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- I. INTRODUCTION
- A. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
- B. Conventions and Notation
- 1. Units
- 2. Relativistic Notation
- 3. Fourier Transforms
- 4. The Dirac Delta “Function”
- C. A Na¨ıve Relativistic Theory
- II. CONSTRUCTING QUANTUM FIELD THEORY
- A. Multi-particle Basis States
- 1. Fock Space
- 2. Review of the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
- 3. An Operator Formalism for Fock Space
- 4. Relativistically Normalized States
- B. Canonical Quantization
- 1. Classical Particle Mechanics
- 2. Quantum Particle Mechanics
- 3. Classical Field Theory
- 4. Quantum Field Theory
- C. Causality
- III. SYMMETRIES AND CONSERVATION LAWS
- A. Classical Mechanics
- B. Symmetries in Field Theory
- 1. Space-Time Translations and the Energy-Momentum Tensor
- 2. Lorentz Transformations
- C. Internal Symmetries
- 1. U(1) Invariance and Antiparticles
- 2. Non-Abelian Internal Symmetries
- D. Discrete Symmetries: C, P and T
- 1. Charge Conjugation, C
- 2. Parity, P
- 3. Time Reversal, T
- IV. EXAMPLE: NON-RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS (“SECOND QUANTIZATION”)
- V. INTERACTING FIELDS
- A. Particle Creation by a Classical Source
- B. More on Green Functions
- C. Mesons Coupled to a Dynamical Source
- D. The Interaction Picture
- E. Dyson’s Formula
- F. Wick’s Theorem
- G. S matrix elements from Wick’s Theorem
- H. Diagrammatic Perturbation Theory
- I. More Scattering Processes
- J. Potentials and Resonances
- VI. EXAMPLE (CONTINUED): PERTURBATION THEORY FOR NONRELATIVISTIC QUANTUM
- VII. DECAY WIDTHS, CROSS SECTIONS AND PHASE SPACE
- A. Decays
- B. Cross Sections
- C. D for Two Body Final States
- VIII. MORE ON SCATTERING THEORY
- A. Feynman Diagrams with External Lines oﬀ the Mass Shell
- 1. Answer One: Part of a Larger Diagram
- 2. Answer Two: The Fourier Transform of a Green Function
- 3. Answer Three: The VEV of a String of Heisenberg Fields
- B. Green Functions and Feynman Diagrams
- C. The LSZ Reduction Formula
- 1. Proof of the LSZ Reduction Formula
- IX. SPIN 1/2 FIELDS
- A. Transformation Properties
- B. The Weyl Lagrangian
- C. The Dirac Equation
- 1. Plane Wave Solutions to the Dirac Equation
- D. γ Matrices
- 1. Bilinear Forms
- 2. Chirality and γ5
- E. Summary of Results for the Dirac Equation
- 2. Space-Time Symmetries
- 3. Dirac Adjoint, γ Matrices
- 4. Bilinear Forms
- 5. Plane Wave Solutions
- X. QUANTIZING THE DIRAC LAGRANGIAN
- A. Canonical Commutation Relations
- B. Canonical Anticommutation Relations
- C. Fermi-Dirac Statistics
- D. Perturbation Theory for Spinors
- 1. The Fermion Propagator
- 2. Feynman Rules
- E. Spin Sums and Cross Sections
- XI. VECTOR FIELDS AND QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS
- A. The Classical Theory
- B. The Quantum Theory
- C. The Massless Theory
- 1. Minimal Coupling
- 2. Gauge Transformations
- D. The Limit µ→0
- 1. Decoupling of the Helicity 0 Mode
- E. QED
- F. Renormalizability of Gauge Theories

Michael Luke

(Dated: Fall, 2007)

These notes are perpetually under construction. Please let me know of any typos or errors. I claim little originality; these notes are in large part an abridged and revised version of Sidney Coleman’s ﬁeld theory lectures from Harvard.

2

Contents

I. Introduction A. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics B. Conventions and Notation 1. Units 2. Relativistic Notation 3. Fourier Transforms 4. The Dirac Delta “Function” C. A Na¨ Relativistic Theory ıve II. Constructing Quantum Field Theory A. Multi-particle Basis States 1. Fock Space 2. Review of the Simple Harmonic Oscillator 3. An Operator Formalism for Fock Space 4. Relativistically Normalized States B. Canonical Quantization 1. Classical Particle Mechanics 2. Quantum Particle Mechanics 3. Classical Field Theory 4. Quantum Field Theory C. Causality III. Symmetries and Conservation Laws A. Classical Mechanics B. Symmetries in Field Theory 1. Space-Time Translations and the Energy-Momentum Tensor 2. Lorentz Transformations C. Internal Symmetries 1. U (1) Invariance and Antiparticles 2. Non-Abelian Internal Symmetries D. Discrete Symmetries: C, P and T 1. Charge Conjugation, C 2. Parity, P 3. Time Reversal, T IV. Example: Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics (“Second Quantization”) V. Interacting Fields A. Particle Creation by a Classical Source B. More on Green Functions 5 5 9 9 10 14 15 15 20 20 20 22 23 23 25 26 27 29 32 37 40 40 42 43 44 48 49 53 55 55 56 58 60 65 65 69

3

C. Mesons Coupled to a Dynamical Source D. The Interaction Picture E. Dyson’s Formula F. Wick’s Theorem G. S matrix elements from Wick’s Theorem H. Diagrammatic Perturbation Theory I. More Scattering Processes J. Potentials and Resonances VI. Example (continued): Perturbation Theory for nonrelativistic quantum mechanics VII. Decay Widths, Cross Sections and Phase Space A. Decays B. Cross Sections C. D for Two Body Final States VIII. More on Scattering Theory A. Feynman Diagrams with External Lines oﬀ the Mass Shell 1. Answer One: Part of a Larger Diagram 2. Answer Two: The Fourier Transform of a Green Function 3. Answer Three: The VEV of a String of Heisenberg Fields B. Green Functions and Feynman Diagrams C. The LSZ Reduction Formula 1. Proof of the LSZ Reduction Formula IX. Spin 1/2 Fields A. Transformation Properties B. The Weyl Lagrangian C. The Dirac Equation 1. Plane Wave Solutions to the Dirac Equation D. γ Matrices 1. Bilinear Forms 2. Chirality and γ5 E. Summary of Results for the Dirac Equation 1. Dirac Lagrangian, Dirac Equation, Dirac Matrices 2. Space-Time Symmetries 3. Dirac Adjoint, γ Matrices 4. Bilinear Forms 5. Plane Wave Solutions X. Quantizing the Dirac Lagrangian A. Canonical Commutation Relations 70 71 73 77 80 83 88 92 95 98 101 102 103 106 106 107 108 110 111 115 117 125 125 131 135 137 139 142 144 146 146 146 147 148 149 151 151

Perturbation Theory for Spinors 1. The Fermion Propagator 2. Vector Fields and Quantum Electrodynamics A. Gauge Transformations D. The Limit µ → 0 1. Feynman Rules E. Canonical Anticommutation Relations C. The Quantum Theory C. QED F. Decoupling of the Helicity 0 Mode E. Fermi-Dirac Statistics D. Spin Sums and Cross Sections XI. The Massless Theory 1. Minimal Coupling 2. How Not to Quantize the Dirac Lagrangian B.4 or. The Classical Theory B. Renormalizability of Gauge Theories 151 153 155 157 159 161 166 168 168 173 176 179 182 184 186 187 189 .

For example. Why does the addition of Lorentz invariance complicate quantum mechanics? The answer is very simple: in relativistic systems. I. In a quantum system. The proton and antiproton beams travel perpendicular to the page. this has profound implications. colliding at the origin of the tracks.5 jet #2 jet #3 jet #1 jet #4 e+ FIG. additional symmetries simplify physical problems. the radius of the curvature of the path of a particle provides a means to determine its mass. At higher energies where relativity is important things gets more complicated. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics Usually. and therefore identify it. because if E ∼ mc2 there is enough energy to pop additional particles out of the vacuum (we will discuss how this works at length in the course). before and after the scattering process. I.1 The results of a proton-antiproton collision at the Tevatron. The tracks are curved because the detector is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld. There is only one particle. Each of the curved tracks indicates a charged particle in the ﬁnal state. E mc2 where relativity is unimportant. the number of particles is not conserved. INTRODUCTION A. in non-relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM) rotational invariance greatly simpliﬁes scattering problems. in p-p (proton-proton) scattering with a centre of mass energy E > mπ c2 (where mπ ∼ 140 MeV is the mass of the neutral pion) the process p + p → p + p + π0 . scattering a particle in potential. NRQM provides a perfectly adequate description. Consider. For example. The incident particle is in some initial state. At low energies. for example. and one can fairly simply calculate the amplitude for it to scatter into any ﬁnal state.

particle anti-particle pairs can pop out of the vacuum. On the other hand. the up and down quarks which make up the proton have masses of order 10 MeV (λc 20 fm) and are conﬁned to a region the size of a proton. I. the problems with NRQM run much deeper.511 MeV × 197 MeV fm ∼ 4 × 10−11 cm. E > 2mp c2 . but rather the state of lowest energy . what started out as a simple two-body scattering process has turned into a many-body problem. or about 1 fm. The most energetic accelerator today is the Tevatron at Fermilab. However.6 is possible. so typical collisions produce a huge slew of particles (see Fig. There is therefore no sense in which it is possible to localize a particle in a region smaller than its Compton wavelength. So there is no problem localizing an electron on atomic scales. we can localize the particle in an arbitrarily small region. or about 103 mp c2 . Consider the familiar problem of a particle in a box. and it is necessary to calculate the amplitude to produce a variety of many-body ﬁnal states. L < ¯ /µc (where h/µc ≡ λc . Therefore. is 1/0. the ¯ ∼h uncertainty in the energy of the system is large enough for particle creation to occur . or about 10−3 Bohr radii. one. Clearly we will have to construct a many-particle quantum theory to describe such a process. one can produce an additional proton-antiproton pair: p+p→p+p+p+p and so on. and relativistic eﬀects will be huge. which collides protons and antiprotons with energies greater than 1 TeV. this does not introduce any problems. h In the relativistic regime. In atomic physics. and the relativistic corrections due to multi-particle states are small.1). as long as we accept an arbitrarily large uncertainty in its momentum. or even zero . In the nonrelativistic description. The smaller the distance scale you look at it.which in an interacting quantum theory is not the zero-particle state. At higher energies. But relativity tells us that this description must break down if the box gets too small. this translates to an uncertainty of order hc/L in the particle’s energy. ¯ For L small enough.511 MeV/c2 ).is complicated. Even the vacuum state . the more complex its structure. The Compton wavelength of an electron (mass µ = 0. Consider a particle of mass µ trapped in a container with reﬂecting walls of side L. Thus. where NRQM works very well. Clearly the internal structure of the proton is much more complex than a simple three quark system. there is no such thing in relativistic quantum mechanics as the two. outside Chicago. The uncertainty in the particle’s momentum is therefore of order ¯ /L. making the number of particles in the container uncertain! The physical state of the system is a quantum-mechanical superposition of states with diﬀerent particle number. as a brief contemplation of the uncertainty principle indicates. the Compton wavelength of the particle).

because observables separated by spacelike separations will be able to . which is that of causality. In both relativistic and nonrelativistic quantum mechanics observables correspond to Hermitian operators. even incomplete (usually perturbative) solutions will give us a great deal of understanding and predictive power. having diﬀerent observables at each space-time point) we will run into trouble with causality.e. λc = h/µ. in a relativistic theory we have to be more careful. As a general conclusion. is totally intractable analytically. the number of particles in the box is therefore indeterminate. and so on. The ﬁrst casualty of relativistic QM is the position operator. Nevertheless. However. and it will not arise in the formalism which we will develop. I. single particle quantum theory. Even the nature of the vacuum state in the real world. the uncertainty in the energy of the system allows particle production to occur. observables are not attached to spacetime points . a horribly complex sea of quark-antiquark pairs.2 A particle of mass µ cannot be localized in a region smaller than its Compton wavelength. as we shall see in this course. one is always dealing with the inﬁnite body problem. body problem! In principle. however. So we will have to set up a formalism to handle many-particle systems. Furthermore. relativistic. Thus. gluons. it should be clear from this discussion that our old friend the position operator X from NRQM does not make sense in a relativistic theory: the {| x } basis of NRQM simply does not exist.7 L L (a) L> h/µc > (b) L< <h/µc FIG. except in very simple toy models (typically in one spatial dimension). There is a second. it is impossible to solve any relativistic quantum system exactly. In NRQM. you cannot have a consistent. since particles cannot be localized to arbitrarily small regions. the momentum operator. because making a measurement forces the system into an eigenstate of the corresponding operator. electron-positron pairs as well as more exotic beasts like Higgs condensates and gravitons.one simply talks about the position operator. ¯ At smaller scales. intimately related problem which arises in a relativistic quantum theory. Unless we are careful about only deﬁning observables locally (i.

So imagine that Observer One has an electron and measures the x−component of its spin. In this case their measurements can interfere with one another. since there are reference frames in which Observer One’s second measurement preceded Observer Two’s measurement (recall that the time-ordering of spacelike separated events depends on the frame of reference). Therefore. so observables at point 1 must commute with all observables at point 2. One and Two. the next time Observer One measures σx it has a 50% chance of being in the opposite spin state. forcing it into an eigenstate of the spin operator σx . so the time ordering is frame dependent. One could be here and Observer Two in the Andromeda galaxy. Classical physics got away from action at a distance by introducing electromagnetic and gravitational ﬁelds.). and the dynamics of the ﬁelds are purely local . and don’t refer to particular space-time points. This of course violates causality.8 interfere with one another. They have communicated at faster than the speed of light. Now suppose that these two observers both decide to measure non-commuting observables.. measurements made at the two points cannot interfere. Consider applying the NRQM approach to observables to a situation with two observers. A Lorentz boost will move the observer O2 along the hyperboloid (∆t)2 − |∆x|2 = constant. If Observer Two measures a non-commuting observable such as σy . at space-time points x1 and x2 .. as well . which are separated by a spacelike interval. and they are not in causal contact. and so she can immediately tell that Observer Two has made a measurement. Observer t t´ O2 O1 boost O1 O2 FIG.3 Observers O1 and O2 are separated by a spacelike interval. The ﬁelds are deﬁned at all spacetime points.the dynamics of the ﬁeld at a point xµ are determined entirely by the physical quantities (the various ﬁelds and their derivatives. and leads to all sorts of paradoxes (maybe Observer Two then changes his mind and doesn’t make the measurement . I. The problem with NRQM in this context is that it has action at a distance built in: observables are universal.

or more commonly MeV. 1. From the fact that velocity (L/T ) and action (M L2 /T ) are dimensionless we ﬁnd that length and time have units of eV−1 . in these units all dimensionful quantities may be expressed in terms of a single unit. we can get away from action at a distance by promoting all of our operators to quantum ﬁelds: operator-valued functions of space-time whose dynamics is purely local. (I. h h Indeed. O2 (x2 )] = 0 for (x1 − x2 )2 < 0. or.) This makes life much simpler. relativistic quantum mechanics is usually known as “Quantum Field Theory. In the old units it is α= e2 1 = . which is a fundamental dimensionless number characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction to a single charged particle. For example. Consider the ﬁne structure constant. which we usually take to be mass. therefore. equivalently. Spacelike separated measurements cannot interfere with one another. Conventions and Notation Before delving into QFT. In relativistic quantum mechanics. energy (since E = mc2 becomes E = m). or between frequency ω and energy E = ¯ ω. we must have [O1 (x1 ). in which h ¯ = c = 1 (we do this by choosing units such that one unit of velocity is c and one unit of action is h ¯ . we will set a few conventions for the notation we will be using in this course. When we refer to the dimension of a quantity in this course we mean the mass dimension: if X has dimensions of (mass)d . Units We will choose the “natural” system of units to simplify formulas and calculations. if O1 (x1 ) and O2 (x2 ) are observables which are deﬁned at the space-time points x1 and x2 . GeV (=109 eV) or TeV (=1012 ) eV.1) B.” The requirement that causality be respected then simply translates into a requirement that spacelike separated observables commute: as our example demonstrates. In particle physics we usually take the choice of energy unit to be the electron-Volt (eV). Hence. we no longer have to distinguish h between wavenumber k and momentum P = ¯ k. we write [X] = d. by setting ¯ = 1.04 . 4π¯ c h 137.9 as the charge density) at that point.

Just to remind you of the distinction. 2) subscripts are labels. 2) basis.4) .7 MeV 134 MeV 938. 4π 137. h ¯ = 6.97 × 10−11 MeV cm (I. h It is easy to convert a physical quantity back to conventional units by using the following.3) where 1 fm (femtometer. not coordinates).2) By multiplying or dividing by these factors you can convert factors of MeV into sec or cm.58 × 10−22 MeV sec h ¯ c = 1. Relativistic Notation When dealing with non-orthogonal coordinates. not indices: e1 and e2 are vectors.10 In the new units it is α= e2 1 = . consider the set of two-dimensional non-orthogonal coordinates on the plane shown in Fig.6 MeV 5. Some particle masses in natural units are: particle e− (electron) µ− (muon) π 0 (pion) p (proton) n (neutron) B (B meson) W + (W boson) Z 0 (Z boson mass 511 keV 105.4). Now consider the coordinates of a point x in the (1. it is of crucial importance to distinguish between contravariant coordinates xµ and covariant coordinates xµ .04 Thus the charge e has units of (¯ c)1/2 in the old units. but it is dimensionless in the new units. (I.279 GeV 80. A useful conversion is h ¯ c = 197 MeV fm (I. or “fermi”)= 10−13 cm is a typical nuclear scale. In terms of the unit vectors e1 ˆ and e2 (where the (1.2 GeV 91.3 MeV 939. ˆ ˆ ˆ we can write x = x1 e1 + x2 e2 ˆ ˆ (I.17 GeV 2.

5) which are also shown on the ﬁgure. we have x · y = x · (y 1 e1 + y 2 e2 ) ˆ ˆ = y 1 x · e1 + y 2 x · e2 ˆ ˆ = y 1 x1 + y 2 x2 = y1 x1 + y2 x2 (I. However. away from Euclidean space (in particular. From the deﬁnitions above. which is how you made it this far without worrying about the distinction. x2 ) are deﬁned by x1.6) so scalar products are always obtained by pairing upper with lower indices. it is simple to take the scalar product of two vectors. Note that for orthogonal axes in ﬂat (Euclidean) space there is no distinction between covariant and contravariant coordinates.2 ≡ x · e1. in Minkowski space-time) the distinction is crucial.2 ˆ (I. The covariant coordinates (x1 . these distances are marked on the diagram. The relation between contravariant and covariant coordinates is straightforward to derive: xi = (x1 e1 + x2 e2 ) · ei ˆ ˆ ˆ = xj (ˆi · ej ) e ˆ ≡ gij xj where we have deﬁned the metric tensor gij ≡ ei · ej . ˆ ˆ (I. Given the two sets of coordinates. which deﬁnes the contravariant coordinates x1 and x2 .8) (I.11 2 x 1 FIG.4 Non-orthogonal coordinates on the plane. I.7) .

and upper indices are always paired with lower indices (see Fig.13) . repeated indices are summed over.10) Minkowskian space is a simple situation in which we use non-orthogonal basis vectors. 2. (I. −r).5)). If in doubt. this notation was designed to make your life easier! Under a Lorentz transformation a four-vector transforms according to matrix multiplication: x µ (I. a µ b µ = aµ bµ .9) j j (note that gi = δi . It easily follows that this is Lorentz invariant. the Kronecker delta). The ﬂat Minkowski space metric is 1 0 0 0 0 −1 0 µν gµν = g = 0 0 −1 0 0 0 −1 0 .12 Note that we are also using the Einstein summation convention: repeated indices (always paired upper and lower) are implicitly summed over. above. (I. 0 (I. The scalar product of two four-vectors is written as aµ bµ = aµ bµ = aµ gµν bν = a0 b0 − a · b. Note that as before. If you get an expression like aµ bµ (this isn’t a scalar because the upper and lower indices aren’t paired) or (worse) aµ bµ cµ dµ (which indices are paired with which?) you’ve probably made a mistake. Despite our location. (I. it’s sometimes helpful to include explicit summations until you get the hang of it. x. but since we will always be working in ﬂat space in this course. z) where µ = 0. This ensures that the result of the contraction is a Lorentz scalar. The contravariant components of the four-vector xµ are (t. xi = g ij xj . Remember. because time and space look diﬀerent. r) = (t. Note that some texts deﬁne gµν as minus this (the so-called “east-coast convention”). y. One can also deﬁne the metric tensor with raised and mixed indices via the relations k gij ≡ gik gj ≡ gik gjl g kl (I. we’ll adopt the “west-coast convention”. The metric tensor g ij raises indices in the natural way.12) = Λµ ν xν . we will use gµν and ηµν interchangeably. 1.11) Often the ﬂat Minkowski space metric is denoted ηµν . 3. The metric tensor is used to raise and lower indices: xµ = gµν xν = (t.

Note that ∂ µ Aµ = ∂ 0 A0 + ∂ j Aj (I. .17) Thus. where the 4 × 4 matrix Λµ ν deﬁnes the Lorentz transformation. we note that the variation δφ = ∂φ µ δx ∂xµ (I. Special cases of Λµ ν include space rotations and “boosts”. .− . To see how derivatives transform under Lorentz transformations.5 Be careful with indices. Thus we deﬁne ∂µ ≡ and ∂µ ≡ ∂ = ∂xµ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ . I.15) is a scalar and we would therefore like to write it as δφ = ∂µ φδxµ .− .− . ∂/∂xµ transforms as a covariant (lower indices) four-vector.13 a b c FIG.18) ∂ = ∂xµ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ .16) (I.19) . The set of all Lorentz transformations may be deﬁned as those transformations which leave gµν invariant: gµν = gαβ Λα µ Λβ ν . which look as follows: 1 0 0 0 0 cos θ − sin θ 0 µ Λ ν (rotation about z−axis) = 0 sin θ cos θ 0 0 0 0 1 γ −γv 0 0 γ 0 0 −γv Λµ ν (boost in x direction) = 0 0 0 0 1 0 (I.14) 0 1 with γ = (1 − v 2 )−1/2 . ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z (I. ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z (I.

Fourier Transforms We will frequently need to go back and forth between the position (x) and momentum (or wavenumber) (p or k) space descriptions of a function. β) is an even permutation of (0. 3.1.1. ν. that is. β) is an odd permutation of (0.21) µναβ = −1 if (µ. Also remember that in Minkowski space. You should is a relativistically invariant tensor. we will make use (particularly in the section of Dirac ﬁelds) of the completely antisymmetric tensor µναβ (often known as the Levi-Civita tensor).2. while dn x’s have no such factors. 0 if (µ.22) and (I. which is frequently a very useful thing to do. . α. that under a Lorentz transformation the properties (I.2.3). ν.23) We have introduced two conventions here which we shall stick to in the rest of the course: the sign of the exponentials (we could just as easily have reversed the signs of the exponentials in Eqs. As you should ˜ recall. via the Fourier transform. where E = k0 and t = x0 . so Fourier transforming a ﬁeld will allow us to write it as a sum of modes with deﬁnite momentum.2. 0123 Note that you must be careful with raised or lowered indices. ν.21) still hold. (2π)n (I. (I. It is deﬁned by 1 if (µ. k · x = Et − k · x. α.3).14 and ∂ µ ∂µ = ∂2 − ∂t2 2 = 2. α. Finally. the Fourier transform f (k) allows any function f (x) to be expanded on a continuous basis of plane waves. plane waves correspond to eigenstates of momentum.every time you see a dn k it comes with a factor of (2π)−n .20) The energy and momentum of a particle together form the components of its 4-momentum P µ = (E.3). (I.23)) and the placement of the factors of 2π. In n dimensions we therefore write f (x) = dn k ˜ f (k)eik·x . β) is not a permutation of (0. In quantum mechanics. (I.1. since verify that (like the metric tensor g µν ) µναβ =− 0123 = 1. p). The latter convention will prove to be convenient because it allows us to easily keep track of powers of 2π .22) ˜ It is simple to show that f (k) is therefore given by ˜ f (k) = dn xf (x)e−ik·x (I.

in this section we will illustrate with a simple example the somewhat abstract worries about causality we had in the previous section. A Na¨ Relativistic Theory ıve Having dispensed with the formalities.δ(xn ) which satisﬁes dn x δ (n) (x) = 1.15 4. x = 0. dx (I. however. and discover that the theory violates causality: a single free particle will have a nonzero amplitude to be found to have travelled faster than the speed of light. C. in n dimensions we may deﬁne the n dimensional delta function δ (n) (x) ≡ δ(x0 )δ(x1 ).25) We will also make use of the (one-dimensional) step function 1. (I.29) Note that the symbol x will sometimes denote an n-dimensional vector with components xµ .29) . The δ function can be written as the Fourier transform of a constant. . we will usually distinguish three-vectors (x) from four-vectors (x or xµ ). (I. as in Eq.26). We will construct a relativistic quantum theory as an obvious relativistic generalization of NRQM..28) (I.26) (I. Similarly. as in Eq. For clarity.30) x<0 x>0 (I. δ (n) (x) = 1 (2π)n dn p eip·x .. which satisﬁes ∞ dx δ(x) = 1 −∞ (I. θ(x) = 0.24) and δ(x) = 0. and sometimes a single coordinate.it should be clear from context. which satisﬁes dθ(x) = δ(x). The Dirac Delta “Function” We will frequently be making use in this course of the Dirac delta function δ(x).27) (I. (I.

it appears that we can make this theory relativistic simply by replacing the Hamiltonian in Eq.33) (I. (Note that in our notation.34) (I. while the components of k are just numbers.36) is | ψ(t ) = e−iH(t −t) | ψ(t) .35) (I.39) . spinless particle of mass µ. 2µ (I. P is an operator on the Hilbert space. (I.38) by the relativistic Hamiltonian Hrel = The basis states now satisfy Hrel | k = ωk | k (I.) These states are normalized k |k = δ (3) (k − k ) and satisfy the completeness relation d3 k | k k | = 1. the components of momentum form a complete set of commuting observables). ∂t (I.38) (I. In NRQM.40) |P |2 + µ2 .16 Consider a free.37) If we rashly neglect the warnings of the ﬁrst section about the perils of single-particle relativistic theories. (I. An arbitrary state | ψ is a linear combination of momentum eigenstates |ψ = d3 k ψ(k) | k (I.32) ψ(k) ≡ k |ψ . The time evolution of the system is determined by the Schr¨dinger equation o i ∂ | ψ(t) = H| ψ(t) .36) where the operator H is the Hamiltonian of the system. The state of the particle is completely determined by its three-momentum k (that is. for a free particle of mass µ. The solution to Eq. (I.31) where P is the momentum operator. We may choose as a set of basis states the set of momentum eigenstates {| k }: P | k = k| k (I. H| k = |k|2 |k .

it is instructive to show this explicitly.43) Now let us imagine that at t = 0 we have localized a particle at the origin: | ψ(0) = | x = 0 . (2π)3/2 (I. (I. (I.44) and (I. X.46) Inserting the completeness relation Eq. (I. This theory looks innocuous enough.45) After a time t we can calculate the amplitude to ﬁnd the particle at the position x. The angular integrals are straightforward. giving x |ψ(t) = − i (2π)2 r ∞ −∞ k dk eikr e−iωk t .42) |k|2 + µ2 . This is just x |ψ(t) = x |e−iHt | x = 0 .41) (remember.47) where we have deﬁned k ≡ |k| and r ≡ |x|.33) and using Eqs. we are setting h = 1 in everything that follows).44) ∂ ψ(k) ∂ki (I.48) . (I. if we prepare a particle localized at one position. matrix elements ¯ of X are given by k |Xi | ψ = i and position eigenstates by k |x = 1 e−ik·x .40) we can express this as x |ψ(t) = = = 0 d3 k x |k k |e−iHt | x = 0 d3 k ∞ 1 ik·x −iωk t e e (2π)3 k 2 dk π dθ sin θ (2π)3 0 2π 0 dφ eikr cos θ e−iωk t (I.17 where ωk ≡ is the energy of the particle. In the {| k } basis. we introduce the position operator. To measure the position of a particle. (I. We will ﬁnd that. Nevertheless. satisfying [Xi . (I. Pj ] = iδij (I. there is a non-zero probability of ﬁnding it outside of its forward light cone at some later time. We have already argued on general grounds that it cannot be consistent with causality.

49) means that for distances r 1/µ there is a negligible chance to ﬁnd the particle outside the light-cone. (I. it is deformed to the dashed path (where the radius of the semicircle is inﬁnite). Changing variables to z = −ik. The integral is along the real axis. For r > t. This is in accordance with our earlier arguments based on the uncertainty principle: multi-particle eﬀects become important when you are working at distance scales of order the Compton wavelength of a particle. and the integrand is analytic everywhere in the plane except for branch cuts at k = ±iµ. so the theory is acausal. so the integral may be rewritten as an integral along the branch cut. The contour integral can be deformed as shown in Fig. for a point outside the particle’s forward light cone. (I.6 Contour integral for evaluating the integral in Eq.49) The integrand is positive deﬁnite. e−µr in Eq.48). i. so the integral is non-zero. Consider the integral Eq.18 k Im k+µ > 0 2 2 Im iµ k+µ < 0 2 2 .iµ FIG. Note the exponential envelope. We will see in a few lectures that one of the most striking predictions of QFT is the existence of antiparticles with the same mass as. the single-particle theory will not lead to measurable violations of causality. For r > t. the integrand vanishes exponentially on the circle at inﬁnity in the upper half plane.6). The only contribution to the integral comes from integrating along the branch cut. we can prove using contour integration that this integral is non-zero. x |ψ(t) = − i (2π)2 r i −µr = e 2π 2 r ∞ µ ∞ µ √ √ 2 2 2 2 (iz)d(iz)e−zr e z −µ t − e− z −µ t dz ze−(z−µ)r sinh z 2 − µ2 t . (I.e. but opposite . arising from the square root in ωk .48) deﬁned in the complex k plane. I. (I. How does the multi-particle element of quantum ﬁeld theory save us from these diﬃculties? It turns out to do this in a quite miraculous way. so at distances much greater than the Compton wavelength of a particle. (I. The particle has a small but nonzero probability to be found outside of its forward light-cone. The original path of integration is along the real axis.

As it turns out. what appears to be a particle travelling from O1 to O2 in the frame on the left looks like an antiparticle travelling from O2 to O1 in the frame on the right.19 quantum numbers of.3). . In a Lorentz invariant theory. Therefore. the amplitudes exactly cancel. there is no Lorentz invariant distinction between emitting a particle at x and absorbing it at y. both processes must occur. we must add the amplitudes for these two processes. and they are indistinguishable. (I. Now. since the time ordering of two spacelikeseparated events at points x and y is frame-dependent. the corresponding particle. so causality is preserved. if we wish to determine whether or not a measurement at x can inﬂuence a measurement at y. and emitting an antiparticle at y and absorbing it at x: in Fig.

but instead is simply a parameter. k2 . the unphysical question “where is the particle at time t” is replaced by physical questions such as “what is the expectation value of the observable O (the electric ﬁeld. Therefore.4) (II. CONSTRUCTING QUANTUM FIELD THEORY A. particles are deﬁned analogously. k2 = δ (3) (k1 − k1 )δ (3) (k2 − k2 ) + δ (3) (k1 − k2 )δ (3) (k2 − k1 ) H| k1 . The ﬁrst thing we need to do is deﬁne the states of the system. k2 |k1 . k2 = (k1 + k2 )| k1 . {| k }. .. The momentum operator is ﬁne. but now this is only a piece of the Hilbert space.5) We will postpone the study of fermions until later on.20 II. these states are even under particle interchange1 | k1 . (II. momentum is a conserved quantity and can be measured in an arbitrarily small volume element. In other words.” Therefore. like the time t. position is no longer an observable. when we discuss spinor ﬁelds. Because the particles are bosons. causal quantum theory.4. 1 P|0 = 0 (II. we now proceed to set up the formalism for a consistent theory. k2 = (ωk1 + ωk2 )| k1 . k1 . etc. There is also a zero-particle state. The basis of two-particle states is {| k1 . we can’t use position eigenstates as our basis states. Multi-particle Basis States 1. k2 P | k1 . They also satisfy k1 . x)..) at the space-time point (t. In QFT. the energy density.3. Fock Space Having killed the idea of a single particle. relativistic. . k2 = | k2 .) However. k2 }.2) (II. The basis for our Hilbert space in relativistic quantum mechanics consists of any number of spinless mesons (the space is called “Fock Space”.3) (II. the vacuum | 0 : 0 |0 = 1 H| 0 = 0. we choose as our single particle basis states the same states as before. we saw in the last section that a consistent relativistic theory has no position operator.1) States with 2.

This is nice because the wavefunctions in the box are normalizable.. We need a better description. not any single k. k2 k1 . ny . As a pedagogical device. ky .6) (The factor of 1/2! is there to avoid double-counting the two-particle states. n(k ). An interaction term in the Hamiltonian which creates a particle will connect the single-particle wave-function to the two-particle wave-function.. An arbitrary state will have a wave function over the single-particle basis which is a function of 3 variables (kx .7) where the n(k)’s give the number of particles of each momentum in the state. | . (II. and the allowed values of k are discrete... .10) This is bears a striking resemblance to a system we have seen before. kz ). In terms of N (k) the Hamiltonian and momentum operator are H= k (II.21 and the completeness relation for the Hilbert space is 1 = |0 0| + d3 k| k k | + 1 2! d3 k1 d3 k2 | k1 . N (k)| n(·) = n(k)| n(·) . Since translation by L must leave the system unchanged.. . We can then write our states in the occupation number representation.8) 2πnx 2πny 2πnz . a wave function over the two-particle basis which is a function of 6 variables. L L L (II. 1 For a single oscillator. it will often be convenient in this course to consider systems conﬁned to a periodic box of side L. HSHO = ω(N + 2 ).8) is written | n(·) where the (·) indicates that the state depends on the function n for all k’s. Fock space . where N is the excitation level of the oscillator. The number operator N (k) counts the occupation number for a given k.. nz integers. the two-particle to the three-particle.9) ωk N (k) P = k kN (k). (II. . (II. Sometimes the state (II. the simple harmonic oscillator. k2 | + .) This is starting to look unwieldy. .n(k). the allowed momenta must be of the form k= for nx . preferably one which has no explicit multi-particle wave-functions.. This will be a mess.. and so forth.

15) that Ha† | E = (E + ω)a† | E Ha| E = (E − ω)a† | E . q] = −i)..13) The raising and lowering operators a and a† are deﬁned as q + ip q − ip a = √ . E − ω. If H| E = E| E .H. and up to an (irrelevant) overall constant..O. the Hamiltonians for the two theories look the same. N | n = n| n . it follows from (II.14) so there is a ladder of states with energies . Since ψ |a† a| ψ = |a| ψ |2 ≥ 0..15) (II. Review of the Simple Harmonic Oscillator The Hamiltonian for the one dimensional S. . it is easy to show that the constant of proportionality cn = 1/ n!. [H. | n = cn (a† )n | 0 ..12) (the transformation is canonical because it preserves the commutation relation [P. (II. . E + 2ω. 2µ 2 (II.. In terms of p and q the Hamiltonian (II. The higher states are made by repeated applications of a† . (II. We can make use of that correspondence to deﬁne a compact notation for our multiparticle theory..16) (II. E.17) √ Since n |aa† | n = n + 1. X → q = µωX µω (II. 2. there is a lowest weight state | 0 satisfying N | 0 = 0 and a| 0 = 0.11) is HSHO = ω 2 (p + q 2 ).11) We can write this in a simpler form by performing the canonical transformation P √ P → p = √ . is HSHO = P2 1 2 + ω µX 2 . a† ] = ωa† . a† = √ 2 2 and satisfy the commutation relations [a. [H. E + ω. a] = −ωa where H = ω(a† a + 1/2) ≡ ω(N + 1/2). 2 (II.22 is in a 1-1 correspondence with the space of an inﬁnite system of independent harmonic oscillators. X] = [p. a† ] = 1.

| 0 . P | k = k| k . Deﬁne creation and annihilation operators ak and a† for each momentum k (remember. | k1 . . k (II.. any observable may be written in terms of creation and annihilation operators. deﬁne creation and annihilation operators in the continuum. In fact.22) At this point we can remove the box and.21) ωk a† ak . a† ] = 0.23 3. satisﬁes ak | 0 = 0 and the Hamiltonian is H= k (II. An Operator Formalism for Fock Space Now we can apply this formalism to Fock space.} form a perfectly good basis for Fock Space.19) (II. since the normalization and completeness relations clearly treat . The vacuum state. k = a† a† | 0 k k and so on. which is what makes them so useful.20) (II. a† ] = δkk . k2 . k k k The single particle states are | k = a† | 0 . with the obvious substitutions. This is not unexpected. but will sometimes be awkward in a relativistic theory because they don’t transform simply under Lorentz transformations. 4. we are still working in a box so the allowed momenta k are discrete). k the two-particle states are | k. [ak .18) (II.23) it is easy to check that we recover the normalization condition k | k = δ (3) (k − k ) and that H| k = ωk | k . We have seen explicitly that the energy and momentum operators may be written in terms of creation and annihilation operators.. ak ] = [a† . These obey the commutation relations [ak . Relativistically Normalized States The states {| 0 . a† ] = δ (3) (k − k ). [ak . a† ] = 0 k k k (II. ak ] = [a† . Taking [ak . | k .

29) (The factor of (2π)3/2 is there by convention .24). Eq.26) Since the completeness relation. k )| k (II. The components of the four-vector k µ = (ωk . (I. But this tells us nothing about the normalization of the transformed state. This is easy to see from the completeness relation. d3 k | k k | = we must have O(Λ)| k = ωk |k ωk (II.24 spatial components of k µ diﬀerently from the time component.33). As we will show in a moment. under the Lorentz transformation (II. for states which have a nice relativistic normalization. (II. our states don’t have a nice relativistic normalization. we can see how our basis states transform under Lorentz transformations by just looking at the single-particle states. Of course. holds for both primed and unprimed states. Unfortunately. Eq.) The states | k now transform simply under Lorentz transformations: O(Λ)| k = | k . it only tells us that O(Λ)| k = λ(k. Let O(Λ) be the operator acting on the Hilbert space which corresponds to the Lorentz transformation x µ = Λµ ν xν .33). k) transform according to k µ = Λµ ν k ν .30) . under a Lorentz transformation. λ would be one. (II.it will make factors of 2π come out right in the Feynman rules we derive later on.25) where k is given by Eq. and λ is a proportionality constant to be determined. (II. Since multi-particle states are just tensor products of single-particle states.24) Therefore. (I.28) d3 k | k k |=1 (II. a state with three momentum k is obviously transformed into one with three momentum k .24) the volume element d3 k transforms as d3 k → d3 k = ωk 3 d k. ωk (II.27) which is not a simple transformation law. because d3 k is not a Lorentz invariant measure. Therefore we will often make use of the relativistically normalized states |k ≡ √ (2π)3 2ωk | k (II.

26). Since a proper Lorentz transformation doesn’t change the direction of time. such as | k . whereas states with four-vectors. (II. but the four-volume element d4 k is.25 The convention I will attempt to adhere to from this point on is states with three-vectors. are relativistically normalized. such as | k . The easiest way to derive Eq. whereas the nonrelativistically normalized states obeyed the orthogonality condition k |k = δ (3) (k − k ) the relativistically normalized states obey k |k = (2π)3 2ωk δ (3) (k − k ). which suggests that the fundamental degrees of freedom in our theory should be .31) (Note that the θ function restricts us to positive energy states.33) (II.34) (II.32) The factor of ωk compensates for the fact that the δ function is not relativistically invariant. 2k (II. (II. As we argued in the last section.26) is simply to note that d3 k is not a Lorentz invariant measure. Since the free-particle states satisfy k 2 = µ2 . are non-relativistically normalized. B. (II.) Performing the k 0 integral with the δ function yields the measure d3 k .35) (II. we can restrict k µ to the hyperboloid k 2 = µ2 by multiplying the measure by a Lorentz invariant function: d4 k δ(k 2 − µ2 ) θ(k 0 ) = d4 k δ((k 0 )2 − |k|2 − µ2 ) θ(k 0 ) d4 k = 0 δ(k 0 − ωk ) θ(k 0 ). Finally. we expect that causality will require us to deﬁne observables at each point in space-time.T. Canonical Quantization Having now set up a slick operator formalism for a multiparticle theory based on the SHO. this term is also invariant under a proper L. we now have to construct a theory which determines the dynamics of observables. 2ωk Under a Lorentz boost our measure is now invariant: d3 k d3 k = ωk ωk which immediately gives Eq.

we get t2 δS = t1 dt a ∂L − pa δqa + pa δqa ˙ ∂qa t2 t1 . . The action. For the theory to be causal. t) = T − V . φ}). this gives t2 δS = t1 dt a ∂L ∂L δqa + δ qa .37) by parts. Deﬁne the Hamiltonian H(q1 .37) Deﬁne the canonical momentum conjugate to qa by pa ≡ ∂L .qn . (II. φ(y)] = 0 for (x − y)2 < 0 (that is. we must have [φ(x).40) An equivalent formalism is the Hamiltonian formulation of particle mechanics. Classical Particle Mechanics In CPM. qn . ˙ ∂qa (II.. qn . S. ∂ qa ˙ (II.. To see how to achieve this. .38) Integrating the second term in Eq.. is deﬁned by t2 S≡ t1 L(t)dt.39) Since we are only considering variations which vanish at t1 and t2 . (II. In the quantum theory they will be operator valued functions of space-time. δS = 0. z} or {r. 1. a function of the qa ’s.36) Hamilton’s Principle then determines the equations of motion: under the variation qa (t) → qa (t) + δqa (t). Eq. φa (x). Since the δqa ’s are arbitrary. θ.37) gives the Euler-Lagrange equations ∂L = pa . p1 . y. let us recall how we got quantum mechanics from classical mechanics. ˙ ∂qa ∂ qa ˙ (II.. and the dynamics are determined by the Lagrangian. (II.26 ﬁelds. δqa (t1 ) = δqa (t2 ) = 0 the action is stationary. their time derivatives qa and the time t: L(q1 ... . where T is the kinetic energy and ˙ ˙ ˙ V the potential energy. for x and y spacelike separated). Explicitly.41) . (II.. ... ˙ (II. We will restrict ourselves to systems where L has no explicit dependence on t (we will not consider time-dependent external potentials).. q2 .. pn ) = a pa qa − L. the last term vanishes. q1 . the state of a system is deﬁned by generalized coordinates qa (t) (for example {x.

42) gives Hamilton’s equations ∂H ∂H = qa . rather than the more familiar Schr¨dinger picture.42) = where we have used the Euler-Lagrange equations and the deﬁnition of the canonical momentum. This is because we are going to work in the Heisenberg picture2 .27 Note that H is a function of the p’s and q’s. H is the energy of the system (we shall show this later on when we discuss symmetries and conservation laws. we are considering operators with no explicit time dependence in their deﬁnition). Quantum Particle Mechanics Given a classical system with generalized coordinates qa and conjugate momenta pa .44) so H is conserved. in which o the states carry the time dependence. pa (t). Varying the p’s and q’s we ﬁnd ˙ dH = a dpa qa + pa dqa − ˙ ˙ dpa qa − pa dqa ˙ ˙ a ∂L ∂L dqa − dqa ˙ ∂qa ∂ qa ˙ (II.in which states are time-independent and operators carry the time dependence.) 2. not the q’s.45) (recall we have set ¯ = 1). We will discuss this in a few lectures. Note that we have included explicit time dependence in the operators qa (t) and pa (t). In fact. (II. At this point let’s drop the ˆ’s on the operators . 2 Actually. qb (t)] = [ˆa (t). ˙ = −pa . Eq.it should be obvious h by context whether we are talking about quantum operators or classical coordinates and momenta. we will later be working in the “interaction picture”. ˙ ∂pa ∂qa (II. but for free ﬁelds this is equivalent to the Heisenberg picture. with the commutation relations ˆ ˆ [ˆa (t). we obtain the quantum theory by replacing the functions qa (t) and pa (t) by operator valued functions qa (t). Varying p and q separately.43) Note that when L does not explicitly depend on time (that is. . qb (t)] = −iδab p ˆ (II. pb (t)] = 0 q ˆ p ˆ [ˆa (t). (In both cases. its time dependence arises solely from its dependence on the qa (t)’s and qa (t)’s) we have ˙ dH = dt = a a ∂H ∂H pa + ˙ qa ˙ ∂pa ∂qa qa pa − pa qa = 0 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ (II.

47) Thus. In the o SP.48) Since physical matrix elements must be the same in the two pictures. Notice that Eq. The time dependence of the system is carried by the states through the Schr¨dinger equation o i d | ψ(t) dt S = H| ψ(t) S =⇒ | ψ(t) S = e−iH(t−t0 ) | ψ(t0 ) S . (II. OS = OH (0)).52) . Heisenberg states are related to the Schr¨dinger states via the unitary transformation o | ψ(t) H = eiH(t−t0 ) | ψ(t) S . not the states. qa (t)]. which carry the time dependence: OH (t) = eiHT OS e−iHt = eiHT OH (0)e−iHt (II. This is simply because we never measure states directly. (II. the HP will turn out to be much more convenient than the SP. (II.50) (since at t = 0 the two descriptions coincide.51) gives dqa (t) = i[H. there are many equivalent ways to deﬁne quantum mechanics which give the same physics. H].48) we see that in the HP it is the operators. dt (II. (II. (II.46) However. One such formalism is the Heisenberg picture (HP). any formalism which diﬀers from the SP by a transformation on both the states and the operators which leaves matrix elements invariant will leave the physics unchanged. dt (II. operators with no explicit time dependence in their deﬁnition are time independent.51) Since we are setting up an operator formalism for our quantum theory (recall that we showed in the ﬁrst section that it was much more convenient to talk about creation and annihilation operators rather than wave-functions in a multi-particle theory). (II. all we measure are the matrix elements of Hermitian operators between various states. Therefore.28 You are probably used to doing quantum mechanics in the “Schr¨dinger picture” (SP). In the HP states are time independent | ψ(t) H = | ψ(t0 ) H. This is the solution of the Heisenberg equation of motion i d OH (t) = [OH (t). S ψ(t) |OS | ψ(t) S = S ψ(0) |eiHt OS e−iHt | ψ(0) S = H ψ(t) |OH (t)| ψ(t) H.49) from Eq.

Thus. the most general Lagrangian we could write down for the ﬁelds could couple ﬁelds at diﬀerent coordi- . F (q. p)] = i∂F/∂pa where F is a function of the p’s and q’s. H] = i∂H/∂pa and we recover the ﬁrst of Hamilton’s equations. Therefore [qa . Of course. and this turns our equation among polynomials of quantum operators into an equation among classical variables. In general. but rather a label on the ﬁeld. (II. ﬂuctuations are small. The subscript a labels the ﬁeld. pn q m = p n q m. this does not mean the quantum and classical mechanics are the same thing. q. But in a general quantum state. It is like t in particle mechanics.54) Since the Lagrangian for particle mechanics can couple coordinates with diﬀerent labels a. or equivalently the vector and scalar potentials) are deﬁned at each point in space-time. it is easy to show that pa = −∂H/∂qa . for ﬁelds which aren’t scalars under Lorentz transformations (such as the electromagnetic ﬁeld) it will also denote the various Lorentz components of the ﬁeld. In a classical ﬁeld theory. the Heisenberg equations of motion for an arbitrary operator A relate one polynomial in p. We could label them just as before. Everything we said before about classical particle mechanics will go through just as before with the obvious replacements → a d3 x a δab → δab δ (3) (x − x ). Note that x is not a generalized coordinate. in the classical limit. and expectation values of products in classical-looking states can be replaced by products of expectation values. describing its position in spacetime. dqa ∂H . but instead we’ll call our generalized coordinates φa (x). qx. such as classical electrodynamics. and so the expectation values will NOT obey the same equations as the corresponding operators. p and ˙ q to another.53) Similarly. The generalized coordinates of the system are just the components of the ﬁeld at each point x. = dt ∂pa (II. observables are constructed out of the q’s and p’s. the Heisenberg picture has the nice property ˙ that the equations of motion are the same in the quantum theory and the classical theory. Classical Field Theory In this quantum theory.a where the index x is continuous and a is discrete. However. 3.29 A useful property of commutators is that [qa . observables (in this case the electric and magnetic ﬁeld. We can take the expectation value of this equation to obtain an equation relating ˙ the expectation values of observables. We will be rather cavalier about going to a continuous index from a discrete index on our observables.

x).59) The analogue of the conjugate momentum pa is the time component of Πµ . However. we will usually be sloppy and follow the rest of the world in calling it the Lagrangian. since we are trying to make a causal theory. Note that both L and S are Lorentz invariant.30 nates x.58) and the integral of the total derivative in Eq. ∂µ φa (x)) (II. (II.60) where H(x) is the Hamiltonian density. we don’t want to introduce action at a distance . since we are attempting to construct a Lorentz invariant theory and the Lagrangian only depends on ﬁrst derivatives with respect to time.57) vanishes since the δφa ’s vanish on the boundaries of integration.56) The function L(t.55) where the action is given by t2 S= t1 dtL(t) = d4 xL(t. (II. we will only include terms with ﬁrst derivatives with respect to spatial indices. . Π0 . x) is called the “Lagrange density”.57) where we have deﬁned Πµ ≡ a ∂L ∂(∂µ φa ) (II. Thus we derive the equations of motion for a classical ﬁeld. ∂L = ∂µ Πµ . while L is not. a ∂φa (II. Furthermore. We can write a Lagrangian of this form as L(t) = a d3 xL(φa (x).the dynamics of the ﬁeld should be local in space (as well as time). Once again we can vary the ﬁelds φa → φa + δφa to obtain the Euler-Lagrange equations: 0 = δS = a d4 x = a = a ∂L ∂L δφa + δ∂µ φa ∂φa ∂(∂µ φa ) ∂L d4 x − ∂µ Πµ δφa + ∂µ [Πµ δφa ] a a ∂φa ∂L − ∂µ Πµ δφa d4 x a ∂φa (II. The Hamiltonian of the system is H= a d3 x Π0 ∂0 φa − L ≡ a d3 x H(x) (II. and we will often a a abbreviate it as Πa . however.

The Klein-Gordon equation was actually ﬁrst written down by Schr¨dinger.62) For the theory to be physically sensible.64) (II. H must be bounded below.68) . at the same time he wrote down o i 1 ∂ ψ(x) = − ∂t 2µ 2 ψ(x). the conjugate momenta are Πµ = ±∂ µ φ so the Hamiltonian is H = ±1 2 d3 x Π2 + ( φ)2 − bφ2 . 2 (II. and we must have b < 0. (II.61) √ The parameter a is really irrelevant here. So let’s take instead L = ± 1 ∂µ φ∂ µ φ + bφ2 . we can easily get rid of it by rescaling our ﬁelds φ → φ/ a. 2 What does this describe? Well.31 Now let’s construct a simple Lorentz invariant Lagrangian with a single scalar ﬁeld. (II. Deﬁning b = −µ2 .67) This looks promising.66) may be made arbitrarily large.66) Each term in H is positive deﬁnite: the ﬁrst corresponds to the energy required for the ﬁeld to change in time. we have the Lagrangian (density) L= and corresponding Hamiltonian H= 1 2 1 2 ∂µ φ∂ µ φ − µ2 φ2 (II. (II. In fact. The simplest thing we can write down that is quadratic in φ and ∂µ φ is L = 1 a ∂µ φ∂ µ φ + bφ2 . and Eq. there must be a state of lowest energy. (II.65) d3 x Π2 + ( φ)2 + µ2 φ2 . this equation is called the Klein-Gordon equation.65) is the Klein-Gordon Lagrangian. (II.63) (II. The equation of motion for this theory is ∂µ ∂ µ + µ2 φ(x) = 0. (II. the overall sign of H must be +. the second to the energy corresponding to spatial variations. Since there are ﬁeld conﬁgurations for which each of the terms in Eq. and the last to the energy required just to have the ﬁeld around in the ﬁrst place.

φ(x) is not a wavefunction. t)] = iδab δ (3) (x − y). The energy is unbounded below and the theory has no ground state. φa (x)].67). Then we’ll try and ﬁgure out what we’ve created. dt dt (II. This should not be such a surprise. t). t) and Πa (y. φb (y. Quantum Field Theory To quantize our classical ﬁeld theory we do exactly what we did to quantize CPM. with little more than a change of notation. and we just showed that the Hamiltonian is positive deﬁnite. t)] = 0 [φa (x. t). p = k.71) . ∂µ ∂ µ + µ2 ψ(x) = 0. satisfying dΠa (x) dφa (x) = i[H. though.) The Hamiltonian will still be positive deﬁnite. and the negative energy solutions correspond to the annihilation of a particle of the same mass by the ﬁeld operator. t)] = [Π0 (x. 4. it is a Hermitian operator. t).72) (II. Πa (x)].70) ∂2 + ∂t2 2 − µ2 ψ = 0 (II. since we already know that single particle relativistic quantum mechanics is inconsistent. E = ± p2 + µ2 . we know E = ω. so from E 2 = p2 + µ2 he also got o − or.32 In quantum mechanics for a wave ei(k·x−ωt) . So let’s quantize our classical ﬁeld theory and construct the quantum ﬁeld. so this equation is just E = p2 /2µ. φa (x. (II. Schr¨dinger knew about relativity. (It took eight years after the discovery of quantum mechanics before the negative energy solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation were correctly interpreted by Pauli and Weisskopf. In Eq. Replace φ(x) and Πµ (x) by operator-valued functions satisfying the commutation relations [φa (x. Of course. in our notation. Π0 (y. Π0 (y. t) are Heisenberg operators.67) correspond to the creation of a particle of mass µ by the ﬁeld operator. (II.69) Unfortunately. It is a classical ﬁeld. (II. this is a disaster if we want to interpret ψ(x) as a wavefunction as in the Schr¨dinger o Equation: this equation has both positive and negative energy solutions. Soon it will be a quantum ﬁeld which is also not a wavefunction. It will turn out that the positive energy solutions to Eq. = i[H. b As before.

φ(y. (II. φ(x. 0) eik·x .66) that the operators satisfy ˙ ˙ φa (x) = Π(x). (II. (Since φ is a solution to the KG equation this is completely general.71). (2π)3 2ωk (II.78) † Using the equal time commutation relations Eq. we can calculate [αk . αk ]: † [αk .75) Recalling that the Fourier transform of e−ik·x is a delta function: d3 x −i(k−k )·x e = δ (3) (k − k ) (2π)3 we get d3 x † φ(x. 0)e−ik·x = αk + α−k (2π)3 d3 x ˙ † φ(x. 3 (2π) ωk (II. (II. 0)e−ik·x = (−iωk )(αk − α−k ) (2π)3 and so αk = † αk = 1 2 1 2 (II. 0)] e−ik·x+ik ·y 6 4 (2π) ωk ωk 1 d3 xd3 y i i [iδ (3) (x − y)] + [iδ (3) (x − y)] e−ik·x+ik ·y = − 6 4 (2π) ωk ωk 1 d3 x 1 1 = + e−i(k−k )·x 4 (2π)6 ωk ωk 1 = δ (3) (k − k ). We can therefore write φ(x) as φ(x) = † d3 k αk e−ik·x + αk eik·x (II. it must be Hermitian. 0) e−ik·x 3 (2π) ωk d3 x i φ(x.) The plane wave solutions to Eq.77) d3 x i φ(x.74) † where the αk ’s and αk ’s are operators. We can solve for αk and αk . Since φ(x) is going to be an observable. 0) − ∂0 φ(x. † † which is why we have to have the αk term. 0)] + [φ(y. Π(x) = 2 φ − µ2 φ (II. (II. 0). First of all. Let’s try and get some feeling for φ(x) by expanding it in a plane wave basis. αk ] = − 1 d3 xd3 y i i ˙ ˙ [φ(x. 0) = ∂0 φ(x. φ(x. 0).79) . 0) = † d3 k αk eik·x + αk e−ik·x † d3 k(−iωk ) αk eik·x − αk e−ik·x .33 For the Klein-Gordon ﬁeld it is easy to show using the explicit form of the Hamiltonian Eq. 0) + ∂0 φ(x.67) are exponentials eik·x where k 2 = µ2 .76) (II.73) and so the quantum ﬁelds also obey the Klein-Gordon equation.

then [ak . k (II. we obtain H= d3 k 2 ak a−k e−2iωk t (−ωk + k 2 + µ2 ) 2ωk 2 + a† ak (ωk + k 2 + µ2 ) k 1 2 2 + ak a† (ωk + k 2 + µ2 ) k 2 + a† a† e2iωk t (−ωk + k 2 + µ2 ) . So the quantum ﬁeld φ(x) is a sum over all momenta of creation and annihilation operators: φ(x) = d3 k √ 3/2 ak e−ik·x + a† eik·x .84) This is almost. k −k 2 Since ωk = k 2 + µ2 .85) Commuting the ak and a† in Eq.66)). ak ] = −ωk ak k k (II. we can substitute the expression for the ﬁelds in terms of a† and ak and the comk mutation relation Eq. they had k better have the right commutation relations with the Hamiltonian [H. the time-dependent terms drop out and we get (II. (II. If we deﬁne ak ≡ αk /(2π)3/2 2ωk .80) to obtain an expression for the Hamiltonian in terms of the a† ’s and k ak ’s.84) we get k H= 1 d3 k ωk a† ak + 2 δ (3) (0) . Then H= 1 2 k ωk ak a† + a† ak = k k k a† ak + k 1 2 (II.81) (2π) 2ωk Actually. a† ] = δ (3) (k − k ). [H. k (II. From the explicit form of the Hamiltonian (Eq.86) δ (3) (0)? That doesn’t look right. H= d3 k ωk a† ak .34 √ This is starting to look familiar.82) so that they really do create and annihilate mesons. After some algebra (do it!). (II. k (II. k k (II. if we are to interpret ak and a† as our old annihilation and creation operators.80) These are just the commutation relations for creation and annihilation operators. but not quite. a† ] = ωk a† . k (II. what we had before.87) . Let’s go back to our box normalization for a moment. (II.83) H= 1 2 d3 k ωk ak a† + a† ak .

k (II.35 so the δ (3) (0) is just the inﬁnite sum of the zero point energies of all the modes. In general relativity the curvature couples to the absolute energy. φ2 (x2 ).φn (xn ): (II. which is that if you ask a silly question in quantum ﬁeld theory. It’s just an overall energy shift. and these are ﬁnite. So instead of H. But there is a lesson to be learned here. In fact. φn (xn ). So by a judicious choice of ordering. Asking about absolute energies is a silly question3 .. not zero. and since there are an inﬁnite number of modes we got an inﬁnite 2 energy in the ground state. We can do this by noticing that the zero point energy of the SHO is really the result of an ordering ambiguity..the energy density is at least 56 orders of magnitude smaller than dimensional analysis would suggest). However.89) instead of the usual ω(a† a+1/2). . We won’t worry about gravity in this course. we should be able to eliminate the (unphysical) inﬁnite zero-point energy.90) as the usual product. For a set of free ﬁelds φ1 (x1 ). deﬁne the normal-ordered product :φ1 (x1 ). this becomes HSHO = ω a† a (II. and so it is a physical quantity. we can use :H : and the inﬁnite energy of the ground state goes away: :H:= d3 k ωk a† ak . Only energy diﬀerences have any physical meaning.. (II. this uniquely speciﬁes the ordering. for reasons nobody understands. if you ask an unphysical question (and it may not 3 except if you want to worry about gravity.. In general in quantum ﬁeld theory. you will get a silly answer.88) But when p and When p and q are numbers.91) That was easy. and it doesn’t matter where we deﬁne our zero of energy. The energy of each mode starts at 1 ωk . as do annihilation operators. but with all the creation operators on the left and all the annihilation operators on the right. This is no big deal. 2 ω 2 2 2 (p + q ). Since creation operators commute with one another. For example.. . when quantizing the simple harmonic oscillator we could have just as well written down the classical Hamiltonian HSHO = ω (q − ip)(q + ip). this is the same as the usual Hamiltonian q are operators. the observed absolute energy of the universe appears to be almost precisely zero (the famous cosmological constant problem . let’s use this opportunity to banish it forever. since the inﬁnity gets in the way.

kaons. we ﬁnd p |φ(x. The classical theory of a scalar ﬁeld that we wrote down has nothing to do with particles.92) Thus. and from the energy-momentum relation we saw that the parameter µ in the Lagrangian corresponded to the mass of the particle. 0)| 0 = d3 k 1 −ik·x e |k . At this point it’s worth stepping back and thinking about what we have done. However. the quanta of the electromagnetic (vector) ﬁeld are photons. p |x = e−ip·x (II. quantizing the classical ﬁeld theory immediately forced upon us a particle interpretation of the ﬁeld: these are generally referred to as the quanta of the ﬁeld. however. For the scalar ﬁeld.36 be at all obvious that it’s unphysical) you will get inﬁnity for your answer. it pops out a linear combination of momentum eigenstates. while fermions like the electron are the quanta of the corresponding fermi ﬁeld. (2π)3 2ωk (II. or the Higgs boson of the Standard Model). Hence. creates a particle . these commutation relations also ensured that the Hamiltonian had a discrete particle spectrum. acting on the vacuum. the ﬁeld operator φ may still seem a bit abstract . when the ﬁeld operator acts on the vacuum.81).93) = e−ip·x .) Taking the inner product of this state with a momentum eigenstate | p . these are spinless bosons (such as pions. The canonical commutation relations we imposed on the ﬁelds ensured that the Heisenberg equation of motion for the operators in the quantum theory reproduced the classical equations of motion. 0)| 0 . we have φ(x. At this stage. thus building the correspondence principle into the theory. From the ﬁeld expansion Eq. there is not such a simple correspondence to a classical ﬁeld: the Pauli exclusion principle means that you can’t make a coherent state of fermions. let us consider the interpretation of the state φ(x. (Think of the ﬁeld operator as a hammer which hits the vacuum and shakes quanta out of it. To get a better feeling for it. so there is no classical equivalent of an electron ﬁeld. (II.an operator-valued function of space-time from which observables are built. Taming these inﬁnities is a major headache in QFT.94) we see that we can interpret φ(x. 0) as an operator which. it simply had as solutions to its equations of motion travelling waves satisfying the energy-momentum relation of a particle of mass µ. As we will see later on. In this latter case. Recalling the nonrelativistic relation between momentum and position eigenstates. 0)| 0 = d3 k 1 −ik·x e p |k (2π)3 2ωk (II.

but the convention was established by Heisenberg and Pauli. For convenience. Suppose we prepare a particle at some spacetime point y. What is the amplitude to ﬁnd it at point x? From Eq.4 So let’s check this explicitly. C.97) (II. . t). because the equal time commutation relations [φ(x. t)] = iδ (3) (x − y) (II. thus. the amplitude to ﬁnd it at x is given by the expectation value 0 |φ(x)φ(y)| 0 . let’s revisit the question we asked at the end of Section 1 about the amplitude for a particle to propagate outside its forward light cone.93).37 at position x.96) (II. it’s not obvious that the quantum theory is Lorentz invariant. Causality Since the Lagrangian for our theory is Lorentz invariant and all interactions are local. However.98) (the ± convention is opposite to what you might expect. we expect there should be no problems with causality in our theory. we create a particle at y by hitting it with φ(y). we ﬁrst split the ﬁeld into a creation and an annihilation piece: φ(x) = φ+ (x) + φ− (x) where φ+ (x) = φ− (x) = d3 k √ ak e−ik·x . so who are we to argue?). when it acts on an n particle state it has an amplitude to produce both an n + 1 and an n − 1 particle state. Π0 (y. Then we have 0 |φ(x)φ(y)| 0 = 0 |(φ+ (x) + φ− (x))(φ+ (y) + φ− (y))| 0 = 0 |φ+ (x)φ− (y)| 0 4 In the path integral formulation of quantum ﬁeld theory. (2π)3/2 2ωk d3 k √ a† eik·x (2π)3/2 2ωk k (II. Since it contains both creation and annihilation operators. which you will study next semester.95) treat time and space on diﬀerent footings. (II. Lorentz invariance of the quantum theory is manifest. First of all.

the function D(x − y) does not vanish for spacelike separated points. (II. .104) to boost x − y to equal times. φ− (y)] + [φ− (x). (II. From Eq. φ+ (y)] = D(x − y) − D(y − x).104) where Λ is any connected Lorentz transformation.5 5 Another way to see this is to note that a spacelike vector can always be turned into minus itself via a connected Lorentz transformation. t). we have D(x − y) ∼ e−µ|x−y| . O2 (x2 )] = 0 for (x1 − x2 )2 < 0.100) and hence. we can always use the property (II. spacelike separated observables must commute: [O1 (x1 ). Because d3 k/ωk is a Lorentz invariant measure. spacelike separated measurements can’t interfere and the theory preserves causality. Hence. (II. φ(y)] = 0 for all spacelike separated ﬁelds. How can we reconcile this with the result that space-like measurements commute? Recall from Eq. In fact. D(Λx) = D(x) (II. hence. this vanishes for spacelike separations. (I. t)] = 0 for any x and y.99).38 = 0 |[φ+ (x). a† ]| 0 e−ik·x+ik ·y = k 3 2√ω ω (2π) k k = d3 k e−ik·(x−y) (2π)3 2ωk ≡ D(x − y). by the equal time commutation relations. D(x − y) is manifestly Lorentz invariant . φ− (y)]| 0 d3 k d3 k 0 |[ak . D(x − y) = D(y − x) and the commutator of the ﬁelds vanishes. φ(y. This means that for spacelike separations.102) Since all observables are constructed out of ﬁelds. so we must have [φ(x).103) It is easy to see that.47) we studied in Section 1: d D(x − y) = dt d3 k −ik·(x−y) e . (I.99) Unfortunately. (2π)3 (II. (II. There is always a reference frame in which spacelike separated events occur at equal times. for two spacelike separated events at equal times. it is related to the integral in Eq. if they do.101) outside the lightcone.1) that in order for our theory to be causal. we have [φ(x). we know that [φ(x. unlike D(x − y). we just need to show that ﬁelds commute at spacetime separations. Now. (II. φ(y)] = [φ+ (x).

At higher order more complicated processes can occur. Writing φ(x) in terms of a† ’s and ak ’s. each normal mode evolves independently of the others. there will be a piece which looks like a† 1 a† 2 ak3 ak4 . A more general theory describing real particles must have additional terms in the Lagrangian which describe interactions. There is no scattering. which carries no charge and is its own antiparticle. we are going to derive some more exact results from ﬁeld theory which will prove useful. because in Eq. and in fact. At second order in perturbation theory we can get 2 → 4 scattering. D. occurring with an amplitude proportional to λ2 . We will study charged ﬁelds shortly. containing two annihilation and two creation operators. But before we set up perturbation theory and scattering theory. and the amplitude for the scattering process will be proportional to λ. consider adding the following potential energy term to the Lagrangian: L = L0 − λφ(x)4 (II. The ﬁeld now has self-interactions. This k k will contribute to 2 → 2 scattering when acting on an incoming 2 meson state. so the dynamics are nontrivial. no way to measure anything.65) is a free ﬁeld theory: it describes particles which simply propagate with no interactions. which means that in the quantum theory particles don’t interact. The two amplitudes cancel for spacelike separations! Note that this is for the particular case of a real scalar ﬁeld. This is where we are aiming. (II. and in that case the two amplitudes which cancel are the amplitude for the particle to travel from x to y and the amplitude for the antiparticle to travel from y to x. Classically. For example. .39 This puts into equations what we said at the end of Section 1: causality is preserved. For example. We will have much more to say about the function D(x) and the amplitude for particles to propagate in Section 4.103) the two terms represent the amplitude for a particle to propagate from x to y minus the amplitude of the particle to propagate from y to x. Interactions The Klein-Gordon Lagrangian Eq. or pair production. (II.105) where L0 is the free Klein-Gordon Lagrangian. To see how such a potential aﬀects the dynamics of the ﬁeld quanta. when we study interactions. we see that the interaction term k has pieces with n creation operators and 4 − n annihilation operators. consider the potential as a small perturbation (so that we can still expand the ﬁelds in terms of solutions to the free-ﬁeld Hamiltonian).

” Given some general transfor- . As a simple example. A symmetry (L(qi + α. SYMMETRIES AND CONSERVATION LAWS The dynamics of interacting ﬁeld theories. Since in quantum ﬁeld theory we won’t be able to solve anything exactly. qi )) has resulted in a conservation law.2) (III. symmetry arguments will be extremely important. are extremely complex. there is a corresponding conserved quantity. It is useful because it allows you to make exact statements about the solutions of a theory without solving it explicitly. P ≡ p1 + p2 = − ˙ ˙ + . In this chapter we will look at this question in detail and develop some techniques which will allow us to extract dynamical information from the symmetries of a theory. q2 ). and from the Euler-Lagrange equations ˙ pi = − ˙ ∂V ∂V ∂V ˙ . L depends on t only through the coordinates qi and their derivatives). The resulting equations of motion are not analytically soluble. ˙ ˙ We also saw earlier that when ∂L/∂t = 0 (that is. H (the energy) is therefore a conserved quantity when the system is invariant under time translation. ˙2 1 ˙2 2 The momenta conjugate to the qi ’s are pi = mi qi . A. then dH/dt = 0. (??). we ﬁrst need to deﬁne “symmetry. the particles aren’t attached to springs or anything else which deﬁnes a ﬁxed reference frame) then the system is invariant under the shift qi → qi + α. in more complicated interacting theories it is often possible to discover many important features about the solution simply by examining the symmetries of the theory. such as φ4 theory in Eq.40 III. ˙ and ∂V /∂q1 = −∂V /∂q2 . To prove Noether’s theorem. This is a very general result which goes under the name of Noether’s theorem: for every symmetry. where the Lagrangian is L = T − V .1) If V depends only on q1 − q2 (that is. ∂qi ∂q1 ∂q2 (III. The total momentum of the system is conserved. so P = 0. Nevertheless. consider two particles in one dimension in a potential L = 1 m1 q1 + 2 m2 q2 − V (q1 . qi ) = L(qi . Classical Mechanics Let’s return to classical mechanics for a moment. free ﬁeld theory (with the optional addition of a source term. as we will discuss) is the only ﬁeld theory in four dimensions which has an analytic solution. In fact.

t). t2 ) − F (qa (t1 ). Actually. a transformation is a symmetry iﬀ DL = dF/dt for some function F (qa . Why is this a good deﬁnition? Consider the variation of the action S: ˙ t2 t2 DS = t1 dtDL = t1 dt dF = F (qa (t2 ). Dr = e.4) so DL = dL/dt. DL = 0. pi = mi qi and Dqi = 1. 1. DL = a ∂L ∂L Dqa + D qa ˙ ∂qa ∂ qa ˙ pa Dqa + pa Dqa ˙ ˙ = a = d dt pa Dqa a (III. Space translation: qi → qi + α. even if the system looks nothing like particle mechanics. for example. qa (t) → qa (t + λ) = qa (t) + λdqa /dt + O(λ2 ). First of all. L(t. DL = dF/dt. ˙ ˙ dt (III. For time e ˆ ˆ translation..41 mation qa (t) → qa (t. ˙ But by the deﬁnition of a symmetry. Dqa = dqa /dt. (III. Therefore the additional term doesn’t contribute to δS and therefore doesn’t aﬀect the equations of motion. for the transformation r → r + λˆ (translation in the e direction). You might imagine that a symmetry is deﬁned to be a transformation which leaves the Lagrangian invariant. dt (III. Then DL = 0.. Let’s apply this to our two previous examples. doesn’t satisfy this requirement: if L has no explicit t dependence. λ).5) Recall that when we derived the equations of motion. deﬁne Dqa ≡ ∂qa ∂λ (III. qa (t2 ). δqa (t1 ) = δqa (t2 ) = 0. where qa (t. So more generally. qa (t1 ). Time translation. qa . so p1 + p2 = ˙ m1 q1 + m2 q2 is conserved.3) λ=0 For example. qa (t + λ)) = L(0) + λ ˙ dL + . So d dt So the quantity a pa Dqa pa Dqa − F a = 0. this is too restrictive. t1 ).6) where we have used the equations of motion and the equality of mixed partials (Dqa = d(Dqa )/dt).7) − F is conserved. We will call any conserved quantity associated with spatial ˙ ˙ translation invariance momentum. It is now easy to prove Noether’s theorem by calculating DL in two ways. λ) = L(qa (t + λ). . 0) = qa (t). we didn’t vary the qa ’s and qa ’s at the ˙ endpoints.

because not only are conserved quantities globally conserved. we ﬁnd that the total charge Q is conserved. we have the stronger statement of current conservation. (III. in ﬁeld theory conservation laws will be of the form ∂µ J µ = 0 for some four-current J µ. B.10) λ=0 ˙ A transformation is a symmetry iﬀ DL = ∂µ F µ for some F µ (φa .9) where S is the surface of V . Eq. φa . (III. and deﬁning QV = V d3 xρ(x).8). a transformation of this form doesn’t aﬀect the equations . the same arguments must go through as well. Then Dqa = dqa /dt. λ). Integrating over some volume V . This works for classical particle mechanics. As before. I will leave it to you to show that. but not locally. However. we will call the conserved quantity associated with time translation invariance the energy of the system. In fact. they must be locally conserved as well. φa (x. just as in particle mechanics. This conserves charge globally. Again.8) This just expresses current conservation. stronger statements may be made in ﬁeld theory. Recall from electromagnetism that the charge density satisﬁes ∂ρ + ∂t · = 0.42 2. Time translation: t → t + λ. we have dQV =− dt ·=− v S dS · (III. This is the Hamiltonian. justifying our previous assertion that the Hamiltonian is the energy of the system. Symmetries in Field Theory Since ﬁeld theory is just the continuum limit of classical particle mechanics. Therefore. Since the canonical commutation relations are set up to reproduce the E-L equations of motion for the operators. 0) = φa (x). For example. Taking the surface to inﬁnity. we consider the transformations φa (x) → φa (x. DL = dL/dt. in a theory which conserves electric charge we can’t have two separated opposite charges simultaneously wink out of existence. and deﬁne Dφa = ∂φa ∂λ . This means that the rate of change of charge inside some region is given by the ﬂux through the surface. x). (III. it will work for quantum particle mechanics as well. F = L and so the conserved quantity is ˙ a (pa qa ) − L.

We now have DL = a ∂L Dφa + Πµ D(∂µ φa ) a ∂φa ∂µ Πµ Dφa + Πµ ∂µ Dφa a a = a = ∂µ a (Πµ Dφa ) = ∂µ F µ a (III. we have DL = ∂µ (eµ L).. The conserved current is therefore Jµ = a Πµ Dφ − F a Πµ eν ∂ ν φa − eµ L a a = = eν Πµ ∂ ν φa − g µν L a a ≡ eν T µν (III.43 of motion. Under a shift x → x + λe. so that no charge can ﬂow out through the boundaries.12) satisfy ∂µ J µ = 0.13) 1. this gives the global conservation law dQ d ≡ dt dt d3 xJ 0 (x) = 0. we have φa (x) → φa (x + λe) = φa (x) + λeµ ∂ µ φa (x) + . so F = eµ L. where e is some ﬁxed four-vector. so Dφa (x) = eµ ∂ µ φa (x). (III. (III.. Space-Time Translations and the Energy-Momentum Tensor We can use the techniques from the previous section to calculate the conserved current and charge in ﬁeld theory corresponding to a space or time translation.11) so the four components of Jµ = a Πµ Dφa − F µ a (III.15) (III.16) . If we integrate over all space.14) Similarly. since L contains no explicit dependence on x but only depends on it through the ﬁelds φa .

a straightforward substitution of the expansion of the ﬁelds in terms of creation and annihilation operators into the expression for expression we obtained earlier for the momentum operator. it corresponds to the conserved quantity associated with time translation invariance. (III.18) where H is the Hamiltonian density we had before. So the Hamiltonian. (III. T µ0 is therefore the “energy current”. For the Klein-Gordon ﬁeld. : P := d3 k k a† ak k (III. It is important not to confuse these two uses of the term “momentum.) Similarly. the conserved charge associated with space translation. it has the simple transformation law φ(x) → φ(Λ−1 x).44 where T µν = µ ν µν a Πa ∂ φa −g L is called the energy-momentum tensor. has nothing to do with the conjugate momentum Πa of the ﬁeld φa .20) as discussed in the ﬁrst section. eν = (1. really is the energy of the system (that is. x) then we will ﬁnd the conserved charge to be the x-component ˆ of momentum. if we choose eµ = (0. we also have ∂µ T µν = 0.” 2. Lorentz Transformations Under a Lorentz transformation xµ → Λ µ ν xν a four-vector transforms as aµ → Λµ ν aν (III. Since ∂µ J µ = 0 = ∂µ T µν eν for arbitrary e.22) . as we had claimed.21) (III. Since a scalar ﬁeld by deﬁnition does not transform under Lorentz transformations.19) d3 xT 01 gives the where again we have normal-ordered the expression to remove spurious inﬁnities. 0). Note that the physical momentum P . and the corresponding conserved quantity is Q= d3 xJ 0 = d3 xT 00 = d3 x a Π0 ∂0 φa − L = a d3 xH (III.17) For time translation.

26) where in the third line we have relabelled the dummy indices. This will deﬁne a family of Lorentz transformations Λ(λ)µ ν .45 This simply states that the ﬁeld itself does not transform at all. This could be rotations about a speciﬁed axis by an angle λ. From the fact that aµ bµ is Lorentz invariant. a vector ﬁeld (spin 1) Aµ transforms as Aµ (x) → Λµ ν Aν (Λ−1 x).25) is antisymmetric. we will restrict ourselves to scalar ﬁelds at this stage in the course. As usual. To use the machinery of the previous section. This is good because there are six independent Lorentz transformations . Let us deﬁne µ ν (III. since the various components of the ﬁelds rotate into one another under Lorentz transformations. Since this holds for arbitrary four vectors aµ and bν . Fields with spin have more complicated transformation laws. (III. the value of the ﬁeld at the coordinate x in the new frame is the same as the ﬁeld at that same point in the old frame. which means there are 4(4 − 1)/2 = 6 independent components of .27) The indices µ and ν range from 0 to 3. let us consider a one parameter subgroup of Lorentz transformations parameterized by λ. . we must have µν =− νµ .24) Then under a Lorentz transformation aµ → Λµ ν aν . from which we wish to get Dφ = ∂φ/∂λ|λ=0 .23) ≡ DΛµ ν . we have Daµ = It is straightforward to show that we have 0 = D(aµ bµ ) = (Daµ )bµ + aµ (Dbµ ) = = = ( µ ν ν a bµ µν µ νa ν . (III. + aµ + µ ν bν ν µ µν a b µν νµ a ν µ b + νµ ) a ν µ b (III. For example. or boosts in some speciﬁed direction with γ = λ. (III.three rotations (one about each axis) and three boosts (one in each direction).

taking 01 → 10 cos λ − sin λ sin λ cos λ a1 a2 . it depends on x only through its dependence on the ﬁeld and its derivatives.29) =− = +1 and all other components zero. (III. (III.30) =− 2 10 a Note that the signs are diﬀerent because lowering a 0 index doesn’t bring in a factor of −1.32) ∂ φ(x). This is just the inﬁnitesimal version of a0 a1 → cosh λ sinh λ sinh λ cosh λ a0 a1 . Take the other components zero. we ﬁnd Dφ(x) = ∂ φ(Λ−1 (λ)µ ν xν ) λ=0 ∂λ ∂ = ∂α φ(x) (Λ−1 (λ)(x)α ∂λ = ∂α φ(x) D Λ−1 (λ)α β xβ = ∂α φ(x) − = − αβ x β α α β λ=0 xβ (III.46 Let’s take a moment and do a couple of examples to demystify this. we get 0 1 1a 1 1 0a Da0 = Da1 = = 1 01 a = +a1 = +a0 .33) Πµ αβ αβ x α β ∂ φ− αβ x α µβ g L (III.31) which corresponds to a boost along the x axis. (III.34) = Πµ xα ∂ β φ − xα g µβ L . (III. Using the chain rule. Then we have Da1 = Da2 = 1 2 2a 2 1 1a 12 =− 21 and all =− =− 2 12 a 2 21 a = −a2 = +a1 . . Since L is a scalar. Therefore we have DL = αβ x α β ∂ L β µα = ∂µ and so the conserved current J µ is Jµ = a αβ x g L (III. a1 a2 On the other hand. Now we’re set to construct the six conserved currents corresponding to the six diﬀerent Lorentz transformations.28) This just corresponds to the a rotation about the z axis.

is J 12 = d3 x x1 T 02 − x2 T 01 . Particles with spin carry intrinsic angular momentum which is not included in this expression . the energy momentum tensor is T 0i (x. the part of the quantity in the parentheses that is antisymmetric in α and β must be conserved. The six conserved charges are given by the six independent components of J αβ = d3 x M 0αβ = d3 x xα T 0β − xβ T 0α . they make up the conserved quantities you learned about in . So for example J 12 . t) = pi δ (3) (x − r(t)) which gives J 12 = x1 p2 − x2 p1 = (r × p)3 (III. That takes care of three of the invariants corresponding to Lorentz transformations.38) This is the ﬁeld theoretic analogue of angular momentum.35) where T µν is the energy-momentum tensor deﬁned in Eq. Together with energy and linear momentum. the conserved quantity coming from invariance under rotations about the 3 axis.39) which is the familiar expression for the third component of the angular momentum. ∂µ M µαβ = 0 where M µαβ = Πµ xα ∂ β φ − xα g µβ L − α ↔ β = xα Πµ ∂ β φ − g µβ L − α ↔ β = xα T µβ − xβ T µα (III. Note that this is only for scalar particles. we will call the conserved quantity corresponding to rotations the angular momentum. In this case. (III.this is only the orbital angular momentum.47 Since the current must be conserved for all six antisymmetric matrices αβ .37) Just as we called the conserved quantity corresponding to space translation the momentum.40) (III.36) (III. Particles with spin are described by ﬁelds with tensorial character.16). (III. That is. which is reﬂected by additional terms in the J ij . (III. We can see that this deﬁnition matches our previous deﬁnition of angular momentum in the case of a point particle with position r(t).

since they require L to have the appropriate symmetry and so tend to greatly restrict the form of L. But there’s nothing in principle wrong with this. = t pi + pi − dt dt (III. there are a number of other quantities which are experimentally known to be conserved. baryon number and lepton number which are not automatically conserved in any ﬁeld theory. The three conserved quantities partners of the angular momentum. (III. What about boosts? There must be three more conserved quantities. we see that in ﬁeld theory the relation between the T 0i ’s and the ﬁrst moment of T 00 is the result of Lorentz invariance. Experimental observation of these conservation laws in nature is crucial in helping us to ﬁgure out the Lagrangian of the real world. We could write down an expression for the energy-momentum tensor T µν without knowing the explicit form of L. Internal Symmetries Energy.” Although you are not used to seeing this presented as a separate conservation law from conservation of momentum.41) This has an explicit reference to x0 . the time. The x0 may be pulled out of the spatial integral. Therefore we get pi = d dt d3 x xi T 00 = constant. The centre of mass is replaced by the “centre of energy. is a constant. . d3 x xi T 00 (x) are the Lorentz C. and the second term. By Noether’s theorem. and the conservation law gives 0 = d 0i d t d3 x T 0i − d3 x xi T 00 J = dt dt d d d3 x T 0i + d3 x T 0i − d3 x xi T 00 = t dt dt d d d3 x xi T 00 . We will call these transformations which don’t correspond to space-time transformations internal symmetries. these must also be related to continuous symmetries. What are they? Consider J 0i = d3 x x0 T 0i − xi T 00 . which is something we haven’t seen before in a conservation law.48 ﬁrst year physics. such as electric charge. However.43) This is just the ﬁeld theoretic and relativistic generalization of the statement that the centre of mass moves with a constant velocity.42) The ﬁrst term is zero by momentum conservation. momentum and angular momentum conservation are clearly properties of any Lorentz invariant ﬁeld theory. pi . (III.

= This Lagrangian is invariant under the transformation φ1 → φ1 cos λ + φ2 sin λ φ2 → −φ1 sin λ + φ2 cos λ. (III.48) This isn’t very illuminating at this stage. and just as r2 = x2 + y 2 is invariant under real rotations. U (1) Invariance and Antiparticles Here is a theory with an internal symmetry: 2 2 L= 1 2 a=1 ∂µ φa ∂ φa − µ φa φa − g a µ 2 (φa ) 2 . (III. So the conserved current is J µ = Πµ Dφ1 + Πµ Dφ2 = (∂ µ φ1 )φ2 − (∂ µ φ2 )φ1 1 2 and the conserved charge is Q= d3 xJ 0 = ˙ ˙ d3 x(φ1 φ2 − φ2 φ1 ). We can write this in matrix form: φ1 φ2 cos λ = − sin λ sin λ cos λ φ1 φ2 . this symmetry isn’t terribly interesting. We say that L has an SO(2) symmetry. 1 2 these are invariant under the transformation (III. (III.46) In the language of group theory. with a common mass µ and a potential g g (φ1 )2 + (φ2 2 )2 .49) (III.47) Since F µ is a constant.44) 2 2 a (φa ) It is a theory of two scalar ﬁelds. Once again we can calculate the conserved charge: Dφ1 = φ2 Dφ2 = −φ1 DL = 0 → F µ = constant. (III. (III. this is known as an SO(2) transformation. But in the quantized theory it has a very nice interpretation in terms . we can just forget about it (if J µ is a conserved current.45). meaning that the transformation matrix has unit determinant. At the level of classical ﬁeld theory. φ1 and φ2 . so is J µ plus any constant).45) This is just a rotation of φ1 into φ2 in ﬁeld space. It leaves L invariant (try it) because L depends only on φ2 + φ2 and (∂µ φ1 )2 + (∂µ φ2 )2 .49 1. the O for “orthogonal” and the 2 because it’s a 2 × 2 matrix. The S stands for “special”.

it is easy to show that Q = i = d3 k (a† ak2 − a† ak1 ) k1 k2 d3 k (b† bk − c† ck ) k k (III. At this stage. c† | 0 = | k.50 of particles and antiparticles. 1 b† | 0 = √ (| k. They create linear combinations of states with type 1 and type 2 mesons. where i = 1. b† ≡ k1 √ k2 k 2 2 † a + ia† ak1 − iak2 √ ≡ . k 2 2 (III.50) into Eq. c . c† ≡ k1 √ k2 . (III. Q=i d3 k(a† ak2 − a† ak1 ). 1 .56) (III.53) It is easy to verify that the bk ’s and ck ’s also have the right commutation relations to be creation and annihilation operators. except for the fact that the terms are oﬀ-diagonal. let’s also forget about the potential term in Eq.49) gives.51) a† | 0 = | k.52) We are almost there. k2 (III. We will denote the corresponding creation and annihilation operators by a† and aki .44). k1 k2 (III. 1 − i| k. 2 ).55) = Nb − Nc . b . k 2 (III. Then we have a theory of two free ﬁelds and we can expand the ﬁelds in terms of creation and annihilation operators. which we denote ki by a† | 0 = | k. k1 Substituting the expansion φi = d3 k √ aki e−ik·x + a† eik·x ki 3/2 2ω (2π) k (III. 2. We can call them particles of type b and type c b† | 0 = | k. So let’s consider quantizing the theory by imposing the usual equal time commutation relations. They create and destroy two diﬀerent types of meson. 2 . This looks like the expression for the number operator. k k In terms of our new operators. Let’s ﬁx that by deﬁning new creation and annihilation operators which are a linear combination of the old ones: bk ≡ ck a† − ia† ak1 + iak2 √ . after some algebra. (III. so let’s work with these as our basis states.54) Linear combinations of states are perfectly good states.

2 In terms of ψ and ψ † . ψ † ] = ψ † . [Q. We say that c and b are one another’s antiparticle: they are the same in all respects except that they carry the opposite conserved charge.58) in front). In terms of creation and annihilation operators. (III.51 where Ni = dk a† aki is the number operator for a ﬁeld of type i. (III. so we clearly have b-type particles with charge +1 and c-type particles with charge −1. Now. Note that we couldn’t have a theory with b particles and not c particles: they both came out of the Lagrangian Eq. We can also see this from the commutator [Q.61) . L is L = ∂ µ ψ † ∂ µ ψ − µ2 ψ † ψ (note that there is no factor of ψ † have the expansions ψ= ψ† = d3 k √ 3/2 bk e−ik·x + c† eik·x k ck e−ik·x + b† eik·x k (III. (III.56) it is easy to show that [Q. ψ] = −ψ. ψ]: from the expression for the conserved charge Eq. whereas ψ † creates b-type particles and annihilates c’s.59) 1 2 (III. The total charge is therefore ki the number of b’s minus the number of c’s. then Q(ψ| q ) = [Q. | q is an eigenstate of the charge operator Q with eigenvalue q). ψ]| q + ψQ| q = (−1 + q)ψ| q (III. Thus ψ always changes the Q of a state by −1 (by creating a c or annihilating a b in the state) whereas ψ † acting on a state increases the charge by one. The existence of antiparticles for all particles carrying a conserved charge is a generic prediction of QFT. With the beneﬁt of hindsight we can go back to our original Lagrangian and write it in terms of the complex ﬁelds 1 ψ ≡ √ (φ1 + iφ2 ) 2 1 ψ † ≡ √ (φ1 − iφ2 ). that was all a bit involved since we had to rotate bases in midstream to interpret the conserved charge.44).57) (III. ψ and (2π) 2ωk 2ωk (2π) d3 k √ 3/2 so ψ creates c-type particles and annihilates their antiparticle b.60) If we have a state | q with charge q (that is.

Π0 (y. not operators. The transformation Eq.66) (III. and is somewhat simpler to work with. we vary them independently and assign a conjugate momentum to each: Πµ = ψ Therefore we have Πµ = ∂ µ ψ ∗ .52 so ψ| q has charge q − 1.45) may be written as ψ = e−iλ ψ. t). we clearly recover the equations of motion for φ1 and φ2 .62) This is called a U (1) transformation or a phase transformation (the “U” stands for “unitary”. as we asserted. and two real degrees of freedom in ψ.. Still. That is.63) (these are classical ﬁelds. not ψ † . which may be independently . t)] = iδ (3) (x − y). In fact. Clearly ψ and ψ ∗ are not independent. this rule of thumb works because there are two real degrees of freedom in φ1 and φ2 . Adding and subtracting these equations.) We can quantize the theory correctly and obtain the equations of motion if we follow the same rules as before.64) Similarly.67) We will leave it as an exercise to show that this reproduces the correct commutation relations for the φ ﬁelds and their conjugate momenta. so the complex conjugate of ψ is ψ ∗ .. we ﬁnd (2 + µ2 )ψ = 0. In terms of the classical ﬁelds.65) ∂L ∂L . but treat ψ and ψ ∗ as independent ﬁelds.. start with the Lagrangian L = ∂µ ψ ∗ ∂ µ ψ − µ2 ψ ∗ ψ (III. [ψ † (x. t)] = iδ (3) (x − y). t). we can now work from our ψ ﬁelds right from the start. ψ ψ (III. Πµ ∗ = . Πµ ∗ = ∂ µ ψ ψ ψ which leads to the Euler-Lagrange equations ∂µ Πµ = ψ ∂L → (2 + µ2 )ψ ∗ = 0. ψ ∂(∂µ ψ) ∂(∂µ ψ ∗ ) (III. ∂ψ (III.) Clearly a U (1) transformation on complex ﬁelds is equivalent to an SO(2) transformation on real ﬁelds. . (III. Π0 † (y. (III. We can similarly canonically quantize the theory by imposing the appropriate commutation relations [ψ(x.

. (III.. So we get the same equations of motion. gives A − A∗ = 0. since it only depends on the “length” of (φ1 . The correct way to obtain the equations of motion is to ﬁrst perform a variation δψ which is purely real. Therefore the internal symmetry group is the group of rotations in n dimensions.68) where A is some function of the ﬁelds.68) get A = 0. (III. Then taking δψ = 0 we get A∗ = 0. Consider the EulerLagrange equations for a general theory of a complex ﬁeld ψ. φa → b Rab φb (III. We ﬁrst take δψ ∗ = 0 and from Eq. Non-Abelian Internal Symmetries A theory with a more complicated group of internal symmetries is n n 2 L= 1 2 a=1 ∂µ φa ∂ φa − µ φa φa − g a=1 µ 2 (φa ) 2 .53 varied.69) Then performing a variation δψ which is purely imaginary. Later on we will show that the only consistent way to couple a matter ﬁeld to the electromagnetic ﬁeld is for the interaction to couple a conserved U (1) charge to the photon ﬁeld. φ2 . we get A = A∗ = 0. we ﬁnd an expression for the variation in the action of the form δS = d4 x(Aδψ + A∗ δψ ∗ ) = 0 (III. Combining the two. We will refer to complex ﬁelds as “charged” ﬁelds from now on. δψ = δψ ∗ . We can see how this works to give us the correct equations of motion. Just as in the ﬁrst example the Lagrangian was invariant under rotations mixing up φ1 and φ2 . A = A∗ = 0. so we can vary them independently. This gives the Euler-Lagrange equation A + A∗ = 0. 2.70) This is the same as the previous example except that we have n ﬁelds instead of just two. φn ).. at which point the U (1) charge will correspond to electric charge. A better analogue of the “charge” in this theory is baryon or lepton number..71) . If we instead apply our rule of thumb. “charged” only indicates that they carry a conserved U (1) quantum number. For a variation in the ﬁelds δψ and δψ ∗ . .. Note that since we haven’t yet introduced electromagnetism into the theory the ﬁelds aren’t charged in the usual electromagnetic sense. this Lagrangian is invariant under rotations mixing up φ1 . we imagine that ψ and ψ ∗ are unrelated.φn . (III. δψ = −δψ ∗ .

There are n(n − 1)/2 independent planes in n dimensions.3] = (∂ µ φ1 φ3 ) − (∂ µ φ3 φ1 ) µ J[2. or SU (n) × U (1). n dimensions).3] . and this theory has an SO(n) symmetry. for a theory with SO(3) invariance. For example.3] = (∂ µ φ2 φ3 ) − (∂ µ φ3 φ2 ) (III.74) the theory is invariant under the group of transformations ψa → b Uab ψb (III. For n complex ﬁelds with a common mass. Orthogonal. which is just multiplication of each of the ﬁelds by a common phase. neither do the currents or charges in the quantum theory.3] [Q[2.2] = (∂ µ φ1 φ2 ) − (∂ µ φ2 φ1 ) µ J[1.3] . We won’t be discussing non-Abelian symmetries much in the course.3] ] = iQ[1.73) This means that it not possible to simultaneously measure more than one of the SO(3) charges of a state: the charges are non-commuting observables. but we just note here that there are a number of non-Abelian symmetries of importance in particle physics. the currents are µ J[1.3] (III. We can write this as a product of a U (1) symmetry. Q[1.2] ] = iQ[2.2] ] = iQ[1.72) and in the quantum theory the (appropriately normalized) charges obey the commutation relations [Q[2. Q[1.3] . The symmetry group of the theory is the direct product of these transformations.54 where Rab is an n × n rotation matrix. and we can rotate in each of them. Q[1. and an n × n unitary matrix with unit determinant. The group of rotation matrices in n dimensions is called SO(n) (Special. and the charges of the strong .2] [Q[1. so there are n(n − 1)/2 conserved currents and associated charges. n n ∗ ∂µ ψa ∂ µ ψa a=1 2 L= −µ 2 ∗ ψa ψa −g a=1 |ψa | 2 (III. a so-called SU (n) matrix. This example is quite diﬀerent from the ﬁrst one because the various rotations don’t in general commute . The familiar isospin symmetry of the strong interactions is an SU (2) symmetry. A new feature of nonabelian symmetries is that.the group of rotations in n > 2 dimensions is nonabelian. just as the rotations don’t in general commute.75) where Uab is any unitary n×n matrix.

. Clearly. ... Uc |N (k1 ). 1. Charge Conjugation. C For convenience (and to be consistent with the notation we will introduce later).. let us refer to the b type particles created by the complex scalar ﬁeld ψ † as “nucleons” and their c type antiparticles created by ψ as “antinucleons” (this is misleading notation. We could proceed much further here into group theory and representations. N (kn ) = |N (k1 ). χ = |N (k). since real nucleons are spin 1/2 instead of spin 0 particles. k k k Since this is true for arbitrary states | χ . but then we’d never get to calculate a cross section. χ . N (kn ) . “Grand Uniﬁed Theories” attempt to embed the observed strong. Consider some general state | χ and its charge conjugate | χ . N (k2 ).. χ = c† | χ = c† Uc | χ . D.78) . so Uc = Uc = Uc . (III.. Then b† | χ ≡ |N (k). c† → ck† = Uc c† Uc = b† . which are parameterized by some continuously varying parameter and can be made arbitrarily small. we must have Uc b† = c† Uc . electromagnetic and weak charges into a single symmetry group such as SU (5) or SO(10). k k k k k k (III. Discrete Symmetries: C. Three important discrete space-time symmetries are charge conjugation (C).. P and T In addition to the continuous symmetries we have discussed in this section. and denote the corresponding single-particle states by | N (k) and | N (k) . The charges of the electroweak theory correspond to those of an SU (2) × U (1) symmetry group. Given an arbitrary state |N (k1 ). .55 interactions correspond to an SU (3) symmetry of the quarks (as compared to the U (1) charge of electromagnetism). N (k2 ). parity (P ) and time reversal (T ). N (k2 ). and k Uc b† | χ = Uc |N (k). respectively. N (kn ) composed of “nucleons” and “antinucleons” we can deﬁne a unitary operator Uc which eﬀects this discrete transformation. .76) 2 −1 † We also see that with this deﬁnition Uc = 1. theories may also have discrete symmetries which impose important constraints on their dynamics.77) (III. We can now see how the ﬁelds transform under C. hence the quotes). or k k † † b† → bk† = Uc b† Uc = c† . So we won’t delve deeper into non-Abelian symmetries at this stage. The discrete symmetry C consists of interchanging all particles with their antiparticles...

so Up | k = | − k (III. The amplitude for | ψ to evolve into | χ is therefore identical to the amplitude for | ψ to evolve into | χ : † † † χ(tf ) |Uc Uc eiH(tf −ti ) Uc Uc | ψ(ti ) = χ(tf ) |Uc eiH(tf −ti ) Uc | ψ(ti ) = χ(tf ) |eiH(tf −ti ) | ψ(ti ) . 2. which is easily seen by taking the complex conjugate of both equations. (III. since as long as ψ and ψ † always occur together in each term of the Hamiltonian it will be invariant. Similarly. Expanding the ﬁelds in terms of creation and annihilation operators. we immediately see that † † ψ → ψ = Uc ψUc = ψ † . In such a theory. however in theories with spin it gets more interesting). Denote the charge conjugates of these states by | ψ and | χ . t) → Up φ(x.79) † Why do we care? Consider a theory in which the Hamiltonian is invariant under C: Uc HUc = H (for scalars this is kind of trivial. As expected. for example. the amplitude for “nucleons” to scatter is exactly the same as the amplitude for “antinucleons” to scatter (we will see this explicitly when we start to calculate amplitudes in perturbation theory.80) So. momenta are reﬂected. C invariance immediately It is straightforward to show that any transition matrix elements are therefore unchanged by charge conjugation. x → −x. Parity. but C conjugation immediately tells us it must be true). (III. t)Up .56 A similar equation is true for annihilation operators. Clearly we will also have Up ak a† k † Up = a−k a† −k (III. P A parity transformation corresponds to a reﬂection of the axes through the origin. the transformation exchanges particle creation operators for anti-particle creation operators. Consider the amplitude for an initial state | ψ at time t = ti to evolve into a ﬁnal state | χ at time t = tf . and vice-versa.81) where Up is the unitary operator eﬀecting the parity transformation. ψ † → ψ † = Uc ψ † Uc = ψ.82) and so under a parity transformation an uncharged scalar ﬁeld has the transformation † φ(x.

In this case.84) since that is also a symmetry of L. for example. Actually. t) → φ(−x.57 d3 k † ak eik·x−iωk t + a† e−ik·x+iωk t Up k 3/2 2ωk (2π) d3 k √ a eik·x−iωk t + a† e−ik·x+iωk t = −k 2ωk (2π)3/2 −k 3k d √ = ak e−ik·x−iωk t + a† eik·x+iωk t k 2ωk (2π)3/2 = φ(−x. Just as before. But this is just a question of terminology. (III..85) for some n × n matrix Rab . Eq. t) is not unique. we call φ a pseudoscalar. (??)) where we have added a nontrivial interaction term (of which we will have much more to say shortly). so the only sensible deﬁnition of parity is Eq. In other situations.83). for example L = L0 − gψ ∗ ψφ (which we shall discuss in much more detail in the next section). In fact. if you have a number of discrete symmetries of a theory there is always some ambiguity in how you deﬁne P (or C. t) → −φ(−x. Suppose we had a theory with an additional discrete symmetry φ → −φ. t) → ∂i φa (−x. t). for that matter). t) (III. (III. we call it a scalar. to be completely general. So long as this transformation is a symmetry of L it is a perfectly decent deﬁnition of parity. The point is. this transformation φ(x. t) → ±φa (−x. Under parity. but Eq. we could deﬁne a parity transformation to be of the form φa (x.φn . then ∂0 φa (x. or T . (III. t). In this case. The simplest example is 4 L= where µναβ 1 2 a=1 ∂ µ φa ∂µ φa − m2 φ2 − i a a µναβ ∂µ φ1 ∂µ φ2 ∂µ φ3 ∂µ φ4 0123 (III. (III.. theories with pseudoscalars look a little contrived. t) → φa (x. L = L0 − λφ4 (see Eq. t) (III. In some cases.84) is. if φa (x. φ → −φ is not a symmetry. t) = Rab φb (−x. we could equally well have deﬁned the ﬁelds to transform under parity as φ(x. When there are only spin-0 particles in the theory.83) is not a symmetry of the theory. t) → ±∂0 φa (−x. When φ does not change sign under a parity transformation. The important thing is to recognize the symmetries of the theory. if we had a theory of n identical ﬁelds φ1 . and = 1. t) ∂i φa (x. any theory for which † Up LUp = L conserves parity.83) where we have changed variables k → −k in the integration. t) = Up √ (III.86) is a completely antisymmetric four-index tensor.87) .

However. it is somewhat awkward to express antilinear operators in this notation. is an operator which is anti-linear. p(t)]UT = UT iUT = i = −[q(−t). 3. Time Reversal. T . Therefore in order for parity to be a symmetry of this Lagrangian. The simplest anti-linear operator is just complex conjugation. three of the ﬁelds will be scalars. numbers are complex conjugated under an antilinear transformation.86) always contains three spatial derivatives and one time derivative because µναβ = 0 unless all four indices are diﬀerent. linear transformation.58 where i = 1.89) and so † † UT [q(t).88) (III. We can see why this is the case by going back to particle mechanics and quantizing the Lagrangian 1 L = q2.92) . Then † UT q(t)UT = q(−t) dq(t) † † ˙ UT p(t)UT = UT U = −q(−t) = −p(−t) dt T (III. It doesn’t matter which. (III. Thus.91) That is. in which t → −t. a| ψ → Ω [a| ψ ] = a∗ | ψ (III. or else three must be pseudoscalars and one scalar. p(−t)] (III. T The last discrete symmetry we will look at is time reversal. Now. A more symmetric transformation is P T in which all four components of xµ ﬂip sign: xµ → −xµ .90) and so we cannot consistently apply the canonical commutation relations for all time! Clearly UT can’t be a unitary operator. time reversal is a little more complicated than P and T because it cannot be represented by a unitary. ˙ 2 Suppose the unitary operator UT corresponds to T . Since Dirac notation is set up to deal with linear operators. Under an antilinear operator Ω. since parity reverses the sign of x but leaves t unchanged. an odd number of the ﬁelds φa (it doesn’t matter which ones) must also change sign under a parity transformation. 3. a| ψ → Ω [a| ψ ] = a∗ Ω| ψ . and one pseudoscalar. What we need. (III. 2. the interaction term in Eq. We need something else. in fact.

any of C.94) (III. relativistic ﬁeld theory that the amplitude must be invariant under the combined action of CP T (this is called the CP T theorem). (III. First of all. However. it is a general property of any local. In a quantum ﬁeld theory..95) (this is to be expected.97) . p(t)]Ω−1 = i∗ = −i = −[q(−t). −t). Hence this is exactly what is required for a P T transformation.90) and there is no contradiction: ΩT [aq(t)]Ω−1 = a∗ q(−t) T so Ωt [q(t).. t) → ΩP T φ(x. t)Ω† T P d3 k √ ak eik·x−iωk t + a† e−ik·x+iωk t Ω−1 = ΩP T PT k 2ωk (2π)3/2 d3 k √ = ak e−ik·x+iωk t + a† eik·x−iωk t k 2ωk (2π)3/2 = φ(−x. since time reversal ﬂips the direction of all the momenta. ΩP T or on the states ΩP T |k1 .93) as required. ..kn = |k1 . It has no eﬀect on the creation and annihilation operators. and a parity transformation ﬂips them back).kn (III. (III.. so there is an extra minus sign in Eq.59 and in fact this is precisely what we need. The only thing it acts on is the i in the exponents occurring in the expansion of the ﬁelds φ(x. . P or T may be broken (we will see some examples of such theories later on). p(−t)] T (III.96) ak a† k Ω−1 = PT ak a† k (III. complex conjugation corresponds to the operator P T . it doesn’t screw up the commutation relations because ΩiΩ−1 = −i. In ﬁeld theory.

Fix the sign of b by demanding the energy be bounded below. and write the energy. let’s pause and work through an example. ignoring the fact that ψ and ψ ∗ are complex conjugates. it is invariant under space-time translations and an internal U (1) symmetry transformation. (As explained in class.).) 2. and is a useful formalism for studying multi-particle quantum mechanics. but that’s all right: the action integral is real). . As the investigation proceeds. In the following years I gave it as a problem set. and ﬁnd ω as a function of k. you just turn the crank. Although this theory is not Lorentz-invariant. I suggest you work through it before looking at the solution. Everything should turn out all right in the end: the equation of motion for ψ will be the complex conjugate of that for ψ ∗ . Find the Euler-Lagrange equations. The following problem was used as a midterm test the ﬁrst time I taught this course (with rather bleak results . Find the plane-wave solutions. The Problem Consider a theory of a complex scalar ﬁeld ψ L0 = iψ ∗ ∂0 ψ + b ψ ∗ · ψ. Don’t be.) (WARNING: Even though this is a non-relativistic problem.. Consider L0 as deﬁning a classical ﬁeld theory. Because the equations of motion are ﬁrst-order in time. in dealing with complex ﬁelds. a conserved linear momentum and a conserved charge associated with the internal symmetry. you should recognize this theory as good old nonrelativistic quantum mechanics.. those for which ψ = ei(k·x−ωt) . where b is some real number (this Lagrange density is not real. It is only on these that you need to impose the canonical quantization conditions. Find these quantities as integrals of the ﬁelds and their derivatives. Treating the theory in this manner is called second quantization. don’t miss minus signs associated with raising and lowering spatial indices. Thus it possesses a conserved energy. our formalism is set up with relativistic conventions.) Identify appropriately normalized coeﬃcients in the expansion of the ﬁelds in terms of plane wave solutions with annihilation and/or creation operators.60 IV. a complete and independent set of initial-value data consists of ψ and its conjugate momentum alone. (HINT: You may be bothered by the fact that the momentum conjugate to ψ ∗ vanishes. 1. and the conserved quantities will all be real. Canonically quantize the theory. EXAMPLE: NON-RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS (“SECOND QUANTIZATION”) To put some ﬂesh on the formalism we have developed so far.

Treating ψ and ψ ∗ as independent ﬁelds. we ﬁnd Π0 = ψ Π0 ∗ ψ ∂L = iψ ∗ . a (IV.7) .4) Recall that the conserved current is given in general by Jµ = a Πµ Dψa − F µ .5) (IV.) Find the equation of motion for the single particle state |k and the two particle state |k1 .2) Thus. The Euler Lagrange equations are ∂µ Πµ = a ∂L ∂φa (IV. (Normal-order freely.1) so we ﬁrst need the momenta conjugate to the ﬁelds. as required. k2 in the Schr¨dinger Picture.3) (note that.61 linear momentum and internal-symmetry charge in terms of these operators.) This is a wave equations for ψ. the equations of motion gives the dispersion relation ωk = −b|k|2 . ∂(∂i ψ ∗ ) Πi = ψ Πi ∗ ψ ∂L = −b∂ i ψ ∗ ∂(∂i ψ) ∂L = = b∂ i ψ. the equations of motion for the two ﬁelds are i∂0 ψ = b i∂0 ψ ∗ = −b 2 ψ 2 ψ∗ (IV. expanding in normal modes ψ = ei(k·x−ωk t) . What physical quantities do b and the internal o symmetry charge correspond to? Solution 1. ∂(∂0 ψ) ∂L = = 0. The internal U (1) symmetry is (of course) ψ → e−iλ ψ. (IV. ψ ∗ → eiλ ψ ∗ . This is actually ensured by the fact that the action is real. the equations of motion are conjugates of each other.6) (IV. ∂(∂i ψ ∗ ) (IV.

)ψ − a0 b ψ ∗ · ψ.9) (IV. t). (IV. we need b < 0. Cancelling the i’s. and [ψ(x. t)] = [ψ ∗ (x. 2. we get [ψ(x. the conserved charge density is the time component of J µ J 0 = ψ∗ψ and the conserved charge Q is the integral of this quantity over all space. Hence.62 In our case. ψ ∗ (y. ψ F µ = aµ L. ψ(y. Q= d3 x J 0 = d3 x ψ ∗ ψ. ψ ∗ (x. Since the momentum conjugate to ψ ∗ vanishes. iψ ∗ . t)] = 0. where aµ is and arbitrary four vector (unit vector).8) For the invariance under space–time translations ψ(x) → ψ(x + λµ aµ ). (IV. the only surviving equal time commutation relation to impose is on ψ and its conjugate. ai = x. Pi = d3 x[iψ ∗ ∂ i ψ] It’s easy to see that both the energy and momentum are Hermitian. since DL = 0. We also have Dψ = −iψ. For a space translation: a0 = 0. t).10) For this energy to be bounded from below. H=E= d3 x[−b ψ ∗ · ψ] = −b d3 x | ψ|2 . Therefore J 0 = Π0 Dψ − a0 L = iψ ∗ aµ ∂µ ψ − a0 iψ ∗ ∂0 ψ − a0 b ψ ∗ · = −iψ ∗ (a · For a time translation: a0 = 1. ai = 0. . t)] = δ(x − y). we ﬁnd Dψ = aµ ∂µ ψ. t). F µ = 0 (or equivalently a constant).

63 Now expand the ﬁelds in the plane wave solutions given in part (1) to get ψ(x. The ﬁeld ψ therefore only annihilates a particle and ψ ∗ only creates particles. t) = ψ ∗ (y. k2 = −b |k1 |2 + |k2 |2 |k1 . Bk ] d3 k ei(k·x−ωt) e−i(k ·y−ωt) α2 δ(k − k ) d3 kAk ei(k·x−ωt) d3 kBk e−i(k·y−ωt) d3 keik·(x−y) = (2π)3 α2 δ(x − y) This means that α = 1 a† (2π)3/2 k 1 (2π)3/2 and Ak = 1 a (2π)3/2 k is an annihilation operator. t) = Assume that Ak = αak and Bk = αa† . ψ ∗ (y. Now we can go ahead and write the energy. whereas Bk = is a creation operator. The Hamiltonian acting on a one-particle state is therefore : H : |k = −b|k|2 |k and on the two-particle state is : H : |k1 . k2 . We ﬁnd E = d3 x[−b ψ ∗ · d3 x ψ] d3 k d3 k a† e−i(kx−ωt) ak ei(k ·x−ω t) k · k k 1 (2π 3 ) 1 = −b (2π 3 ) = −b = −b Similarly we ﬁnd d3 k d3 k a† ak e−iωt eiω t k · k (2π)3 δ(k − k ) k d3 k a† ak |k|2 k Q = Pi = d3 k a† ak k d3 k k i a† ak k This form for the momentum operator is to be expected. the momentum and the internal symmetry charge in terms of these creation and annihilation operators. t). then k [ψ(x. t)] = = = α2 d3 k d3 k d3 k ei(k·x−ωt) e−i(k ·y−ωt) [Ak . since a† ak is the usual number k operator.

The conserved charge Q= d3 k a† ak k is just the number operator. k2 = ∂t 2m ∂ |k|2 |k = |k ∂t 2m This is just the usual EOM for one. This clearly corresponds to the usual energy of one.64 (this is straightforward to show using the commutation relations of the creation and annihilation operators in the usual way). |k1 . The equations of motion for these states in the Schr¨dinger o picture are therefore i and i 1 ∂ |k1 |2 + |k2 |2 |k1 .and two-particle states if b = −1/2m.and two-particle states in NRQCD. since particle creation is a relativistic eﬀect. k2 . This is a conserved quantity in a nonrelativistic theory. .

65 V. as we have seen. φ. This leads to the equation of motion ∂µ ∂ µ φ + µ2 φ = −ρ(x). the only equation of motion we have solved is the Klein-Gordon equation. we could expand the ﬁelds as sums of plane waves multiplied by creation and annihilation operators. Particle Creation by a Classical Source The simplest type of interaction we can introduce into the theory is to couple the φ ﬁeld to a classical source: L = Lφ − ρ(x)φ(x) (V. (V. A. but it is incredibly dull because nothing happens.3) (2π) (2π) (2π) 2ωk 2ωk 2ωk We have expressions for the energy. We just have plane waves propagating.5) . but they never interact because the two Lagrangians are decoupled. (V. Although we have been talking about symmetries of general (possibly very complicated) Lagrangians. which is just a theory of free ﬁelds. known function of space and time which is only nonzero for a ﬁnite time interval. we had Lφ = 1 (∂µ φ∂ µ φ − µ2 φ2 ) 2 and for a complex ﬁeld ψ we had Lψ = ∂µ ψ † ∂ µ ψ − m2 ψ † ψ. k (V. In the quantum theory.4) where ρ(x) is some ﬁxed. φ(x) = ψ(x) = ψ † (x) = d3 k √ 3/2 d3 k √ 3/2 d3 k √ 3/2 ak e−ik·x + a† eik·x k bk e−ik·x + c† eik·x k ck e−ik·x + b† eik·x . this corresponds to a theory of noninteracting. We can make things more interesting by adding interaction terms to the Lagrangian. L = Lφ + Lψ is a theory of φ particles and ψ particles. INTERACTING FIELDS In this section we will put the formalism we have spend the past few lectures deriving to work. momentum and U (1) charge in our theory.2) (V. spinless bosons.1) Because we could solve the Klein-Gordon equation. For a real ﬁeld.

A). just as a charge distribution is a source for electric ﬁeld. satisfying (∂µ ∂ µ + µ2 )DR (x − y) = −iδ (4) (x − y) DR (x − y) = 0. so in four-vector notation we may write this as ∂µ ∂ µ Aν = 4πJ ν (V.7) where J µ = ( . Writing DR (x − y) = ˜ we ﬁnd the algebraic equation for DR (k). is required so that the boundary condition φ(x) → φ0 (x) as x0 → −∞ is satisﬁed. The simplest way to ﬁnd the Green function is to rewrite Eq.66 To realize why ρ(x) is a source term. as in Eq.11) d4 k −ik·(x−y) ˜ e DR (k) (2π)4 (V. (V. recall from classical electromagnetism that in the presence of a charge distribution (x.3).8) where DR (x − y) is the retarded Green function. and φ0 (x) may be expanded in terms of creation and annihilation operators. This theory is actually simple enough that we can solve it exactly. Before ρ(x) is turned on. we can construct the solution to the equation of motion as follows: φ(x) = φ0 (x) + i d4 y DR (x − y) ρ(y) (V. the theory is free.9) The second requirement. these two theories look quite similar. has no vector index and is a quantum ﬁeld.10) . c ∂t c 2 ϕ− (V. If we start in the vacuum state.9) in momentum space. so we may interpret ρ(x) as a source for the φ ﬁeld. Except for the fact that φ is massive. (V. t) the potentials obey the inhomogeneous wave equations 1 ∂2ϕ = −4π c2 ∂t2 1 ∂2A 4π 2 A − 2 2 = − . (V.6) ϕ and A form the components of the four-vector Aµ = (ϕ. that DR be the retarded Green function. what will we ﬁnd at some time in the far future. t) and a current (x. After the source has turned on. after the source ρ(x) has been turned on and oﬀ again? We can answer this by solving the ﬁeld equations directly. ˜ (−k 2 + µ2 )DR (k) = −i (V. x0 < y 0 . ) is the 4-current.

12) This doesn’t quite deﬁne DR : the k 0 integrand in Eq. we can close the contour in the bottom half plane. the vacuum expecation value of the commutator: DR (x − y) = θ(x0 − y0 )[φ(x). path of integration which passes above both poles. V. φ(y)]| 0 . (V. For x0 > y0 .12) has poles at k 0 = ±ωk .67 which immediately gives us DR (x − y) = i d4 k e−ik·(x−y) . or equivalently (since the commutator is a c-number. (V. the Green function vanishes for y0 > x0 . Thus. obtaining for the integral DR (x − y) x0 >y0 = d3 k (2π)3 1 −ik·(x−y) e 2ωk + k0 =ωk 1 e−ik·(x−y) −2ωk = = = d3 k (2π)3 k0 =−ωk 1 e−ik·(x−y) − eik·(x−y) 2ωk D(x − y) − D(y − x) [φ(x).14) .13) where the function D(x) was introduced in Section 2.1 The contour deﬁning DR (x − y). φ(y)] (V. Then for y0 > x0 we can close the contour in the upper half plane. φ(y)] = θ(x0 − y0 ) 0 |[φ(x). not an operator). In order to deﬁne the integral. The retarded Green function DR (x − y) is therefore related to the commutator of two ﬁelds. giving zero for the integral since the path of integration doesn’t enclose any singularities. we must choose a path of integration around the poles. Let us choose a k0 −ωk ωk FIG. making this the appropriate contour for DR (x − y). 4 k 2 − µ2 (2π) (V.

The expectation value of the total number of particles ρ produced is dN = d3 k |˜(k)|2 . The Hamiltonian in the far future is now H= d3 k ωk a† − k i (2π)3/2 √ 2ωk ρ∗ (k) ˜ ak + i (2π)3/2 √ 2ωk ρ(k) ˜ (V. (V.15) where in the second line we have used the fact that if we wait until all of ρ(x) is in the past. ˜ (V. we have solved the theory. We have also deﬁned the Fourier transform ρ(k) = ˜ d4 y eik·y ρ(y). we only need the second line in Eq.18) (this is obvious if you go back to the original derivation of H in terms of φ(x)) and so the expectation value of the energy of the system in the far future is 0 |H| 0 = d3 k 1 |˜(k)|2 . φ(x) = (2π) d3 k √ 3/2 2ωk ak + i (2π)3/2 √ 2ωk ρ(k) e−ik·x + h.8) gives φ(x) = x0 →∞ φ0 (x) + i φ0 (x) + i φ0 (x) + i d4 y d3 k θ(x0 − y0 ) e−ik·(x−y) − e−ik·(x−y) ρ(y) (2π)3 2ωk = = d3 k d4 y e−ik·(x−y) − eik·(x−y) ρ(y) (2π)3 2ωk d3 k e−ik·x ρ(k) − eik·x ρ(−k) ˜ ˜ (2π)3 2ωk (V. . (V. since in the far future we have free ﬁeld theory again.19) Note that because we are in the Heisenberg representation. (V. after the source has been turned oﬀ.16) Thus we ﬁnd. ρ (2π)3 2 (V. the spectrum of the Hamiltonian is just free particles. we are still in the ground state of the free theory – the state hasn’t evolved.17) Since all observables are built out of the ﬁelds. The time evolution of the system is all contained in the evolution of the ﬁelds. Now.68 For our present purposes. ρ (2π)3 2ωk (V.13). the theta function equals one over the whole domain of integration and may be dropped.c. Inserting this expression into Eq.21) . which means that the expectation value of the total number of particles created with momentum k is dN (k) = |˜(k)|2 ρ (2π)3 2ωk (V.20) and so each Fourier component of ρ produces particles with the corresponding four-momentum with a probability proportional to |˜(k)|2 .

which instructs us to place the operators that follow in order with the latest on the left. Choosing a path of integration which passes below both poles would give the advanced Green function. V. = θ(x0 − y 0 ) 0 |φ(x)φ(y)| 0 + θ(y0 − x0 ) 0 |φ(y)φ(x)| 0 ≡ 0 |T φ(x)φ(y)| 0 (V. This Green function. will be of central importance to scattering theory. Other paths of integration give Green functions which are useful for solving problems with diﬀerent boundary conditions. x0 < y0 we close the contour above. since the poles are then at k 0 = ±(ωk − i ) and are displaced properly above and below . Another possibility is a path which goes below the pole at −ωk and above the pole at ωk . and we shall return to it shortly. This deﬁnes the Green function DF (x − y) = D(x − y).2 The contour deﬁning DF (x − y). x0 < y0 . obeying GA (x − y) = 0 for x0 > y0 . It is convenient to write the Feynman propagator as DF (x − y) = where the limit d4 k i e−ik·(x−y) 4 k 2 − µ2 + i (2π) (V. When k0 −ωk ωk FIG. obtaining the same expression but with x and y interchanged.23) → 0+ is understood and the path of integration in the k 0 plane is now along the real axis.1).12) a bit more. called the Feynman propagator. The retarded Green function DR (x − y) was obtain by choosing the path of integration shown in Fig. D(y − x). when x0 > y0 we perform the k 0 integral by closing the contour below. let’s pause for a moment and study the expression (V. obtaining the result D(x − y) for the integral. x0 > y0 .69 B. More on Green Functions Since Green functions are of central importance to scattering theory.22) where the last line deﬁnes the time ordering symbol T. (V. This would be useful if we knew the value of the ﬁeld in the far future and were interested in its value before the source was turned on. In this case.

25) The ﬁeld equations are now coupled. Mesons Coupled to a Dynamical Source The Lagrangian Eq.4) is analogous to electromagnetism coupled to a current which is unaﬀected by the dynamics of the ﬁeld. a source for the φ ﬁeld. if g is small we can treat the interaction term as a small perturbation of free ﬁeld theory. C. we will have to solve them perturbatively: that is. . Furthermore. and the resulting dynamics are quite complicated. We are therefore guaranteed that the interacting theory will also conserve charge.4). This model is much more complicated that the previous one.6 In fact. Note that the sign of the i term is crucial: if were negative. 6 Since g has dimensions of mass. but a full dynamical variable. just like ρ(x). so solving this theory is going to be much harder. In fact.24) Note that the potential only depends on ψ and ψ † in the combination ψ † ψ. we see that ψ † ψ is a current density. where M is some typical mass or energy in the problem. not their derivatives. We will be able to solve the equations of motion as a power series in g. comparing this with Eq. so the interaction term doesn’t break the U (1) symmetry. ∂µ ∂ µ ψ + m2 ψ = −gψφ. (V. and the time ordering would come out reversed. While this is in many cases a good approximation. most of the rest of this course will be concerned with applying perturbation theory to an assortment of diﬀerent theories. (V. (V. the analogous situation is described by a potential which couples the two ﬁelds ψ and φ: L = Lφ + Lψ − gψ † ψφ. because there is a back-reaction: the current ψ † ψ in turn depends on the ﬁeld φ. Instead. so the conjugate momenta are the same as they were in the free theory. Much of what is known about quantum ﬁeld theory comes from perturbation theory. the contours would enclose the opposite poles. (V. The source is now not a prescribed function of space-time.70 the real axis. so the ﬁelds interact. the interaction depends only on the ﬁelds. as it was in the previous case. in the real world the current itself interacts with the electromagnetic ﬁeld. the power series will actually be a series in g/M . however. In general we cannot solve this system of coupled nonlinear partial diﬀerential equations exactly. For scalar ﬁeld theory. This equations of motion are ∂µ ∂ µ φ + µ2 φ = −gψ † ψ.

27) while in the Heisenberg picture the states are independent of time and the operators (and in particular. because in this form we know exactly how the ﬁelds act on the states of the theory. one of which carries a conserved charge. the solution to the Heisenberg equations of motion are no longer plane waves but instead something awful. In particular. (V. If the ψ ﬁelds were spin 1/2 fermions instead of spin 0 bosons we would have a theory of the strong interactions between nucleons. and the t depeno dence is carried entirely by the states OS (t) = OS (0) i d | ψ(t) dt S = H| ψ(t) S . We have already discussed the Schr¨dinger and Heisenberg pictures. (V. the operators don’t evolve with time. However. D. We’ll take advantage of this analogy and refer to the ψ particles as “nucleons” (in quotation marks) and the φ’s as mesons. the ﬁelds) carry the time dependence | ψ(t) H = | ψ(0) H . The interaction picture o combines elements of each. The Interaction Picture How do we set this problem up? First of all. This doesn’t look anything like the particles we see in the real world. Recall that in the Schr¨dinger picture.24) describes the interactions of two types of meson.71 The theory deﬁned in Eq. but we will use it in this section as a toy model to illustrate our perturbative approach to scattering theory. All three pictures will coincide at t = 0: | ψ(0) S = | ψ(0) H = | ψ(0) I OS (0) = OH (0) = OI (0) (V. Unfortunately. We’ll call this our “nucleon”-meson theory. we have seen that the equations of motion look quite similar to the equations of motion of an electric ﬁeld coupled to a current. We can ﬁx this with a clever trick called the interaction picture. where the force is transmitted through the exchange of φ mesons. we would like to be able to write our ﬁelds in terms of creation and annihilation operators.26) where the subscript I refers to the interaction picture. we would like to make use of some of our previous results for free ﬁeld theories. and O represents a generic operator with no explicit t dependence.

In our example. this would immediately give | ψ(t) | ψ(0) H = and the states would be independent of time.P. dt i (V. the Hamiltonian corresponding to the free-ﬁeld Lagrangian). H]. just as in the Heisenberg picture. HI = 0. we ﬁnd S ψ(t) |OS | ψ(t) S = I ψ(t) |OI (t)| ψ(t) I = S ψ(t) |e−iH0 t OI (t)eiH0 t | ψ(t) S (V. we see immediately that HI = −LI .31) ≡ eiH0 t | ψ(t) S .36) .72 d | OH (t) = [OH (t). From the equations of motion of the Schr¨dinger ﬁeld.P. dt (V.32) = | ψ(t) H If we were dealing with a free ﬁeld theory. This is the solution of the equation of motion i d OI (t) = [OI (t). a (V. (V.28) We showed earlier that matrix elements are the same in the two pictures.35) (V.26)). HI = −LI = gψ † ψφ. so we can continue to use all of our results for free ﬁelds. are deﬁned by | ψ(t) I (V. H = H0 + HI (V.27). Demanding that matrix elements be identical in all three pictures. and HI contains the interaction term.P. In the interaction picture (IP) we split the Hamiltonian up into two pieces. H0 ]. All of the complications have been relegated to the equation of motion for the states. Eq. (V. States in the I.30) if LI contains no derivatives of the ﬁelds (so it doesn’t change the conjugate momenta from the free theory).34) This is useful because ﬁelds in an interacting theory in the I. Since H= d3 x a ˙ Π0 φ a − L = a d3 x a ˙ Π0 φa − L0 − LI .29) where H0 is the free Hamiltonian (that is. will evolve just like free ﬁelds in the Heisenberg picture. the operators evolve according to the free Hamiltonian: OI (t) = eiH0 t OI (0)e−iH0 t (where we have used Eq. we have o i ⇒ ⇒ d −iH0 t e | ψ(t) dt I I = HS e−iH0 t | ψ(t) + e−iH0 t i d | ψ(t) dt I I H0 e−iH0 t | ψ(t) i d | ψ(t) dt I = (H0 (0) + HI (0))e−iH0 t | ψ(t) I I = eiH0 t HI (0)e−iH0 t | ψ(t) = HI (t)| ψ(t) I (V.33) and so in the I. I (V.

and so on..) In particular.. with some particular momentum. Particles will be created and destroyed. (V. .34). annihilates a φ particle and creates a ψ particle and antiparticle: this corresponds to the decay process φ → ψψ. On the other hand. We say we are colliding two electrons. (V. photons. the Hamiltonian acts on the initial state. we start out with some initial state | i consisting of a number of isolated particles. we expect them to be eigenstates of particle number. or two protons. Scattering processes are particularly convenient to study because in many cases the initial and ﬁnal states look like systems of noninteracting particles.37) These interactions don’t conserve particle number. The initial state looks simple. order by order in the interaction Hamiltonian. pions. just two colliding protons. the time dependence of the states is going to be taken into account perturbatively. In the ﬁrst term. but a complicated mess of protons. for example. At this intermediate stage. and so forth. In this section we will set up a formalism to apply perturbation theory to scattering processes. and can contribute to a number of processes.36) in a complicated and non-linear way. at ﬁrst order in perturbation theory the Hamiltonian can act once on the states. c† ca. .. and the states start to evolve according to Eq. even though N will not in general commute with the interaction Hamiltonian HI . Since the particles are widely separated. (V. E. The second corresponds to the absorption ψ + φ → ψ. eigenstates of the free Hamiltonian H0 . simply given by the free ﬁeld equations. What do we mean by this? In a scattering process. bb† a† . We no longer have. bca† . producing more complicated processes like ψ + ψ → φ → ψ + ψ (ψ anti-ψ scattering through the creation of an intermediate φ). we don’t expect them to feel the eﬀects of the potential in Eq. as expected from Eq. they begin to feel the potential. since HI in general doesn’t commute with N . and so they will look like free plane wave states (that is.24). As the particles approach one another. Since the Hamiltonian generates time evolution. The time dependence of the operators is trivial. Again we see explicitly that when HI = 0 the ﬁelds in the I. At second order in perturbation theory the Hamiltonian can acts twice on the state. or whatever. the system will look extremely complicated when expressed in terms of our basis of free particles. such as c† b† a. (V.P. are independent of time. The interaction term ψ † ψφ contains a collection of creation and annihilation operators.73 where HI (t) = eiH0 t HI (0)e−iH0 t . Dyson’s Formula We can already get an idea of how perturbation theory is going to work in the interaction picture.

Despite this. Similarly. because the interaction is responsible for the bound state. I should tell you that this is a bit of a fake. perhaps three protons. In fact. Several initial particles could collide and form a bound state. so our simple picture is not quite right. For processes where f(t) 1 t ∆ T ∆ FIG. (V. no matter how far you go into the past or future from a scattering process you never end up with a collection of free particles. Again it will look simple. If we turn oﬀ the interaction. our quick and dirty scattering theory will still work. the states will change. In the limit ∆ → ∞. When we quantize electromagnetism. You can see that this might be the case by imagining that instead of Eq. (V. In this case.3. This is the type of process we will be considering. V. we will see that this corresponds to a cloud of photons around the electron. such as p + p → 2 D (two protons fusing to form a deuterium nucleus). Before we go any further. as shown in Figure V. an electron still carries its electromagnetic ﬁeld along with it. the bound state will ﬂy apart. (V. We already know this from electromagnetism: long after the collision process.38) where f (t) = 0 for large |t| and f (t) = 1 for t near 0.3 The “turning on and oﬀ” function f (t) in Eq.24).74 We can imagine several results of the scattering process. we could have a process in which no bound states are formed. ∆/T → 0 we expect to recover the results of the original theory Eq. Instead. since when f (t) → 0 . The formalism we are going to develop for scattering theory will not be very useful in this situation. The scattering process occurs near t = 0.24). If we turn the interaction oﬀ. an antiproton and fourteen pions. bound states occur. The system will again look like a collection of noninteracting particles. f (t) clearly drastically changes the states in the far future. no matter how long we wait after the scattering process has occurred the ﬁnal state will never look like an eigenstate of the free Hamiltonian. T → ∞. Then some long time after the interaction the system will consist of a bunch of widely separated particles.38). the “nucleons” in our toy model will always have a cloud of mesons around them. our theory is deﬁned by the Lagrangian L = Lφ + Lψ − gf (t)ψ † ψφ (V.

We can solve for S iteratively: integrating both sides of Eq. If we deﬁne the scattering operator S | ψ(∞) = S| ψ(−∞) = S| i then the amplitude to ﬁnd the system in some given state | f in the far future is f |S| i ≡ Sf i .75 the interaction turns oﬀ and the states will ﬂy apart. Section 7. we ﬁnd t | ψ(t) = | i + (−i) −∞ dt1 HI (t1 )| ψ(t1 ) .39) from t1 = −∞ to t. (V. In the limit T → ∞.2. but this would take us into technical details which we don’t have time for in this course. we expect that the simple states in the real theory will slowly turn into the eigenstates of the free Hamiltonian with unit probability.43) 7 See Peskin and Schroeder. ∆ → ∞ and ∆/T → 0 (the last requirement ensures that edge eﬀects vanish) we should recover the full theory. (V.P. This description is really meant as a hand-waving way of justifying our approach in which the initial and ﬁnal states are taken to be eigenstates of the free Hamiltonian. The hand-waving approach will have to suﬃce at this stage. for the proper treatment of this problem. which are not eigenstates of the free Hamiltonian.41) This is conventionally known as the “S-matrix element”. (V.39) 7 (we will drop the subscript I on the states.42) (V. we turn the interaction oﬀ very slowly (adiabatically) over a time period ∆. there must be a 1 − 1 correspondence between the asymptotic (simple) eigenstates of the full Hamiltonian and the eigenstates of the free Hamiltonian. In other words. if we imagine that a long time T /2 after the scattering process occurs. This means that we can’t consider bound states. But in cases where there are no bound states formed. (V. long after the collision has taken place. It is possible to justify this approach (more) rigorously. you might imagine that adding f (t) to the interaction won’t change the scattering amplitude at all. In particular. from now on) with the boundary condition | ψ(−∞) = | i . .40) We want to connect the simple description in the far past with the simple description in the far future. So we want to solve i d | ψ(t) = HI (t)| ψ(t) dt (V. since we will always be working in the I.

O2 (x2 )O1 (x1 ). (V.48) Notice that in the ﬁrst term t2 > t1 . we obtain the following expansion for S: ∞ S= (−i)n n=0 ∞ −∞ t1 tn−1 dt1 −∞ dt2 . So the HI ’s are always ordered (a) (b) FIG.. (V. (V.. (V. while in the second t1 > t2 . As before.49) .. (V.46) and (b) Eq. −∞ dtn HI (t1 ). with the earlier one on the right.HI (tn ). Look at the n = 2 term. (V. we can write the term as ∞ −∞ ∞ ∞ dt2 t2 ∞ dt1 HI (t1 )HI (t2 ) dt2 HI (t2 )HI (t1 ).76 Iterating this gives t | ψ(t) = | i + (−i) + (−i)2 −∞ t dt1 HI (t1 )| i t1 −∞ dt1 −∞ dt2 HI (t1 )HI (t2 )| ψ(t2 ) . for example: ∞ −∞ t1 dt1 −∞ dt2 HI (t1 )HI (t2 ).46) This corresponds to integrating over the region −∞ < t2 < t1 < ∞ shown in part (a) of the ﬁgure. We can reverse the order of integration.45) There is a more symmetric way to write this.47). we deﬁne the time-ordered product T (O1 O2 ) of two operators O1 (x2 ) and O2 (x2 ) by T (O1 (x1 )O2 (x2 )) = O1 (x1 )O2 (x2 ).44) Repeating this procedure indeﬁnitely and taking t → ∞.4 The shaded regions correspond to the region of integration in (a) Eq. (V. t1 = −∞ dt1 (V. V.. and noting that this is the same region of integration as in part (b) of the ﬁgure. t1 > t2 . t1 < t2 .47) so we can write the second term of the expansion as 1 2! ∞ −∞ ∞ ∞ t1 dt1 t1 dt2 HI (t2 )HI (t1 ) + −∞ dt1 −∞ dt2 HI (t1 )HI (t2 ) .

(V.. k2 (N ) . for n operators we deﬁne the time ordered product (or T -product) such that the operators are ordered chronologically. so there is no ambiguity in this deﬁnition.77 In terms of the time-ordered product. because then the only ordering which would contribute to this process would be ones with two “nucleon” annihilation operators on the right and two “nucleon” creation operators on the left. We can even be slick and write this series as a time-ordered exponential..53) where the time-ordering acts on each term in the series expansion. k4 (N ) . Since we know how the ﬁelds act on the states in the I.HI (tn )) (V. S = T e−i d4 xHI (x) ... (V. the earliest on the right and the latest on the left.P. we have | i = | k1 (N ). For example.. However. we can write the second term in the expansion of S as 1 2! ∞ −∞ ∞ dt1 −∞ dt2 T (HI (t1 )HI (t2 )). It would be much simpler if we could normal-order this expression. In fact. HI commutes with itself at equal times.51) dt1 ... Wick’s Theorem To evaluate the individual terms in Dyson’s formula we will have to calculate matrix elements of time ordered products of ﬁelds between the initial and ﬁnal scattering states... The n’th term in the expansion of S may then be written as 1 n! and the expansion for S is then S = = (−i)n n! n=0 (−i)n n! n=0 ∞ ∞ ∞ −∞ ∞ ∞ −∞ ∞ dt1 . This is Dyson’s formula. −∞ dtn T (HI (t1 ). F. where k4 = k1 + k2 − k3 since our theory con- serves momentum.HI (xn ))..52) d4 x1 . in our meson-“nucleon” theory at second order in g we have to evaluate matrix elements of the form f |T (HI (x1 )HI (x2 ))| i = f |T (ψ † (x1 )ψ(x1 )φ(x1 )ψ † (x2 )ψ(x2 )φ(x2 ))| i . in this form it’s still rather messy.. (V. there is a relation between time-ordered and ..50) Similarly.HI (tn )) (V. −∞ dtn T (HI (t1 ).54) For the scattering process N + N → N + N (elastic scattering of two “nucleons”). d4 xn T (HI (x1 ). | f = | k3 (N ). because the T -product contains 16 arrangements of “nucleon” creation and annihilation operators.. this matrix element is straightforward to calculate.

55) between vacuum states to ﬁnd that −− −− −− −− A(x)B(y) = 0 |A(x)B(y)| 0 = 0 |T (A(x)B(y))| 0 − 0 | : A(x)B(y) : | 0 = 0 |T (A(x)B(y))| 0 (V.φn : +... For the charged ﬁelds.. So we have found that the contraction of two ﬁelds is just the vacuum expectation value of the time ordered product of the ﬁelds.61) . (V.78 normal-ordered products.. −− −− A(x)B(y) ≡ T (A(x)B(y))− : A(x)B(y) : (V. We have already seen this object before .59) (V..it is the Feynman propagator for the ﬁeld. Then T (A(x)B(y)) = (A(+) + A(−) )(B (+) + B (−) ) =: AB : +[A(+) . + φ1 φ2 .......56) −− −− so A(x)B(y) is a number (given by the canonical commutation relations).55) −− −− It is easy to see that A(x)B(y) is a number.φn ) = : φ1 . φ2 ≡ φa2 (x2 ). we can now state Wick’s theorem.. we deﬁne the contraction of two ﬁelds. For any collection of ﬁelds φ1 ≡ φa1 (x1 ). it is straightforward to show that the propagator is −−− −− −−− −− i d4 k ik·(x−y) ψ(x)ψ † (y) = ψ † (x)ψ(y) = e 4 2 − m2 + i (2π) k while other contractions vanish: −−− −−− −− −− ψ(x)ψ(y) = ψ † (x)ψ † (y) = 0. not an operator. so we can sandwich both sides of Eq. . 4 2 − µ2 + i (2π) k (V.57) since the vacuum expectation value of a normal ordered product of ﬁelds vanishes (the annihilation operators on the right annihilate the vacuum)... the T -product of the ﬁelds has the following expansion T (φ1 .. −− − φ(x)φ(y) = DF (x − y) = 0 |T (φ(x)φ(y))| 0 = where the lim →0+ d4 k ik·(x−y) i e . (V... : φn−3 φn−2 φn−1 φn : + .+ : φ1 φ2 . B (−) ] (V. therefore 0 |T (ψ(x)ψ(y))| 0 = 0.φn : +.. (V...φn : −− − −− −− + : φ1 φ2 φ3 .. Similarly. Consider ﬁrst the case x0 > y 0 .) Having deﬁned the propagator of a ﬁeld.58) is implicit in this expression. which goes by the name of Wick’s theorem.60) (The last equation is true because ψ only creates c-type particles and annihilates b-type particles.. it is a number when x0 < y 0 .φn−1 φn : −− −− −− −− + : φ1 φ2 φ3 φ4 φ5 . To state Wick’s theorem.φn : + : φ1 φ2 φ3 .

Other combinations of annihilation and creation operators in this term can also contribute to N + N → N + N and N + N → N + N . whose matrix elements are easy to take without worrying about commutation relations.62) Wick’s theorem is true by deﬁnition for n = 2. (V. so let’s get a feeling for it by applying it to the expression for S at O(g 2 ) in our model: (−ig)2 2! d4 x1 d4 x2 T (ψ † (x1 )ψ(x1 )φ(x1 )ψ † (x2 )ψ(x2 )φ(x2 )).65) can contribute to elastic N N scattering. (V. You can also see that there is no combination of creation and annihilation operators that will contribute to N + N → N + N . Wick’s theorem has unravelled the messy combinatorics of the T -product. In its general form. The proof that this is true for all n is by induction.” So the operator −−−−−−−−−− −−−−−−−−−− −− −− :ψ † (x1 )ψ(x1 )φ(x1 )ψ † (x2 )ψ(x2 )φ(x2 ):≡:ψ † (x1 )ψ(x1 )ψ † (x2 )ψ(x2 ): φ(x1 )φ(x2 ) (V.61). . That is to say. leaving us with an expression in terms of propagators and normal-ordered products. N + N → N + N . and so not terribly illuminating. because the theory has a conserved U (1) charge which wouldn’t be conserved in this process. so we won’t repeat it here. the matrix element k3 (N ). to give a nonzero matrix element.66) is nonzero. The ψ ﬁeld contains operators which annihilate a “nucleon” and create an “anti-nucleon. k4 (N ) | :ψ † (x1 )ψ(x1 )ψ † (x2 )ψ(x2 ): | k1 (N ).” The ψ † ﬁeld contains operators which annihilate an “anti-nucleon” and create a “nucleon. and the ψ † ﬁelds can’t create anti-nucelons.79 On the right-hand side of the equation we have all possible terms with all possible contractions of two ﬁelds.64) This term can contribute to a variety of physical processes. It is reassuring to see that this actually works in practice. One of these terms is (−ig)2 2! d4 x1 −−−−−−−−−− −−−−−−−−−− d4 x2 : ψ † (x1 )ψ(x1 )φ(x1 )ψ † (x2 )ψ(x2 )φ(x2 ) : (V. We are also using the notation −−−− −−−− −− −− : A(x)B(y)C(z)D(w) : ≡ : A(x)C(z) : B(y)D(w) (V. The ψ ﬁelds would have to annihilate the nucleons. k2 (N ) (V. it looks rather daunting. Eq. We already knew this had to be the case.63) Wick’s theorem relates this to a number of normal-ordered products. because there are terms in the two ψ ﬁelds that can annihilate the two nucleons in the initial state and terms in the two ψ † ﬁelds that can create two nucleons.

69) Note that there are no arrows over the momenta in the states. A single term is able to contribute to a variety of processes like this because each ﬁeld can either destroy or create particles. φ + φ → N + N .68) We really want S − 1. (V.70) . p2 (N ) |(S − 1)| p1 (N ). N + φ → N + φ. √ | k = (2π)3/2 2ωk | k . We can write these states as | k = a† (k)| 0 where the relativistically normalized creation operator a† (k) is deﬁned as √ a† (k) ≡ (2π)3/2 2ωk a† k (V. For N N → N N scattering we want the matrix element p1 (N ). S matrix elements from Wick’s Theorem Having used Wick’s theorem to relate (unpleasant) T-products to products of normal ordered ﬁelds and contractions (which are easy to work with). p2 (N ) . N + N → φ + φ.67) This term can contribute to the following 2 → 2 scattering processes (you should verify this): N + φ → N + φ. We are now doing relativistic ﬁeld theory in earnest and so we are going to use our relativistically normalized states from the ﬁrst lecture. let’s now calculate the scattering amplitude for “nucleon”-“nucleon” scattering at ﬁrst order in perturbation theory. G. but instead for the matrix element f |(S − 1)| i .71) (V.80 Another term in the expansion of the T -product is (−ig)2 2! d4 x1 −−−−−−− −−−−−− d4 x2 : ψ † (x1 )ψ(x1 )φ(x1 )ψ † (x2 )ψ(x2 )φ(x2 ) : (V. because we aren’t interested in processes in which no scattering at all occurs. which corresponds to the leading order term of the Wick expansion.72) (V. First note that for a given process we are interested not in having an expression for the operator S. (V. not S.

81 and the scalar ﬁeld φ has the expansion φ(x) = d3 k a(k)e−ik·x + a† (k)eik·x .76) Now.78) From the explicit expansion of ψ in terms of b† (k) and c(k) and Eq.77) (since we only have nucleons in the initial and ﬁnal states.75). (V.73) From Eqs.75) (V.74) Similar relations holds for the relativistically normalized “nucleon” and “anti-nucleon” creation and annihilation operators. (V. p2 | :ψ † (x1 )ψ(x1 )ψ † (x2 )ψ(x2 ): | p1 . So in equations. (2π)3 2ωk (V. to evaluate Eq. p1 . (V. (V. p2 (V. p2 . p2 = p1 . (V. (V. and using the nucleon creation terms in ψ † (x1 ) and ψ † (x2 ) to create the two nucleons in the ﬁnal state. a† (k)]| 0 = (2π)3 2ωk δ (3) (k − k )| 0 and so d3 k a(k )| k = | 0 . p2 (N ) = b† (p1 )b† (p2 )| 0 .69) at second order in the Wick expansion we need to evaluate the matrix element in Eq.79) . so a relativistically normalized incoming two nucleon state is | p1 (N ). The only way to get a nonzero matrix element is by using the nucleon annihilation terms in ψ(x1 ) and ψ(x2 ) to annihilate the two incoming nucleons. I’m going to suppress the “N ” label on the states). p1 . p2 = e−ip1 ·x1 −ip2 ·x2 + e−ip1 ·x2 −ip2 ·x1 . Any other combination of creation and annihilation operators will give zero inner product. you can easily show that 0 |ψ(x1 )ψ(x2 )| p1 . p2 |ψ † (x1 )ψ † (x2 )| 0 0 |ψ(x1 )ψ(x2 )| p1 .71).70) and (V. (2π)3 2ωk (V.66). (V. we also ﬁnd a(k )| k = a(k )a† (k)| 0 = [a(k ). p2 | :ψ † (x1 )ψ(x1 )ψ † (x2 )ψ(x2 ): | p1 .

This just enforces energy-momentum conservation for the scattering process. Since we are integrating over x1 and x2 symmetrically.80) Notice that the ﬁrst two terms on the ﬁrst line of the ﬁnal answer diﬀers by the interchange x1 ↔ x2 .84) . This factor of 2 cancels the 1/2! in Dyson’s formula. so this becomes (−ig)2 d4 k i 4 k 2 − µ2 + i (2π) (2π)4 δ (4) (p1 − p1 + k)(2π)4 δ (4) (p2 − p2 − k) (V.58). and pi is the sum of initial momenta. The x1 and x2 integrations are easy to do – they just give us δ functions. we can do the k integration using the δ functions. Using our expression for the φ propagator. Eq.81) × ei(p1 −p1 +k)·x1 +i(p2 −p2 −k)·x2 + ei(p2 −p1 +k)·x1 +i(p1 −p2 −k)·x2 . (V.82 Using this and its complex conjugate. it is traditional to deﬁne the invariant Feynman amplitude Af i by f |(S − 1)| i = iAf i (2π)4 δ (4) (pf − pi ). −− −− and since φ(x1 )φ(x2 ) is symmetric under x1 ↔ x2 . p2 = (eip1 ·x1 +ip2 ·x2 + eip1 ·x2 +ip2 ·x1 )(e−ip1 ·x1 −ip2 ·x2 + e−ip1 ·x2 −ip2 ·x1 ) = eip1 ·x1 +ip2 ·x2 −ip1 ·x1 −ip2 ·x2 + eip1 ·x2 +ip2 ·x1 −ip1 ·x2 −ip2 ·x1 +eip1 ·x2 +ip2 ·x1 −ip1 ·x1 −ip2 ·x2 + eip1 ·x1 +ip2 ·x2 −ip1 ·x2 −ip2 ·x1 (V. and we get (−ig)2 (2π)4 δ (4) (p1 + p2 − p1 − p2 ) i (p1 − p1 )2 − µ2 +i + i (p2 − p1 )2 − µ2 + i .82) +(2π)4 δ (4) (p2 − p1 + k)(2π)4 δ (4) (p1 − p2 − k) . Since energy and momentum are conserved in any theory with a time. p2 | :ψ † (x1 )ψ(x1 )ψ † (x2 )ψ(x2 ): | p1 . The same is true for the last two terms. we obtain the following expression for the second order contribution to N N scattering (−ig)2 −− −− d4 x1 d4 x2 φ(x1 )φ(x2 ) × eip1 ·x1 +ip2 ·x2 −ip1 ·x1 −ip2 ·x2 + eip1 ·x2 +ip2 ·x1 −ip1 ·x2 −ip2 ·x1 = (−ig)2 d4 x1 d4 x2 i d4 k 4 k 2 − µ2 + i (2π) (V. Finally. we ﬁnd four terms contributing to the matrix element p1 .and space-translation invariant Lagrangian.83) Notice that performing the ﬁnal integral over δ functions leaves us with a factor of (2π)4 δ (4) (pf − pi ) where pf is the sum of all ﬁnal momenta. (V. these terms must give identical contributions to the matrix element. (V.

88) (p1 − p2 )2 = −2p2 (1 + cos θ) (V. we ﬁnd the invariant Feynman amplitude for “nucleon”“nucleon” scattering to be A = −g 2 1 (p1 − p1 )2 − µ2 +i + 1 (p2 − p1 )2 − µ2 + i .87) (V. Feynman diagrams are essentially pictures of the scattering process . our ﬁnal result for N N elastic scattering. pˆ ) e p2 = ( p2 + m2 . −pˆ ) e where e · e = cos θ. was remarkably simple. These are called Feynman Diagrams. First of all.83 The factor of i is there by convention. This immediately gives ˆ ˆ (p1 − p1 )2 = −2p2 (1 − cos θ). nobody ever bothers thinking about Dyson’s formula or Wick’s theorem when calculating scattering amplitudes because there is a very simple diagrammatic shorthand which has all of this formalism built into it. Scattering into two identical particles at an angle θ is indistinguishable from scattering at an angle π − θ. (V. the amplitude must also be symmetric. and so the probability must be symmetrical under the interchange of the two processes. Note that the two terms in Eq.or more precisely.85) In the centre of mass frame. it reproduces the phase conventions for scattering in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. so a given Feynman diagram will contain n interaction vertices. Eq. (V. Since these particles are bosons.86) Here we’ve dropped the i because the denominator never vanishes. and so we get A = g2 2p2 (1 1 1 + 2 . pictures of the ﬁelds and contractions which must be evaluated to give the matrix element. H. at n’th order in perturbation theory the interaction Hamiltonian will act n times. 2 − cos θ) + µ 2p (1 + cos θ) + µ2 (V. pˆ) e e p2 = ( p2 + m2 .88) are required because of Bose statistics. Indeed.85). Diagrammatic Perturbation Theory While the intermediate steps were a bit messy. we can write the momenta as p1 = ( p2 + m2 . according to simple rules. These are diagrams representing the . Thus. They are very easy to construct. (V. and θ is the scattering angle. −pˆ) p1 = ( p2 + m2 .

5 Interaction vertex for the “nucleon”-meson theory.64).64) corresponds to the diagram in Fig. The arrows will always line up.7 Diagrammatic representation of the contraction in Eq. any ﬁelds which are left uncontracted must either annihilate particles from the incoming .6. To distinguish ψ’s from ψ † ’s.6 Diagrammatic representation of the contraction in Eq. (V. V. (V.5. V. contractions are represented by connecting the lines coming out of diﬀerent vertices. join the lines of the contracted ﬁelds. So the term in Eq. (Since the arrows always line up. A single interaction vertex for our toy theory is shown in Fig. FIG. while the term in Eq. V. V. we have only drawn one arrow on the contracted nucleon lines).84 interaction Hamiltonian in which each ﬁeld in a given term of HI is represented by a line emanating from the vertex.7. ψ(x)ψ(y) and ψ † (x)ψ † (y). (V. we can draw an arrow on the corresponding line. Now. are zero. FIG.67). (V.67) corresponds to the diagram in Fig. −−− −−− −− −− because the contractions for which they don’t. V. V. An unarrowed −− − line will never be connected to an arrowed line because ψ(x)φ(y) is clearly zero as well. Next. Any time there is a contraction. FIG.

For the ﬁrst diagram for N N scattering.are also used in other books (as well as previous versions of these notes!). top to bottom. We could just as well say that the meson is emitted from the second nucleon and then absorbed by the ﬁrst. If there are diﬀerent ways of doing this. To distinguish it from a physical particle. Other conventions . V. you can say that a nucleon with momentum p1 comes in and interacts. Since the two incoming nuclei are identical. It therefore can’t exist as a real particle. scattering it into a nucleon with momentum p2 . Note that I am using the convention that Feynman diagrams are read from left to right . the direction of the arrow on the line indicates the direction of ﬂow of the U (1) charge.) The second diagram must be there because of Bose statistics. it is referred to as a “virtual” meson. the graph has no time-ordering in it. and it is reabsorbed by a nucleon with momentum p2 . but the virtual meson doesn’t satisfy k 2 = µ2 . bottom to top . An incoming arrow in the initial state corresponds to a nucleon being annihilated. an outgoing arrow in the initial state corresponds to an anti-nucleon and an outgoing arrow in the ﬁnal state corresponds to an outgoing nucleon. so we must add the corresponding amplitudes. These diagrams have a very simple physical interpretation. the meson must not live long enough for its energy to be measured to great enough accuracy to measure this discrepancy. Thus. shown in Fig. V. The arrows on the lines indicate the ﬂow of conserved charge.8: FIG. In terms of the uncertainty principle. we write down a separate Feynman diagram for each distinct labeling of the external legs. the other arrows indicate the direction of momentum ﬂow. For N N scattering.right to left.so the incoming states come in on the left and the outgoing states go out on the right. Similarly. scattering into a nucleon with momentum p1 and a meson with momentum k = p1 − p1 . they correspond to indistinguishable processes. this gives us the two Feynman diagrams.8 Feynman diagrams contributing to N N scattering at order g 2 . an incoming arrow in the ﬁnal state corresponds to an anti-nucleon being created. but must be reabsorbed after a short time. (Note that although we are writing this as though there is a deﬁnite ordering to these events. Energy and momentum are conserved in this process.85 state or create particles from the outgoing state. it is in principle impossible to say which of the incident nuclei carries p1 and which . For nucleons.

Having written down our two diagrams and interpreted them. write down a factor of (−ig)(2π)4 δ (4) i ki where ki is the sum of all momenta ﬂowing into (or out of. Then i k 2 − m2 + i i k 2 − µ2 + i . Note that there is no excuse for not getting the factors of (2π)4 right. it’s a bit simpler even than this: we can shortcut some of the trivial delta functions and integrations by simply imposing energy-momentum conservation on the momenta ﬂowing into each vertex.86 carries p2 . We can incorporate these simpliﬁcations into our Feynman rules for iAf i . and every δ (4) function always comes with a factor of (2π)4 . and so the amplitude must sum over both of them. Note that Bose statistics are automatically built into our creation and annihilation operator formalism. as long as you’re consistent) the vertex. we can now evaluate their contributions to the scattering amplitude iAf i by the following rules (called the Feynman rules for the theory): (a) At each vertex. (b) For each internal line with momentum k ﬂowing through it. Every factor of d4 k always comes along with a factor of (2π)−4 . After drawing all possible diagrams at each order. and D(k 2 ) = for a “nucleon”. write down a factor d4 k D(k 2 ) (2π)4 where D(k 2 ) is the propagator for the appropriate ﬁeld: D(k 2 ) = for a meson. where pI and pF are the sums of the total initial and ﬁnal momenta. if you like. (2π)4 δ(pF − pI ). respectively. Actually. That’s it. (c) Divide the ﬁnal result by the overall energy-momentum conserving δ function. The processes occuring in the two graphs are indistinguishable. assign a momentum to each line (internal and external) and enforce energy-momentum conservation at each vertex.

V. (V. FIG. However. write down a factor of (−ig). there are also diagrams with closed loops for which energy-momentum conservation at the vertices is not suﬃcient to ﬁx all the internal momenta. (V.9 corresponds to the matrix element obtained from the contraction −−− −−− −− −− p | : ψ † (x1 )ψ(x2 )ψ(x1 )ψ † (x2 )φ(x1 )φ(x2 ) : | p . Thus we add an additional Feynman rule for iA: . (b ) For each contracted line.90) corresponds to the two-loop graph in Fig. V. so we must integrate over both momenta.89) Enforcing energy-momentum conservation at each vertex is still not suﬃcient to ﬁx the momentum FIG.87 (a ) At each vertex. write down a factor of the propagator for that ﬁeld. This is ﬁne for graphs like the ones we have been considering. and so we must keep the factor of d4 k (2π)4 Similarly.91) (V. the diagram in Fig. V.91). neither p nor k is constrained.10). k ﬂowing through the loop. For example.89). the fully contracted term −−− −−− −−− −−− −− −− 0 | : ψ † (x1 )ψ(x2 )ψ(x1 )ψ † (x2 )φ(x1 )φ(x2 ) : | 0 (V. In this diagram.10 Feynman diagram corresponding to matrix element (V.9 Feynman diagram corresponding to matrix element (V.

(V.11 Feynman Diagrams contributing to N N → N N N (p1 ) + N (p2 ) → N (p1 ) + N (p2 ): There are two Feynman graphs contributing to this process.11). I.13). shown in Fig. The diagrams are the same in the two ﬁgures because they have the same arrangement of lines and vertices: in the ﬁrst ﬁgure. we immediately read oﬀ iA = (−ig)2 i (p1 − p1 )2 − µ2 + i (p1 + p2 )2 − µ2 . with the two φ’s contracted. the vertices are N (p1 ) − N (p1 ) − φ and N (p2 ) − N (p2 ) − φ in both diagrams. and immediately read oﬀ the amplitude (V. Applying our Feynman rules to these diagrams. Since the diagrams are simply a shorthand for matrix elements of operators in the Wick expansion. V. which gives .88 (c) For each internal loop with momentum k unconstrained by energy-momentum conservation. Similarly. (V.92) It is important to be able to recognize which diagrams are and aren’t distinct.85).8.11 as in Fig. We could even be perverse and draw the second diagram as in Fig. (V. We could just as well have drawn the diagrams in Fig. V. N (p1 )+N (p2 ) → φ(p1 )φ(p2 ). The amplitude is given by the diagrams in Fig. or nucleon-nucleon annihilation into two mesons. (V.12). the second diagrams in both ﬁgures are identical. V. it is a simple matter to write down the two Feynman diagrams in Fig.(V. More Scattering Processes We can now write down some more Feynman diagrams which contribute to scattering at O(g 2 ): FIG. (2π)4 With these rules. the orientation of the lines inside the graphs have absolutely no signiﬁcance.14). write down a factor of d4 k .

we could have drawn the ﬁrst diagram as shown in Fig.94) Once again. clearly these are simply related to the analogous process with particles instead of antiparticles. 2 − m2 (p1 − p1 ) (p1 − p2 )2 − m2 (V. .89 FIG. which diﬀer only by the exchange of the identical particles in the ﬁnal state. Note that there are processes such as N N → N N and N φ → N φ which we didn’t write down.12 Alternate drawing of the Feynman diagrams in Fig. (V. + 2 − m2 (p1 − p2 ) (p1 + p2 )2 − m2 (V. or nucleon-meson scattering. From the two diagrams in Fig. iA = (−ig)2 i i + . (V.93) In this case we have virtual nucleons in the intermediate state. N (p1 ) + φ(p2 ) → N (p1 ) + φ(p2 ). (V. FIG.11). V. V. instead of virtual mesons. Indeed.15) we obtain iA = (−ig)2 i i . the fact that these amplitudes FIG. V.13 Alternate drawing of diagram the second diagram in the previous ﬁgure.14 Diagrams contributing to N N → φφ. Bose statistics are taken into account by the two diagrams.16) This completes the list of interesting scattering processes at O(g 2 ). Once again.

17). there are more complicated diagrams contributing to these scattering processes. .95) The reason for the factor of 4! in the deﬁnition of the coupling is made immediately clear by examining the perturbative expansion of the theory.17 Interaction vertex for φ4 interaction. k2 . This theory has a single interaction vertex. For example. V. At higher orders in perturbation theory. φφ → φφ scattering is the completely uncontracted term − λ k . 4! 1 2 (V. V. are identical to those with the corresponding antiparticles is a consequence of charge conjugation invariance (C). 4! (V. giving a total of 4! diﬀerent combinations. any one of the remaining three can annihilate the second.15 Diagrams contributing to N φ → N φ.16 Alternate drawing of the ﬁrst diagram in the previous ﬁgure.90 FIG. discussed in the previous chapter. FIG. In some cases there are additional combinatoric factors which must be incorporated into the Feynman rules. V. any one of the φ ﬁelds can annihilate the ﬁrst meson. At O(λ) in perturbation theory.96) Now. k | : φ(x)φ(x)φ(x)φ(x) : |k1 . leaving either of the remaining ﬁelds to create either of the ﬁnal mesons. (V. Consider the Lagrangian of a self-coupled scalar ﬁeld L = L0 − λ 4 φ . shown in Fig. the factors of 4! cancel and we are left simply with −iλ. for N N → N N scattering in our meson-“nucleon” theory. For the Feynman rule for this vertex. the only term which contributes to FIG.

The ﬁrst diagram arises from Wick FIG. however.99) The evaluation of integrals of this type is a delicate procedure.97) FIG. that for large k µ the integral behaves as d4 k k8 .91 at O(g 4 ) we have diagrams like the two shown in Fig. Note. (V. Because of the overall energy-momentum conserving δ function. it does not matter whether we label. φφ → φφ scattering. the bottom line by k − p2 or k + p1 − p1 − p2 . for example. and we won’t discuss it in this course. We can also see explicitly that energy-momentum conservation at the vertices leaves one unconstrained momentum k which must be integrated over. × 2 − m2 + i )((k − p )2 − m2 + i ) ((k + p1 − p1 ) 2 (V. (V.19 Diagram contributing to φφ → φφ scattering. V. contractions of the form −−− −−− −−− −−− −− −− −− −− : ψ † (x1 )ψ(x2 )ψ(x3 )ψ † (x4 )ψ(x1 )ψ † (x3 )ψ † (x2 )ψ(x4 )φ(x1 )φ(x2 )φ(x3 )φ(x4 ) : whereas the second diagram arises from Wick contractions of the form −−− −−− −−− −−− −− −− −− −− : ψ † (x1 )ψ(x2 )ψ(x4 )ψ † (x4 )ψ(x1 )ψ † (x3 )ψ † (x2 )ψ(x3 )φ(x1 )φ(x2 )φ(x3 )φ(x4 ) : At O(g 4 ) we also get a new process.19). (V. this last graph is iA = (−ig)4 d4 k i4 (2π)4 (k 2 − m2 + i )((k + p1 )2 − m2 + i ) 1 .18 Two representative graphs which contribute to N N → N N scattering at O(g 4 ).18). from the graph in Fig. V. momenta ﬂowing through the internal lines in this ﬁgure have been explicitly shown.98) The (V. According to our Feynman rules.

(V.102) 8 See.100) In the centre of mass frame. for example. to account for the diﬀerence between the relativistic and nonrelativistic normalizations of the states. we also must divide the relativistic result by (2m)2 . First of all. Let’s look at the nonrelativistic limit of the “nucleon-nucleon” scattering amplitude and try to understand it in terms of NRQM. By a suﬃciently shrewd redeﬁnition of the parameters in the Lagrangian. (V.8): iA = −ig 2 ig 2 = (p1 − p1 )2 − µ2 |p1 − p1 |2 + µ2 (V. However. This was a serious problem in the early years of quantum ﬁeld theory. both classicially and quantum mechanically. There is a well-deﬁned procedure known as renormalization which accomplishes this feat. Potentials and Resonances People were scattering nucleons oﬀ nucleons long before quantum ﬁeld theory was around. two-body scattering is simpliﬁed to the problem of scattering oﬀ a potential. all inﬁnities in observable quantities may be eliminated. II. To compare the relativistic and nonrelativistic amplitudes. This is not generally the case: in many situations loop integrals diverge. J.92 and so is convergent. the amplitude for an incoming state with momentum k to scatter oﬀ a potential U (r) into an outgoing state with momentum k is proportional to the Fourier transform of the potential. giving inﬁnite coeﬃcients at each order in perturbation theory. Chapter VIII.100) with that from the ﬁrst diagram in Fig. Diu and Lalo¨. Deﬁning the dimensionless quantity λ = g/2m. Quantum Mechanics. 4 .101) where we have used the fact that in the centre of mass frame. especially section e B. recall8 the Born approximation from NRQM: at ﬁrst order in perturbation theory. Vol. it turns out that these inﬁnities are similar in spirit to the inﬁnity we faced when we found a divergent vacuum energy. (V. Let us therefore compare the nonrelativistic potential scattering amplitude Eq. Cohen-Tannoudji. and at low energies they could describe scattering processes adequately with non-relativistic quantum mechanics. ANR (k → k ) = −i d3 r e−i(k −k)·r U (r). the energies of the initial and scattered “nucleons” are the same. this gives d3 rU (r)e−i(p1 −p1 )·r = − λ2 |p1 − p1 |2 + µ2 (V.

2. which is mediated by a spin-2 ﬁeld.106) E1 = E2 = p2 + m2 (V.104) This is called the Yukawa potential. The potential falls oﬀ exponentially with a range of µ−1 . we have p1 = −p2 ≡ p. and so the amplitude is proportional to A∝ 4M 2 1 .particle creation and annihilation is a purely relativistic eﬀect. You can see directly from the scattering amplitudes that the sign of the Yukawa term in the amplitude is the same in “nucleon”-“nucleon”. “antinucleon”-“antinucleon” and “nucleon”-“antinucleon” scattering. 4πr (V. Indeed. This is a generic feature of scalar boson exchange .93 Inverting the Fourier transform gives U (r) = −λ2 eiq·r d3 q (2π)3 |q|2 + µ2 2 ∞ q 2 eiqr − e−iqr λ dq 2 = − 2 4π 0 q + µ2 iqr iqr 2 1 ∞ qe λ dq 2 = − 2πr 2πi −∞ q + µ2 (V. Gravity. and can be either attractive or repulsive. The potential is attractive. In the centre of mass frame.103) and closing the contour of the integral in the upper half complex plane to pick up the residue of the single pole at q = +iµ gives U (r) = − λ2 −µr e . This is in contract to the electrostatic potential. (V. so this term is suppressed compared with the i potential scattering term.105) . Now let’s look at “nucleon”-“antinucleon” scattering. What about the second term? First. is again universally attractive. which arises from the exchange of a spin-1 boson. This shouldn’t be surprising . The ﬁrst term in Eq. + 4p2 − µ2 + i (V.92) again corresponds to scattering in a Yukawa potential.it leads to a universally attractive potential. The ﬁrst feature is generic for the exchange of any particle. this was how Yukawa predicted the existence of the pion. by working backwards from the observed range of the force (about 1 fm) to predict the mass (about 200 MeV). We note two features: 1. the Compton wavelength of the exchanged particle. we note that in the nonrelativistic limit (p1 + p2 )2 4m2 p2 .

We can therefore drop the +i . This is reﬂected as a resonance in the cross section. and so the corresponding cross section does not have a resonance. the decay is not kinematically allowed). and rendering the resulting probability ﬁnite at the peak. For example. Note the resonance in the cross sections corresponding to the intermediate Z 0 boson going on-shell. the denominator never vanishes. . The +i in the amplitude is therefore not relevant in this case. This is because. If µ < 2m. At this kinematic point.3). V. Both processes can proceed either through an intermediate photon or an intermediate Z 0 boson.94 There are two cases to consider. but there is a clear resonance at a centre of mass energy around 91 GeV. However.20 Cross sections for electron-positron scattering to various ﬁnal states. and instead is a real propagating particle. At low energies the intermediate photon dominates and the cross-section is monotonically decreasing. (VII. the mass of the Z 0 boson.in fact it is only in diagram with closed loops that the +i is crucial. if µ > 2m. This is another general feature of resonances. The amplitude for e+ e− → γγ does not have an intermediate Z 0 boson. and the scattering amplitude is a monotonically decreasing function of p2 . but rather a peak of ﬁnite height. shifting the pole into the complex plane. corresponding to the intermediate meson going further oﬀshell as p2 increases. for µ > 2m. the meson is unstable to decay into a “nucleon”-“antinucleon” pair via the diagram in Fig. the scattering amplitude has a pole. When treated correctly. corresponding to the intermediate meson going on mass-shell at k 2 = (p1 + p2 )2 = µ2 . Note that the Z 0 peak in the ﬁgure is not a pole. this instability adds a ﬁnite imaginary piece to the denominator of the scattering amplitude. 10 5 LEP Total Cross Section [pb] 10 4 e+e → hadrons CESR DORIS _ 10 3 PEP PETRA TRISTAN 10 2 e+e → 10 _ + _ _ e+e →γ γ 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Center of Mass Energy [GeV] FIG. the intermediate meson is no longer virtual. the ﬁgure below shows the cross-section (roughly the amplitude squared) for e+ e− to annihilation to muon pairs as well as to quarks (the curve marked “hadrons”). Searching for resonances in cross sections is one way of discovering new particles at colliders. (For µ < 2m. either .

|x = d3 k −ik·x e |k . Since the second quantized formulation of NRQM is the same as we have been using for relativistic QM.1) As you are about to show. EXAMPLE (CONTINUED): PERTURBATION THEORY FOR NONRELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS We can get some more practice in the techniques of the previous chapter by applying them to the second quantized form of NRQM. the energy of the two-particle state) is shifted by x3 . x2 = V (|x1 − x2 |) x3 . t)ψ(x. (This part wasn’t on the midterm. but did make it onto a problem set). k2 . hence. t)ψ ∗ (x. Since this is a non-relativistic theory. we can do perturbation theory using the same techniques. This potential is non-local in space. 1. coupled to ψ by a potential: L = L0 + iχ∗ ∂0 χ + b χ∗ · χ− d3 x V (|x − x |)χ∗ (x . Using Dyson’s formula. introduced at the end of Chapter 3.95 VI. as a function of V .and momentum-conserving δ functions in your amplitude). this is a repulsive potential which depends only on the distance between the particles. Show that this term does indeed correspond to a two-body potential V (|x − x |) by showing that in the presence of the interaction the two-particle matrix element of the Hamiltonian (i. The Problem Consider adding a second ﬁeld χ to the theory. t)χ(x . (2π)3/2 2. .2) where ∆k is the change in momentum of one of the scattered particles. x4 |x1 . k4 |S − 1|k1 . x4 |HI |x1 . and so violates causality in a relativistic theory. t). ﬁnd (to lowest order in V ) k3 . x2 (normal order freely). Show that in the centre of mass frame you recover the Born approximation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics for scattering oﬀ a potential. the amplitude for two body scattering. you can use the usual position eigenstates from NRQM. iA ∝ d3 r V (|r|)e−i(∆k)·r (VI. the expectation value of the interaction Hamiltonian in the position state |χ(r1 )ψ(r2 ) is V (|r1 − r2 |). (You should also get energy. (VI. but since the theory is non-relativistic this doesn’t matter. for V positive.e.

r e−ika x e−ikb x eikc x eikd x 0|a† a a† b akc ak−d |0 k k 1 = d3 x d4 xV (|x − x |) d4 ka d4 kb d4 kc d4 kd (2π 6 e−ika x e−ikb x eikc x eikd x δ 4 (k1 − kc )δ 4 (k2 − kd )δ 4 (k3 − ka )δ(k4 − kb ) × 4 1 = d3 x d4 xV (|x − x |)e−ik1 x e−ik2 x eik3 x eik4 x × 4 (2π 6 = = d3 x d4 xV (|x − x |)e−ix (k1 −k3 ) e−ix (k2 −k4 ) × 4 1 (2π 5 d3 x d3 xV (|x − x |)eix (k1 −k3 ) eix(k2 −k4 ) δ(E1 + E2 − E3 − E4 ) × 4 The factor of four comes from the various ways I can get a non–zero matrix element. t)χ(x . if the particles were identical. consider the amplitude for the scattering of two distinguishable “nucleons” ψa and ψb with identical masses and couplings to the φ ﬁeld. we don’t encounter any time ordered products. Returning now to relativistic quantum mechanics. 1 Now d3 xd3 x = 8 d3 rd3 s to get s=x+x ⇒x= r+s . Using Dyson’s formula to ﬁrst order. In the non-relativistic limit. This would be 4!. In analogy with your answer to part (c). This is not clear from the question. we can consider this as the scattering of two “nuclei” due to an eﬀective nucleon-nucleon potential induced via meson exchange. 2 x = s−r 2 0|S − 1|0 = i i 1 1 d3 rd3 sV (|r|)e 2 r(k2 +k3 −k4 )−k1 ) e 2 s(k1 +k2 −k3 )−k4 ) δ(E1 + E2 − E3 − E4 ) 52 (2π i 4 = d3 rV (|r|)e 2 r(k3 −k1 )×2 δ 4 (k1 + k2 − k3 − k4 ) (2π 2 4 = d3 rV (|r|)e−ir(∆k) δ 4 (k1 + k2 − k3 − k4 ) (2π 2 . t)ψ ∗ (x. Since the free Hamiltonian for the χ ﬁeld is the same as for the ψ ﬁeld. we can use the same expansion as before.96 3. t)ψ(x. t)|0 d3 x d4 xV (|x − x |) d4 ka d4 kb d4 kc d4 kd e−µr . so life is pretty easy 0|S − 1|0 = 0| = 1 (2π 6 d4 xd3 x V (|x − x |)χ∗ (x . Now do a change in variables r =x−x. show that the eﬀective nucleon-nucleon potential has the Yukawa form V (r) ∼ g 2 Is the force attractive or repulsive? Solution 1.

one ﬁnds V (|r|) = −g 2 2π 3 = −g 2 2π 3 0 d3 q ∞ eiqr q 2 + µ2 π eiqrcosθ sinθdθq 2 dq 2 2 0 q +µ With π 0 eiqrcosθ sinθdθ = 1 eirp − e−irp irp We ﬁnd V (|r|) = −g 2 2π 3 e−qr 1 ∞ qdq 2 ir −∞ q + µ2 e−µr = −g 2 4π 4 r The last step involved closing the contour above and picking up the pole at p = iµ. iA = ig 2 |q|2 1 (2π)4 δ(k1 + k2 − k3 − k4 ) + µ2 Comparing that with the result obtained in c). . The Feynman amplitude for this Feynman diagram is iA = (−ig)2 i (2π)4 δ(k1 + k2 − k3 − k4 ). q 2 − µ2 + iε q = ∆p In the nonrelativistic limit. Thus.97 Note that I didn’t have to make use of the centre of mass frame. therefore the change in the energy is neglible(q0 = 2m2 + |p1 |2 + |p3 |2 − 2 m2 + |p1 |2 m2 + |p3 |2 → 0). m2 2 p2 . 2. This is an attractive potential.

They are not normalizable because they are plane waves. existing at every point in space-time. in a box measuring L on each side with periodic boundary conditions. But it looks like the probability is going to be proportional to |Sf i |2 ∼ |δ (4) (pF − pI )|2 .1) instead of δ (3) (k − k ). As we discussed earlier in the course. No wonder we got divergent nonsense. we will get the transition probability/unit time. (VII.98 VII. Another approach. which is really what we are interested in.2) The integrals where nx . over momentum for the expansion of the ﬁelds therefore becomes a sum over discrete momenta. DECAY WIDTHS. Furthermore. This is clearly not what we wanted. f |(S − 1)| i = iA(2π)4 δ (4) (pF − pI ) but we have yet to make contact with anything measurable. . CROSS SECTIONS AND PHASE SPACE At this stage we are now able to calculate amplitudes for a variety of processes by evaluating Feynman diagrams. we must square the amplitudes and sum over all observed ﬁnal states. the allowed values of momenta must be of the form kx = 2πny 2πnz 2πnx .1). our states are normalized to δ (3) functions. for all time. In order to calculate probabilities. which is simpler and will give the right answer. This will solve the normalization problem because plane wave states in the box are square-integrable. kz = L L L (VII. the states being normalized to k |k = δ k k (VII. V → ∞ and hope it makes sense (it will). Instead. |δ (4) (pF − pI )|2 ?? Squaring a delta function makes no sense. The proper way to solve this problem is to take our plane wave states and build up localized wave packets. Finally. ky = . we can take the limit T. and turn the interaction on for only a ﬁnite time T . ny and nz are integers. What happened? The problem is that we are not working with “square-integrable” states. if we divide our answer by T . is to return to our old crutch and put the system in a box of volume V . Thus the scattering process is in fact occurring at every point in space. which are normalizable and for which the scattering process really is restricted to some ﬁnite region of space-time. as shown in the kx − ky plane in Fig.

so squaring it is now sensible. f |(S − 1)| i VT = iAViT (2π)4 δV T (pF − pI ) × f f (4) √ 1 √ 2ωk V √ i 1 √ 2ωk V (VII. and the notation V T indicates ﬁnite volume and time. we note that no experimentalist can measure the cross section for the scattering process N (p1 ) + N (p2 ) → N (p1 ) + N (p2 ) for any particular values of the momenta since it is impossible to resolve a single state. T → ∞ limit. However. we see that each time a ﬁeld creates or annihilates a state it will bring in an additional factor of e±ik·x √ √ 2ωk V (VII. (VII. Switching back to our non-relativistic normalization for our states. we have for ﬁnite V = L3 and T .1 Allowed values of kx and ky in a box of measuring L on each side. It is only possible to measure all states about . when we were working with relativistically normalized states in inﬁnite volume). Each quantity in Eq. Thus.5) is ﬁnite.5) where the products are over ﬁnal (f ) and initial (i) particles. since we want to make contact with the real world. and the scalar ﬁeld φ has the expansion φ(x) = k a† eik·x ak e−ik·x √ +√k √ √ 2ωk V 2ωk V (VII.6) approaches a δ function in the V. VII.99 ky 2π/L } } 2π/L kx FIG.3) (you can check that this is the right expansion by seeing that the commutation relations for a† and k ak reproduce the correct canonical commutation relations for the ﬁelds). The function δV T (p) ≡ (4) 1 (2π)4 T /2 dt −T /2 V d3 xeip·x (VII.4) (in contrast to the factor of e±ik·x we had in the last set of lecture notes.

V → ∞: lim (2π)4 δV T (p) (4) 2 2 (4) 2 = 1 (2π)4 T /2 dx −T /2 V d3 x = VT .T →∞ = V T (2π)4 δ (4) (p). and we ﬁnd d4 p δV T (p) So indeed δ (4) (p) T. (VII.13) 1 . so we might anticipate it will be proportional to a delta function. with a coeﬃcient which diverges in the limit V. Squaring our expression for the amplitude. summing over all ﬁnal states and dividing by the total time T .100 some small region ∆k in momentum space. From the ﬁgure. there are L L L V ∆kx ∆ky ∆kz = ∆kx ∆ky ∆kz 2π 2π 2π (2π)3 (VII. T → ∞. (VII.12) Substituting this into Eq.11) is proportional to a δ function. If there are N particles in the ﬁnal state.7) states. The only tricky part of taking the limit V. (VII..9) Note that the factors of V cancel in the product over ﬁnal particles.8) states. 2ωi V (VII.9) and taking the limit V.10) Performing the integral d4 p.. which must be summed over. T → ∞ is the |δV T (p)|2 function. the exponential factors just give us (2π)4 δ (4) (x − x ). in the inﬁnitesimal region of size d3 p1 d3 p2 . we ﬁnd w (4) = |Af i |2 V (2π)4 δV T (pF − pI ) × T ﬁnal ≡ |Af i |2 V D initial particles particles f d3 pf (2π)3 2Ef initial particles 1 2Ei V i (VII. So let’s look at d4 p δV T (p) (4) 2 (4) = 1 (2π)8 d4 p T /2 T /2 dt −T /2 −T /2 dt V d3 x V d3 x eip·x−ip·x .d3 pN there will be V d3 pf (2π)3 f =1 N (VII. We will ﬁnd that for decay rates and cross sections the V in the product over initial particles also cancel. This will approach a function which is inﬁnitely peaked at the origin. it is clear that in a region of size ∆kx ∆ky ∆kz . so we can trivially do the integrals over t and x . 2Ei V i . (2π)4 (VII. we ﬁnd the following expression for the diﬀerential transition probability per unit time wV T /T : 2 wV T 1 (4) = |AViT |2 (2π)8 δV T (pF − pI ) × f T T f d3 pf (2π)3 2ωp i 1 .

Γ = 1/τ . In the particle’s rest frame. so w 1 = |Af i |2 D. (VII. where τ is the particle’s lifetime (in natural units). corresponding to decays and 2 → N particle scattering.16) Then the total decay probability/unit time. So let’s examine each of these in turn. we will deﬁne the quantity dΓ as the diﬀerential decay probability/unit time: dΓ ≡ 1 |Af i |2 D. T 2E (VII.14) Note that D is manifestly Lorentz invariant. each δ (n) function comes with a factor of (2π)n . and we have deﬁned the factor D by D ≡ (2π)4 δ (4) (pF − pI ) ﬁnal particles f d3 pf . in fact we are only really interested in processes with one or two particles in the initial state (but still an arbitrary number of particles in the ﬁnal state). Γ. Therefore. Thus. any measurement of its energy (or mass. is Γ= 1 2M |Af i |2 D. Γ is called the “decay width. so there is no excuse for getting the factors of 2π wrong. and each integration dn k comes with a factor of (2π)−n .17) all ﬁnal states Since the probability of the particle decaying/unit time is Γ.” If we consider the uncertainty principle. since the measure d3 pf /(2π)3 2Ef is the invariant measure we derived earlier on. Decays For a decay process there is a single particle in the initial state. we see that it does in fact correspond to a width. Now. 2M (VII. after a time t the probability that the particle has not decayed is just e−Γt . Since the particle exists for a time τ . The relevant physical quantities we wish to calculate are lifetimes and cross sections. a series of measurements of the particle’s mass will have a characteristic spread of order Γ. (2π)3 2Ef (VII. Also note that just as in the case of our Feynman rules. as they must in order to have a sensible V → ∞ limit. (VII.15) Note that the factors of V have cancelled. in its rest frame) must be uncertain by ∼ 1/τ = Γ.101 where we are using E and ω interchangeably for the energies of the particles. as indicated in Fig. .2). A.

there is one particle in the box of volume V . in terms of which the ﬂux is |v1 −v2 |/V .20) Therefore the ﬂux is N/At = |v|d. The width of the distribution is proportional to Γ. From Eq. we have dσ = diﬀerential probability unit time × unit ﬂux A2 i 1 f = D× 4E1 E2 V ﬂux A2 i 1 f = D 4E1 E2 |v1 − v2 | (VII.19) where v1 and v2 are the 3-velocities of the colliding particles. where σ is the total cross section. (VII. Cross Sections In a physical scattering experiment. In the case of two beams colliding. VII.102 # of measurements M ~Γ FIG. so d = 1/V . With our normalization. If the density of particles is d. B. and a measurement is made of the number of particles incident on a detector. the total cross section is σ= 1 1 4E1 E2 |v1 − v2 | |Af i |2 D. (VII. and the ﬂux is |v|/V . This is easy to see. an inﬁnitesimal detector element will record some number dN scatterings/unit time dN = F dσ (VII. Consider ﬁrst a beam of particles moving perpendicular to a plane of area A and moving with 3-velocity v. (VII. then after a time t. So for an incident ﬂux F =# of particles/unit time/unit area.2 The result of a series of measurements of the mass of a particle with lifetime τ = 1/Γ.19). The total number of scatterings per unit time is then N = F σ. With this deﬁnition.18) where dσ is called the diﬀerential cross section. a beam of particles is collided with a target (or another beam of particles coming in the opposite direction). the probability of ﬁnding either particle in a unit volume is 1/V .21) all ﬁnal states . the total number of particles passing through the plane is N = |v|Atd. but since the collision can occur anywhere in the box the total ﬂux is |v1 − v2 |/V 2 × V = |v1 − v2 |/V .

1 2 1 ∂E1 p1 ∂E2 p1 = . C.22) In the centre of mass frame. D= d3 p2 d3 p1 (2π)4 δ (4) (p1 + p2 − pI ). ∂p1 E1 E2 E1 E2 (VII. D for Two Body Final States These formulas for the decay widths and the cross sections are true for arbitrary numbers of particles in the ﬁnal states. but four of the variables are constrained by the energy-momentum conserving δ function δ (4) (p1 + p2 − pI ). leaving only two independent variables to integrate over. We have also written d3 p1 = p2 dp1 d cos θ1 dφ1 ≡ p2 dp1 dΩ1 . pI = 0. we can write D in a simpler form. the δ function of energy must be converted to a δ function of p1 .23) where we have performed the integral over p2 . and p2 = −p1 is now implicit. 2 2 Since E1 = p2 + m2 . we must include a factor of ∂(E1 + E2 ) ∂p1 −1 . where θ and φ are the polar angles of p1 . V → ∞.26) . 1 1 To eliminate the last dependent variable. For two particles. (2π)3 2E1 (2π)3 2E2 (VII. there are six integrals to do (d3 p1 d3 p2 ). Therefore D = d3 p1 d3 p2 (2π)3 δ (3) (p1 + p2 )(2π)δ(E1 + E2 − ET ) (2π)3 2E1 (2π)3 2E2 d3 p1 (2π)δ(E1 + E2 − ET ) ⇒ (2π)3 4E1 E2 1 = p2 dp dΩ1 (2π)δ(E1 + E2 − ET ) 3 4E E 1 1 (2π) 1 2 (VII. the total energy available in the process. and E2 = p2 + m2 = p2 + m2 (from p2 = −p1 ).25) (VII. = ∂p1 E1 ∂p2 E2 and so p1 (E1 + E2 ) p1 ET ∂(E1 + E2 ) = = . Using the general formula δ[f (x)] = x0 ∈zeroes of f 1 δ(x − x0 ) |f (x0 )| (VII. and Ei ≡ ET . the factors of V cancel and the result is well-behaved in the limit T.24) to change variables from E1 to p1 . For a two-body ﬁnal state. Thus.103 Once again.

if the particles are identical then these states are in fact identical. Going back to our QMD theory. because we treated the ﬁnal states |A(p1 ). E1 E2 E1 E2 (VII. p1 ).3 Leading contribution to µ → N N . they are valid in any theory. P2 = 1 ( p2 + m2 . so p1 = 1 µ2 − 4m2 /2. 16π 2 ET (VII. (VII. B(p1 ) as distinct. As a second example. we must multiply D by a factor of 1/n!. tial four-momentum is (µ. In general. we consider 2 → 2 particle scattering in the centre of mass frame.30) 1 1 + E1 E2 = p1 E2 + E1 p1 ET = .3). we have assumed that the particles A and B in the ﬁnal state are distinguishable. and so we’ve double-counted by a factor of 2!.27) In this derivation. 0) and the ﬁnal momenta of the nucleons are P1 = ( p2 + m2 .104 The desired result for a two body ﬁnal state in the centre of mass frame is therefore D= 1 p1 dΩ1 . The 3-velocities are v1 = p1 /(γm1 ) = p1 /E1 . so iA = −ig (simple!) and the decay width of the φ is Γ = g 2 p1 2µ 16π 2 µ g 2 p1 = 8πµ2 dΩ1 (VII. In fact. for n identical particles in the ﬁnal state. p1 is straightforward to compute from energy-momentum conservation. Now let’s apply this to a couple of examples. shown in Fig. Since the results which follow are just kinematics and don’t depend on the amplitude A. and v2 = p2 /E2 = −p1 /E2 . so that the decay φ → N N is kinematically allowed. −p1 ).28) since dΩ = 4π. so |v1 − v2 | = p1 This leads to dσ = 1 1 pf dΩ1 |Af i |2 4pi ET 16π 2 ET (VII. There is only one diagram contributing to this decay at leading order in perturbation theory. B(p2 ) and |A(p2 ). The ini- FIG. suppose µ2 > 4m2 .29) . VII.

E2 and E3 . The derivation is straightforward but more lengthy than for the 2 body ﬁnal state. where φ12 is the angle between particles 1 and 2. φ1 and φ12 . D for 3 Body Final States For three body ﬁnal states. 32π 3 (VII. the amplitude is independent of Ω1 and φ12 . respectively. so we will just quote the result here.33) . In terms of these variables. D. then we will choose the independent variables to be E1 . there are nine integrals to do and four constraints from the δ function. in this case.32) in the centre of mass frame. D= 1 dE1 dE2 dΩ1 dφ12 256π 5 (VII. E2 . If the outgoing particles have energies E1 . we can integrate over those three variables ( dΩ1 dφ12 = 8π 2 ) to obtain D= 1 dE1 dE2 . In some cases (such as the decay of a spinless meson).105 and so pf 1 dσ |Af i |2 = 2E2 p dΩ 64π T i (VII. leaving ﬁve independent variables. θ1 .31) where pi and pf are the magnitudes of the three-momenta of the incoming and outgoing particles.

k3 . k2 . we’ve had a rather straightforward way to interpret Feynman diagrams: with all the external lines corresponding to physical particles. The question we will answer in this section is the following: Can we assign any meaning to this blob if the momenta on the external lines are unrestricted. we now proceed to put scattering theory on a ﬁrmer foundation. we will give three aﬃrmative answers to this question. VIII. In order to reformulate scattering theory. the external momenta do not obey p2 = m2 . the momenta ﬂowing through the in which only one type of scalar meson appears on the external lines. Let us denote the sum of all Feynman diagrams with n external lines carrying momenta k1 . we will restrict ourselves to Feynman diagrams k1 k2 ~ G (4) (k1. . Feynman Diagrams with External Lines oﬀ the Mass Shell Up to now.1 The blob represents the sum of all Feynman diagrams. it is useful ﬁrst to think a bit about Feynman diagrams in a somewhat more general way than we have thus far. . (For simplicity. .106 VIII. . A. MORE ON SCATTERING THEORY Having now gotten a feeling for calculating physical processes with Feynman diagrams. that is. it just clutters up the formulas with indices). each one of which will give a bit more insight into Feynman diagrams. and maybe not even satisfying k1 +k2 +k3 +k4 = 0? In fact. such quantities do not directly correspond to S matrix elements. to include Feynman diagrams where the external legs are not necessarily on the mass shell. Clearly. k4 ) k4 external lines is unrestricted. The extension to higher-spin ﬁelds is straightforward. kn directed inward by ˜ G(n) (k1 . . oﬀ the mass shell. To do that. they will turn out to be extremely useful objects. . we will have to generalize this notion somewhat. kn ) as denote in the ﬁgure for n = 4. . they correspond to S matrix elements. k3 FIG. Nevertheless. . .

So this gives us a sensible.2(a-d). Recalling our discussion of Feynman diagrams (a) (b) (e) (c) (d) FIG.3 Lowest order contributions to G(4) (k1 . k2 . k4 ): k1 ~ G (2) k4 k3 i (k1 . do the appropriate integrals. k3 .2(e). which all have the form shown in Fig. we could simply plug it into this graph. . Let’s say we were interested in calculating the graphs in Fig. here are a few contributions to G(4) (k1 . k4 ). Before we go any further. . kn ). k2 . One simple thing we can do with these blobs is to recover S-matrix elements. . We could also include or not include the overall energy-momentum conserving δ-function. where the blob represents the sum of all graphs (at least up to some order in perturbation theory). We’ll include them both. VIII. . VIII. VIII. k3 .107 1. Answer One: Part of a Larger Diagram The most straightforward answer to this question is that the blob could be an internal part of a more complicated graph. ˜ So. and have something which we do know how to interpret: an S-matrix element. VIII. k4 ) = = k2 ! k! k1 2 k4 k3 + ! k! k1 4 3 2 2 k2 k3 i 2 + ! k! k1 2 k3 k4 + O (g 2 ) = (2 ) 4 (4) (k +k ) k 1 4 2 1 2 + i (2 ) 4 (4) (k + k ) k 2 + i +(2 permutations) ˜ FIG. For example. and possibly even useful. with internal loops. interpretation of the blob. we should choose a couple of conventions.2 The graphs in (a-d) all have the form of (e). k2 . k3 . we would label all internal lines with arbitrary momenta and integrate over them. We cancel oﬀ the . So if we had a table of blobs. for example. we could include or not include ˜ the n propagators which hang oﬀ G(k1 .

. + ikn · xn )G(n) (k1 . . Thus. .108 external propagators and put the momenta back on their mass shells. k2 = 2 k r − µ2 ˜ G(−k3 .4) where ρ(x) is a speciﬁed c-number source.3) (hence the tilde over G deﬁned in momentum space). which we can then give another meaning to. k4 |(S − 1)| k1 . its Fourier transform. L → L + ρ(x)ϕ(x) (VIII. k2 ). consider the vacuum-to-vacuum transition amplitude.1) Because of the four factors of zero out front when the momenta are on their mass shell. At n’th order in ρ(x). i r=1 4 (VIII. all the contributions to 0 |S| 0 come from diagrams of the form shown in the ﬁgure. we get k3 . Now. 2. .2) (again keeping with our convention that each dk comes with a factor of 1/(2π)). . We can use it to obtain another function. shown in Fig.. this adds a new vertex to the theory. not an operator. f (x) = ˜ f (k) = d4 k ˜ f (k)eik·x (2π)4 d4 xf (x)e−ik·x (VIII.4.. As you showed in a problem set back in the fall. VIII. 0 |S| 0 . −k4 . . . in this modiﬁed theory. Now. xn ) = d4 k1 . k i ~(k ) FIG. as expected (since they don’t contribute to scattering away from the forward direction). (2π)4 d4 kn ˜ exp(ik1 · x1 + . the graphs that we wrote out above do not contribute to S − 1. Using the convention for Fourier transforms.4 Feynman rule for a source term ρ(x). . . Answer Two: The Fourier Transform of a Green Function We have found one meaning for our blob. . kn ) (2π)4 (VIII. VIII. . k1 . consider adding a source to any given theory. we have G(n) (x1 .

. . . to all orders. . 0 |S| 0 ρ is a functional of ρ. ρ(−kn ) G(n) (k1 . .. d4 xn ρ(x1 ) . . Recall we already introduced the n = 2 Green function (in free ﬁeld theory) in connection with the exact solution to free ﬁeld theory with a source.. It comes up often enough that it gets a name. . . . .5) The reason for the factor of 1/n! arises because if I treat all sources as distinguishable. (2π)4 d4 kn ˜ ρ(−k1 ) . the n’th order (in ρ(x)) contribution to 0 |S| 0 to all orders in g is in n! d4 k1 . kn ) ˜ ˜ (2π)4 (VIII. . xn ) δρ(x1 ) . . ˜ ˜ (2π)4 (VIII. . . . Really.109 kn k4 k2 k5 k3 k1 FIG..8) . it is just a function of an inﬁnite number of variables. Z[ρ] = 0 |S| 0 ρ . . . which is how mathematicians denote functions of functions. kn ). . VIII. in the inﬁnite dimensional generalization of a Taylor series.6) d4 x1 . . .5 n’th order contribution to 0 |S| 0 in the presence of a source. δρ(xn ) (VIII. The Fourier transform of the sum of Feynman diagrams with n external lines oﬀ the mass shell is a Green function (that’s what the G stands for). (VIII. we have δ n Z[ρ] = in G(n) (x1 .. . the value of the source at each spacetime point. Let’s explicitly note that the vacuum-to-vacuum transition ampitude depends on ρ(x) by writing it as 0 |S| 0 ρ . ρ(xn ) G(n) (x1 . xn ). I overcount the number of diagrams by a factor of n!. ρ(−kn ) G(n) (k1 . Thus. .) Z[ρ] is called the generating functional for the Green function because. . (2π)4 d4 kn ˜ ρ(−k1 ) . This provides us with the second answer to our question. Thus. . . we have 0 |S| 0 = 1 + = 1+ in n! n=1 in n! n=1 ∞ ∞ d4 k1 .7) (The square bracket reminds you that this is a function of the function ρ(x). .

As discussed in Peskin & Schroeder. Thus. the coeﬃcients of z n is the Legendre polynomial Pn (x): 1 f (x. and hence all S matrix elements (and so all physical information about the system) are encoded in the vacuum persistance amplitude in the presence of an external source ρ. the functional derivative obeys the basic axiom (in four dimensions) δ δ J(y) = δ (4) (x − y).10) The generating functional Z[J] will be particularly useful when we study the path integral formulation of QFT. 2 = P0 (x) + zP1 (x) + z 2 P2 (x) + . . ∂ ∂ xj = δij . . let us consider adding a source term to the theory. 298. the generating function for the Legendre polynomials is f (x. . of the rule for discrete vectors. the coeﬃcients are a set of functions of the other. all Green functions. Once again. z) = 1 + xz + (3x2 − 1)z 2 + . 3.9) This is the natural generalization. (VIII. or ∂xi ∂xi xj kj = ki . The term “generating functional” arises in analogy with the functions of two variables. (VIII. to continuous functions. and HI contains the interactions. z) = √ 1 z 2 − 2xz + 1 (VIII. xn ). or δJ(x) δJ(x) d4 y J(y)ϕ(y) = ϕ(x). j (VIII.110 where the δ instead of δ once again reminds you that we are dealing with functionals here: you are taking a partial derivatives of Z with respect to ρ(x). you can break the Hamiltonian up into a “free” and interacting . holding a 4 dimensional continuum of other variable ﬁxed. . there’s more. . .12) Similarly. Thus. when Z[ρ] in expanded in powers of ρ(x). the Hamiltonian may be written H0 + HI → H0 + HI − ρ(x)ϕ(x) (VIII.11) since when expanded in z. as far as Dyson’s formula is concerned. . which when you Taylor expand in one variable. Now. Answer Three: The VEV of a String of Heisenberg Fields But wait. .13) where H0 is the free-ﬁeld piece of the Hamiltonian. . p. For example. This is called a functional derivative. the coeﬃcient of ρn is proportional to the npoint Green function G(n) (x1 .

2. and 3.111 part in any way you please. . ϕH (xn )) | 0 G(n) (x1 . S-matrix elements (the physical observables we wish to measure). (VIII. You can’t deﬁne a contraction for these ﬁelds. One of the tasks of the next few sections is to see how these are related.8) or (VIII. Now. and so we will subscript them with an H. These ﬁelds aren’t free: they don’t obey the free ﬁeld equations of motion. what is the relation between these objects in our new formulation of scattering theory? . the ﬁelds evolve according to ϕ(x. ϕH (xn )) | 0 . 0)e−iHt where H = (VIII.16) For n = 2. n-point Green functions. but it’s not quite the same thing. . . .16). Now we want to get rid of that crutch. . t) = eiHt ϕ(x. . By introducing a turning on and oﬀ function. the two-point Green function is deﬁned in the interacting theory. deﬁned via by Eq. B. . (VIII. This looks like our deﬁnition of the propagator. I put quotes around “free”. we have the two-point Green function 0 |T (ϕH (x1 )ϕH (x2 )) | 0 . the sum of Feynman diagrams (the things we know how to calculate). d4 xn ρ(x1 ) . Green Functions and Feynman Diagrams From the discussion in the previous section. Let’s take the “free” part to be H0 + HI and the interaction to be ρϕ.14) d3 xH0 + HI . and thus you can’t do Wick’s theorem. . . we ﬁnd Z[ρ] = 0 |S| 0 ∞ ρ = 0 |T exp i d4 xρ(x)ϕH (x) | 0 (VIII. because in this new interaction picture. ρ(xn ) 0 |T (ϕH (x1 ) . They are what we would have called Heisenberg ﬁelds if there had been no source. The Feynman propagator was deﬁned as a Green function for the free ﬁeld theory. . we could show that these were all related.15) = 1+ and so we clearly have in n! n=1 d4 x1 . . xn ) = 0 |T (ϕH (x1 ) . . and deﬁne perturbation theory in a more sensible way. The question we will then have to address is. just from Dyson’s formula. we have three logically distinct objects: 1.

−∞)| Ω (VIII. Thus. which implicitly referred to S matrix elements taken between free vacuum states.112 We set up the problem as follows.e.21) . . −k2 . in δρ(x1 ) . k2 |S − 1| k1 . will be “yes”. and the evolution operator U (t1 . | Ω . k2 = a 2 ka − µ2 ˜ G(−k1 . . in the presence of a source ρ(x). fortunately. with the interactions deﬁned with the turning on and oﬀ function. satisﬁes H| Ω = 0. . Now. diﬀerent from our previous deﬁnitions of Z and G. is Z = ZF ? The answer. with a time independent Hamiltonian H (the turning on and oﬀ function is gone for good) whose spectrum is bounded below. xn ) = 1 δ n Z[ρ] . no massless particles yet). since we derived Feynman rules based on the action of interacting ﬁelds on the bare vacuum. In other words. . 2. t2 ) is the Schor¨dinger picture evolution operator for the Hamiltonian o We then deﬁne G(n) (x1 .20) d3 x (H − ρ(x)ϕ(x)). and the Hamiltonian has actually been adjusted so that this state.17) Ω |Ω = 1. . . Is G(n) deﬁned this way the Fourier transform of the sum of all Feynman graphs? Let’s call the G(n) deﬁned as the sum of all Feynman graphs GF (n) (n) and the Z which generates these ZF . Are S matrix elements obtained from Green functions in the same way as before? For example. the physical vacuum. δρ(xn ) (VIII. Imagine you have a well-deﬁned theory. The question then is. k2 )? i (VIII. k1 . This is actually rather surprising. whose lowest lying state is not part of a continuum (i.19) where the ρ subscript again means. we can ask two questions: 1. (VIII. is k1 . we can compute Green functions just as we always did. at least in principle. The vacuum is translationally invariant and normalized to one P | Ω = 0. not the full vacuum.18) = Ω |U (∞. let H → H − ρ(x)ϕ(x) and deﬁne Z[ρ] ≡ Ω |S| Ω ρ ρ (VIII. as the sum of Feynman graphs. Note that this is. is G(n) = GF ? Or equivalently.

113 The answer will be. (VIII. since Eq.25) is manifestly symmetric under permutations of the xi ’s. which you should look at as well. . (VIII. ϕH (xn )) | Ω . we have to show that this is equal to Eq. .25) HI | 0 Now. Equivalently. First of all. satisfying H0 | 0 = 0. we can simply prove the equality for a particularly convenient time ordering. . . .22) ZF [ρ] = t± →±∞ lim 0 |T exp −i t− [HI − ρ(x)ϕI (x)] | 0 (VIII. xn ).23) where I remind you that | 0 refers to the bare vacuum. So let’s take t1 > t2 > . The object which had a graphical expansion in terms of Feynman diagrams was t+ (n) (VIII. . we know that we will have to adjust the constant part of HI with a vacuum energy counterterm to eliminate the vacuum bubble graphs when ρ = 0. xn ) = Ω |T (ϕH (x1 ) . Now let’s show that this is what we get by blindly summing Feynman diagrams. . “almost. This will take a bit of work. Now.22). . an easier way to get rid of them is simply to divide by 0 |S| 0 . . . The ˜ formula will hold. the bare ﬁeld ϕ0 (x) no longer creates mesons with unit probability. ϕI (xn ) exp −i 0 |T exp −i t+ t− t+ t− [HI − ρϕI ] |0 . . . but only when the Green function G is deﬁned using renormalized ﬁelds ϕ instead of bare ﬁelds. . (VIII. that in an interacting theory. . First of all. as we have already discussed. . . .26) Since the answer to this question doesn’t depend on using bare ﬁelds ϕ0 or renormalized ﬁelds ϕ.” The problem will be. since as argued in the previous chapter the sum of vacuum bubbles is universal. it is easy to show that G(n) (x1 . this gives 0 |T exp −i ZF [ρ] = (n) t± →±∞ lim t+ t− [HI − ρ(x)ϕI (x)] | 0 t+ t− . we do n functional derivatives with respect to ρ and then set ρ = 0: (n) GF (x1 . First we will answer the ﬁrst question: Is G(n) = GF ?9 Our answer will be similar to the derivation of Wick’s theorem on pages 82-87 of Peskin & Schroeder. (VIII. we will neglect this distinction in the following discussion. xn ) = t± →±∞ lim 0 |T ϕI (x1 ) . > tn 9 (VIII. . using Dyson’s formula just as we did at the end of the last section. .24) 0 |T exp −i HI | 0 To get GF (x1 .

t− →∞ t− →∞ t− →∞ (VIII. ϕH (xn )UI (0. ti )ϕI (xi )UI (ti .31) Next. we can trivially convert the evolution operator to the Schr¨dinger picture. and get rid of those intermediate U ’s: GF (x1 . not a discrete sum. . We’re almost there. 0 |UI (t+ . tb ). since H0 | 0 = 0. The sum over eigenstates is actually a continuous integral. and refer to the mess to the left of it as some ﬁxed state Ψ |. a lemma . First of all. Now. the sum (integral) on the right is zero. t2 )ϕI (x2 ) . (VIII. . . UI (0. and we have used the fact that H| Ω = 0 and H| n = En | n . . This next part is the important one. t− )| 0 (VIII. .the Riemann-Lebesgue lemma) which states that as long as Ψ| n n| 0 is a continuous function. t− )| 0 Now. ϕI (xn )UI (tn . H. the integrand oscillates more and more wildly. As t− → −∞. t− →∞ lim Ψ |U (0. 0)ϕH (x1 )ϕH (x2 ) . (VIII. 0)† ϕI (xi )UI (ti . everywhere that UI (ta .33) . 0)UI (0. . . we can express the time ordering in GF as GF (x1 . t1 )ϕI (x1 )UI (t1 . t− ) | Ω Ω | + n=0 t− →−∞ | n n | | 0 (VIII. we can drop the T -ordering symbol from G(n) (x1 .114 In this case. rewrite it as UI (ta . ϕH (xi ) = UI (ti . 0) = UI (0. . . . since UI (tb . xn ). The Riemann-Lebesgue lemma may be stated as follows: for any “nice” function f (x). t− )| 0 . 0)UI (0.32) = Ψ| Ω Ω |0 + lim e n=0 iEn t− Ψ| n n| 0 where the sum is over all eigenstates of the full Hamiltonian except the vacuum. tb ) appears. . t− )| 0 . and in fact there is a theorem (or rather.29) t± →±∞ lim 0 |UI (t+ .27) is the usual time evolution operator. t− )| 0 = lim Ψ |UI (0. . t− )| 0 . . where the En ’s are the energies of the excited states.30) Let’s concentrate on the right hand end of the expression. t− )| 0 = t− →∞ lim Ψ |U (0. o lim Ψ |UI (0. xn ) = (n) (VIII.28) 0 |UI (t+ . t− )| 0 (in both the numerator and denominator). t− ) exp(iH0 t− )| 0 = lim Ψ |U (0. 0) to convert everything to Heisenberg ﬁelds. ta ) = T exp −i tb ta (n) d4 x HI (VIII. . . insert a complete set of eigenstates of the full Hamiltonian. and then use the relation between Heisenberg and Interaction ﬁelds. xn ) = (n) t± →±∞ lim 0 |UI (t+ . b µ→∞ a lim f (x) sin µx cos µx = 0. .

as shown in Fig. VIII. . . . .8 1 FIG. . the contributions from inﬁnitesimally close states destructively interfere. xn ) = (n) 0| Ω Ω |ϕH (x1 ) . 0)| Ψ | 0 = 0| Ω Ω |Ψ (VIII. It is quite easy to see the graphically. . xn ). . what the lemma is telling you is that if you start out with any given state in some ﬁxed region and wait long enough. So there is now no longer to distinguish between the sum of diagrams and the real Green functions. . . . Physically.2 0. . . the only trace of it that will remain is its (true) vacuum component. A similar argument shows that lim 0 |UI (t+ . . ls |S − 1| k1 . kr = . . The LSZ Reduction Formula We now turn to the second question: Are S matrix elements obtained from Green’s functions in the same way as before? By introducing a turning on and oﬀ function.34) t+ →∞ and applying this to the numerator and denominator of Eq. (VIII. VIII.6 The Riemann-Lebesgue lemma: f (x) multiplied by a rapidly oscillating function integrates to zero in the limit that the frequency of oscillation becomes inﬁnite.6 0. ϕH (xn )| Ω Ω |0 0| Ω Ω |Ω Ω |0 (VIII. . So we’re essentially done. we were able to show that l1 . .4 0. . C.30) we ﬁnd GF (x1 .6. All the other one and multiparticle components will have gone away: as can be seen from the ﬁgure. .115 10 5 f (x) 0 -5 f (x) sin x -10 0 0.35) = G(n) (x1 .

. (VIII. So FROM NOW ON all ﬁelds will be in the Heisenberg representation (no more interaction picture). in an interacting theory ϕ0 may also develop a vacuum expectation value.36) The real world does not have a turning on and oﬀ function. For free ﬁeld theory. −ls . (VIII. we get from Feynman diagrams) which we will derive is called the LSZ reduction formula. relativistically normalized H| k = k 2 + µ 2 | k ≡ ωk | k .instead. the ﬁelds we have been discussion have actually been the bare ﬁelds ϕ0 which we discussed at the end of the last chapter. we no longer need to make any reference to free Hamiltonia. in terms of ϕ0 . ϕ(x). we have really been talking about bare Green functions. Is this formula correct? The answer is “almost. which we will now denote G0 (n): G0 (x1 . interaction picture ﬁelds. (VIII. bare vacua. (n) (VIII. etc. however. ϕ0 (xn )| Ω . xn ) = T Ω |ϕ0 (x1 ) . . |0 ≡ |Ω .38) We have actually been a bit cavalier with notation in this chapter. . . .39) The reason the answer to our question is “almost” is because the bare ﬁeld ϕ0 which does not have quite the right properties to create and annihilate mesons. k |k = (2π)3 2ωk δ (3) (k − k ).40) .116 2 la − µ2 i a=1 s 2 kb − µ2 ˜ (r+s) G (−l1 . k1 . Thus. k |ϕ(x)| Ω = k |eiP ·x ϕ(0)e−iP ·x | Ω = eik·x k |ϕ(0)| Ω . In particular. and states will refer to eigenstates of the full Hamiltonian (although for the rest of this section we will continue to denote the vacuum by | Ω to avoid confusion) ϕ(x) ≡ ϕH (x).37) The physical one-meson states in the theory are now the complete one meson states. . We correct for these problems by deﬁning a renormalized ﬁeld. For interacting ﬁelds. i b=1 r (VIII. . it is normalized to obey the canonical commutation relations. as we just showed. Ω |ϕ(x)| Ω = 0. . kr ). where the amplitude to create a meson from the vacuum has higher order perturbative corrections. as we have discussed. . . Since its derivation doesn’t require resorting to perturbation theory. . these two properties were equivalent. these two properties are incompatible. . . By translational invariance. .” The correct relation between S matrix elements (what we want) and Green functions (what. it is not normalized to create a one particle state from the vacuum with a standard amplitude . Furthermore.

. for all diﬀerent incoming multiparticle states created by ϕ(x).42) We can now state the LSZ (Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann) reduction formula: Deﬁne the renormalized Green functions G(n) . which is normalized to have a standard amplitude to create one meson. the factors of G in ˜ Eq. Naı¨ely. ϕ(xn )) | Ω (VIII. S matrix elements are given by l1 . It is some number. In terms of renormalized Green functions. you can see that k |ϕ(0)| Ω is independent of k. . (VIII. and a vanishing VEV (vacuum expectation value) ϕ(x) ≡ Z 1/2 (ϕ0 (x) − Ω |ϕ0 (0)| Ω ) Ω |ϕ(0)| Ω = 0. . k1 .almost.1) should be G0 . . . ls |S − 1| k1 . . (VIII. these additional states can all be arranged to oscillate away via the Riemann-Lebesgue lemma. 1. However.43) ˜ and their Fourier transforms. . k |ϕ(x)| Ω = eik·x . and only in free ﬁeld theory will it equal 1. this is perhaps not so surprising. and that these do not pollute the relation between Green functions and S-matrix elements. Proof of the LSZ Reduction Formula The proof can be broken up into three parts. as we shall show. I will show you how to construct localized wave packets. . Given that it is the ϕ which create normalized meson states from the vacuum. ϕ. you might v think that the Green function would be related to a sum of S-matrix elements. . .44) . The only diﬀerence is that the S matrix ˜ is related to Green functions of the renormalized ﬁelds . G(n) . . kr s 2 2 la − µ2 r kb − µ2 ˜ (r+s) = G (−l1 . (VIII. −ls . G(n) (x1 . .in our new notation. . . which for historical reasons is denoted Z 1/2 (and traditionally called the “wave function renormalization”). xn ) ≡ Ω |T (ϕ(x1 ) . what we had before. . What is more surprising is that even the renormalized ﬁeld ϕ(x) creates a whole spectrum of multiparticle states from the vacuum as well. The wave packet will have multiparticle as well as single particle . much as in the last section. but not quite. . kr ) i i a=1 b=1 That’s it . Z 1/2 ≡ k |ϕ(0)| Ω .117 By Lorentz invariance. .41) We now can deﬁne a new ﬁeld. . .(VIII. . In the ﬁrst part. .

it trivially satisﬁes Ω |ϕf (t)| Ω = 0 and has the correct amplitude to produce a single particle state | f : k |ϕf (t)| Ω =i =i =i d3 x d3 x d3 k F (k ) k | ϕ(x)∂0 e−ik ·x − e−ik ·x ∂0 ϕ(x) | Ω (2π)2 2ωk d3 k F (k ) −iωk e−ik ·x − e−ik ·x ∂0 k |ϕ(x)| Ω (2π)2 2ωk d3 x ei(k −k)·x e−i(ωk −ωk )t (VIII. t)∂0 ϕ(x.47) This is precisely the operator which makes single particle wave packets. f (x) ≡ d3 k F (k)e−ik·x . t) − f (x.49) . 1. satisfying the Klein-Gordon equation with negative frequency.45) where F (k) = k |f is the momentum space wave function of | f .46) Note that as we approach plane wave states. the multiparticle components will be set up to oscillate away after a long time. First of all. | v → | k . to derive the LSZ formula. t)) . (2π)3 2ωk (VIII. however. Now. deﬁne the following odd-looking operator which is only a function of the time. k0 = ωk . so the operators carry the time dependence) ϕf (t) ≡ i d3 x (ϕ(x. In the third part of the proof.48) d3 k F (k )(−iωk − iωk ) (2π)2 2ωk = F (k) (VIII. Associate with each F a position space function. (2 + µ2 )f (x) = 0. f (x) → e−ik·x . t (recall again that we are working in the Heisenberg representation. In the second part of the proof. these will be called in and out states. t)∂0 f (x. How to make a wave packet Let us deﬁne a wave packet | f as follows: |f = d3 k F (k)| k (2π)3 2ωk (VIII. (VIII.118 components. we massage this expression and take the limit in which the wave packets are plane waves. I will wave my hands vigorously and discuss the creation of multiparticle states in which the particles are well separated in the far past or future. and we will ﬁnd a simple expression for the S matrix in terms of the operators which create wave packets.

thus.52) Proceeding much as before. A similar derivation. (VIII. which is an eigenvalue of the momentum operator: P µ | n = pµ | n .119 where we have used d3 x ei(k −k)·x = (2π)δ (3) (k − k ) and we note that the phase factor e−i(ωk −ωk )t (VIII. Note that this result is independent of time. with one crucial minus sign diﬀerence (so that the factors of ωk and ωk cancel instead of adding). ϕf (t) behaves as a creation operator for wave packets. yields Ω |ϕf (t)k = 0. as far as the zero and single particle states are concerned.53) (VIII.54) Note that we haven’t had to use any information about n |ϕ(x)| Ω beyond that given by Lorentz invariance. n n |ϕ(0)| Ω (VIII. Now we will see that in the limit t → ±∞ all the other states created by ϕf (t) oscillate away.50) becomes one once the δ function constraint is imposed (this will change when we consider multiparticle states). Consider the multiparticle state | n . n (VIII. let us calculate the amplitude for ϕf (t) to make this state from the vacuum: n |ϕf (t)| Ω =i =i =i =i d3 x d3 x d3 x d3 k F (k ) n | ϕ(x)∂0 e−ik ·x − e−ik ·x ∂0 ϕ(x) | Ω (2π)2 2ωk d3 k F (k ) −iωk e−ik ·x − e−ik ·x ∂0 n |ϕ(x)| Ω (2π)2 2ωk d3 k F (k ) −iωk e−ik ·x − e−ik ·x ∂0 eipn ·x n |ϕ(0)| Ω (2π)2 2ωk −p0 )t n d3 k F (k )(−iωk − ip0 ) d3 x ei(k −pn )·x e−i(ωk n (2π)2 2ωk ωp + p0 0 n = n F (pn )e−i(ωpn −pn )t n |ϕ(0)| Ω 2ωpn where ωpn = p2 + µ2 .51) Thus. we haven’t had to know anything about the amplitude to create multiparticle .

How to make widely separated wave packets The results of the last section were rigorous (or at least.120 states from the vacuum. can have p = 0 if the particles are moving back-to-back. ϕf (t) acts on the true vacuum and creates states with one. as already shown. for example.53). By contrast. that is. Thus. we ﬁnd that at t = 0 the only surviving components are the single-particle states. n (VIII. for the n single particle state the oscillating phase vanishes. which make up a localized wave packet. . we ﬁnd t→±∞ lim ψ |ϕf (t)| Ω = t→±∞ lim ψ| Ω Ω |ϕf (t)| Ω d3 k ψ |k k |ϕf (t)| Ω + ψ |n n |ϕf (t)| Ω (2π)3 2ωk n=0. So now we have the familiar Riemann-Lebesgue argument: take some ﬁxed state | ψ . so that only these states survived after inﬁnite time. states which in the far past or far future look like well separated wavepackets. We now wish to construct multiparticle states of interest to scattering problems. and consider ψ |ϕf (t)| Ω as t → ±∞. could be made so without a lot of work). two. In contrast. Similarly. The crucial point is the existence of the phase factor e−i(ωpn −pn )t in Eq. (VIII..57) t→±∞ for any ﬁxed state | ψ . while the energy of the state p0 can vary between 2µ and n ∞. and the observation that for a multiparticle state with a ﬁnite mass. Thus. whereas it can never vanish for multiparticle states. in this section we will wave our hands violently and rely on physical arguments. n particles.55) 0 This should be easy to convince yourself of: a two particle state.. Taking the inner product of this state with any ﬁxed state.56) + = ψ| f + 0 where we have used the fact that the multiparticle sum vanishes by the Riemann-Lebesgue lemma.1 (VIII. Inserting a complete set of states. ωpn < p0 . The physical picture we . We have a similar interpretation as before: in the t → −∞ limit. one can show that lim Ω |ϕf (t)| ψ = 0 (VIII. our cunning choice of ϕf (t) was arranged so that the oscillating phases cancelled only for the single particle state. a single particle state with p = 0 can only have p0 = ωp = µ < p0 . 2.

f |f . d4 xn f4 (x4 )f3 (x3 )f2 (x2 )f1 (x1 ) (2r + µ2 ) Ω |T ϕ(x1 ) . the S matrix is just the inner product of a given “in” state with another given “out” state. f2 out (in) . k2 = d4 x1 . 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 Thus. we have shown that f3 . (VIII. f4 |S| f1 . . k4 |S − 1| k1 . . but we can do that with a bit of massaging. f . out f . in the distant past and future they correspond to widely separated wave packets. . we have k3 .59) t4 →∞ t3 →∞ t2 →−∞ t1 →−∞ Ω |ϕf4 † (t4 )ϕf3 † (t3 )ϕf2 (t2 )ϕf1 (t1 )| Ω . i . However.58) t→∞ (−∞) Now by deﬁnition.60): we have written an expression for S matrix elements in terms of a weighted integral over vacuum expectation values of Heisenberg ﬁelds. (VIII. If we take the limit in which the wave packets become plane wave states. . it doesn’t look much like the LSZ reduction formula yet. d4 xn eik3 ·x3 +ik4 ·x4 −ik2 ·x2 −ik1 ·x1 ×i4 r (2r + µ2 )G(4) (x1 . | fi → | ki . (VIII. ϕ(x4 )| Ω . since the ﬁrst wavepacket is arbitrarily far away. . . −k3 . Massaging the resulting expression In principle. f2 = lim lim lim lim (VIII. but it’s not. f2 = × i4 r ∗ ∗ d4 x1 .60) 3.62) = r 2 kr − µ2 ˜ (4) G (k1 . we have achieved our goal in Eq.61) This looks messy and unfamiliar. . (VIII. Let us denote states created by the action of ϕf2 (t) on | f1 in the distant past as “in” states. fi (x) → eiki ·xi . f4 |S − 1| f1 . Then we have lim ψ |ϕf2 (t2 )| f1 = | f1 . f in = f . f |S| f .121 will rely upon is that if F1 (k) and F2 (k) do not have common support. and states created by the action of ϕf2 (t) on | f1 in the far future as “out” states. . . it shouldn’t matter if this state is the vacuum state or the state | f1 . . −k4 ). What we will show is the following f3 . k2 . Then when ϕf2 (t) acts on a state in the far past or future. x4 ) (VIII.

it is the latest. thus. Similarly. we obtain RHS = lim − lim t1 →−∞ t4 →+∞ t4 →−∞ t1 →+∞ t3 →+∞ lim − lim t3 →−∞ t2 →−∞ lim − lim t2 →+∞ × lim − lim Ω |T ϕf1 (x1 )ϕf2 (x2 )ϕf3 † (x3 )ϕf4 † (x4 )| Ω . we get zero. f4 |ϕf2 (t2 )ϕf1 (t1 )| Ω . we ﬁnd RHS = lim − lim t2 →+∞ t1 →−∞ t1 →+∞ out f .122 which is precisely the LSZ formula.47). (VIII. Next.65) Now we can evaluate the limits one by one. Similarly.61).64) t→+∞ t→−∞ Note the diﬀerence in the signs of the limits. Thus. and acts on the vacuum state on the left.57). to give f4 |. Note that we have taken the plane wave limit after taking the limit in which the limit t → ±∞ required to deﬁne the in and out states. When t4 → +∞.66) − lim out f3 .63) where we have integrated once by parts. it is the earliest (in the order of limits which we have taken). (VIII. (VIII. we can show i d4 x f ∗ (x)(2 + µ2 )A(x) = lim − lim Af † (t). (VIII. (VIII. (VIII. f4 |. Doing this for each of the xi ’s. according to the complex conjugate of Eq. and so acts on the vacuum. only the t3 → ∞ limit contributes. when t4 → −∞. i d4 x f (x)(2 + µ2 )A(x) = i = i = = − = 2 d4 x f (x)∂0 A(x) + A(x)(− 2 + µ2 )f (x) 2 2 d4 x f (x)∂0 A(x) − A(x)∂0 f (x) dt ∂0 d3 x i (f (x)∂0 A(x) − A(x)∂0 f (x)) dt ∂0 Af (t) lim − lim t→+∞ t→−∞ Af (t) (VIII. First of all. let us prove a useful result: for an arbitrary interacting ﬁeld A and function f (x) satisfying the Klein-Gordon equation and vanishing as |x| → ∞. f |ϕf1 (t )| f 3 4 1 2 . and Af (t) is deﬁned as in Eq. Before showing this. creating the state out f3 . taking the two limits of t2 . in this order of limits even the plane wave in and out states are widely separated. We can now use these relations to convert factors of (2 + µ2 )ϕ(x) to ϕf (t) on the RHS of Eq.

f2 in − out f3 .69) (VIII.the simplest relation is Eq. The proof relied only on the properties Ω |ϕ(0)| Ω = 0. since some complicated nonrenormalizable Lagrangians (VIII.56)) that lim ψ |ϕf1 (t1 )| Ω = lim ψ |ϕf1 (t1 )| Ω = ψ |f1 . but there are a few important things to remember: 1.we’ve proved the reduction formula.123 Unfortunately. and so it’s not clear what the second term is.67) Then taking the t1 limits. Physically. but the Green functions of any ﬁeld ϕ which satisﬁes the requirements (VIII. f4 |ϕf2 (t2 ).70) No other properties of ϕ were assumed.42). (VIII. f4 |f1 .71) .68) t1 →∞ t1 →−∞ So that’s it . ϕ was not assumed to have any particular relation to the bare ﬁeld ϕ0 which appears in the Lagrangian . In particular. ϕ(0) and ϕ(0) only diﬀer in their vacuum to multiparticle state ˜ matrix elements. (VIII. f4 |S − 1| f1 . k |ϕ(0)| Ω = 1.70) will give the correct S-matrix elements. f2 out − ψ |f1 + ψ |f1 = f3 . One appropriately renormalized. (VIII. we ﬁnd RHS = out f3 . we don’t know how ϕf2 (t2 → ∞) acts on a multi-meson out state. Note that we have used the fact (from Eq. this has a very useful consequence: you can always make a nonlinear ﬁeld redefinition for any ﬁeld in a Lagrangian. For example. It was a bit involved. In some cases this is quite convenient. but that is irrelevant to the physics). ϕ(x) = ϕ(x) + 1 gϕ(x)2 ˜ 2 is a perfectly good ﬁeld to use in the reduction formula. Practically. t2 →∞ (VIII. Let’s parameterize our ignorance and deﬁne ψ | ≡ lim out f3 . f2 as required. and it doesn’t change the value of S-matrix elements (although it will change the Green functions oﬀ shell. f4 |f1 .the multiparticle states created by the ﬁeld are irrelevant. (VIII. this is again because of the Riemann-Lebesgue destructive interference. But this diﬀerence just oscillates away .

in QCD mesons have the quantum numbers of quarkantiquark pairs.70). 2. . So if q(x) is a quark ﬁeld and q(x) an antiquark ﬁeld.1) e G (k1 . One could use perturbation theory to calculate the scattering amplitudes of an e+ e− pair to the various states of positronium.74) where the renormalized product of ﬁelds satisﬁes meson |(qq)R (0)| Ω = 1. . q(x)q(x) should have a nonvanishing matrix elements to make a meson. the matrix element can be calculated in terms of Feynman diagrams: out k . which can then be renormalized to satisfy Eq. . For example. . A simple example of this is given on the ﬁrst problem set. . This is a good result to remember. Most of these papers are idiotic . (VIII. A lot of papers have been written (even in the past few years) which claim that some particular ﬁeld is the “correct” one to use in a given problem. kn .1) (x1 . . which had no way of dealing with bound states). . k |A(x)| Ω = 1 n 2 d4 k ik·x n kr − µ2 ˜ (2. nobody can calculate this T -product since perturbation theory fails for the strong interactions. x) is the Green function with n ϕ ﬁelds and one A ﬁeld. . ϕ(xn )A(x)| Ω for any ﬁeld A(x). but that’s not a problem of the formalism (as opposed to the turning on and oﬀ function. .the authors’ pet form of the Lagrangian has been obtained by a simple nonlinear ﬁeld redeﬁnition from the standard form. there is no problem in obtaining matrix elements for scattering bound states you just need a ﬁeld with some overlap with the bound state. . We can also use the same methods as above to derive expressions for matrix elements of ﬁelds between in and out states (remembering that the S matrix is just the matrix element of the unit operator between in and out states). . 3. . . . k) (2π)4 i r=1 (VIII. .. . . In principle. . . out k .+ikn ·xn (VIII.124 may take particularly simple forms after an appropriate ﬁeld redeﬁnition. xn .73) where G(2.. . . k |A(x)| Ω = 1 n ×in r d4 x1 . Substituting the expression for the Fourier transformed Green function. if only to save a few trees. Of course. For example. and so is guaranteed to give the same physics. d4 xn eik1 ·x1 +. So “all” you need to calculate for meson-meson scattering from QCD is T Ω |(qq)R (x1 )(qq)R (x2 )(qq)R (x3 )(qq)R (x4 )| Ω (VIII.72) 2r + µ2 T Ω |ϕ(x1 ) .

The matrices D(Λ) form an n-dimensional representation of the Lorentz group: if Λ1 and Λ2 deﬁne two Lorentz transformations. Sy and Sz are given by 1 1 Sx = 2 σx .2) If φa has n components. φ could have a more complicated transformation law.7) . φ transforms according to φ(x) → φ (x) = φ(Λ−1 x).1) This simply states that the ﬁeld itself does not transform at all. φa (x) → Dab (Λ)φb (Λ−1 x). we could have four ﬁelds φµ . σy and σz are the Pauli matrices 0 σx = 1 1 0 . Dab (Λ1 )Dbc (Λ2 ) = Dac (Λ1 Λ2 ). (IX. Recall that since φ is a scalar.. σy = 0 −i i 0 .4.5) (IX. (IX. Transformation Properties So far we have only looked at the theory of an interacting scalar ﬁeld φ(x). we already know how such objects transform under rotations. the identity matrix. SPIN 1/2 FIELDS A. b (IX. D(Λ−1 ) = D(Λ)−1 .4) In addition. σz = 1 0 0 −1 .125 IX. a ﬁeld will transform in some well-deﬁned way under the Lorentz group. Sz = 1 σz 2 | ψ↑ | ψ↓ . a subgroup of the Lorentz group. (IX. which make up the components of a 4-vector. under a Lorentz transformation xµ → x µ = Λµ ν xν .6) where σx . Sy = 2 σy . In this case. µ = 1. In general. A spin 1/2 state | ψ has two components: |ψ = The spin operators Sx . the value of the ﬁeld at the coordinate x in the new frame is the same as the ﬁeld at that same point in the old frame. From our previous experience in quantum mechanics. (IX.3) (IX. Dab (Λ) is an n × n matrix. φµ will transform under a Lorentz transformation as φµ (x) → φ µ (x) = Λµ ν φν (Λ−1 x). For example. We are interested in describing particles of spin 1/2. and D(1) = I. In general.

. we will simply introduce a nice trick for obtaining the spinor representation from the vector representation. Diu and Lalo¨. We could ﬁnd all possible representations of the group. But since we have only a small amount of time. vector (both of which we already understand) and spinor representations. but it will serve our purposes.. . Chapter VI (especially Come plement BVI ). θ) = e−iJ·ˆθ e 10 (IX. In general. Hence. θ)| ψ e where the rotation operator e UR (ˆ.11) where R is the rotation matrix for vectors.9) is unitary. Therefore. not just the rotation group. Cohen-Tannoudji. The most satisfying way to do this would be to pause for a moment from ﬁeld theory and develop the theory of representations of the Lorentz group. This is only equal to the exponential of the entries in the matrix if M is diagonal. a state with total angular momentum 1/2 transforms under this rotation as11 e | ψ → e−iσ·ˆθ/2 | ψ (IX. and we are suppressing spinor indices.. and then ﬁnally restrict ourselves to the spinor representation. Quantum Mechanics. Recall that the exponential of a matrix M is deﬁned by the power series eM = 1 + M + M 2 /2! + M 3 /3! + .126 For a particle with no orbital angular momentum. In a relativistic theory. and since we are really not interested in any representations of the Lorentz group beside the scalar. for example. Volume 1. This is not generalizable to other representations. corresponding to particles of spin 0. a quantum ﬁeld u which creates and annihilates spin 1/2 particles will transform under rotations according to † e u (x) = UR u(x)UR = e−iσ·ˆθ/2 u(R−1 x) (IX.8) (IX.10) so the matrices e e−iσ·ˆθ/2 form the spinor representation of the rotation group. we must determine the transformation properties of spinors under the full Lorentz group. rotations are generated by the angular momentum operator J: a general state | ψ transforms under a rotation about the e axis by an angle θ as ˆ | ψ → UR (ˆ. the total angular momentum J is just given by the spin operators. 1 and 1/2 respectively. 10 11 See.

The rotations are the group of transformations (x. where U is a two by two unitary matrix with unit determinant. y. so Eq.16) (IX.18) . (IX. It is easy to show by direct matrix multiplication that e U = e−iσ·ˆθ/2 (IX. y .13) so this is another way of writing the transformation law of a vector under rotations.12) is the most general form for a two by two traceless Hermitian matrix.15) x − iy −z . (IX. and a spinor is deﬁned to be a two-component column vector which transforms under rotations through multiplication by U : u = U u. Re b = Re c and Im b = −Im c. Then X is also a traceless. Hermiticity requires Re a = Re d.17) is the appropriate transformation matrix for a rotation about the e axis. Consider the transformation X = U XU † .12) has eight independent components (two for each complex c d entry). z) → (x . (IX.14) † =X (IX. Im a = Im d = 0. We can assemble the components of a 3-vector into a two by two traceless Hermitian matrix z X= x + iy a A two by two complex matrix b x − iy −z = xi σi . Hermitian matrix TrX = TrU XU † = TrU † U X = TrX X † = U XU † so in general we can write it as z X = x + iy Since detX = detU detXdetU † = detX we have x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 (IX. (IX. ˆ The U ’s by themselves form a two-dimensional represenation of the rotation group. reducing the number of independent components to four.127 Let us return to the rotation subgroup of the Lorentz group. so we do not include reﬂections). and tracelessness reduces this to three. z ) which leave r2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 invariant (and which retain the handedness of the coordinates.

We can extend this construction to the whole connected Lorentz group. detX = detX . Then the vector transforms as (1. (IX. (IX. (IX. where γ = √ sinh φ = − γ 2 − 1 (IX. deﬁned by cosh φ = γ.21) and so the transformation corresponds to a (proper12 ) Lorentz transformation.22) v 2 − 1 parameterizes the boost. 0) under a boost in the z direction. so t 2 − x 2 − y 2 − z 2 = t 2 − x2 − y 2 − z 2 (IX. Then under the transformation Eq.19) where Q is no longer required to be unitary. − γ 2 − 1ˆ).128 This agrees with our previous assertion. . Consider the transformation of the 4-vector (1.10). We note that the matrix Q has six independent parameters. sinh φ).20) x − iy t−z .24) It is straightforward to verify that in our matrix representation. 0) → (γ. (IX. so Q† = Qz ): z X = eφσz /2 Xeφσz /2 eφ/2 0 = 0 e−φ/2 12 1 0 0 1 eφ/2 0 0 e−φ/2 The proper or connected Lorentz transformations do not include reﬂections or time reversal.23) (IX. z It is convenient to introduce the parameter φ. but still det Q = 1. ˆ (1. Removing the tracelessness condition on X increases the number of free parameters by one. 0) → (cosh φ. which is the same as a proper Lorentz transformation (three independent rotations and three independent boosts). so it now takes the general form t+z X= x + iy Now consider the transformation X = QXQ† (IX. Any proper Lorentz transformation may be written as a product of a rotation and a boost. Eq. this boost corresponds to the transformation matrix Qz = exp(σz φ/2) (note that there is no i in the exponential.20). not unitary. Qz is Hermitian.

129 eφ = = 0 0 0 cosh φ − sinh φ (IX.28) for all transformations Λ.27) where we have used the fact that the Q’s form a representation. so do the matrices Q∗ (Λ). those which transform according to Q .29) There is no physics in a change of basis. However there may or may not ˜ be any physical diﬀerence between the two representations. if no such matrix S exists. Under a boost. If we have a set of matrices Q(Λ) which form a representation of a group. This is easy to verify. Two representations Q and Q are said to be equivalent if there is some unitary matrix S such that ˜ Q(Λ) = S Q(Λ)S † (IX. In general. and there is a physical diﬀerence between ﬁelds transforming according the two representations. This construction is not unique. in fact. For the Lorentz group. the group of unitary two by two matrices with unit determinant (including the rotation matrices U ) form a representation of the connected Lorentz group. as do the matrices SQ∗ (Λ)S † for some unitary matrix S. the new representation preserves the group multiplication rule: SQ∗ (Λ1 )S † SQ∗ (Λ2 )S † = S [Q(Λ1 )Q(Λ2 )]∗ S † = SQ∗ (Λ1 Λ2 )S † (IX. Therefore there are two diﬀerent types of spinor ﬁelds we can deﬁne. We will see a practical illustration of this shortly. so a set of ﬁelds transforming under Q are physically ˜ equivalent to a set of ﬁelds transforming under Q. (IX. then the two representations are inequivalent. On the other hand.26) The Q’s. (IX. the two representations Q and Q∗ are. as required. This is physically sensible because if two representations are equivalent. a spinor transforms as u → Qu. I can always transform an object u transforming under one representation to one transforming under the other representation by performing the change of basis u → Su. inequivalent. you can verify that a boost in the e ˆ direction is given by e Q = eσ·ˆφ/2 . for example.25) 0 e−φ cosh φ + sinh φ and so t = cosh φ and z = sinh φ.

130 and those which transform according to Q∗ . However, for the rotation subgroup, U and U ∗ can be shown to be equivalent representations, with S = iσ2 : U (R) = iσ2 U ∗ (R)(iσ2 )† = 0 −1 1 0 U ∗ (R) 0 −1 (IX.30) 1 0

for all rotation matrices U (R) = exp(−iσ · eθ/2). This is why we never encountered two diﬀerent ˆ types of spinors when dealing only with rotations. However, for boosts, it can be shown that

e iσ2 e−σ·ˆφ/2 ∗ e e (iσ2 )† = eσ·ˆφ/2 = e−σ·ˆφ/2

(IX.31)

and so the two representations Q and SQ∗ S † of the Lorentz group are not equivalent. Thus we can deﬁne two types of spinors which we shall denote by u+ and u− . They transform in the same way under rotations,

e u± → e−iσ·ˆθ/2 u±

(IX.32)

**but diﬀerently under boosts
**

e u± → e±σ·ˆφ/2 u± .

(IX.33)

In group theory jargon, u+ is said to transform according to the D(0,1/2) representation of the Lorentz group and u− transforms according to the D(1/2,0) representation. In order to construct Lorentz invariant Lagrangians which are bilinear in the ﬁelds, we shall need to know how terms bilinear in the u’s transform. Not surprisingly, since in some sense the spinors were the “square roots” of the vectors, we can construct four-vectors from pairs of spinors. First consider the bilinear u† u+ . Under a Lorentz transformation, + u† u+ → u† Q† Qu+ . + + (IX.34)

If Q is purely a rotation, Q† = Q−1 (Q is unitary) so u† u+ → u† u+ . Therefore it is a scalar under + + rotations (but not under Lorentz boosts). The three components of u† σu+ ≡ (u† σx u+ , u† σy u+ , u† σz u+ ) + + + + form a three-vector under rotations (I have left this as an exercise for you to show). these together, you should also be able to show that the four components of V µ = (u† u+ , u† σu+ ) + + form a four-vector. A similar construction shows that the components of W µ = (u† u− , −u† σu− ) − − transform as a four vector under a proper Lorentz transformation. (IX.37) (IX.36) (IX.35) Putting

131

B. The Weyl Lagrangian

We will now promote our spinors to ﬁelds, that is spinor functions of space and time, transforming under Lorentz transformations according to u+ (x) → UΛ (Λ)† u+ (x)UΛ (Λ) = D(Λ)u+ (Λ−1 x) (IX.38)

and similarly for u− , where UΛ (Λ) is the unitary operator corresponding to Lorentz transformations, UΛ (Λ)| k = | Λk . (IX.39)

Note that the u’s are complex ﬁelds. We can now construct a Lagrangian for u+ , keeping in mind the following restrictions: 1. The action S should be real. This is because we want just as many ﬁeld equations as there are ﬁelds. By breaking up any complex ﬁelds into their real and imaginary parts, we can always think of S as being a function only of a number of real ﬁelds, say N of them. If S were complex, with independent real and imaginary parts, then the real and imaginary parts of the resulting Euler-Lagrange equations would yield 2N ﬁeld equations for N ﬁelds, too many to be satisﬁed except in special cases (see Weinberg, The Quantum Theory of Fields, Vol. I, pg. 300). 2. L should be bilinear in the ﬁelds, to produce a linear equation of motion. In the absence of interactions, we want u+ to be a free ﬁeld with plane wave solutions, which requires linear equations of motion. 3. L should be invariant under the internal symmetry transformation u+ → e−iλ u+ , u† → + eiλ u† . This is because we want to have some contact with the real world, and all observed + fermions carry some conserved charge (like baryon number or lepton number). We’ve already seen that bilinears in u+ and u† form the components of a four-vector; to make + this a scalar we have to contract with another vector. The only other vector we have at our disposal is the derivative ∂µ . Hence, the simplest Lagrangian we can write down satisfying the above requirements is L = i u† ∂0 u+ + u† σ · + + u+ . (IX.40)

The i in front is required for the action to be real, which you can verify by integrating by parts. The sign of L is not ﬁxed; we will take it at this point to be +. We will see later on that this

132 theory has problems with positivity of the energy no matter what sign we choose, so we will defer the discussion to a later section. The Lagrangian Eq. (IX.40) is called the Weyl Lagrangian. We can get the equation of motion by varying with respect to u† : + Πµ† =

u+

∂L ∂(∂µ u† ) +

=0

(IX.41)

so the equation of motion is ∂L ∂u† + Multiplying this equation by ∂0 − σ · = 0 ⇒ (∂0 + σ · )u+ = 0. (IX.42)

**and using the relation σi σj = i
**

k ijk σk

+ δij

(IX.43)

gives us (σ ·

)2 =

2

and so

2 ∂0 − 2

u+ = 2u+ = 0.

(IX.44)

Remember that u+ is a column vector, so both components of u+ obey the Klein-Gordon equation for a massless ﬁeld. Deﬁning the energy to be positive, k0 = there are two solutions for u+ (x): u+ (x) = u+ e−ik·x , u+ (x) = v+ eik·x (IX.46) |k|2 (IX.45)

where u+ and v+ are constant 2 component spinors. Based on our previous experience with complex ﬁelds, we expect that when we quantize the theory, u+ will multiply an annihilation operator for a particle and v+ will multiply a creation operator for an antiparticle. Substituting the positive energy solution into the Weyl equation gives (∂0 + σ · and so (k0 − σ · k)u+ = 0. (IX.48) )u+ (x) = (−ik0 + iσ · k)u+ (x) = 0 (IX.47)

0.56) 0 and so λ = 1/2. θ)| k = e−iλθ 0 |u+ (0)| k ∝ e−iλθ z z (IX.57) . 0 (IX.55) 1 (IX.52) It is straightforward to ﬁnd λ. k = k0 z . Then we have (1 − σz )u+ = 0. k = (0. Consider a state | k moving in the positive z direction. (IX.51) 1 (IX. 0 (IX. † z z UR (ˆ.53) and therefore † 0 |UR u+ (0)UR | k = 0 |e−iσz θ/2 u+ (0)| k 1 ∝ e−iσz θ/2 = e−iθ/2 0 1 . in the quantum theory we expect that u+ will multiply an annihilation operator. or ˆ ˆ u+ ∝ 1 . θ)u+ (0)UR (ˆ. Then we expect that 0 |u+ (x)| k ∝ e−ik·x or 0 |u+ (0)| k ∝ 1 . k0 > 0. Since u is a spinor ﬁeld. (IX. 0 (IX. kz ).49) What does this tell us about the states of the quantum theory? Well. θ)u+ (0)UR (ˆ. Jz : Jz | k = λ| k . we know how it transforms under rotations about the z axis by an angle θ. θ) = e−iσz θ/2 u+ (0) (IX.54) But since UR | k = e−iλθ | k UR | 0 = | 0 we also have † 0 |UR (ˆ.133 Consider k to be in the z direction.50) 0 It will turn out that this state is in an eigenstate of the z component of angular momentum.

neutrinos are massless fermions. the particle’s 3-momentum is in the opposite direction but its spin is unchanged. Similarly. and so neutrinos are described by the u− ﬁeld. the Weyl Lagrangian violates charge conjugation invariance. Thus. Thus. while there are no corresponding states with particles (antiparticles) carrying spin antiparallel (parallel) to the direction of motion (since there is no corresponding solution to the equations of motion for the ﬁelds). spin along the direction of motion is only a good quantum number for massless particles. Therefore. we can show that v+ ∝ 1 .134 Therefore in the quantum theory the annihilation operator multiplying u+ will annihilate states with angular momentum 1/2 along the direction of motion.” while if the helicity is negative (antiparallel to the direction of motion) it is “left-handed. since charge conjugation will turn a left-handed neutrino . we would ﬁnd that it annihilates left-handed particles and creates right-handed particles. Clearly the Weyl Lagrangian. In this frame. violates parity. In fact. Similarly. Since the ﬁeld operator therefore changes the helicity of the state it acts on by −1/2. since for a massive particle it is always possible to boost to a frame going faster than the particle. it is not consistent for a massive particle to have only one spin state. For the u− (x) ﬁeld. while the Weyl Lagrangian does not describe the familiar massive fermions like electrons or nucleons. A particle with positive helicity (along the direction of motion) is referred to as “right-handed. These states don’t look much like electrons. if the spin was parallel to the direction of motion in one frame. In fact. the quanta of this theory consist of particles carrying spin +1/2 in the direction of motion and antiparticles carrying spin −1/2 in the direction of motion. while its spin is unchanged. Thus parity interchanges left and right-handed particles. since electrons (or any other massive spin 1/2 particle) can have spin either parallel or antiparallel to the direction of motion. there is a particle in nature which exists only as left-handed particles and right-handed antiparticles: the neutrino. 0 and that v+ will multiply a creation operator that creates states with angular momentum -1/2 along the direction of motion.” Thus. in distinguishing right and left-handed particles. Right-handed neutrinos and left-handed antineutrinos have never been observed. As far as anyone has been able to measure. in the quantum theory we expect that u+ (x) will annihilate right-handed particles. it should also create left-handed antiparticles. and is usually called the helicity of the particle. Spin is usually reserved for massive particles to describe their angular momentum in the rest frame. it is antiparallel in the other. Under a parity transformation the three momentum of a particle ﬂips sign.

Furthermore. the strong and electromagnetic interactions of electrons are observed to conserve parity (the weak interactions. it is easy to check explicitly that u† u− and u† u+ transform as scalars under Lorentz transformations. C. Thus we can deﬁne the action of parity on the u± ﬁelds to be P : u± (x. and as we shall see it describes massive spin 1/2 ﬁelds. so we have suggestibly called it + m. Therefore we can include + − the parity conserving term L = L0 − m u† u− + u† u+ + − = iu† (∂0 + σ · + )u+ + iu† (∂0 − σ · − )u− − m u† u− + u† u+ + − (IX. but it’s not what we set out to ﬁnd. but conserves the product CP .60) The coupling multiplying the u† u− term has dimensions of mass. Therefore we would like to write down a free ﬁeld theory of massive spin 1/2 particles which has a parity symmetry. We were really looking for a theory of electrons. (IX. (IX. t). We can again vary the ﬁelds and derive the equations of motion. we expect that the Weyl Lagrangian violates C and P separately. which does not exist. The Dirac Equation This is all very well.135 into a left-handed antineutrino.59) but this is nothing more than two decoupled massless spinors. both of which exist in the theory. although we haven’t quantized the theory to show this explicitly. This is the Dirac Lagrangian. In its current form it doesn’t look the way Dirac wrote it down. violate parity). The simplest Lagrangian is just L0 = iu† (∂0 + σ · + )u+ + iu† (∂0 − σ · − )u− (IX. which are certainly not massless. but we will be introducing some slick new notation shortly to put it in a more elegant form. However. However.58) A parity invariant theory must therefore have both types of spinors. which we shall study later. t) → u (−x. Thus. We ﬁnd the coupled equations i(∂0 + σ · i(∂0 − σ · )u+ = mu− )u− = mu+ .61) . We have already argued that parity interchanges left and right-handed ﬁelds. the combined operation of CP will turn a left-handed neutrino into a right-handed antineutrino.

β= 1 0 0 1 (IX. If you prefer. t) → βψ(−x.66) ψ − mψ † βψ (IX.67) This is the Dirac equation. the Dirac Lagrangian is L = iψ † ∂0 ψ + iψ † α · where σ α= 0 0 −σ .65) u+ u− . Note that we can get the Dirac equation directly from Eq. t) and under a Lorentz boost e ψ → eα·ˆφ/2 ψ.136 Multiplying the ﬁrst equation by ∂0 − σ · 2 (∂0 − 2 . a parity transformation is now P : ψ(x. (IX. We can group the two ﬁelds u+ and u− into a single four component “bispinor” ﬁeld ψ: ψ≡ In terms of ψ. In terms of ψ.70) . (IX.69) (IX. you can leave the spinor indices explicit in this derivation. (IX.65) from the Euler-Lagrange equations for ψ: Πµ † = ψ ∂L =0 ∂(∂µ ψ † ) ψ − mβψ = 0.64) and each entry represents a two-by-two matrix. (IX.62) )u+ = −im(∂0 − σ · and so each of the components of u+ and u− obeys the massive Klein-Gordon equation (∂µ ∂ µ + m2 )u± (x) = 0.63) At this point we will introduce some notation to make life easier. we ﬁnd )u− = −m2 u+ (IX. (IX. and so these are now matrix equations.68) ∂L = 0 ⇒ i∂0 ψ + α · ∂ψ † You just have to remember that ψ is now a four component column vector. (IX. The equation of motion is i(∂0 + α · )ψ = βmψ.

will be suﬃcient. Plane Wave Solutions to the Dirac Equation As in the Weyl equation. (IX. take the energy p0 to be positive. In this basis (the “Dirac” basis). β 2 = α1 = α2 = α3 = 1 (IX. This representation is not unique. We will need these solutions to canonically quantize the theory. ψ(x) = vp eip·x |p|2 + m2 . 1. Finally. which hold in any basis. B} is the anticommutator of A and B: {A. for example. we note that the components of (ψ † ψ. However. The Weyl basis turns out to be convenient for highly relativistic particles m E while the Dirac basis is convenient in the nonrelativistic limit m E. β= 0 1 1 0 . ψ † αψ) form a 4-vector. αi } = 0. Then we have (IX. they would still obey the anticommutations relations Eq.71) σ 0 where L = .137 Since u+ and u− transform the same way under rotations. However. (IX.76) . The anticommutation relations Eq. except the α’s and β would be diﬀerent. {αi . B} = AB + BA.75) We could deﬁne other bases as well. as we shall see. in most situations we will never have to specify the basis.74) (IX. before proceeding to that let us ﬁnish our discussion of the plane wave solutions to the Dirac equation.72).72). 0 σ The α’s and β obey the relations 2 2 2 {β. However. (IX. have deﬁned ψ by 1 ψ=√ 2 u+ + u− u+ − u− (IX.73) and all of these results would still hold. p0 = both positive and negative frequency solutions ψ(x) = up e−ip·x .72) where {A. We could. we ﬁnd 0 α= σ 0 σ . Very shortly we will introduce some even more slick notation which will allow us to write all of our results in a Lorentz covariant form. ψ transforms under rotations as e R : ψ → eL·ˆθ ψ 1 2 (IX. αj } = 0 (i = j). since the plane wave solutions multiply the creation and annihilation operators in the quantum theory.

so E−m (r) α · e u0 ˆ 2m (IX. cosh φ = γ = E/m and sinh φ = |p|/m. Instead of solving the Dirac equation for p = 0. Note that Mandl & Shaw do not include this factor in their deﬁnition of the plane wave states. The two solutions correspond to the two spin states.79) 0 (The factor of √ 0 2m in the normalization is a convention. u0 = 2m . we get ˆ up = cosh Now.77) 0 −1 .82) (1 + cosh φ)/2 and sinh φ/2 = up = (r) E+m + 2m (IX.78) 0 and so two linearly independent solutions are 1 0 0 1 √ √ (1) (2) u0 = 2m . Now we use our knowledge of the transformation properties of ψ to ﬁnd the the plane wave solutions when p = 0. in both the Dirac and Weyl bases the spin operator is Sz = (1) (1) (2) (2) 1 2 σz 0 0 (IX.83) . 0 0 (IX.138 where up and vp are constant four component bispinors. 1 For deﬁniteness.81) 2 where e = p/|p|. so we ﬁnd (IX. we ﬁnd (p0 − α · p)up = βmup . both solutions are present for a massive ﬁeld. cosh φ/2 = (r) φ φ (r) + α · e sinh ˆ u . Using αi = 1 and αi αj = −αj αi . we can just boost the coordinate system in the opposite direction e up = eα·ˆφ/2 u0 (r) (r) (IX.80) σz 1 so Sz up = + 2 up and Sz up = − 1 up . In the rest frame. As 2 we expected. p=0 and a b up = βup ⇒ up = 0 (IX. so β = 0 p0 = m.) Now. 2 2 0 (1 + sinh φ)/2. Substituting the ﬁrst solution into the Dirac equation. we will work in the Dirac basis.

Time and space appear to be on a diﬀerent footing. We ﬁnd 0 0 0 0 √ √ (2) (1) .84) 0 √ − E−m The case where p is not parallel to z is straightforward to compute from Eq. γ Matrices With all of these α’s and β’s.88) since the scalar is unaﬀected by Lorentz boosts.85) 0 √ E+m Notice that we have chosen our solutions to be orthonormal: u0 u0 = 2mδ rs . ˆ √ E+m 0 . v0 (r)† (s) (r)† (r)† (s) (r)† (s) v0 = 2mδ rs (IX. Therefore we can immediately write u0 βu0 = up βup = 2mδ rs v0 (r)† (r)† (s) (r)† (s) βv0 = vp (s) (r)† βvp = −2mδ rs (s) (IX. = √ p E + m 0 (IX. √ 0 E+m (1) . although we know they’re not because L is a scalar. for p in the z direction. ˆ Similar arguments also allow us to ﬁnd the solutions for the v’s. v = 2m v0 = 2m 0 1 0 √ (1) vp 0 E−m 1 0 √ − E − m 0 (2) . u(2) = up = √ p E − m 0 (IX. v = .139 so in the Dirac basis we ﬁnd. We can clean .86) βv0 = −2mδ rs (s) (IX.87) This second form is useful because we’ve already noted that ψ † βψ is a Lorentz scalar. the theory doesn’t look Lorentz covariant. D. v0 or u0 βu0 = 2mδ rs . (IX. which in the quantum theory we expect to multiply creation operators for antiparticles.83).

ψ1 αψ2 ) = (ψ 1 βψ2 .95) . It will also allow us to write down combinations of bispinors which transform in simple ways under Lorentz transformations. (IX. we know that the components of (ψ1 ψ2 .92) We can now use this technology to construct objects from the bispinors which transform in more complicated ways under the Lorentz group. ψ † = ψβ). by γ 0 ≡ β.93) (IX.90) (IX. The γ µ ’s are called the Dirac γ matrices. † We’ve already seen that for two bispinors ψ1 and ψ2 . For example. The index i on γ is a Lorentz index. It’s convenient to make use of this fact and deﬁne the Dirac Adjoint of a bispinor ψ ψ ≡ ψ † β.91) (Note that the label i on the α’s is not a Lorentz index and so there is no distinction between upper and lower indices on α. Since under a Lorentz transformation. Furthermore. where we have deﬁned the Dirac adjoint of the operator D(Λ) D(Λ) = γ 0 D† (Λ)γ 0 .89) † † (note that since β 2 = 1. µ = 1. γ i ≡ βαi . Therefore ψ 1 ψ2 is a scalar: under a Lorentz transformation ψ 1 ψ2 → ψ 1 ψ2 (IX.) The components of the four vector are now simply written as ψ 1 γ µ ψ2 . (IX. ψ1 βψ2 is a Lorentz scalar. and so this equation deﬁnes γ µ with raised indices.94) (IX..140 things up a bit by introducing even more notation which makes everything manifestly Lorentz covariant. ψγ µ γ ν ψ transforms like a two index tensor: ψγ µ γ ν ψ → ψD(Λ)γ µ D(Λ)D(Λ)γ ν D(Λ)ψ = Λµ α Λν β ψγ α γ β ψ (IX. You will learn to know and love them. and so ψ = ψ † β → ψ † D† (Λ)β = ψ † ββD† (Λ)β ≡ ψD(Λ). Under a Lorentz transformation ψ → D(Λ)ψ. ψ 1 βαψ2 ) transform like the components of a four-vector. ψγ µ ψ → ψD(Λ)γ µ D(Λ)ψ = Λµ ν ψγ ν ψ we ﬁnd that the γ matrices satisfy D(Λ)γ µ D(Λ) = Λµ ν γ ν . It’s convenient then to deﬁne the four matrices γ µ .4.

The Dirac Lagrangian may be written in a manifestly Lorentz invariant form // ψ(i∂ − m)ψ / and the Dirac equation is (i∂ − m)ψ = 0.100) (IX. the γ matrices all anticommute with one another.97) and aa = a2 .98) (IX. γ µ† = γµ = gµν γ ν = γ 0 γ µ γ 0 but they are self-Dirac adjoint (“self-bar”) γµ = γµ.141 (where we have used D(Λ)D(Λ) = 1. the Dirac equation / / / / / / implies that the plane wave solutions satisfy (p − m)up = 0 = (p + m)vp . (IX. we deﬁne a (“a-slash”) by / a = aµ γ µ . and (γ 0 )2 = −(γ 1 )2 = −(γ 2 )2 = −(γ 3 )2 = 1. / / (r) (r) (IX.99) Note that these are all four by four matrix equations. Another property of the γ matrices is that they are not all Hermitian. where we have suppressed matrix indices. / From the γ algebra it follows that a/ + /a = 2a · b /b b/ (IX. and the γ matrix algebra is simply a statement about matrix multiplication.101) (IX. up vp = 0 (r) (s) (r) (s) (r) (s) (IX.96) Thus.104) . which follows from the fact that ψψ is a scalar). not about quantum operators anticommuting. γ ν } = 2g µν . The commutation relations for the α’s and β may now be written in terms of the γ’s as {γ µ .102) (IX. Also. everything is still classical.103) and since i∂ up (x) = i(−ip)up (x) = pup (x) and i∂ vp (x) = i(ip)vp (x) = −pvp (x). The orthonormality conditions on the plane wave solutions are now up up = 2mδ rs = −v p vp . / (IX. For any four-vector aµ .

we next consider ψγ µ γ ν γ α γ β ψ.106) These will be very useful later on when we calculate cross sections. Bilinear Forms We have already seen that ψψ transforms like a scalar and that the components of ψγ µ ψ form a 4-vector.104) gives up (p − m) = 0 = v p (p + m). 1. the symmetric combination is simply 2g µν ψψ and so is not an independent bilinear form.142 Taking the Dirac adjoint of Eq. The antisymmetric combination is new. / (r) (r) (IX. But if any two indices are the same. We can choose the remaining eleven to transform simply under Lorentz transformations. but since any collection of γ matrices is simply a four by four matrix there are only be sixteen independent bilinears which can be constructed out of ψ and ψ. (IX. / / The plane wave bispinors also obey the completeness relations 2 r=1 (r) (r) (IX.105) / up up = p + m. γ ν ]ψ. Thus we deﬁne a new matrix γ5 : γ5 = iγ 0 γ 1 γ 2 γ 3 = i 4! µναβ γ µ ν α β γ γ γ ≡ γ5. γ ν }ψ and ψ[γ µ . Since {γ µ . However. We could go on indeﬁnitely and construct n component tensors ψγ µ γ ν .γ α ψ. This bring the number of bilinears to eleven. We deﬁne i σ µν = [γ µ . r=1 (r) (r) 2 vp v p = p − m. this doesn’t give us anything new. Skipping to four component objects. we may split it up into symmetric and antisymmetric pieces: ψ{γ µ . This is a sixteen component object. so we need to ﬁnd ﬁve more..the one component scalar and the four-vector. (IX..107) and then the six independent components of ψσ µν ψ transform like a two index antisymmetric tensor (note that some books deﬁne σ µν with an opposite sign to this). γ 0 γ 1 γ 0 γ 2 = −γ 0 γ 0 γ 1 γ 2 = −γ 1 γ 2 = iσ 12 . We already have ﬁve .109) . For example. (IX.108) So only the matrix γ 0 γ 1 γ 2 γ 3 and its various permutations are new. γ ν } = 2g µν . Consider ﬁrst ψγ µ γ ν ψ. γ ν ] 2 (IX.

(IX. t) → −ψγ 0 γ5 ψ(−x. t). and so transforms like a pseudoscalar. (IX.116) The spatial components of ψγ µ ψ ﬂip sign under a reﬂection whereas the time component is unchanged.3. t) → ψγ 0 γ µ γ 0 ψ(−x. (IX. t) → βψ(−x. ψγ5 ψ → ψγ5 ψ.. γ5 = γ5 = −γ 5 . t) = −ψγ5 ψ(−x. i = 1. γ µ } = 0.114) (IX.3 (IX.111) Since µναβ γ µγν γαγβ has no free indices. its transformation diﬀers from that of ψψ when we consider parity transformations. ψγ5 ψ → ψγ 0 γ5 γ 0 ψ(−x.” It obeys † (γ5 )2 = 1.143 Here. t). it transforms like a scalar under boosts and rotations. t) ψγ i ψ(x. t). ψ(x.117) . and 0123 µναβ =1=− 1023 = 1032 = . t)γ 0 and so under a parity transformation ψψ(x. t) ψ(x. t) = −ψγ5 γ 0 γ 0 ψ(−x.. is a totally antisymmetric four index tensor. t) = γ 0 ψ(−x. t) → −ψγ i ψ(−x. Under parity. i = 1. t) → ψ(−x.. which is how a vector transforms under parity.. t)β = ψ(−x. {γ5 .113) (IX. On the other hand. t). However. we see that under a parity transformation ψγ µ ψ(x. the addition of the γ5 means that the axial vector transforms like ψγ 0 γ5 ψ(x. Again. and so ψγ 0 ψ(x. t) → ψγ i γ5 ψ(−x. However. t) ψγ i ψ(x.112) Thus ψγ5 ψ changes sign under a parity transformation. t) → ψγ 0 ψ(−x.110) γ5 is in many ways the “ﬁfth γ matrix. t) → ψψ(−x.115) which make up an axial vector.. (IX. t) exactly as a scalar should transform. The ﬁnal four independent bilinear forms are the components of ψγµ γ5 ψ (IX.

ψL and ψR are just the left and right-handed pieces of the Dirac bispinor in four component. / / 2 / / (IX. we have S = ψψ (scalar) (vector) (tensor) (pseudoscalar) (axial vector). PL = PL . PR PL = 0.121) . (IX. This interaction is parity violating because there is no way to deﬁne the transformation of W µ under parity such that this term is parity invariant. A scalar ﬁeld φ (such as a meson) could couple like φψψ. 2 2 2 2 These satisfy the requirements for projections operators: PR = PR . we have chosen the sixteen bilinears which can be formed from a Dirac ﬁeld and its adjoint to transform simply under Lorentz transformations. For example. Chirality and γ5 1 In the Weyl basis.144 which is the correct transformation law for an axial vector. (IX. PR +PL = 1.120) We also ﬁnd that ψR ≡ ψP R = ψγ 0 PR γ 0 = ψPL and ψL = ψPR . and they project out the Weyl spinors u+ and u− from the Dirac bispinor: u+ 0 0 u− 1 = 2 (1 + γ5 )ψ = PR ψ ≡ ψR 1 = 2 (1 − γ5 )ψ = PL ψ ≡ ψL . Finally. whereas the coupling φψγ5 ψ conserves parity if φ transforms like a pseudoscalar.118) V µ = ψγ µ ψ T µν = ψσ µν ψ P = ψγ5 ψ Aµ = ψγ µ γ5 ψ Given these transformation laws it will be easy to construct Lorentz invariant interaction terms in the Lagrangian. An axial vector ﬁeld B µ could couple in a parity conserving manner as B µ ψγµ γ5 ψ. We can deﬁne the projection operators (in any basis) (IX. in a parity violating theory (such as the weak interactions) a vector ﬁeld W µ could couple to some linear combination of vector and axial vector currents: W µ ψγµ (a + bγ5 )ψ. notation. 2. The Weyl Lagrangian for right-handed particles may therefore be written L = ψi∂ PR ψ = ψi∂ PR ψ = ψPL i∂ PR ψ = ψR i∂ ψR . γ5 = 0 0 −1 . if we have a vector ﬁeld Aµ (such as a photon). To summarize. Thus. PL = 1 (1 − γ5 ).119) PR = 1 (1 + γ5 ). a Lorentz invariant interaction is Aµ ψγµ ψ. rather than two component (u− and u+ ).

145 Similarly. which has a coupling of the form Z µ ψ L γµ ψL = Z µ ψ 1 γµ (1 − γ5 )ψ.R → e−iλ ψL.124) The independent symmetries are called chiral symmetries. where the term chiral denotes the fact that the symmetries has a “handedness”.123) When m = 0. (IX. the weak interactions involve the coupling of vector ﬁelds (the W ± and Z bosons) to only the left-handed components of spin 1/2 ﬁelds. it distinguishes left and right handed particles. ψL → e−iλ ψL . ψL → ψL . Chiral symmetries play an important role in the study of both the strong and weak interactions. the Dirac Lagrangian is invariant under the U (1) symmetry ψL. we see that without the mass term the Dirac Lagrangian just describes two independent helicity eigenstates. ψR → ψR and ψR → e−iλ ψR . for left-handed particles we have L = ψL i∂ ψL . However. We also note that we may write the parity violating Weyl Lagrangian describing left-handed neutrinos in the four-component form L = ψ L i∂ ψL . As we argued from physical grounds earlier. 2 Such a theory clearly violates parity.125) (IX.R . is the quantum of the Z µ vector ﬁeld. the left and right handed ﬁelds must transform the same way under the internal symmetry. The Dirac Lagrangian is / / / L = ψL i∂ ψL + ψR i∂ ψR − m(ψL ψR + ψR ψL ).126) . (IX. For example. / (IX. The Z boson. so the helicity of the massive ﬁeld is no longer a good quantum number. Because of the mass term. The mass term couples the right and left-handed ﬁelds.122) As we noticed before. since its helicity is no longer a Lorentz invariant quantity. when m = 0 this is no longer required. and the theory has two independent U (1) symmetries. this is exactly what must happen for a massive particle. (IX. for example. that is.

β= 1 0 (IX.129) − βm)ψ = 0. (IX. without proofs.127) where ψ is a set of four complex ﬁelds. Dirac Equation. β} = 0. You will ﬁnd many of these results in Appendix A of Mandl & Shaw.146 E. {αi . Under a Lorentz transformation characterized by a 4 × 4 Lorentz matrix Λ. (IX. αj } = 2δij . Λ : ψ(x) → D(Λ)ψ(Λ−1 x). arranged in a column vector (a Dirac bispinor) and the α’s and β are a set of 4×4 Hermitian matrices (the Dirac Matrices).130) 0 −1 (where each component represents a 2 × 2 matrix). β 2 = 1. however. The corresponding equation of motion is (i∂0 + iα · The Dirac matrices obey the following algebra. (IX. Dirac Matrices The theory is deﬁned by the Lagrange Density L = ψ † i∂0 + iα · − βm ψ.132) . {αi . 1.128) Two representations of the Dirac algebra that will be useful to us are the Weyl representation σ α= 0 and the standard (or Dirac) representation 0 α= σ 0 σ . β= 1 0 0 1 (IX.131) 0 −σ . they use a diﬀerent normalization for the plane wave states. Dirac Lagrangian. Summary of Results for the Dirac Equation These pages summarize the results we have derived for the Dirac equation. (IX. 2. Space-Time Symmetries The Dirac equation is invariant under both Lorentz transformations and parity.

137) (IX. t).142) (IX. The γ matrices are not all Hermitian.136) 3. γ Matrices The Dirac adjoint of a Dirac bispinor is deﬁned by ψ = ψ†β and the Dirac adjoint of a 4 × 4 matrix is A = βA† β.g. P : ψ(x. e.141) (IX. γ µ† = γµ = gµν γ ν = γ 0 γ µ γ 0 (IX. From these we can deﬁne the γ matrices with lowered indices by γµ ≡ gµν γ ν . (IX. ψAφ The γ matrices are deﬁned by γ 0 = β. Under parity. Dirac Adjoint.147 For a boost characterized by rapidity φ in the e direction.139) .134) where L= 1 2 σ 0 0 (IX. (IX. γ i = βαi . These obey the usual rules for adjoints. ˆ e D (R(ˆθ)) = e−iL·ˆθ e (IX. t) → βψ(−x. ˆ e D (A(ˆφ)) = eα·ˆφ/2 e (IX.138) = φAψ.133) while for a rotation of angle θ about the e axis.140) ∗ (IX.135) σ in both the Weyl and standard representations.

We can choose these sixteen to form the components of objects that transform in simple ways under the Lorentz group and parity.147) (IX. we deﬁne a = aµ γ µ / and from the γ algebra it follows that a/ + /a = 2a · b. For any 4-vector a. These are S = ψψ (scalar) (vector) (tensor) (pseudoscalar) (axial vector) (IX.143) (IX. They obey the γ algebra {γ µ . Bilinear Forms (IX. γ ν } = 2g µν and also obey D(Λ)γ µ D(Λ) = Λµ ν γ ν .144) (IX.149) There are sixteen linearly independent bilinear forms we can make from a Dirac bispinor and its adjoint.148) (IX. /b b/ In this notation.146) (IX. the Dirac Lagrange density is ψ(i∂ − m)ψ / and the Dirac equation is (i∂ − m)ψ = 0.148 but they are self-Dirac adjoint (“self-bar”) γµ = γµ. / 4.150) V µ = ψγ µ ψ T µν = ψσ µν ψ P = ψγ5 ψ Aµ = ψγ µ γ5 ψ .145) (IX.

p = (m. we can choose the independent u’s and v’s in the standard representation to be √ (1) u0 = 2m 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 √ 2m . (IX.152) is a totally antisymmetric four index tensor.154) 5.156) (IX. by applying a Lorentz boost.) We can construct the solutions for a moving particle.v = √ 0 0 0 0 2m (IX.158) 0 0 (Note that these are normalized diﬀerently than in Mandl & Shaw. the invariant phase space factor. . / / (IX.155) There are two positive-frequency and two negative-frequency solutions for each p. (IX.151) i 4! µναβ γ µ ν α β γ γ γ ≡ γ5. √ 2m 0 (2) (1) (2) .153) γ5 is in many ways the “ﬁfth γ matrix. The negative-frequency solutions are of the form ψ = veip·x .” It obeys † (γ5 )2 = 1. 0).157) For a particle at rest. and 0123 = 1. They omit the (r) (r) √ 2m from the normalization and instead include it in the deﬁnition of D. Plane Wave Solutions The positive-frequency solutions of the Dirac equation are of the form ψ = ue−ip·x where p2 = m2 and p0 = p2 + m2 .u = . γ5 = γ5 = −γ 5 . {γ5 . (IX.149 where we have deﬁned i σ µν = [γ µ . (IX. γ µ } = 0.v = . The Dirac equation implies that (p − m)u = 0 = (p + m)v. γ ν ] 2 and γ5 = iγ 0 γ 1 γ 2 γ 3 = Here. µναβ (IX. up and vp .

161) . They obey the completeness relations 2 r=1 (r) (s) (r) (s) (r) (s) (IX. / (r) (r) (IX. up vp = 0. r=1 (r) (r) 2 vp v p = p − m.159) / up up = p + m.150 These solutions are normalized such that up up = 2mδ rs = −v p vp .160) Another way of expressing the normalization condition is up γ µ up = 2δ rs pµ = v p γ µ vp . This form has a smooth limit as m → 0. (r) (s) (r) (s) (IX.

ψ (X. We expect that the canonical commutation relations Eq. the Fourier components of the solution. that we need to impose canonical commutation relations. the b’s and c’s are numbers. and so we expect to be able to set up canonical commutation relations much in the same way as for the scalar ﬁeld. any solution to the free ﬁeld theory may be written as a sum of plane wave solutions 2 ψ(x. ψ † (y. c’s and their conjugates be creation and . t)] = iδab δ (3) (x − y). Since there are two spin states for the ﬁelds. The momentum conjugate to ψ is Π0 = ψ ∂L = iψ † ∂(∂0 ψ) (X. t)] = δ (3) (x − y). t). t) = r=1 2 d3 p (2π)3/2 2Ep d3 p (2π)3/2 2Ep bp up e−ip·x + cp vp eip·x bp up eip·x + cp vp (r)† (r)† (r) (r)† −ip·x (r) (r) (r)† (r) ψ † (x. (X. it is not a problem. (X. ψ † (y. QUANTIZING THE DIRAC LAGRANGIAN A. t)] = 0. t) = r=1 e .3) Just as in the case of the scalar ﬁeld. Although this seems odd. (X. It is only on these ﬁelds. (Π0 )b (y. t). we would also need the time derivatives of the ﬁelds at the initial time). which completely deﬁne the state of the system.4) In the classical theory. and so the b’s and c’s carry a spin index. we have [ψ(x. we can ﬁnd the state of the system at any following time (if the equations were second order in time.2) will require that the b’s. t)] = [ψ † (x. [ψ(x.2) Here we have explicitly displayed the spinor indices a and b. The equations of motion from the Dirac equation are ﬁrst order in time. The u’s and v’s are the four component bispinors we found explicitly in the previous section. How Not to Quantize the Dirac Lagrangian We now wish to construct the quantum theory corresponding to the Dirac Lagrangian. t). the b’s and c’s are replaced by operators. Canonical Commutation Relations or.1) while the momentum conjugate to ψ † vanishes. ψ(y. Therefore we take [ψa (x. a general solution to the Dirac Equation has components with both spin states.151 X. and so ψ and ψ † form a complete set of initial value data. That is. In the quantum theory. if we know ψ and ψ † at some initial time. just as in the case of the scalar ﬁeld. t). Suppressing the indices.

so to make things simpler let us make the ansatz [bp . Clearly if / B = −C. ψ † (y. ψ † (y.10) . i∂0 ψ = r (X. So choosing B = −C = 1.7) as required. we obtain [ψ(x. t).6) (r) (r) r vp v p up up = p+m and / (r) (r) = p−m. To see if this is a sensible quantum theory.8) (X. the pi γ i and m terms cancel. (X. Note. that the sign in the commutator for the c’s is opposite to what we might have expected. Here we have used the completeness relations r (r) (s) (X.152 annihilation operators. and the p0 = Ep in the numerator cancels the denominator.5) into the commutation relations gives [ψ(x. Substituting Eq. bp ] = Bδ rs δ (3) (p − p ) [cp . ψ Since ψ satisﬁes the Dirac equation. however. we should look at the Hamiltonian and see if the energy is bounded below: H = Π0 ∂0 ψ − L = iψγ 0 ∂0 ψ − iψγ µ ∂µ ψ + mψψ = −iψγ i ∂i ψ + mψψ.9) d3 p (2π)3/2 Ep (r) (r) −ip·x (r)† (r) bp up e − cp vp eip·x 2 (X.5) where B and C are constant which we shall solve for. and suggests that something may not be quite right here. cp ]vp v p γ 0 e−ip·x+ip ·y = 1 (2π)3 d3 p B(p + m)γ 0 e−ip·(x−y) / 2Ep −C(p − m)γ 0 eip·(x−y) / = 1 (2π)3 d3 p −ip·(x−y) e B(p0 γ 0 + pi γ i + m)γ 0 2Ep −C(p0 γ 0 − pi γ i − m)γ 0 . t)] = r. t). we can write this as H = iψγ 0 ∂0 ψ = iψ † ∂0 ψ. t)] = 1 (2π)3 d3 p e−ip·(x−y) = δ (3) (x − y) (X. In terms of the creation and annihilation operators. bp ]up up γ 0 eip·x−ip ·y (r) (s)† (r) (s) +[cp .s (2π)3 d3 pd3 p 2Ep 2Ep (r)† (s) [bp . cp ] = Cδ rs δ (3) (p − p ) (r) (s)† (r) (s)† (X.

with the Hamiltonian H = k d3 k ωk a† ak . There is indeed something seriously wrong with this theory .the Hamiltonian is unbounded from below! The c-type particles (antiparticles) carry negative energy. but the canonical commutation relations must be abandoned and replaced with something else.12) The δ (3) (0) will vanish when we normal order. so we just ﬁnd H= r d3 pEp [Nb (p. the d3 x integral times the exponential becomes a delta function.s d3 x H d3 x ψ † i∂0 ψ d3 x d3 pd3 p (2π)3 Ep (r)† (r)† ip ·x (r) (r)† b up e + cp vp e−ip ·x × Ep p (r)† (r) bp up e−ip·x − cp vp eip ·x . (r)† (r) (X. (s) (s) (X. we can’t ﬁx this problem simply by changing the sign of the Lagrangian. Canonical Anticommutation Relations We didn’t spend two lectures on spinors and γ matrices just to throw it all in at the ﬁrst sign of trouble. This will simply force the b particles to carry negative energy. Unlike previous problems with positivity of the energy. C] + [A. r)] (X. (X. r) − Nc (p. Let k me remind you that this worked because of the following useful identity for commutators: [AB. and using up up = up γ 0 up = 2δ rs Ep = vp (r) (s) (r)† (s) vp . C] = A[B.11) (r)† (s) As usual.14) . Recall that for the scalar ﬁeld theory we could interpret a† k and ak as creation and annihilation operators because of their commutation relations with the number operator N = d3 k a† ak (or equivalently. C]B. The theory therefore has no ground state. B.13) where Nb (p. since you can always lower the energy of a state by adding antiparticles.153 and so the Hamiltonian is H = = = r.). The theory can be rescued. There is therefore no way to obtain a sensible quantum theory from the Dirac Lagrangian using canonical commutation relations. r) and Nc (p. r) are the number operators for b and c type particles. we arrive at d3 pEp bp bp − cp cp r (r)† (r) (r)† (r) (r) (r)† H = = r d3 pEp bp bp − cp cp + δ (3) (0) .

**154 This immediately gives [N, a† ] = k and also [N, ak ] = −ak . (X.16) d3 k [a† ak , a† ] = a† k k
**

k

(X.15)

Therefore a† acting on a state raises the eigenvalue of N by one and the energy by ωk , while k ak acting on the states lowers both eigenvalues, exactly as expected for creation and annihilation operators. However, there is another useful identity for commutators [AB, C] = A{B, C} − {A, C}B (X.17)

where {A, B} ≡ AB + BA is the anticommutator of A and B. This is extremely useful, because it means that if we were to impose anticommutation relations on the a† ’s and ak ’s, they could still k be interpreted as creation and annihilation operators. That is, let us impose the relations {ak , a† } = δ (3) (k − k ) k {ak , ak } = {a† , a† } = 0. k k We then ﬁnd, using Eq. (X.17) [N, a† ] = k [N, ak ] = d3 k [a† ak , a† ] = k

k

(X.18)

d3 k a† {ak , a† } = a† k k k d3 k {a† , ak }ak = −ak k (X.19)

d3 k [a† ak , ak ] = −

k

exactly as required. This suggests we try the following anticommutation relations for the b’s and c’s: {bp , bp } = δ rs δ (3) (p − p ) {cp , cp } = δ rs δ (3) (p − p ) {bp , bp } = {bp , bp } = 0 {cp , cp } = {cp , cp } = {bp , cp } = ... = 0.

(r) (s) (r) (s) (r) (s)† (r) (s) (r)† (s)† (r) (s)† (r) (s)†

(X.20)

Not surprisingly, substituting these anticommutation relations into the ﬁeld expansions we ﬁnd that the equal-time commutation relations are replaced by now obey equal time anticommutation relations {ψ(x, t), ψ † (y, t)} = δ (3) (x − y) {ψ(x, t), ψ(y, t)} = {ψ † (x, t), ψ † (y, t)} = 0. (X.21)

155 Note that you have to be careful when dealing with anticommuting ﬁelds, since the order is always important. For example, ψ(x, t)ψ(y, t) = −ψ(y, t)ψ(x, t). The crucial step is now to see if this modiﬁcation gives us an energy bounded from below. It is easy to see that it does, since the previous derivation of the Hamiltonian goes through completely unchanged up until the last line: H =

r

d3 pEp bp bp − cp cp

(r)† (r)

(r)† (r)

(r) (r)†

=

r

d3 pEp bp bp + cp cp + δ (3) (0) .

(r)† (r)

(X.22)

The anticommutation relations have given us a crucial sign change in the second term. Throwing away the δ (3) (0) as usual, we now have H=

r

d3 pEp [Nb (p, r) + Nc (p, r)]

(X.23)

which is bounded from below. Both b and c particles carry positive energy.

C. Fermi-Dirac Statistics

We have saved the theory, but at the price of imposing anticommutation relations on the creation and annihilation operators, and we must now examine the consequences of this. First consider the single particle states in the theory. We label these by the spin r (where r = 1 or 2 labels spin up and down, as we did when in the last chapter when writing down the explicit form of the plane wave solutions) as well as the momentum p. As usual, they are produced by the action of a creation operator on the vacuum (for deﬁniteness, we consider particle states, not antiparticle states, although the arguments will clearly apply in both cases): | p, r = bp | 0 p , s |p, r = 0 |bp bp | 0 = 0 |{bp , bp }| 0 = δ rs δ (3) (p − p ) (X.24)

(s) (r)† (s) (r)† (r)†

and so the states have the correct normalization, just as they did in the scalar case. However, the multiparticle states are diﬀerent from the spin 0 case. We ﬁnd | p1 , r; p2 , s = bp1 bp2 | 0 = −bp2 bp1 | 0 = −| p2 , s; p1 , r

(r)† (s)† (s)† (r)†

(X.25)

156 and so the states of the theory change sign under the exchange of identical particles. Thus, the particle obey Fermi-Dirac statistics, instead of Bose-Einstein statistics. Consistency of the theory has demanded that we quantize the particles as fermions instead of bosons. In particular, the Pauli exclusion principle follows immediately from bp1

(r) 2

= − bp1

(r) 2

=0

(X.26)

which means that there is no two-particle state made up of two identical particles in the same state | p1 , r; p1 , r = 0. Thus, it is impossible to put two identical fermions in the same state. It isn’t immediately obvious that a theory with Fermi-Dirac statistics will be causal. For bosons, we said that [φ(x), φ(y)] = 0 for (x−y)2 < 0 guaranteed that spacelike separated observables, which are constructed out of the ﬁelds, couldn’t interfere with one another: [O(x), O(y)] = 0, (x − y)2 < 0. (X.28) (X.27)

However, for fermi ﬁelds we now have the relation {ψ(x), ψ(y)} = 0 as well as {ψ(x), ψ † (y)} = 0 for (x − y)2 < 0 (this follows from the analogous calculation to that from which we derived ∆+ (x − y) = 0 for (x − y)2 < 0.) How do we see that this requirement guarantees causality in the quantum theory? The reason it does it that observables are always bilinear in the ﬁelds. For example, the energy, momentum and conserved charge are given by H = i Pi = −i Q = d3 x ψ † (x, t)∂0 ψ(x, t) d3 x ψ † (x, t)∂i ψ(x, t) (X.29)

d3 x ψ † (x, t)ψ(x, t).

This is not surprising. We know that spinors form a double-valued representation of the Lorentz group since they change sign under rotation by 2π. Observables, on the other hand, are unaﬀected by a rotation by 2π and so must be composed of an even number of spinor ﬁelds. Using the anticommutation relations (X.21), we can easily verify that observables bilinear in the ﬁelds commute for spacelike separation, as required. The fact that particles with integer spin must be quantized as bosons while particles with halfintegral spin must be quantized as fermions is a general result in ﬁeld theory, and is known as

157 the spin-statistics theorem. We have, at least for spin 1/2 ﬁelds, demonstrated the second part of the theorem. The ﬁrst part of the theorem, the fact that particles with integral spin must be quantized as bosons, follows from that observation that if we were to attempt to impose canonical anticommutation relations on the creation and annihilation operators for a scalar ﬁeld we would ﬁnd that the ﬁelds obeyed neither [φ(x), φ(y)](x−y)2 <0 = 0 nor {φ(x), φ(y)}(x−y)2 <0 = 0. The theory would therefore not be causal. This is the gist of the spin-statistics theorem: quantizing integral spin ﬁelds as fermions leads to an acausal theory, while quantizing half-integral spin ﬁelds as bosons leads to a theory with energy unbounded below (and so with no ground state).

D. Perturbation Theory for Spinors

Now that we understand free ﬁeld theory for spin 1/2 ﬁelds, we can introduce interaction terms into the Lagrangian and build up the Feynman rules for perturbation theory. Let us consider a simple nucleon-meson theory (now that the nucleons are fermions, we no longer need to enclose the word in quotations) 1 µ2 / L = ψ(i∂ − m)ψ + (∂µ φ)2 − φ2 − gψΓψφ 2 2 (X.30)

where we either take Γ = 1, in which case φ is a scalar, or Γ = iγ5 , in which case φ is a pseudoscalar (we include the i so that the Lagrangian is Hermitian, L = L† .). The theory with Γ = 1 is known as Yukawa theory; it was originally invented by Yukawa to describe the interaction between real pions and nucleons. It turns out that Yukawa theory does not, in fact, provide the correct description of nucleon-meson interactions even at low energies (where the internal structure of the nucleons and pions is irrelevant, so they may be treated as fundamental particles). However, in modern particle theory the Standard Model contains Yukawa interaction terms coupling the scalar Higgs ﬁeld to the quarks and leptons. Dyson’s formula and Wick’s theorem go through for fermi ﬁelds in almost the same way as for scalars. However, the anticommutation relations introduce a crucial diﬀerence. Recall that when (x − y)2 < 0, time ordering is not a Lorentz invariant concept. In one frame x0 > y0 while in another y0 > x0 . Nevertheless, the T -product of two scalar ﬁelds is Lorentz invariant because the ﬁelds commute when (x − y)2 < 0, so φ(x)φ(y) = φ(y)φ(x) and the order is unimportant. However, for fermions this no longer holds. If (x − y)2 < 0, fermi ﬁelds anticommute. So for spacelike separation, T (ψ(x)ψ(y)) = ψ(x)ψ(y) (X.31)

158 in the frame where x0 > y0 , but T (ψ(x)ψ(y)) = ψ(y)ψ(x) = −ψ(x)ψ(y) (X.32)

in the frame where y0 > x0 . Therefore we must modify our deﬁnition of the T-produce of fermi ﬁelds to make it Lorentz invariant. The solution is simple: just deﬁne the T-product to include a factor of (−1)N , where N is the number of exchanges of fermi ﬁelds required to time order the ﬁelds. Thus, for two ﬁelds ψ(x)ψ(y), T (ψ(x)ψ(y)) = −ψ(y)ψ(x), x0 > y0 ; y0 > x0 . (X.33)

since for y0 > x0 we must perform one exchange of fermi ﬁelds to time order them. When (x − y)2 < 0 the ﬁelds anticommute and the T -product is the same in any frame. Also, from Eq. (X.33) and the anticommutation relations, we have T (ψ1 (x1 )ψ2 (x2 )) = −T (ψ2 (x2 )ψ1 (x1 )). (X.34)

Therefore we treat fermi ﬁelds as anticommuting inside the time ordering symbol. (Note that in this discussion of T -products I am using ψ to represent any generic fermi ﬁeld, including ψ † ). The normal-ordered product is deﬁned as before. Writing ψ = ψ (+) +ψ (−) , where ψ (+) multiplies an annihilation operator and ψ (−) multiplies a creation operator, the normal-ordered product : ψ1 ψ2 : is : ψ1 ψ2 : = : ψ1 ψ2 = ψ1 ψ2

(+) (+) (+)

+ ψ1 ψ2

(−)

(+)

(−)

+ ψ1 ψ2

(−)

(−)

(−)

+ ψ1 ψ2

(−)

(−)

(+)

: (X.35)

(+)

− ψ2 ψ1

(+)

+ ψ1 ψ2

(−)

+ ψ1 ψ2

(+)

where the second term has picked up a factor of (−1) because of the interchange of two fermi ﬁelds. Just as for the T -product, fermi ﬁelds can be treated as anticommuting inside a normal ordered product, : ψ1 ψ2 := − : ψ2 ψ1 : . (X.36)

(Recall that bose ﬁelds commuted inside T -products and N -products; that is, their order was unimportant). With this modiﬁed deﬁnition of the time-ordered product, Dyson’s formula and Wick’s theorem go through as before. Note, however, that we must be careful with contractions in Wick’s theorem, for example for fermion ﬁelds A1 − A4 we have −−− −− − − : A1 A2 A3 A4 := − : A1 A3 A2 A4 := −A1 A3 : A2 A4 : (X.37)

159 and so pulling this particular contraction out of the normal-ordered product introduces a minus sign. In general, pulling a contraction out of a normal-ordered product introduces a factor of (−1)N , where N is the number of interchanges of fermi ﬁelds required.

1. The Fermion Propagator

−− −− The fermion propagator is obtained from the contraction ψ(x)ψ(y) (note that this is a four −−− −− by four matrix: Sab = ψ(x)a ψ(y)b . As with scalar ﬁelds, this is number (or rather a matrix of numbers) instead of an operator, so −− −− −− −− ψ(x)ψ(y) = 0 |ψ(x)ψ(y)| 0 = 0 |T (ψ(x)ψ(y))− : ψ(x)ψ(y) : | 0 = 0 |T (ψ(x)ψ(y))| 0 . (X.38)

First consider the case x0 > y0 . Then T (ψ(x)ψ(y)) = ψ(x)ψ(y). Putting in the explicit expressions for the ﬁelds and using the completeness relations for the plane wave states we ﬁnd −− −− ψ(x)ψ(y) = d3 p e−ip·(x−y) (p + m) / (2π)3 2Ep = (i∂ x + m)i∆+ (x − y) (x0 > y0 ) /

r

up up = p + m /

(r) (r)

(X.39)

where we recall that i∆+ (x − y) = d3 p e−ip·(x−y) (2π)3 2Ep (X.40)

and ∆+ (x − y) = 0 when x0 = y0 . Performing a similar calculation for x0 < y0 , we ﬁnd13 −− −− ψ(x)ψ(y) = θ(x0 − y0 )(i∂ x + m)i∆+ (x − y) + θ(y0 − x0 )(i∂ x + m)i∆+ (y − x) / / = (i∂ x + m) (θ(x0 − y0 )i∆+ (x − y) + θ(y0 − x0 )i∆+ (y − x)) / −− − = (i∂ x + m)φ(x)φ(y) / where −− − φ(x)φ(y) = d4 p −ip·(x−y) i e . 4 2 − m2 + i (2π) p (X.42)

(X.41)

13

Note that it is legitimate to pull the derivative outside of the θ function because the additional term which arises when a time derivative acts on the θ function vanishes: ∂θ(x0 − y0 )/∂x0 ∆+ (x − y) = δ(x0 − y0 )∆+ (x − y) = 0.

so the / / p i(-p+m) / p2-m2+iε FIG.160 We have now related the fermion propagator to the scalar propagator. Of course.2 The fermion propagator is odd in p. X. so it matters that p and the conserved charge (the p i(p+m) / p2-m2+iε FIG.1 The fermion propagator.44) (the i in the p + m term in the denominator does not aﬀect the location of the pole. just as in the scalar theory. 4 p2 − m2 + i (2π) (X. X. propagator is often written as i(p + m) / i = (p + m − i )(p − m + i ) / / p−m+i / (X. (X. so in the / limit → 0 we may cancel this against the numerator).1). arrow on the propagator) are poiting in the same direction. contractions of ﬁelds which don’t create and then annihilate the same particle vanish.45) . Note that p2 − m2 + i = (p + m − i )(p − m + i ). We immediately see that this gives the Feynman rule for the fermion propagator shown in Fig. (X. When they point in opposite directions the sign of p is reversed (Fig. (X.43) (where we have explicitly included the matrix indices. and I is the four by four identity matrix).2)). −− − φ(x)ψ(y)a = 0 −−− −− ψ(x)a ψ(y)b = 0 −−− −− ψ(x)a ψ(y)b = 0. Note that the propagator is odd in p. Moving the derivative back inside the integral we have −−− −− ψ(x)a ψ(y)b = d4 p i(pab + mIab ) −ip·(x−y) / e .

For the relativistically normalized nucleon state | N (p. we get −−−−−−− −−−−−− : ψ a (x1 )Γab ψb (x1 )φ(x1 )ψ c (x2 )Γcd ψd (x2 )φ(x2 ) := −−− −−− ψb (x1 )ψ c (x2 ) : ψ a (x1 )Γab φ(x1 )Γcd ψd (x2 )φ(x2 ) : . Feynman Rules We can deduce the Feynman rules for this theory by explicitly calculating the amplitudes for several scattering processes. r) = e−ip·x2 × up and similarly N (p .161 2.47) Anticommuting the ﬁelds inside the normal-ordered product.50) (X.46) where we have included the spinor indices. r) (momentum p.48) since there are four permutations of fermion ﬁelds required (note that fermi ﬁelds commute with bose ﬁelds).51) . We can pull the propagator out of the ﬁrst term. and since this involves an even number of exchanges of fermi ﬁelds (two). This only diﬀers from the ﬁrst time by the interchange of x1 and x2 . The O(g 2 ) term in Dyson’s formula is (−ig)2 2! d4 x1 d4 x2 T ψ a (x1 )Γab (x1 )ψb (x1 )φ(x1 )ψ c (x2 )Γcd ψd (x2 )φ(x2 ) (X. and we are using the convention that repeated spinor indices are summed over (so this is just matrix multiplication). and since we are symmetrically integrating over x1 and x2 . There are two contractions which contribute: −−−−−−− −−−−−− : ψ a (x1 )Γab ψb (x1 )φ(x1 )ψ c (x2 )Γcd ψd (x2 )φ(x2 ) : −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− : ψ a (x1 )Γab ψb (x1 )φ(x1 )ψ c (x2 )Γcd ψ d (x2 )φ(x2 ) : . r ) |ψ(x1 )| 0 = eip ·x1 × up This immediately gives us two additional Feynman rules: (r ) (r) (X. the two terms give identical contributions.49) The ψ ﬁeld inside the normal product must now annihilate the nucleon. (X. First we consider nucleon-meson scattering. this cancels the 1/2! in Dyson’s formula. This term contributes to a variety of processes. we can rewrite the second term as −−−−−−− −−−−−− : ψ c (x2 )Γcd ψd (x2 )φ(x2 )ψ a (x1 )Γab ψb (x1 )φ(x1 ) : (−1)4 (X. N + φ → N + φ. (X. spin r) we have 0 |ψ(x2 )| N (p. Just as before.

but now the ψ ﬁeld annihilates the incoming antinucleon and the ψ ﬁeld . X. four component column vectors. as shown in Fig. (r) (X.3 Feynman rules for external fermion legs.) The vertices and fermion propagators are four by four matrices while the bispinors are -igΓ FIG. Diagrammatrically. X. (X.4). include a factor of up (see Fig.5). When calculating Feynman diagrams for spinors. This is almost identical to the previous process.52) We next consider antinucleon-meson scattering. each interaction vertex corresponds to a factor of −igΓ (see Fig. process to be iA = (−ig)2 up Γ (r ) (r ) (r) Applying the Feynman rules. and as before we get two Feynman diagrams corresponding to the two choices of which φ ﬁeld creates or annihilates which meson. include a factor of up • For each outgoing fermion with momentum p and spin r. (X.r FIG.r u(r) p u(r) p _ p. p. we ﬁnd the invariant amplitude for this i(p + / + m) / q i(p − / + m) / q + 2 − m2 + i (p + q) (p − q )2 − m2 + i Γup . (X. including each matrix as it is encountered along the fermion line. including each matrix as it is encountered along the fermion line. From Eq.3). (X. where Sab is the fermion propagator.) (r) (r) Finally.162 • For each incoming fermion with momentum p and spin r. so I’m going to say it again.4 Fermion-scalar interaction vertex. this just corresponds to starting at the head of the arrow and working back to the start. The φ ﬁelds act as they always did on the meson states. N + φ → N + φ. the order of matrix multiplication is given by starting at the head of an arrow and working back to the start.49) we see that the matrices are multiplied together in the order up ΓSΓup . That last point is important. The amplitude is given by multiplying all of these factors together.

p. the fermi minus signs will be signiﬁcant in the next example.53) v(r) p v(r) p p. introducing a factor of −1 because of the interchange of the two fermion ﬁelds. (r ) (X.7). . The amplitude is iA = −(−ig)2 v p Γ (r) (r) (r) i(−p − / + m) / q i(−p + / + m) / q + 2 − m2 + i (p + q) (p − q )2 − m2 + i Γvp .163 q' a) p'.6 Feynman rules for external fermion legs.5 Feynman diagrams contributing to nucleon-meson scattering. • Include the appropriate minus signs from Fermi statistics.r p'.r' p. the ﬁelds now include factors of v and v: 0 |ψ(x1 )| N (p. r) = e−ip·x1 × v p N (p . instead of up ) and work along the line to the start of the arrow. The two diagrams contributing to the process are shown in Fig.r FIG. This time the matrices are multiplied by starting at the incoming antinucleon and working back to the outgoing nucleon.r b) q q' p. Diagrammatically. X. When acting on the external states. • For each outgoing antifermion with momentum p and spin r. X. it’s the same as before: start at the end of the arrow (with a factor of v p this time.54) The overall −1 is clearly irrelevant. because they will diﬀer between the two diagrams. So in the normal-ordered product : ψ(x1 )Γφ(x1 )Γψ(x2 )φ(x2 ) : the ψ ﬁeld has to be moved to the right of the ψ ﬁeld in order to annihilate the incoming state.r _ (r) (r) (r) (r ) (X. creates the outgoing antinucleon.r' q FIG. include a factor of vp . r ) |ψ(x2 )| 0 = eip ·x2 × vp This leads to three more Feynman rules: • For each incoming antifermion with momentum p and spin r. However. include a factor of v p . (X. since it vanishes when the amplitude is squared.

(X.59) There are now two possibilities: either ψ(x1 ) or ψ(x2 ) can annihilate the nucleon with momentum q. X. N (q.7 Feynman diagrams contributing to antinucleon-meson scattering.56) |0 . N (q . This sets the convention. we consider nucleon-nucleon scattering.r b) q q' p. r). s ) | = (2π)3 (2ωq )1/2 (2ωp )1/2 0 |bp bq and so the matrix element in Eq. r ). we then obtain 0 |bp bq (r ) (s ) : ψΓψ(x1 )ψ(x2 )Γuq bp | 0 e−iq·x2 : ψ(x1 )Γψ(x2 )Γuq ψ(x1 )bp | 0 e−iq·x2 : ψ(x1 )Γup ψ(x2 )Γuq | 0 e−iq·x2 −ip·x1 (X. N (q . So for deﬁniteness. First we choose the case where ψ(x2 ) annihilates the nucleon. N + N → N + N . r ). (X. and so we have now choice but to deﬁne the corresponding bra as N (p . (X. Using the ﬁeld expansion for ψ. leaving us with the matrix element N (p .55) becomes 4(2π)6 (ωq ωp ωq ωp )1/2 0 |bp bq (r ) (s ) (r ) (s ) (X. N (q. s ) | : ψΓψ(x1 )ψΓψ(x2 ) : | N (p. The (relativistically normalized) state | N (p.60) (r) (s) (s) (r)† (s) (r)† = − 0 |bp bq (r ) (s ) (r ) (s ) = − 0 |bp bq .57) Because of Fermi statistics.r p'. r).58) : ψΓψ(x1 )ψΓψ(x2 ) : bq (s)† (r)† bp | 0 . In this case the φ ﬁelds are contracted.164 q' a) p'. Finally.r' q FIG. let us choose the ﬁrst deﬁnition. s) . s) can be deﬁned either as (2π)3 (2ωq )1/2 (2ωp )1/2 bq or (2π)3 (2ωq )1/2 (2ωp )1/2 bp bq (r)† (s)† (s)† (r)† bp | 0 (X. (X.55) Now we have to be careful.r' p. the two deﬁnitions diﬀer by a relative minus sign.

corresponding to two independent matrix multiplications. Also note that in this case there are two sets of arrowed lines. q'. Again. then there is no relative minus sign. the rule is to follow each arrowed line from ﬁnish to start. X. and the two graphs have a relative minus sign. The crucial observation is that the two choices diﬀer by a relative minus sign.s' q. As .62) We could now follow through the same line or reasoning. r q'. r FIG. the ﬁelds must be anticommuted. Since we are integrating over x1 and x2 symmetrically.63) Note that since the overall sign of the graphs is unimportant.8). It is only the relative minus sign which is signiﬁcant. once again this cancels the 1/2! in Dyson’s formula. If ψ(x1 ) creates the nucleon with q . Therefore the amplitude for the process is −ig 2 uq Γuq up Γup (s ) (s) (r ) (r) (q − q )2 − µ2 + i − uq Γup up Γuq (s ) (r) (r ) (s) (q − p )2 − µ2 + i (X.r' q.61) (X. if ψ(x2 ) creates the nucleon.r' p. so it commutes with the ﬁelds) in the correct position as far as matrix multiplication goes. multiplying matrices as you come to them. except choosing ψ(x1 ) to annihilate the nucleon with momentum q. (X. Thus.8 Feynman diagrams contributing to nucleon-nucleon scattering. and there is an additional minus sign. and we would ﬁnd the same result with the interchange x1 ↔ x2 . The two graphs diﬀer only by the interchange of identical fermions in the ﬁnal state. s p'. In these diagram you simply have to do this twice.s' p. The two terms clearly correspond to the diagrams in Fig.165 where in the last line we have put the factor of up (which is not an operator. However. s p'. Now there are two choices for which ψ ﬁeld creates which nucleon. we ﬁnd two terms −uq Γuq up Γup e−i((q−q )·x2 +(p−p )·x1 ) and uq Γup up Γuq e−i((q−p )·x2 +(p−q )·x1 ) . (s ) (r) (r ) (s) (s ) (s) (r ) (r) (r) (X.

To calculate the rate for a process with given initial and ﬁnal spins. in many cases this is not necessary. In such situations we can use the completeness relations for the spinors to perform the averaging and summing without ever writing down the explicit form of the plane wave states. Γ = iγ5 . we could simply use the explicit forms of the u’s and v’s that we found earlier. From Eq. nucleon-meson scattering in the “pseudoscalar” theory. The two amplitudes interfere with a relative minus sign. (r) (X. It is straightforward to show. (X. However. where it hits the ﬁrst γ5 and the two square to one. In a large number of experimental situations the spins of the initial particles are unknown. that two diagrams which diﬀer by the exchange of a fermion in the ﬁnal state and an antifermion in the initial state (or vice versa) also interfere with a relative minus sign. Also. using the techniques of this section. and so a given particle has a 50% chance to be in either spin state. This example also shows you several other tricks which are useful for evaluating amplitudes with Fermi ﬁelds. q 2 = q 2 = µ2 to write this as iA = ig 2 up /up q (r ) (r) 1 1 + 2p · q + µ2 + i 2p · q − µ2 + i . the ﬁnal spins are often not measured. γµ } = 0.166 expected. by conservation of momentum. so we may rewrite the amplitude as iA = ig 2 up (r ) (−p − / + m) / q (−p + / + m) / q + 2 − m2 + i (p + q) (p − q)2 − m2 + i (r) (r) up . Spin Sums and Cross Sections Our Feynman rules allow us to calculate amplitudes in terms of plane-wave solutions u and v. E. We will demonstrate this in a worked example.65) Next we use the fact that the spinors obey (p − m)up = up (p − m) = 0 as well as the mass-shell / / conditions p2 = p 2 = m2 . (X.64) 2 Using γ5 = 1 and {γ5 .52) the invariant Feynman amplitude for nucleon-meson scattering is iA = ig 2 up γ5 (r ) (p + / + m) / q (p − / + m) / q + (p + q)2 − m2 + i (p − q )2 − m2 + i γ5 up . A similar situation arises in nucleon-antinucleon scattering. (r) (X. p − q = p − q. we can anticommute the second γ5 through the propagators. our theory automatically incorporates fermi statistics. so we are interested in cross sections or decay rates in which we sum over all possible spins of the ﬁnal particles.66) . Similarly.

. if somewhat tedious. p . q)2 qµ qν Tr (p + m)γ µ (p + m)γ ν .167 Let us call the expression in the square bracket F (p. q)2 qµ qν Tr up up γ µ up up γ ν r.67) 2 where we have use the relations γ0 = 1 and γ0 γ µ γ0 = γ µ† . Some useful formulas are: Tr [γ µ γ ν ] = 4g µν Tr γ µ γ ν γ α γ β = 4(g µν g αβ + g µβ g να − g µα g νβ ) Tr [odd number of γ matrices] = 0 Tr [γ µ γ5 ] = Tr [γ µ γ ν γ5 ] = Tr [γ µ γ ν γ α γ5 ] = 0 Tr γ µ γ ν γ α γ β γ5 = 4i µναβ . q). (X. The collection of spinors and gamma matrices is simply a number (a one by one matrix) and so is equal to its trace.70) Applying these trace theorems to our expression gives 1 2 |A|2 = 2g 4 F (p.r 1 = g 4 F (p. p . (X. p . p .69) The traces of products of γ matrices have simple expressions. p . Therefore |A2 | = g 4 F (p.68) r |A|2 ) |A|2 ) we obtain (r ) (r ) (r) (r) 1 2 g 4 F (p. Now the completeness relations comes in. q)2 2(p · q)(p · q) − p · p µ2 + m2 µ2 . / / 2 (X. p . q)2 |up /up |2 q = g 4 F (p. to go to the centre of mass frame.r r 1 2 (X. p . q)2 qµ qν up γ µ up up γ ν up (r ) (r) (r) (r ) (r ) (r) (r)† (r ) (r ) (r) (X. substitute explicit expressions for the external momenta and perform the phase space integrals to obtain the total cross section for meson nucleon scattering. q)2 qµ qν Tr up γ µ up up γ ν up (r ) (r ) (r) (r) (r ) (r) (r) (r ) = g 4 F (p. q)2 qµ qν up γ µ up up γ 0 γ 0 γ ν† γ 0 up = g 4 F (p. p . q)2 qµ qν Tr up up γ µ up up γ ν . Squaring the amplitude we get |A|2 = g 4 F (p. which are straightforward to prove (you can ﬁnd a discussion of traces in Appendix A of Mandl & Shaw). The reason for writing it in this way is that a trace of a product of matrices is invariant under cyclic permutations of the factors. q)2 qµ qν p µ pν + p ν pµ − g µν p · p + m2 g µν r. Averaging over initial spins (corresponding to and summing over ﬁnal spins (corresponding to 1 2 |A|2 = r. p .71) At this point it is straightforward.r = 2g 4 F (p. p .

∂ µ Aν ∂ µ Aν . A. quantizing a massless vector ﬁeld is a delicate procedure.168 XI. and so gives the same contribution to the action. In this section we will see that a classical free ﬁeld theory of a massless vector ﬁeld is simply Maxwell’s equations in free space. has no more than two derivatives (a simplifying assumption) and is Lorentz invariant. Aµ Aµ . Any other term may be written as a sum of these terms and a total derivative. The Classical Theory A vector ﬁeld is a four component ﬁeld whose components transform in the familiar way under Lorentz transformations. ∂ µ Aµ ∂ ν Aν . However. Quantum Electrodynamics. Quantizing the theory will give us the theory of the quantized electromagnetic ﬁeld. (XI. up to total derivatives. The particles associated with the quantized vector ﬁeld will be photons. . • 1 derivative: there are no possible Lorentz invariant terms in four dimensions. In this section we will ﬁnesse these problems by quantizing the theory of a massive vector ﬁeld and then taking the massless limit and tackling any problems that arise at that stage. ∂µ Aν ∂ν Aµ ∼ Aν ∂µ ∂ν Aµ ∼ ∂ν Aν ∂µ Aµ .1) Since we already know how products of four-vectors transform. we want to construct the simplest L which is quadratic in the ﬁelds (so that the resulting equations of motion are linear). For example. VECTOR FIELDS AND QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS Quantizing a scalar ﬁeld theory led to a theory of mesons. we can go straight to writing down Lagrangians. due to complications arising from gauge invariance of the classical theory. This gives the following terms: • 0 derivatives: there is only one possibility. • 2 derivatives: there are two independent terms. while the quantized spinor ﬁeld allowed us to describe the interactions of spin 1/2 fermions. A µ (x) = Λµ ν Aν (Λ−1 x). As before.

This type of solution looks exactly like a scalar ﬁeld. This leads to the equations of motion −2Aν − a∂ν ∂µ Aµ + bAν = 0. ε ∝ k (4-D longitudinal) 2. In the rest frame of the ﬁeld. ε · k = 0 (4-D transverse). 1.6) . T This solution describes a ﬁeld of mass µ2 . It would be (XI. (4-D longitudinal) k 2 kν + ak 2 kν + bkν = 0 ⇒ (k 2 (1 + a) + b)kν = 0 −b ⇒ k2 = ≡ µ2 L 1+a This solution has the right dispersion relation for a particle of mass µ2 . since the ε’s clearly correspond to the three polarization state of a massive spin one particle. T The 4-D transverse solution appears to be what we are looking for.5) The solutions to Eq. ε). isn’t very interesting. however. The 4-D longitudinal solution.2) (XI. these two types of solution correspond to ε = (ε0 . L 2. (XI. The lead to the equations of motion 1.3) (XI.5) may be classiﬁed in a Lorentz invariant manner into two classes. respectively. (4-D transverse) k 2 εν + bεν = 0 ⇒ k 2 = −b ≡ µ2 .169 The most general Lagrangian satisfying these requirements is then 1 L = ± [∂µ Aν ∂ν Aν + a∂µ Aµ ∂ν Aν + bAµ Aµ ] 2 for some constants a and b.4) This leads to k 2 εν + akν k · ε + bεν = 0. (XI. this doesn’t lead to anything new. we look for plane wave solutions of the form Aν (x) = εν e−ik·x for some constant 4-vector ν. As before. Since we already know how to quantize scalar ﬁeld theory.7) (XI. (XI. 0) and ε = (0.

Or. the Lagrangian is L=± and the equations of motion are ∂µ F µν + µ2 Aν = 0. Deﬁne the ﬁeld strength tensor F µν ≡ ∂ µ Aν − ∂ ν Aµ . (XI.8) where µ2 ≡ µ2 . any k is a solution to Eq.14) Equations (XI. . (XI. At the level of these two equations the µ2 → 0 limit is smooth. the equation of motion Eq.170 nice to get rid of this solution altogether. Therefore the longitudinal solutions are absent from the Lagrangian L=± 1 (∂µ Aν )2 − (∂µ Aµ )2 − µ2 A2 2 (XI. if you prefer.14) are equivalent to the Proca equation. In terms of F µν . we derive the requirement that the ﬁeld is transverse ∂µ ∂ν F µν = 0 ⇒ ∂µ Aµ = 0. It is this arbitrariness in the solution to the classical theory which makes the massless theory diﬃcult to quantize. This leads to the equations of motion T 2Aν − ∂ν ∂µ Aµ + µ2 Aν = 0. Fµν = −Fνµ .11) (XI. when a = −1 and b = 0. (XI. Using the fact that Fµν is antisymmetric. (XI.10) Equation (XI. (2 + µ2 )Aν = 0. 2Aµ = 0. removing it from the spectrum.15) When a = −1 and b = 0. each component of Aµ is found to satisfy the massive Klein-Gordon equation. if the 4-D transverse ﬁeld is massive).13) and (XI.9) This can be written in a more compact form by introducing some more notation.13) Substituting this condition into the Proca equation. however.6).6) has no solutions14 . (XI. (XI. setting a = −1 takes µL to ∞.12) 1 1 Fµν F µν − µ2 Aµ Aµ 4 2 (XI. This is simple enough to do: if b = 0 (that is.12) is known as the Proca Equation. although in this form it is not clear how to derive them from a Lagrangian. They look promising. 14 ∂µ Aµ = 0. (XI.

However. Therefore we will stick with ﬁnite µ2 for a while longer. there are three linearly independent polarization vectors εµ . Aµ = εµ e−ik·x .16). 0. 0. In any basis. −1 and 0 respectively. Returning to the plane wave solutions to the Proca equation. ε(3) = (0. things aren’t quite so simple. corresponds to the free-space Maxwell Equations ×B = while the remaining two equations.3. ∂t ·E =0 (XI. the basis states are chosen to obey orthonormality (r) εµ εµ(s)∗ = −δ rs (XI. while the components of the ﬁeld strength tensor are the electric and magnetic ﬁelds E = − φ− B = By direct substitution.171 These are just Maxwell’s equations in free space. each component of Aµ satisﬁes the massless wave equation. we could choose the basis ε(1) = (0.20) (r) but in fact it is usually more convenient to choose the basis vectors to be eigenstates of Jz : 1 1 ε(1) = √ (0. 0). 0..17) Ez We may also verify directly that the massless Proca equation. 1. Recall that in classical electromagnetism the scalar and vector potentials φ and A make up the components of the four-vector Aµ = (φ. ∂t ·B =0 (XI. 0. 1. E x F µν = Ey By −Bx 0 (XI. 0. i. The condition ∂µ Aµ = 0 could only be derived when µ2 = 0. 0 −Ex 0 Bz −By −Ey −Bz 0 Bx −Ez . 1.18) immediately follow from the deﬁnitions Eq. ε(2) = √ (0. 1) 2 2 (XI. ε(2) = (0. 1) (XI. (XI.22) . we easily ﬁnd ∂A ∂t (XI. ×E =− ∂B .16) × A. r = 1. A). 0. 0). ε(3) = (0. ∂µ F µν = 0. 1. 0). 0). In the rest frame.19) ∂E . The vector ﬁeld Aµ is thus the familiar vector potential of classical electrodynamics. −i.21) which have Jz = +1. In the gauge where ∂µ Aµ = 0.

**172 and completeness
**

3 r=1 (r) εµ ε(r) = −gµν + ν ∗

kµ kν µ2

(XI.23)

relations. The minus sign in Eq. (XI.22) arises because the polarization vectors are spacelike. The orthonormality and completeness relations are Lorentz covariant, so are true in any frame, not just the rest frame. The sign of the Lagrangian may be ﬁxed by demanding that the energy be bounded below, as usual. Denoting spatial indices by Roman characters, the Lagrangian may be written as L=± 1 1 µ2 µ2 F0i F 0i + Fij F ij − Ai Ai − A0 A0 2 4 2 2 (XI.24)

and so the time components of the canonical momenta are ∂L = ±F 0i ∂(∂0 Ai ) ∂L = 0. ∂(∂0 A0 )

(XI.25)

The fact that the momentum conjugate to A0 vanishes does not constitute a problem. Because ∂µ Aµ = 0, there are fewer degrees of freedom than one would na¨ ıvely expect, and the spatial Ai ’s and their canonical momenta are suﬃcient to deﬁne the state of the system. The Hamiltonian is H = ±F0i ∂ 0 Ai − L = ±F0i F 0i ± F0i ∂ i A0 − L = ±F0i F 0i ∂ i F0i A0 − L

= ±F0i F 0i µ2 A0 A0 − L 1 µ2 µ2 1 = ± F0i F 0i − Fij F ij + Ai Ai − A0 A0 2 4 2 2

(XI.26)

where we have integrated by parts and used the equation of motion ∂µ F µ0 = ∂i F i0 = −µ2 A0 . The metric tensor obscures it, but each term in the square brackets is a sum of squares with a negative coeﬃcient and so is negative (for example, −Ai Ai = Ai Ai > 0), and so the Lagrangian has an overall minus sign, 1 µ2 L = − Fµν F µν + Aµ Aµ . 4 2 (XI.27)

173

B. The Quantum Theory

Canonically quantizing the theory is a straightforward generalization of the scalar ﬁeld theory case, so we will skip some of the steps. Since the spatial components Ai and their conjugate momenta form a complete set of initial conditions, it is only on these ﬁelds that we impose the canonical commutation relations

j [Ai (x, t), F j0 (y, t)] = iδi δ (3) (x − y)

[Ai (x, t), Aj (y, t)] = [F i0 (x, t), F j0 (y, t)] = 0.

(XI.28)

**Expanding the ﬁeld in terms of plane wave solutions times operator-valued coeﬃcients ak (r) and a† k
**

(r)

3

Aµ (x) =

r=1

(r) d3 k ∗ (r) √ ak (r) εµ (k)e−ik·x + a† ε(r) (k)eik·x µ k 3/2 2ω (2π) k

(XI.29)

and substituting this into the canonical commutation relations gives, not unexpectedly, the commutation relations [ak (r) , a† k

(s) (s)

] = δ rs δ (3) (k − k )

(r)

**[ak (r) , ak ] = [a† k The Hamiltonian also has the expected form : H :=
**

r

, a† k

(s)

] = 0.

(XI.30)

d3 k ωk a† k

(r)

ak (r)

(XI.31)

and so we can interpret a† k with polarization r.

(r)

and ak (r) as creation and annihilation operators for spin one particles

−−− −− The propagator Aµ (x)Aν (y) may be calculated in a similar manner as the spinor case. Proceeding as before, we write −−− −− Aµ (x)Aν (y) = 0 |T (Aµ (x)Aν (y))| 0 If x0 > y0 , −−− −− Aµ (x)Aν (y) = 0 |A(+) (x)A(−) (y)| 0 µ ν = 0 |[A(+) (x), A(−) (y)]| 0 µ ν = [A(+) (x), A(−) (y)] µ ν (XI.33) (XI.32)

**174 where we have split Aµ into the piece containing the creation operator, Aµ
**

(−)

and a piece Aµ

(+)

containing the annihilation operator. From the expansion of Aµ (x), it is straightforward to show that [A(+) (x), A(−) (y)] = µ ν = = where i∆+ (x − y) = d3 k e−ik·(x−y) (2π)3 2ωk (XI.35) d3 k e−ik·(x−y) (2π)3 2ωk d3 k

(r) (r) εµ (k)εν (k) r ∗

kµ kν e−ik·(x−y) −gµν + 2 (2π)3 2ωk µ y ∂y ∂µ ν −gµν − 2 i∆+ (x − y) µ

(XI.34)

y and ∂µ ≡ ∂/∂y µ . After including the y0 > x0 term we obtain y y −−− −− ∂µ ∂ν Aµ (x)Aν (y) = θ(x0 − y0 ) −gµν − 2 µ

i∆+ (x − y)

y y ∂µ ∂ν µ2

+θ(y0 − x0 ) −gµν − Now, the scalar propagator is

i∆+ (y − x).

(XI.36)

−− − φ(x)φ(y) = θ(x0 − y0 )i∆+ (x − y) + θ(y0 − x0 )i∆+ (y − x) d4 k −ik·(x−y) i e = 4 2 − µ2 + i (2π) k and so we would like to commute the θ functions and derivatives in Eq. (XI.36) to obtain −−− −− Aµ (x)Aν (y) = = −gµν −

y y ∂µ ∂ν µ2

(XI.37)

(θ(x0 − y0 )i∆+ (x − y) + θ(y0 − x0 )i∆+ (y − x)) e−ik·(x−y) i . k 2 − µ2 + i (XI.38)

kµ kν d4 k −gµν + 2 (2π)4 µ

**This leads to the propagator for a massive vector ﬁeld, which is represented by a wavy line: −i g µν −
**

kµ kν µ2

k 2 − µ2 + i

.

(XI.39)

Note that the vector propagator carries Lorentz indices: one end of the line corresponds to a ﬁeld created by Aµ while the other corresponds to the ﬁeld created by Aν . While this is correct, the derivation was not quite right when µ = ν = 0. In this case, the time derivatives don’t commute with the θ functions and there is the additional term when one of the derivatives acts on the θ function, giving a factor of δ(x0 − y0 ), and the other acts on the ∆+

ν) = (0.40) is invariant.40) leads to the interaction vertex shown in Fig.2 Fermion-vector interaction vertex 15 This sort of diﬃculty arises in the canonical quantization procedure because it breaks manifest Lorentz invariance.40) where Γ has the general form Γ = a + bγ5 by Lorentz Invariance. The fact that this term does not contribute is not obvious in the canonical quantization procedure. If you like. In this case. puts this derivation on sounder footing. As we discussed before.15 Now consider adding a fermion such as an electron to the theory. XI. From our previous experience with interacting theories. µ We note at this stage that there is a simple -igγµΓ FIG.2).175 ν µ -i(gµυ-kµkν/µ2) k2-µ2+iε FIG.1 The propagator for a massive vector ﬁeld. XI. This wasn’t a problem in the spinor case because there was only a single time derivative. (XI. 0) as well. (XI. when both a and b are nonzero this theory violates parity. the time derivative of ∆(x − y) does not vanish when x0 = y0 and so there is an additional term. the interaction term Eq. and then argue that by Lorentz invariance the result must have this form for (µ. respectively. ν) = (0. A parity conserving theory may have either Γ = 1 (vector coupling) or Γ = γ5 (axial vector coupling). . which we will not discuss in this course. and the term vanished because ∆(x − y) = 0 when x0 = y0 . The path integral formulation treats space and time in a symmetric fashion. you can use the derivation above for (µ. in which case the components of Aµ transform under parity as a vector or an axial vector. (XI. function. by treating temporal indices diﬀerent from spatial indices. since there is no choice of transformation for Aµ under which the interaction term Eq. however. 0). The path integral formulation of quantum ﬁeld theory. A simple interaction term between the fermi ﬁeld ψ and Aµ is /Γψ LI = −gψγ µ ΓψAµ = −gψA (XI.

When all the ﬁelds in the interaction term are diﬀerent. r) = r =1 3 (r) d3 k (r ) √ (r √ εµ ) (k )e−ik ·x 0 |ak 2ωk (2π)3/2 a† | 0 k 3/2 2ω (2π) k = r =1 3 d3 k d3 k r =1 ε(r) (k)e−ik·x µ ωk (r ) (r ) (r) εµ (k )e−ik ·x 0 |ak a† | 0 k ωk (r) ωk (r ) (r) εµ (k )e−ik ·x 0 |[ak . include a factor . In the quantum theory. εµ (k) k µ µ k εµ(r)(k) εµ(r)*(k) FIG. From the ﬁeld expansion. evaluating Dyson’s formula requires matrix elements of the Aµ ﬁeld between incoming and outgoing vector meson states and the vacuum. The Massless Theory To obtain a quantum theory of electromagnetism.41) where | V (k.176 rule for writing down the Feynman rule associated with an interaction term in L. Finally.3 Feynman rules for external vector particles.41) and its complex conjugate lead to the Feynman rule incoming • For every of outgoing (r) εµ (k) (r) ∗ (r) vector meson with momentum k and polarization r. each incoming vector meson contributes a factor of εµ to the amplitude in addition to the usual exponential factor. corresponding to the n! diﬀerent way of choosing which ﬁeld corresponds to which line in the vertex. XI. 3 0 |Aµ (x)| V (k. or i times the interaction Lagrangian. Equation (XI. the resulting Feynman rule is just −i times the interaction Hamiltonian. the limit µ → 0 must be taken of the results in the previous section. A term with n identical ﬁelds has a combinatoric factor of n! in the Feynman rule. C. Therefore. This limit looks bad for several reasons. a† ]| 0 k ωk = = (XI. there is a . r) is a relativistically normalized single particle state containing a vector meson with momentum k and polarization r.

177 factor of k µ k ν /µ2 in the vector propagator. so is any multiple of j µ . Dψ = iψ.49) (XI. The equations of motion in this theory are ∂µ F µν + µ2 Aν = J ν which leads to ∂µ Aµ = 1 ∂µ J µ . Consider L coupled to a source J µ (x) L = L0 − Aµ J µ (x). Fortunately. This will turn out to be closely related to a problem which arises at the classical level. this looks bad in the limit µ → 0. so is (for example) φa → exp(−2iqa λ)φa . There is no physics in this ambiguity . that is. (XI. However. DL = 0 and the current jµ = a Πµ Dφa = −i a a Πµ qa φ a a (XI. Recall that Noether’s theorem ensures that any internal symmetry has an associated conserved current and charge. ψ → eiλ ψ.44) is well deﬁned. not operators. The conjugate momenta are Πµ = iψγ µ . if φa → exp(−iqa λ)φa is a symmetry. In this case. Πµ = 0 ψ ψ (XI. the simplest example being a U (1) symmetry associated with the transformation φa (x) → e−iλqa φa (x) (XI. (XI. we’re old hands at ﬁnding conserved currents.45) is a symmetry. If Eq.45). (XI.48) (XI.46) is conserved.43) (XI. and the qa ’s are numbers (the charge of each ﬁeld).if j µ is a conserved current. Note that the qa ’s are arbitrary up to a multiplicative constant. µ2 (XI. For example.47) . There is no implied sum over a in Eq.42) Again. it gives a clue to how to obtain a theory with a sensible µ → 0 limit: the limit exists only if Aµ couples to a conserved current.44) (XI. the Dirac Lagrangian is invariant under the transformation ψ → e−iλ ψ. Therefore the corresponding qa ’s are qψ = 1.45) for some set of ﬁelds (not necessarily scalar ﬁelds) {φa }. qψ = −1 and Dψ = −iψ. ∂µ J µ = 0 and the µ → 0 limit of Eq.

the axial vector current ψγ µ γ5 ψ isn’t associated with an internal symmetry and is not conserved. So we might try the following interaction terms: • Fermions: /ψ LI = −gψγ µ Aµ ψ = −gψA (XI. • Charged scalars: LI = −ig [(∂ µ ϕ∗ )ϕ − (∂ µ ϕ)ϕ∗ ] Aµ (XI. For massive fermions.R = ψ L. Since any linear combinations of 2 µ these currents are conserved.52) (XI.54) The situation here is not as nice as it was for fermions. (XI. For massless fermions.51). jL.178 and so the conserved current is j µ = ψγ µ ψ. only the vector current ψγ µ ψ is conserved. and therefore this theory is not expected to have a smooth µ → 0 limit.17 Therefore we expect that only the theory where the vector ﬁeld couples to the vector current will have a smooth µ → 0 limit.50) Therefore. we switch our notation for charged scalars at this point from ψ to ϕ. 16 17 To avoid confusion with fermi ﬁelds ψ. the conserved current is no longer given by Eq. so it changes the canonical momenta of the theory.R = 1 ψγ µ (1 γ5 )ψ.R γ µ ψL. Πµ ∗ = ∂ µ ϕ ϕ ϕ and so the conserved current is j µ = −i(∂ µ ϕ∗ )ϕ + i(∂ µ ϕ)ϕ∗ . we might hope that if we couple a vector ﬁeld Aµ only to these conserved currents we will obtain a theory with a well-deﬁned µ → 0 limit. For a charged scalar ﬁeld16 ϕ we have Πµ = ∂ µ ϕ∗ . it is possible to couple a massless vector ﬁeld to the axial vector current in the special case of massless fermions.53) This is the interaction we had written down earlier. . thereby changing the expression for j µ . (XI. So although this theory still has a U (1) symmetry and a conserved current. The interaction term contains derivatives of the ﬁelds. but with Γ = 1.51) (XI. Thus. we saw in the chapter on the Dirac Lagrangian that the theory has two U (1) symmetries µ and therefore two conserved currents. The mass term breaks the axial U (1) symmetry associated with ψγ µ γ5 ψ but not the vector U (1). both ψγ ψ and ψγ µ γ5 ψ are conserved.

Dµ φa ). LM is still invariant under the U (1) transformation. Dµ φa ). ∂µ φa ) is invariant under the U (1) symmetry. This proves the ﬁrst assertion. ∂µ φa ). For quantum electrodynamics. where Dµ φa ≡ ∂ µ φa + ieAµ qa φa (XI. if we choose the dimensionless coupling constant e to be the fundamental electric charge. Under a U (1) transformation. LM (φa . and 2.56) and so Dµ φa transforms in the same way as ∂µ φa . Dµ φa → Dµ e−iλqa φa = ∂µ e−iλqa φa + ieAµ qa e−iλqa φa = e−iλqa Dµ φa (XI. which is invariant under the U (1) transformation φa → e−iλqa φa . (Note that again there is an ambiguity in the qa ’s. .57) (XI. so is L(φa .) The resulting Lagrangian has the following two properties: 1. Therefore if L(φa . Fortunately. This is straightforward to show. because the coupling itself will in general change the expression for the current. this just corresponds to the freedom to choose the overall coupling constant for the interaction term. That is ∂LI = −ej µ ∂Aµ and ∂µ j µ = 0. then q will be the electric charge of the ﬁeld measured in units of e. there is a magic prescription which guarantees that Aµ always couples to a conserved current. replace it by LM (φa . Dµ is called the gauge covariant derivative.179 We see from the scalar case that it’s not always so easy to ensure that Aµ always couples to a conserved current.55) (no sum on a). Given a Lagrangian as a function of the ﬁelds and their derivatives.58) (XI. It is called minimal coupling. Aµ is coupled to a conserved current. Minimal Coupling The minimal coupling prescription is very simple. 1.

Similarly. (XI. (XI.60) a ∂LM ∂(Dν φa ) ∂(Dν φa ) ∂Aµ ∂LM ieqa φa ∂(∂ν φa ) Πµ ieqa φa a = a = −ej µ as required. when acting on the piece of the ﬁeld which creates an outgoing . the conserved current is jµ = a Πµ Dφa = a a Πµ (−iqa φa ). Na¨ ıve ıvely.61) Going back to our examples.63) linear in Aµ is slightly subtle. we notice that a derivative ∂µ acting on the piece of the ﬁeld which annihilates an incoming state (and so has a factor of exp(−ip·x)) brings down a factor of −ipµ . with the Feynman rule in Fig. The Feynman rule for the term in Eq.63) with all the interaction terms given by minimal coupling has a well-deﬁned limit as µ → 0. This will lead to a new kind of vertex.62) which is just what we had before. (XI. proving the second assertion. the minimally coupled Dirac Lagrangian for a fermion with charge q (in units of the elementary charge e) is L = ψ(iD − m)ψ = ψ(i∂ − eqA − m)ψ / / / (XI. we will denote charged scalars by dashed lines in this chapter). However. the minimally coupled scalar Lagrangian for a scalar with charge q is L = Dµ ϕ∗ Dµ ϕ − m2 Aµ Aµ = (∂µ − ieqAµ )ϕ∗ (∂ µ + ieqAµ )ϕ − m2 Aµ Aµ = ∂µ ϕ∗ ∂ µ ϕ − ieqAµ (ϕ∗ ∂ µ ϕ − ϕ∂ µ ϕ∗ ) + e2 q 2 Aµ Aµ ϕ∗ ϕ.59) From the deﬁnition of the gauge covariant derivative.63) The term linear in Aµ is what we had before. (XI. a (XI. we also have ∂(Dν φa ) µ = ieqa φa δν ∂Aµ and so we ﬁnd ∂LI ∂LM = = ∂Aµ ∂Aµ = a (XI. (XI. but there is a new term quadratic in Aµ . the so-called “seagull graph” (to avoid confusion with fermion lines. but it turns out that the na¨ approach gives the correct answer.180 In terms of the canonical momenta.4). Only the theory deﬁned by Lagrangian Eq.

64) Substituting the ﬁeld expansion in terms of creation and annihilation operators. XI. XI. (XI. in Dyson’s formula the derivative cannot be pulled out of the time ordered product. However. µ p' iqe(p+p')µ p FIG. Therefore. it brings down a factor of ipµ . we expect the Feynman rule shown in Fig. it turns out (we won’t prove this here) that these two problems cancel one another. There are two problems with this derivation.181 ν µ 2ie2q2gµν FIG. ıve We now justify the assertion that the coupling constant e arising in the covariant derivative is just the elementary charge.5).4 The “seagull graph” for charged scalar-photon interactions. state. Second. (XI. We will show this for the Dirac ﬁeld. The same is true for Dirac ﬁelds: the conserved charge is Q = = d3 x ψγ 0 ψ d3 x ψ † ψ. indicating that particle and antiparticle carried opposite charges. it is straightforward to show that this is Q = r d3 k b (r)† (r) b k k −c (r)† (r) c k k = Nb − Nc . Recall that in the scalar case the U (1) charge was just proportional to the number of particles minus the number of antiparticles. First of all.65) . (XI. and so changes the canonical commutation relations. and that the na¨ Feynman rule is actually correct.5 Feynman rule for the derivately coupled charged scalar. the derivative interaction changes the canonical momenta in the theory.

and the electromagnetic four-current µ is therefore je.m. = qeψγ µ ψ.66) µ je. and LM is said to have a U (1) gauge symmetry.70) for any space-time dependent function λ(x). where α= and so in natural units e= √ 4πα.m ν which is just Maxwell’s equations in the presence of an electromagnetic current je. = −e d3 x ψ † (x)ψ(x) (XI. = qeQ. . It is invariant under the strange-looking transformation λ(x) : φa (x) → e−iqa λ(x) φa (x) 1 Aµ (x) → Aµ (x) + ∂µ λ(x) e (XI. Gauge Transformations The minimally coupled Lagrangian LM (φa .m.035 (XI. Note that when λ(x) is a constant and not a function of space-time this is just the usual U (1) transformation on the φa ’s (note that the Aµ ﬁeld is invariant if λ is constant).68) 2.m. The transformation Eq. The Euler-Lagrange equation for a massless vector ﬁeld Aµ is therefore ∂µ F µν = −eψγ ν ψ ν = je.69) e2 1 = 4π¯ c h 137. ∂µ φa ).m. (XI. since λ is the same at all points.67) The elementary charge is often expressed in terms of the “ﬁne-structure constant” α. The odd transformation law of the . This kind of symmetry is called a global U (1) symmetry. = −eψγ µ ψ. Dµ φa ) is invariant under a much larger group of symmetries than LM (φa . (XI. the electric charge and electromagnetic current are Qe.70) is called a local or gauge transformation. the theory is invariant under diﬀerent U (1) transformations at each point in space-time. Thus. (XI. Since λ(x) is now a function of space-time. the total electric charge of the system is therefore Qe. for electrons (q = −1).182 If the particles annihilated by ψ have electric charge q in units of the elementary charge e.m.

e−iλ(x)qa φa (x) e (XI. since ψ∂ ψ picks up a term proportional to (∂µ λ) ψγ µ ψ. making it diﬃcult to quantize the massless theory directly. − 1 Fµν F µν + 4 indices. Thus. the “matter” (fermions and scalars) Lagrangian. In quantum electrodynamics. the vector meson mass term 1 (∂µ ∂ν λ(x) − ∂ν ∂µ λ(x)) = Fµν . LM (φa . Therefore the problem of ﬁnding the time-evolution of the ﬁelds from some initial values is ill-deﬁned.72) µ2 µ 2 Aµ A .74) for some arbitrary function λ(x). e is not gauge invariant: (XI. Since Fµν is antisymmetric in its µ2 µ 2 Aµ A 2 1 λ(x) : Aµ Aµ → Aµ Aµ + ∂µ λ(x)Aµ + ∂µ λ(x)∂ µ λ(x). The problem arises at the classical level: if {Aµ (x). it is also gauge invariant. I can never uniquely predict the ﬁeld conﬁguration at some later time.71) Therefore unlike the usual derivative ∂µ φa . if LM (φa . e e The complete Lagrangian is only gauge invariant when µ = 0. derivatives).. Therefore..183 Aµ ﬁelds is crucial here: the Dirac Lagrangian is not invariant under gauge transformations. Rather than being a help in solving the theory. their ﬁrst. every time we use the minimal coupling prescription we end up with a theory in which LM is invariant under a gauge symmetry. λ(x) : Fµν → Fµν + However.73) (XI. the photon is massless and so the theory has exact gauge invariance. second. Dµ φa ) is invariant under a gauged U (1) transformation. third . the gauge covariant derivative Dµ φa transforms in the same way under a gauge transformation as it does under a global transformation. (XI. which is the vector theory we are really interested in. So far we have just looked at LM . φa (x)} is a set of ﬁelds which form a solution to the equations of motion then so is the set 1 Aµ (x) + ∂µ λ(x). ∂µ φa ) is invariant under a global U (1) transformation. No matter how much initial value data I have at t = 0 (the ﬁelds. and ignored the free part of the vector Lagrangian. since their exist an inﬁnite number of gauge transformed solutions of the equations . this gauge invariance complicates things tremendously. The transformation property of Aµ is chosen / precisely to cancel this term: Dµ φa = (∂µ + ieAµ qa )φa → (∂µ + ieAµ qa + iqa ∂µ λ(x)) e−iqa λ(x) φa = e−iqa λ(x)) (∂µ − iqa ∂µ λ(x) + ieAµ qa + iqa ∂µ λ(x))φa = e−iqa λ(x) Dµ φa .

then another solution to the equations of motion is Aµ (x) = Aµ (x)+∂µ λ(x)/e. which satiﬁes 1 ∂µ Aµ (x) = 2λ(x) = 0. any observable is gauge invariant. D. However. The Limit µ → 0 Since we are avoiding quantizing the gauge invariant massless theory directly. Two systems diﬀerent by a gauge transformation contain identical physics. in the massless theory the condition ∂µ Aµ = 0 implied by the Proca equation is no longer implied by the equations of motion.75) The four dimensionally longitudinal mode which we had banished has come back to haunt us. With any luck the minimal coupling prescription 18 See Chapter 5 of Mandl & Shaw for a discussion of the Gupta-Bleurer method of canonically quantizing the massless theory. they just diﬀer in the choice of description. Some popular gauge choices are · A = 0 (Coulomb gauge) ∂µ Aµ = 0 (Lorentz gauge) A0 = 0 (temporal gauge) A3 = 0 (axial gauge) The trick is then to canonically quantize the theory in the given gauge. ∂µ Aµ is no longer zero. Furthermore. as expected. that is. we will instead derive the Feynman rules for Quantum Electrodynamics by examining at the µ → 0 of the theory of a minimally coupled massive vector ﬁeld. F µν is gauge invariant. subject to the corresponding constraint18 . and therefore so are the electric and magnetic ﬁelds E and B. as we will see in the next section. physical amplitudes are independent of gauge. In perturbation theory. Things are not actually so badly deﬁned. In fact. e (XI. but arbitrary. So we can ﬁx the description by ﬁxing the gauge once and for all. These ﬁeld conﬁgurations just diﬀer by a gauge transformation which vanishes at t = 0. these terms in the propagator do not contribute in a minimally coupled theory and so. If Aµ (x) is a solution to the equations of motion satisfying ∂µ Aµ = 0. .184 of motion which also have the same initial value data. diﬀerent choices of gauge result in extra terms in the photon propagator proportional to k µ k ν .

(XI. In the limit µ → 0 this is just the pair production process e+ e− → µ+ µ− in QED.6 Feynman diagram contributing to e+ e− → µ+ µ− . Therefore. The 1/µ2 term in the amplitude is p-'. Although we have just demonstrated it in one process. / / µ (k − µ2 + i ) p+ p− p− p+ i But by the Dirac equation. in this section we will see by direct calculation that the factors of 1/µ2 in the quantum theory do not contribute to amplitudes when the theory is minimally coupled. and that the massless theory does in fact have sensible Feynman rules. There is only one graph at O(g 2 ) which contributes to this process. shown in Fig.78) and so vk u = 0. / / / (r) (s) (r) (s) (r) (s) (XI. this is a very general / feature of minimal coupling. this is no accident (there are no accidents in ﬁeld theory). XI. (XI. r' p+. It just follows from current conservation: ∂µ j µ = 0 ⇒ 0 |∂µ j µ | e+ e− = 0 |∂µ eγ µ e| e+ e− = ∂µ (v p+ γ µ up− e−i(p+ +p− )·x ) = −i(p+ + p− )v p+ γ µ up− e−i(p+ +p− )·x / = −iv p+ k up− e−i(p+ +p− )·x (r) (s) (r) (s) (r) (s) (XI. e2 (r) µ (s) kµ kν (r ) (s ) v γ up− 2 u γ ν vp 2 p+ + µ k − µ2 + i p − 2 e (r) (s) (r ) (s ) = i 2 2 v ku u kv . where e and µ are two diﬀerent fermion ﬁelds (electrons and muons). with the propagator shown in Fig. First consider the process e+ e− → µ+ µ− .77) So this term vanishes before taking µ to zero. s p+'. v p+ k up− = v p+ (p− + p+ )up− = v p+ (me − me )up− = 0. s' p-. Of course. minimally coupled to a massive gauge boson.6). and it means that in such theories we can completely ignore the piece of the propagator proportional to k µ k ν . Indeed.76) (XI. . r FIG.185 will have solved the problems we previously noted in taking this limit.7). in the µ → 0 limit the vector boson is the photon of quantum electrodynamics.

) This corresponds to the fact that classical electromagnetic waves . Jz = ±1. µ ν Squaring and summing over ﬁnal spins of the vector particles and averaging over initial spins will give a result proportional to Mµν Mαβ −gµα + kµ kα µ2 −gνβ + kν kβ µ2 (XI. you might worry about the factor of 1/µ2 in the polarization sum. kν Mµν = 0. Eq. Two diagrams contribute to this process. (s) (s ) (s ) (XI. For a massive particle you can always boost to its rest frame and perform a rotation to change a Jz = 1 state to a Jz = 0 state. this is only possible because the photon is massless. 1. the contributions from these terms vanish: kµ Mµν ∝ up = up = up = up (s ) k (p + k + m)γ ν / / / γ ν (p − k + m)k / / / + 2p · k −2p · k up (s) (s ) γ ν (mk − k p + 2p · k ) (s) / // (−p k + mk + 2p · k )γ ν // / − up 2p · k 2p · k (−mk + mk + 2p · k )γ ν / / γ ν (mk − k m + 2p · k ) (s) / / − up 2p · k 2p · k [γ ν − γ ν ] up = 0. Decoupling of the Helicity 0 Mode The result that kµ Mµν = 0 has another consequence in the µ → 0 limit. A massive spin 1 particle has three spin states. just as before. (XI.80) and so the terms proportional to kµ M µν and kν M µν look bad as µ → 0. and so the k µ k ν term doesn’t contribute to the polarization sum.7 The photon propagator. We can demonstrate this by looking at Compton scattering of a massive vector boson oﬀ an electron. 0.79) ≡ Mµν ε(r ) (k )ε(r) (k). whereas a massless gauge boson like the photon only has two helicity states.23). XI. However.81) Similarly. giving iA = −ie2 up (s ) ∗ γ µ (p + k + m)γ ν / / γ ν (p − k + m)γ µ (s) (r ) ∗ / / + up εµ (k )ε(r) (k) ν 2 − m2 (p + k ) (p − k)2 − m2 (XI. In a similar vein. but a similar thing happens here. ±1 (once again. V e− → V e− .186 ν µ -i gµυ k2+iε FIG.

) How is this apparently discontinuous behaviour possible if the µ → 0 limit of the theory is smooth? A massive vector particle travelling in the z direction has four-momentum k µ ( k 2 + µ2 . 0. satisfying ε(3) · ε(3) = −1. −i. The absence of a longitudinal mode corresponds to the absence of a (3dimensionally) longitudinal photon.85) k = − O µ µ → 0. µ ∗ (XI.82) ε(3) is the 3D longitudinal polarization state. ε(3) · k = 0. ∝ k. as a result of current conservation. (XI. We discovered that the massless limit is in general ill-deﬁned. (Nothing special happens to the transverse modes in this limit). 0) 1 ε(3) = (k. 1. QED At this point it is worth summarizing our results. 0. We set out to ﬁnd a quantum theory of a massless vector ﬁeld. where ε(1) = (0. i. the amplitude to produce a 3D longitudinally polarized vector meson vanishes as µ → 0. . k) and three possible polarization states εµ .187 are always transverse. k Therefore. in the massless theory. and for µ = 0 is absent as a physical state. (We call mode satisfying ε ∝ k “3D longitudinal” to distinguish it from the 4D longitudinal mode discussed earlier. 0.83) The amplitude to produce the helicity 0 state is therefore proportional to ε(e) Mµ = µ ∗ 1 M3 −k 1 + O µ µ2 k2 → 0 as µ2 k2 +k 1+O µ2 k2 (XI. The amplitude for a longitudinal vector boson to be produced in any process (like the Compton scattering process from the previous section) is proportional to ε(3) Mµ µ where the tensor Mµ satisﬁes k µ Mµ = 0 ⇒ M0 = −M3 k = −M3 1 + O k 2 + µ2 µ2 k2 . 0. both of which are 3D transverse. The helicity zero mode smoothly decouples in this limit. the photon. The appropriate form of the polarization sum is 2 r=1 (r) ε(r) εν = −gµν . ε(3) ∝ k. 0) ε(2) = (0. there are only two physical polarization states of the vector boson. 1. Therefore. k 2 + µ2 ) µ (r) = (XI.84) ∗ (XI. ε ∝ k.86) E.

8 Feynman rules for QED .r p.r v(r) p v(r) p _ p Fermion Propagator p. The resulting theory is quantum electrodynamics. The QED Lagrangian for a theory with a single charged scalar ϕ and a single charged fermion ψ with charges qϕ and qψ respectively. the quantum theory of electromagnetism.r i(p+m) / p2-m2+iε Incoming/outgoing Fermions (particles) i p2-µ2+iε k µ -i gµυ p2+iε Incoming/outgoing Fermions (antiparticles) p Scalar Propagator ν p Photon Propagator µ µ k εµ(r)(k) εµ(r)*(k) Incoming/outgoing Photons FIG. This requirement gave us the interaction between the photon and charged scalars and Dirac ﬁelds (up to the overall coupling constant).188 unless the vector ﬁeld couples to a conserved current. is 1 L = Dµ ϕ∗ Dµ ϕ − µ2 ϕ∗ ϕ + ψ (iD − m) ψ − F µν Fµν / 4 ∗ µ ∗ µ µ ∗ 2 = ∂µ ϕ ∂ ϕ − ieqϕ Aµ (ϕ ∂ ϕ − ϕ∂ ϕ ) + e2 qϕ Aµ Aµ ϕ∗ ϕ 1 +ψ (i∂ − m) ψ − eqψ ψA − F µν Fµν / /ψ 4 The Feynman rules for the Feynman amplitude iA in QED are illustrated in Fig.8).87) µ µ p' ν p 2ie2q2gµν µ -ieqγµ -ieq(p+p')µ Fermion-Photon Vertex Charged Scalar-Photon Vertices p.r u(r) p u(r) p _ p. XI. (XI. (XI.

or scalar-scalarphoton-photon) write down the appropriate factor. it was possible to take the µ → 0 limit. include the appropriate factor of the four-spinor or polarization vector.4 (lepton pair production). To see why this is so. they follow the fermion line from the end of an arrow to the start. the cancellation in Eq. Note than M&S use diﬀerently normalized fermion ﬁelds than we do. scalar-scalar-photon. and instead of being suppressed.6 (Compton scattering). reading from left to right. 3. 6. Renormalizability of Gauge Theories In this chapter we started with the theory of a massive vector boson and showed that. There are additional rules for diagrams with loops. 2. Multiply the expression by a phase factor δ which is equal to +1 (−1) if an even (odd) number of interchanges of neighbourhing fermion operators is required to write the fermion operators in the correct normal order. For each external fermion or photon. I will include a few worked examples for QED processes. In some future version of these notes.85) does not occur. that of gauge invariance.189 1. The four-momenta associated with the lines meeting at each vertex satisfy energy-momentum conservation. In the meantime. 4. (XI. If a vector boson is coupled to a non-conserved current. . 8. The spinor factors (γ matrices. which we have not considered because we are just working at tree-level in this theory. F. the ﬁnal answers are independent of normalization. For each internal line. you should read Chapter 8 of Mandl & Shaw and work through Sections 8. in which case the theory had a larger symmetry. Now we will go one step further and assert that gaugeinvariance is required in order for a theory of vector bosons to make sense as a fundamental theory (I will explain what I mean by “fundamental” in a moment). the amplitude to produce a helicity 0 mode grows like k/µ. let’s go back to the discussion of the previous section. For each interaction vertex (fermion-fermion-photon.5 (Bhabha scattering) and 8. however. include a factor of the corresponding propagator. four-spinors) for each fermion line are ordered so that. 5. despite appearances.

What is fascinating is that the theory carries within itself the seeds of its own destruction. the vector boson could be revealed not to be fundamental. At some scale (typically set by the mass of the particle. and so its dynamics would change at the scale of order the size of the particle. Similarly. Without getting into the details of radiative corrections. since that’s the only dimensionful parameter in the theory). renormalizability is the extension of the above discussion to radiative corrections. is related to a property known as “renormalizability. this will aﬀect loop graphs even for low-energy processes. You recall that internal loops in a Feynman diagram come with a factor of d4 k (2π)4 since the momentum running through the loop is unconstrained. As a result. If we are interested in ﬂuid dynamics.for example. Many aspects of nuclear physics can be described by a ﬁeld theory of nucleons and pions. In our case. what the theory is telling us is that a theory of massive vector mesons coupled to a nonconserved current is a perfectly ﬁne theory at low energies. then. but as an eﬀective ﬁeld theory. but that it can’t be valid up to arbitrarily high energy scales (that is. despite the fact that we know that these particles aren’t “fundamental. It makes much more sense to consider the ﬂuid as a continuous medium. because at some energy the probability will become greater than 1! (This is known as “unitarity violation”).not as a fundamental theory (valid up to arbitrary energy scales). There is nothing a priori wrong with this. for example. that it be valid up to arbitrarily high energies and so not predict its own demise. that if the theory breaks down at a certain scale. This property of a theory. we don’t have to consider the single atoms which make up the ﬂuid. we just have to interpret our theory a bit diﬀerently . At this energy the theory has clearly stopped making sense (at least perturbatively). I will just assert that if one attempts to calculate loop graphs in a theory of a massive vector boson coupled to a non-conserved current one is again led to the conclusion that the theory cannot be . the probability of producing this mode grows with increasing energy without bound. if we are interested in the hydrogen atom we can treat the proton as a point object. down to arbitrarily short distances). this theory has to break down in some way .” Roughly speaking. This is in fact a Bad Thing. but to be a composite particle. This kind of thing is very familiar in physics.190 Thus. even if the process being considered is a low-energy process.” It all depends on the scale of physics we’re interested in. despite the fact that we know it is made up of quarks and gluons. It is perhaps not surprising. arbitrarily high momenta run through loop graphs.

You showed on an early problem set that in 4 dimensions. we can only do experiments at ﬁnite energies. a cross-section has units of area. there is no reason to only consider theories which are valid up to arbitrary energy scales. This is why we only considered very simple interaction terms . φ2 ψψ (dimension 6. Since the cross-section grows without bound. but interactions like ψψψψ. By dimensional analysis. Imagine a theory with a four-fermion interaction term LI = − g ψψψψ. respectively) are not.anything more complicated leads to a non-renormalizable theory. Therefore interaction terms like φ4 . Just by dimensional analysis. which I have made explicit by writing it as g/M 2 (g is dimensionless). Now. respectively) are allowed in a fundamental theory. φ5 . just by unitarity arguments. So what are the requirements for a theory to be renormalizable? It is easy to get an idea. we conclude that the dimensions of ψ are [mass]3/2 (so that mψψ has the right units). at high energies where we may ignore the fermion masses. once again the probability must grow without bound. Of course. Thus. From the Dirac Lagrangian. However. 5 and 5. This answers a question which may have been bothering you all along in this course: why do we always study theories with such simple interaction terms? Why can’t we have an interaction term like −gψψ cos ln (1 + ϕ/M )? The answer is that this is not a renormalizable interaction. you can see that this will happen in ANY theory with coupling constants which are inverse power of a mass. since higher-dimension operators come with coupling constants which are proportional to inverse powers of the scale at . and again the theory must break down at some energy scale set by M . for a theory to be renormalizable. ψψφ and φ3 (dimension 4. 4 and 3. so the coupling must have dimensions [mass]−2 . or [mass]−2 . ψψψψ has dimension [mass]6 . the Lagrangian density has dimensions of [mass]4 . the cross section for fermion-fermion scattering in this theory must be proportional to 1/M 4 . all terms in the Lagrangian must have mass dimension ≤ 4.191 fundamental. M2 Now let’s do some dimensional analysis.88) where s = (p1 + p2 )2 is the squared centre of mass energy of the collision. After all. Since the amplitude from the four-fermion interaction goes like 1/M 2 . we must therefore have σ∝ s M4 (XI.

there are four Higgs bosons. they couple to electrons and electron-neutrinos via the following interaction: + − LI = −g1 νγ µ (1 − γ5 )eWµ + eγ µ (1 − γ5 )νWµ −g2 Z µ (eγµ (gV − gA γ5 )e + νγµ (1 − γ5 )ν) (XI. gV and gA are coupling constants which are related to the electric charge and the ratio of the W ± and Z 0 boson masses.192 which the theory breaks down. So the W and Z clearly can’t be fundamental. and the fourth of which is just waiting to be .2 GeV and 91. Experimentally. Their eﬀects are proportional to the ratio of the momentum of the process to the scale of new physics. The theory of a massive vector boson which we studied in this section. Furthermore. there certainly are massive vector bosons coupled to nonconserved currents in the world. Since the electron is massive. The gauge bosons associated with the weak interactions. Finally.” In the minimal theory. Furthermore. while the longitudinal components are made of a scalar particle.2 GeV. The question of what the W ’s and Z’s are made of is the foremost question in particle theory at the moment. or baryon number in GUTs) they can usually be safely ignored. g2 . as you may be aware. only theories with massless vector bosons are renormalizable. respectively. and so the corresponding quantum theory is nonrenormalizable. three of which are incorporated into the two W ’s and the Z. the current eγ µ γ5 ν is not conserved. The simplest possibility which leads to a renormalizable theory is that of the minimal Weinberg-Salam model. Now. while useful for obtaining the Feynman rules for QED. the W ± and Z 0 . since a vector meson mass term breaks the gauge symmetry.89) where g1 . is not a renormalizable theory. It is because of renormalizability that gauge symmetries are so crucial in ﬁeld theory: the only way to couple a vector ﬁeld to other ﬁelds in a renormalizable way is through a gauge covariant derivative. This is at the root of the diﬃculty of quantizing gravity: the graviton is a spin-2 ﬁeld (corresponding to quanitizing the metric tensor gµν ). so we have a theory of gauge bosons coupled to nonconserved currents. known as the “Higgs Boson. the theory predicts that unitarity violation due to excessive production of longitudinal W ’s and Z’s will occur at a scale of about 3 TeV=3 × 103 GeV. it can also be shown that theories with ﬁelds of spin > 1 are also non-renormalizable. have masses of 80. in which the transverse components of the W and Z are fundamental (corresponding to massless vector bosons). the eﬀects of these terms are negligible at low energies. Unless they break symmetries which are preserved by the renormalizable terms (such as parity in the case of the weak interactions.

.193 experimentally observed.there are many others. But this is only the simplest possibility .

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