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UMSC 1124 CHEMISTRY LABORATORY I

Experiment No :6

Title : Acid-Base Titration: Determination Of The Percentages (%) Sodium Carbonate


(Na2CO3) and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) in a Mixture By Using
pH Meter.

Name : Ong Boon Hooi

ID No : 09ALB03481

Name of partner : Saw Ai Ling & Wan Sher Teen

Date of Experiment : 24/06/2009

Semester : June 2009

Name of lecturer : Ms. Chang Chew Cheen


Title

Acid-Base Titration: Determination Of The Percentages (%) Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3)


and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) in a Mixture By Using pH Meter.

Objective

To determine the respective weight percent of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and sodium
hydroxide (NaOH) in a mixture by using pH meter to detect the equivalent points.

Introduction

A pH meter is used in the acid-base titration to determine the total alkali (Na2CO3
and NaOH) present in the sample solution. Using this technique, unknown concentration of
sample solution is place into the conical flask and titrates with HCl which place in buret. The
change of pH from the pH meter will be recorded and the curve of the titration can be drawn.
From the observation of the graph it will shows that there will be a drastic change of Ph when it
reach its equivalent points.

There is an amount of acid needed for first stage and second stage for the reaction with
the sample solution. Hence, the percentage of the bases in the mixture can be determined.\

Materials
0.1M hydrochloric acid

Sample solution which contains of 5g in total weight of Na2CO3 and NaOH in


1000cm3 solution.

0.1M barium chloride solution

pH meter

Methodology

Part A

Titration 1

25cm3 of the sample solution is pipetted into conical flask.

The electrode of the pH meter is inserted to the conical flask to determine the pH of the
solution.

0.50cm³ of 0.1M HCl was titrated into the conical flask.

The electrode is then been inserted again to determine the pH.

The pH reading is recorded.

A titration curve of pH versus amount of acid added into the sample is plotted.

Equivalent point can be found from the graph plotted.


Result

Initial reading (cm3) pH Amount of HCl added (cm3)

8.5 12.18 0.0

9.0 12.05 0.5

9.5 11.96 1.0

10.0 12.09 1.5

10.5 12.15 2.0

11.0 12.03 2.5

11.5 12.00 3.0

12.0 11.96 3.5

12.5 11.88 4.0

13.0 11.95 4.5

13.5 11.89 5.0

14.0 11.74 5.5

14.5 11.83 6.0

15.0 11.82 6.5

15.5 11.84 7.0

16.0 11.73 7.5

16.5 11.58 8.0

17.0 11.39 8.5

17.5 11.18 9.0

18.0 10.99 9.5

18.5 10.78 10.0

19.0 10.61 10.5


19.5 10.45 11.0

20.0 10.29 11.5

20.5 10.14 12.0

21.0 9.98 12.5

21.5 9.91 13.0

22.0 9.62 13.5

22.5 9.36 14.0

23.0 8.98 14.5

23.5 7.90 15.0

24.0 7.29 15.5

24.5 7.10 16.0

25.0 6.89 16.5

25.5 6.72 17.0

26.0 6.55 17.5

26.5 6.39 18.0

27.0 6.20 18.5

27.5 6.08 19.0

28.0 5.87 19.5

28.5 5.18 20.0

29.0 4.93 20.5

29.5 3.32 21.0

30.0 3.02 21.5

30.5 2.82 22.0

31.0 2.72 22.5

31.5 2.64 23.0

32.0 2.56 24.0

32.5 2.51 24.5


Calculation

15cm3 of HCl is used to reach the first equivalent point where sodium hydroxide
is fully reacted. This reaction produced sodium chloride and sodium hydrogen carbonate
which is converted from sodium carbonate.

The chemical equations involved are shown below,

NaOH + HCl  NaCl + H2O

Na2CO3 + HCl  NaHCO3 + NaCl

20.5cm3 of HCl is used to reach the second equivalent point where sodium
hydrogen carbonate is converted into sodium chloride.

The chemical equation involved is shown below,

NaHCO3 + HCl  NaCl + H2O + CO2

For the chemical equation shown below,

Na2CO3 + 2HCl  2NaCl + H2O + CO2

The volume of HCl required to complete the following reaction is

(20.5 – 15) 2 cm3 = 11 cm3


=

= 2.2 10-2 mol dm-3

The concentration of Na2CO3 is 2.2x10-2 mol dm-3

The molecular weight of Na2CO3 is 106 g/mol

The concentration of Na2CO3 in the sample solution in the unit of g/dm3

= (2.2x10-2) mol/dm3 * (106) g/mol

= 2.332 g/dm3

Given that the weight of the sample solution is 5 g / dm3

The weight percentage (wt%) of Na2CO3 in the sample solution

= 100%

= 46.64%
For the chemical equation shown below,

NaOH + HCl  NaCl + H2O

The volume of HCl required to complete the following reaction is

(15 – 5.50) cm3 = 9.5 cm3

Using: =

= 3.8 10-2 mol dm-3

The concentration of NaOH in the sample solution is 3.8 10-2 mol dm-3.

Given that the molecular weight of NaOH is 40g/mol.

The concentration of NaOH in the sample solution in the unit of g/dm3

= (3.8 10-2) mol/dm3 (40.0) g/mol

= 1.52 g/dm3
Given that the weight of the sample solution is 5 g/dm3.

The weight percentage (wt %) of NaOH in the sample solution

= 100%

= 30.40%
Questions

1. Calculate the respective concentrations of Na2CO3 and NaOH in the sample


solution.
A. The concentration of Na2CO3 in sample solution is 2.2 x 10-2 mol dm-3 while the
concentration of NaOH in sample solution is 3.8 x 10-2 mol dm-3.

2. Hence calculate the weight percentage (wt%) of each alkali in the sampl solution.
A. The weight percentage of Na2CO3 in sample solution is 46.64% while the weight
percentage of NaOH in sample solution is 30.40%.
Discussion
This is the experiment using pH meter to determine the concentration and weight
percentage of Na2CO3 and NaOH.

A pH meter is an electronic instrument used to measure the pH (acidity or


alkalinity) of a liquid (though special probes are sometimes used to measure the pH of
semi-solid substances). A typical pH meter consists of a special measuring probe (a glass
electrode) connected to an electronic meter that measures and displays the pH reading.

Using pH meter to do this experiment is not an easy one. First of all, both end
points are not very well visible (curve is not too steep), so accurate judgement of color is
very important. Second, during titration (especially before first end point) it is possible to
lose some carbon dioxide from the solution. If that happens we will overestimate amount
of sodium hydroxide and underestimate amount of carbonate. Other important point is
that both calculations of amount of carbonate and hydroxide are based on two
measurements, which means final error can be twice as large as in the case of simple
titration with one end point.

The titration curve of pH versus the amount of HCl added into the sample was
plotted and it showed a curve with two buffer regions and two equivalence points. This is
because there are two different compounds in the sample solution, which is strong base
and another one is weak base. It is also show that the equivalence points and doesn’t
always occur at the pH7 due to it has to depend on how much of the OH- or H+ moles is
exhibited in the solution being titrated.

From the calculation we get, the weight percentage of sodium hydroxide is


30.40% while the weight percentage of sodium carbonate is 46.64%.

Precaution steps

• In this experiment, it is advise that we must wear glove when doing this
experiment. This is because the chemical is strong acid.

• The pH metre has to be calibrate before using it with 2-3 buffer solution which
have the pH 4 , pH 7 and pH 10.
Conclusion

• The weight percentage of Na2CO3 is 46.64%.


• The weight percentage of NaOH is 30.40%.
.

Reference

• Reference Book
Graham Hill and John Holman (2000). Fifth Edition Chemistry: Chemistry In Context.
Nelson Edition.

• Website
http://www.google.com.my/search?
hl=en&q=acid+base+titration+by+using+pH+meter

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PH_meter

http://www.titrations.info/acid-base-titration-sodium-hydroxide-and-carbonate