The risks of ERT include: 1.

Estrogen stimulation of the inner lining of the uterus, increasing the risk of cancer of the uterus. This risk of cancer of the uterus can be reduced by simultaneous use of progesterone. 2. Estrogen stimulation of the breast tissue, increasing the risk of breast cancer. This breast cancer risk is not reduced by progesterone. This risk is significantly increased if there is a family history of breast cancer. 3. Slight increase in the risk of blood clot formation in the deep veins of the pelvis and the legs (deep vein thrombosis). Blood clots in the deep veins can break off and travel to obstruct the arteries in the lungs (pulmonary embolism). The symptoms of pulmonary embolism include chest pain, shortness of breath, and even life threatening shock. 4. Rarely estrogen can promote gallstone formation and aggravate existing liver disease.

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