aircraft where two nose wheels carrierare a requirement. they are attached together on a structural device called a bogey. The heavier the aircraft becomes. When multiple wheels are placed on the same gear unit. . It is especially common to place two wheels on the nose strut of the tricycle arrangement to provide safety and steering control in case of a tire blowout.BOGEY  Another type of landing gear is the use of multiple wheels per landing gear strut. the more wheels are typically added to the bogey to spread the plane's weight more evenly across the runway pavement.

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Classification of Landing Gear .

Shock cord system: uses ³Bungee´ cords Spring type uses spring steel (some Cessna¶s) . Shock-cord Shocklanding gear. No flexing other than the structure.NonNon-Absorbing Landing gear     Includes Rigid landing gear. Spring landing gear Rigid: helicopters. sailplanes.

Images of Non absorbing landing gear **RIGID** *Shock cord* **spring type* .

and Air-Oil Oleo AirSpring Oleo is history by now Air Oleos are all very similar: a needle valve restricts fluid flow Air in the oleo holds the weight of the a/c on the ground Air Oleos present in both retractable and fixed gears . dissipated into the atmosphere Two types: Spring Oleo.ShockShock-Absorbing Landing Gear        Dissipates landing energies by forcing fluid through a restriction This fluid generates heat.

Images of shock-absorbing landing shockgear Spring oleo AirAir-Oil Oleo .

usually bolted on to the structure Often uses fairings or wheel pants Advantages: Lighter weight Least costly .Fixed Gear     Non retractable.

Images of Fixed gear .

electric.Retractable Gear      Designed to eliminate drag (the greatest advantage) Can be either fully or partially retractable Direction of retraction depends on airframe model Methods of retraction: hydraulic. mechanical. pneumatic Critical area of aircraft maintenance for safety reasons .

Images of Retractable landing gear .

³Lake´ aircraft) Floating hulls may only require wing tip floats Skis used for snow and ice (wood. composites) Skis are mounted on the same strut as tires . metal.Hulls and Floats      Can be single float. or multiple Definition may include floating hulls (ex.

Hulls and Floats .

END LANDING GEAR Cast of Characters Jaysser Fuentes Johnzel Vasquez Raffy Zara Instructor Christopher Linga Stunt Men ALL AMT 4-1 4- .

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