Testfragen

(Barney/Hesterly, Strategic Management and Competitive Advantage) Strategic Management in General
The strategic management process is a sequential set of analyses and choices that can increase the likelihood that a firm will choose a good strategy that generates competitive advantages. Answer: TRUE

The second step in the strategic management process is the definition of a firm's mission. Answer: FALSE

A firm's mission defines both what it wants to be in the long run and what it wants to avoid in the meantime. Answer: TRUE

Mission statements often contain so many common elements that even if a firm's mission statement does not influence behavior throughout an organization, it is likely to have a significant impact on a firm's actions. Answer: FALSE

Mission statements that are very inwardly focused and are defined only with reference to the personal values and priorities of its founders and top managers can hurt a firm's performance. Answer: TRUE

Green Frog is an environmentally friendly firm in the cosmetics industry that has decided to undertake a strategic planning project. It wants to ensure that it performs the process correctly and so intends to start the process with the first step of the strategic planning process, which is A) crafting a mission statement. B) setting objectives. C) measuring performance. D) defining its business level strategy. Answer: A

Define the term "mission" and discuss how a firm's mission can both positively and negatively impact a firm's performance. Answer: A firm's mission is its long-term purpose and it defines both what a firm aspires to be in the long run and what it wants to avoid in the meantime. If a mission statement does

not influence firm behavior, it is unlikely to have an impact on a firm's actions. However, visionary firms, or firms whose mission is central to all they do, tend to earn substantially higher returns than average over the long run even though their mission statements suggest that profit maximization is not their primary reason for existence. However, missions that are inwardly focused and defined only with reference to the personal values and priorities of their founders or top managers, independent of whether or not those values and priorities are consistent with the economic realities facing a firm, are not likely to be a source of competitive advantage.

Visionary firms earn substantially higher returns than average firms because they acknowledge that profit maximizing is their primary reason for existence. Answer: FALSE

Objectives are the specific measurable targets a firm can use to evaluate the extent to which it is realizing its mission. Answer: TRUE

Write objectives for each of the following mission statements. a. We will be a leader in pharmaceutical innovation b. Customer satisfaction is our primary goal c. We promise on time delivery d. Product quality is our first priority. Answers: a. At least 25% of our sales in the next five years will be generated from new products. b. Ensure that customer complaints are less than 1% of all units sold. c. At least 98% of all deliveries each quarter will be consistent with the terms negotiated with our customers. d. Ensure that Six Sigma is implemented across all manufacturing lines within two years.

Corporate level strategies are actions firms take to gain competitive advantages in a single market or industry. Answer: FALSE

Business level strategies are actions firms take to gain competitive advantages by operating in multiple markets or industries simultaneously. Answer: FALSE

Green Frog is an environmentally friendly firm in the cosmetics industry. If Green Frog were considering expanding beyond the cosmetics industry into pharmaceuticals in order to gain competitive advantages by operating in multiple markets and industries, this would be an example of which type of strategy? A) Business level strategy B) Functional level strategy

C) Marketing strategy D) Corporate level strategy Answer: D

Differentiate between business level and corporate level strategies and give examples of each. Answer: Business level strategies are actions firms take to gain competitive advantages in a single market or industry. The two most common business level strategies are cost leadership, such as Wal-Mart, and product differentiation, such as Macy's. Corporate level strategies are actions firms take to gain competitive advantages in multiple markets or industries simultaneously. Common corporate level strategies include vertical integration strategies, diversification strategies, strategic alliances strategies and merger and acquisition strategies.

A sustained competitive advantage is virtually permanent. Answer: FALSE

What are objectives, what role do they play in the strategic management process and what differentiates high quality objectives from low quality objectives? Answer: Objectives are specific measurable targets a firm can use to evaluate the extent to which it is realizing its mission. High quality objectives are tightly connected to elements of a firm's mission and are relatively easy to measure and track over time. Low quality objectives either do not exist or are not connected to elements of a firm's mission, are not quantitative, are difficult to measure or are difficult to track over time.

Define strategy implementation and discuss three specific organizational policies and practices that are particularly important in implementing a strategy. Answer: Strategy implementation occurs when a firm adopts organizational policies and practices that are consistent with its strategy. Three specific organizational policies and practices are particularly important in implementing a strategy: a firm's formal organizational structure, its formal and informal management control systems, and employee compensation policies.

There is little empirical evidence that having a formal, written mission statement improves a firm’s performance. Yet many firms spend a great deal of time and money developing mission statements. Why? Answer: Firms invest in developing mission statements in the hope that the mission statement will serve to motivate and unite people around a common goal. Ideally the mission statement serves to inform people within the organization about what they can and should do to further the interests of the organization. The mission statement also communicates a message to people outside the organization. Firms rationally invest

even if those returns are less than the industry average. Answer: FALSE One of the key assumptions of the RBV is resource homogeneity.in efforts to develop mission statements because of the potential benefits of this favorable communication. Many firms continue to operate even though they do so at a competitive disadvantage in some areas because they usually have some advantage in another area. intelligence. Will a firm that has a sustained competitive disadvantage necessarily go out of business? How about a firm with below average accounting performance over a long period of time? How about a firm with below normal economic performance over a long period of time? Answers: a) No. experience. c) Yes. the firm would be unable to attract capital and would be forced to go out of business. a firm could have below average accounting performance and remain in business. The reason for this is that the firm is earning less than its cost of capital. Answer: TRUE Resources in the resource based view are defined as the tangible and intangible assets that a firm controls. Answer: FALSE Organizational resources include the training. the firm will remain in business. As long as the returns to the owners of the firms are satisfactory. Remember that a sustained competitive disadvantage simply means the firm is generating less value than competitors. a firm that earns a below average economic return over a long period of time will eventually go out of business. If the firm had no competitive advantages at all. relationships and insight of individual managers and workers in a firm. Answer: TRUE Financial resources include only the profits a firm has made earlier in its history and that it has reinvested in itself. Answer: FALSE . which it can use to conceive of and implement its strategies. while human resources are an attribute of collections of individuals. Resources and Capabilities Capabilities are a subset of a firm's resources and are defined as tangible and intangible assets that enable a firm to take full advantage of other resources it controls. in time the firm would likely begin to earn below normal economic returns and may go out of business as explained in answer (c) below. In time. a firm could have a sustained competitive disadvantage and remain in business. judgment. b) No.

Answer: TRUE In general. Answer: TRUE The value of a firm's resources and capabilities will generally manifest itself in either higher revenues or lower costs or both once a firm starts using these resources and capabilities to exploit opportunities or neutralize threats. Answer: TRUE If a resource or capability is valuable and rare but not costly to imitate. a firm's culture.The assumption of resource immobility holds that it may be very costly for firms without certain resources and capabilities to develop or acquire them. Answer: TRUE A firm's plant and equipment. its geographic location and its access to raw materials are all examples of physical resources. exploiting this resource will generate a sustainable competitive advantage for a firm. that resource can be considered rare and a potential source of competitive advantage. Answer: TRUE A resource can be a source of competitive advantage even if the resource is controlled by numerous firms. Answer: FALSE . Answer: TRUE In general. Answer: FALSE Most firms have a resource base that is composed primarily of valuable but common resources and capabilities. Answer: TRUE The interpersonal relations among managers in a firm. as long as the number of firms that possess a particular valuable resource or capability is less than the number of firms needed to generate perfect competition dynamics in an industry. imitation can occur in one of two ways: direct duplication or substitution. and a firm's reputation among suppliers and customers can all act to make a firm's resources and capabilities socially complex. some of which are essential if a firm is to gain competitive parity.

relationships and insight of individual managers and workers in a firm are examples of A) physical resources.A firm's marketing skills and teamwork as well as its cooperation among managers are examples of A) financial resources. Answer: B A firm's formal reporting structure. C) organizational resources. Answer: D The training. experience. judgment. intelligence. B) human resources. Answer: C Firms that possess and exploit costly-to-imitate. . its formal and informal planning and its controlling and coordinating systems are examples of which type of resources? A) Financial resources B) Physical resources C) Human resources D) Organizational resources Answer: D The VRIO assumption that some of the resource and capability differences among firms may be long lasting is known as A) resource mobility. B) resource homogeneity. B) human resources. C) competitive parity. C) physical resources. Answer: D If a firm's resources and capabilities are costly to imitate because imitating firms may not understand the relationship between the resources and capabilities controlled by a firm and that firm's competitive advantage. D) resource heterogeneity. D) financial resources. B) competitive disadvantage. C) resource immobility. this competitive advantage is said to be protected from imitation by A) path dependence. rare and valuable resources in choosing and implementing their strategies may enjoy a period of A) temporary competitive advantage. D) capabilities. D) sustained competitive advantage.

Answer: B . exploiting this resource will generate a(n) A) sustained competitive advantage. making it difficult for rivals to understand the relationship between the company's new technology and its competitive advantage. LaserTech's new technology appears to be A) valuable and rare but not costly to imitate. C) path dependent. D) social complexity. C) human resources. B) valuable and either rare or costly to imitate. B) casually ambiguous.B) casual ambiguity. LaserTech's executives believe that no rivals have a similar technology and that it would be very difficult for rivals to copy this technology since the benefits of the new technology can only be realized within LaserTech's system. such as relations among managers and a firm's culture. which includes processes that are protected by trade secrets. rare and costly to imitate. Answer: A If a resource or capability is valuable and rare but not costly to imitate. Answer: D LaserTech's new technology is an example of A) financial resources. patented technology that allows its customers to manufacture their products more precisely with a higher level of consistency and at a lower cost than they could previously. D) environment characterized by competitive parity. B) physical resources. D) the result of unique historical conditions. C) unique historical conditions. C) valuable but neither rare nor costly to imitate. Answer: B Resources and capabilities. D) organizational resources. D) valuable. that may be costly to imitate because they are beyond the ability of firms to systematically manage and influence are referred to as A) socially complex. Answer: C LaserTech is a manufacturer of industrial lasers and has developed a new. B) perfectly competitive environment. C) temporary competitive advantage.

Organizational resources are an attribute of collections of individuals. Examples of resources might include a firm's factories (a tangible asset). that a firm uses to conceive of and implement strategies. B) resource heterogeneity. capabilities do not enable a firm to conceive of and implement its strategies by themselves but enable a firm to use other resources to conceive of and implement such strategies. some firms may be more skilled in accomplishing this activity than other firms. its geographic location. C) causal ambiguity. . Examples of capabilities might include a firm's marketing skills and teamwork and cooperation among its managers. experience. Identify and describe the two fundamental assumptions about the resources and capabilities that firms may control that the RBV rests on. Physical resources include all the physical technology used in a firm. and organizational resources.The inability of rivals to develop or acquire technology similar to that of LaserTech is an illustration of A) resource immobility. Answer: A Describe the difference between resources and capabilities. judgment. Financial resources include all the money. and teamwork among its managers (an intangible asset). D) path dependence. physical resources. Resource heterogeneity implies that for a given business activity. relationships. Resource immobility implies that it may be very costly for firms without certain resources and capabilities to develop or acquire them. Identify the four broad categories that a firm's resources and capabilities can be classified into. Answer: A firm's resources and capabilities can be classified into four broad categories: financial resources. its products (a tangible asset). from whatever source. Human resources include the training. Answer: The two fundamental assumptions that the RBV rests on are resource heterogeneity and resource immobility. and insight of individual managers and workers in a firm. intelligence. Capabilities are a subset of a firm's resources and are defined as tangible and intangible assets that enable a firm to take full advantage of other resources it controls. That is. This includes a firm's plant and equipment. and its access to raw materials. Answer: Resources in the RBV are defined as the tangible and intangible assets that a firm controls that it can use to conceive of and implement its strategies. individual resources. its reputation among customers (an intangible asset).

develop. Imitating firms can attempt to directly duplicate the resources possessed by the firm with a competitive advantage. Answer: The four questions are: The Question of Value Does a resource enable a firm to exploit an external opportunity or neutralize an external threat? The Question of Rarity How many competing firms already possess particular valuable resources and capabilities? The Question of Imitability Do firms without a resource or capability face a cost disadvantage in obtaining or developing it compared to firms that already possess it? The Question of Organization Is a firm organized to exploit the full competitive potential of its resources and capabilities? Identify two forms of imitation and describe four sources of costly imitation. Imitating firms can also attempt to substitute other resources for a costly-to-imitate resource possessed by a firm with a competitive advantage. These resources would have to be acquired in a market where other firms would very likely know the value of the resources. • The existence of patents. . Prices would be bid up to the point where economic profits would probably not be possible. Which approach to strategy formulation is more likely to generate economic profits: (a) evaluating external opportunities and threats and then developing resources and capabilities to exploit these opportunities and neutralize these threats or (b) evaluating internal resources and capabilities and then searching for industries where they can be exploited? Why? Answer: (b) is more likely to generate economic profits because the firm in answer (a) would have to acquire resources. • Social Complexity. Answer: In general. The ability of firms to acquire. The four sources of costly imitation include: • Unique Historical Conditions. A third reason that a firm's resources and capabilities may be costly to imitate is that they may be socially complex phenomena. imitation occurs in one of two ways: direct duplication or substitution. The firm in answer (b) already has the resources and capabilities and they would not capitalize the value of the resources and capabilities in the process of acquiring them. A second reason why a firm's resources and capabilities may be costly to imitate is that imitating firms may not understand the relationship between the resources and capabilities controlled by a firm and that firm's competitive advantage. and use resources often depends upon their place in time and space. beyond the ability of firms to systematically manage and influence.Identify the four questions represented in the VRIO framework that one must ask about a resource or capability to determine its competitive potential. It may be the case that a firm was able to acquire or develop its resources and capabilities in a low-cost manner because of its unique historical conditions. • Causal Ambiguity.

he is going to have sawdust on his floor. and costly-to-imitate resources and capabilities operating in a very unattractive industry? Assume both these firms are appropriately organized. The sawdust might not even be valuable and the imported beers and late-night delivery are not rare. However. unless your friend is at least as good as the other restaurants. Vertical Integration A firm engages in backward vertical integration when it incorporates more stages of the value chain within its boundaries and those stages bring it closer to gaining access to raw materials.Which firm will have a higher level of economic performance: (a) a firm with valuable. rare. There should be no expectation that the new pizza restaurant would earn any better than a normal return. this would be an example of forward vertical integration. . Your former college roommate calls you and asks to borrow $10. The claimed sources of competitive advantage do not meet the VRIO criteria. a variety of imported beers.000 so the he can open a pizza restaurant in his hometown. For example. and costly-to-imitate resources and capabilities operating in a very attractive industry or (b) a firm with valuable. Will you lend him the money? Why or why not? Answer: No. Wal-Mart is a good example. He acknowledges that there is a high degree of rivalry in this market. Explain your answer. you would not want to lend your friend the money. some firms do earn very attractive returns in industries that would be considered unattractive because they have resources and capabilities that set them apart from competitors. In fact. and that there are numerous substitutes for pizza. but he believes that his pizza restaurant will have some sustained competitive advantages. Answer: FALSE Firms should not vertically integrate into business activities where they do not possess the resources necessary to gain competitive advantages. below normal returns would be expected. and a late-night delivery service. rare. Answer: TRUE If Wal-Mart were to purchase a factory to make socks and it planned to sell these socks in its stores. that the cost of entry is low. There will be less pressure from each of the five forces explained in Porter’s Five Forces Model. this is not to say that a firm in an unattractive industry cannot earn high economic performance. In fact. Answer: The firm in answer (a) will have higher performance because overall profits will be higher in the attractive industry.

Answer: TRUE A firm may be able to gain an advantage from vertically integrating when it resolves some uncertainty it faces sooner than its competition. B) product differentiation. this would be an example of A) forward vertical integration. Answer: TRUE Outsourcing can help firms reduce costs and focus their efforts on those business functions that are central to their competitive advantage. Answer: TRUE From a CEO's perspective. Answer: FALSE When Apple. Answer: A If Dell computers were to open its own factory to manufacture the LCD televisions it sells at its online store. Inc. B) backward vertical integration. C) forward horizontal integration. then vertically integrating into businesses that exploit these capabilities can enable the firm to gain at least a temporary competitive advantage. D) backward horizontal integration. coordinating functional specialists to implement a vertical integration strategy rarely involves conflict resolution. D) backward vertical integration. C) forward horizontal integration. Answer: TRUE If a firm has capabilities that are valuable and rare. Answer: D Digipics is an assembler of digital cameras. Digipics' operations are limited to purchasing all of the components necessary to assemble the cameras and then selling .Answer: TRUE A firm's vertical integration strategy is rare when few competing firms are able to create value by vertically integrating in the same way. opened retail stores to sell its computers and iPods. As an assembler. this was an example of A) forward vertical integration.

If Digipics were to begin manufacturing lenses for the cameras they assembled. B) backward vertical integration. that has unique needs that would make this assembly line largely useless for any other customer. D) opportunism. PicPro. Answer: C If Digipics were to agree to spend a significant amount of money to establish a new assembly line for a large client. which are smaller than those of any other competitor and include a proprietary battery that lasts 200% longer than any other competitor's battery and that TerraLoc manufacturers on-site. When developing the proprietary battery. B) increase the rarity of TerraLoc's vertical integration strategy since TerraLoc has reduced uncertainties related to increased battery life in its products. D) opportunism. This possibility was especially troubling given that the company expected a significant increase in demand due to the improved battery life. TerraLoc decided to manufacturer the battery in-house to reduce the possibility that the company it outsourced the battery manufacturing to might reverse engineer the battery and sell a similar product to competitors. TerraLoc sells its products and services through its own direct sales force to ensure that its representatives highlight the longer battery life of TerraLoc's units. B) a strategic alliance. the funds Digipics spent in establishing this line would be an example of A) forward vertical integration.these cameras to wholesalers who. TerraLoc's development of the new battery technology is likely to A) reduce the rarity of TerraLoc's vertical integration strategy since competitors can purchase batteries from other sources. Additionally. in turn. Answer: B . Answer: A If Digipics were to begin selling the cameras it assembled directly to customers through a website operated by the company. D) opportunism. Answer: C TerraLoc competes in the market for global positioning devices and services. C) increase the imitability of TerraLoc's vertical integration strategy since competitors can purchase traditional batteries from other sources. The company manufactures its own GPS units. sell them through online stores and in retail electronics stores. this would be an example of A) backward vertical integration. TerraLoc also has developed proprietary software that is much faster and more precise than that of any competitor. B) a strategic alliance. C) forward vertical integration. D) decrease the imitability of TerraLoc's vertical integration strategy since it increases competitors' flexibility. C) forward vertical integration. this would be an example of A) backward vertical integration. C) a transaction-specific investment.

e. closer to interacting directly with final customers. rare.If TerraLoc wanted to expand into selling its GPS units through company-owned retail stores. Answer: Vertical integration is a corporate strategy.. • Flexibility-Based Explanation: When the decision-making environment is uncertain. B) backward vertical integration.e. Under high uncertainty vertical integration can commit a firm to a costly-to-reverse course of action and the flexibility of a non-vertically integrated may be preferred. Answer: There are three explanations of how firms can create value through vertical integration: • Opportunism-Based Explanation: Reducing opportunistic threats from a firm's buyers and suppliers due to any transaction specific investments it may have made. and costly-to-imitate resources and capabilities. Corporate Diversification A firm implements a corporate diversification strategy when it operates in multiple industries or markets simultaneously. D) a joint venture. Identify the three fundamental explanations of how vertical integration can create value and discuss how value is created under each. A firm engages in backward vertical integration when it incorporates more stages of the value chain within its boundaries and those stages bring a firm closer to the beginning of the value chain. • Capabilities-Based Explanation: By enabling a firm to exploit its valuable. closer to gaining access to raw materials. Answer: TRUE A firm has implemented a strategy of limited corporate diversification when all or most of its business activities fall within a single industry and geographic market. i. Answer: A Define vertical integration and differentiate between forward vertical integration and backward vertical integration. A firm engages in forward vertical integration when it incorporates more stages of the value chain within its boundaries and those stages bring a firm closer to the end of the value chain. firms create value by engaging in vertical integration. this would be an example of ________ A) forward vertical integration. . i. A firm's level of vertical integration is simply the number of steps in this value chain that a firm accomplishes within its boundaries.. More vertically integrated firms accomplish more stages of the value chain within their boundaries than less vertically integrated firms. C) opportunism. Less vertically integrated firms accomplish fewer stages of the value chain within their boundaries than more vertically integrated firms.

but tax advantages and employee compensation are usually relatively easy to duplicate. Answer: TRUE For an internal capital market to create value for a diversified firm. this corporate diversification strategy is called related-constrained diversification. Answer: TRUE Shared activities and risk reduction are usually difficult-to-duplicate bases for corporate diversification. or if different sets of businesses are linked along very different dimensions. Answer: TRUE Operational economies of scope include shared activities and risk reduction. . and failure to exploit shared activities across businesses can lead to out-of-control costs. and wisdom. Answer: TRUE If the different businesses that a single firm pursues are linked on only a couple of dimensions. production technologies. that corporate diversification strategy is called related-linked diversification. distribution channels. Answer: TRUE Core competencies are complex sets of resources and capabilities that link different businesses in a diversified firm through managerial and technical know-how. similar customers. Answer: FALSE Shared activities can increase the revenues in diversified firms' businesses.Answer: TRUE If all the businesses in which a firm operates share a significant number of inputs. it must offer some efficiency advantages over an external capital market. Answer: FALSE Exploiting market power is an example of a costly-to-duplicate economies of scope. Answer: TRUE Economies of scope exist in a firm when the value of the products or services it sells increase as a function of the number of businesses in which the firm operates. experience. and so forth.

this would be an example of which type of economy of scope? A) Core competencies B) Shared activities C) Risk reduction D) Multipoint competition Answer: B A firm that diversifies by exploiting its resources and capability advantages in its original business will have ________ costs than (as) firms that begin a new business without these resource and capability advantages. A) higher. the same D) lower. higher Answer: D Which of the following economies of scope do not have the potential for generating positive returns for a firm's equity holders since the economies of scope can be realized by outside equity holders at a low cost by investing in a diversified portfolio of stock? A) Shared activities B) Diversification to maximize the size of a firm C) Internal capital allocation D) Exploiting market power Answer: B . D) there must not be any valuable economy of scope among the multiple businesses in which a firm is operating and it must be more costly for managers in a firm to realize these economies of scope than for outside equity holders on their own. C) there must be some valuable economy of scope among the multiple businesses in which a firm is operating and it must be less costly for managers in a firm to realize these economies of scope than for outside equity holders on their own. lower B) the same. as well as common technology and development. or ________ revenues than (as) firms lacking these advantages. B) there must not be any valuable economy of scope among the multiple businesses in which a firm is operating and it must be less costly for managers in a firm to realize these economies of scope than for outside equity holders on their own.Answer: TRUE In order for corporate diversification to be economically valuable A) there must be some valuable economy of scope among the multiple businesses in which a firm is operating and it must be more costly for managers in a firm to realize these economies of scope than for outside equity holders on their own. Answer: C If a diversified firm had three businesses and these companies shared a common marketing and service operation. higher C) lower.

They have tremendous skills in engine design that encompasses a variety of related skills. family members may also want to minimize their risks because the majority of their portfolio . However. Will this type of diversifying acquisition enable the firm to realize any valuable economies of scope that could not be duplicated by outside investors on their own? Why or why not? It is unlikely that this type of diversifying acquisition will help the firm exploit economies of scope that outside investors cannot do on their own. B) vertical integration and strategic alliances. Honda has a core competency in making high performance engines. The chapter looked at a number of ways to obtain economies of scope –operational economies. D) strategic alliances and multipoint competition. the newly acquired firm must be linked to the existing businesses in the acquiring firm’s portfolio. A firm implementing a diversification strategy has just acquired what it claims is a strategically related target firm but announces that it is not going to change this recently acquired firm in any way. Will this firm pursue a highly related diversification strategy or a somewhat less related diversification strategy? Why? Answer: The economic logic of a diversification strategy rests on the assumption that certain economies of scope can be obtained more efficiently by a firm owing a number of businesses than by equity holders acting on their own. and off road vehicles. Most of the wealth of this family is derived from the operations of this firm. The more similar these products or services are. etc. lawn movers. will firms that exploit core competencies in their diversification strategies always produce products or services that are similar to each other? Why or why not? Answer: The Honda example can be used to see how core competencies are related to products. the firm would not be able to realize economies of scope in a way that equity holders can do on their own. However. C) growing and developing independent businesses within a diversified firm and strategic alliances. they serve different markets. The family firm will pursue a strategy of highly related diversification if the firm as a whole can get certain economies of scope that family members acting on their own cannot. Honda has used its engine design core competency to diversify into automobiles (from their original business of motorcycles). the more related is the firm’s diversification strategy. While they all have the engine as the common part. The key is not to look for similar products but products that will benefit from a core competency. and the family does not want to “go public” with the firm by selling its equity position to outside investors. financial economies. Answer: C One simple way to think about relatedness is to look at the products or services a firm manufactures. Unless the newly acquired firm is connected to the rest of the organization (which would require making changes to it). snow throwers. A particular firm is owned by members of a single family.Substitutes for exploiting economies of scope in diversification include A) growing and developing independent businesses within a diversified firm and vertical integration. To exploit economies of scope.

its Wal-Mart Super Centers (Wal-Mart stores with grocery stores in them). Answers: Coca-Cola & Diet Coke – Operational economies of scope Apple Computer & I-Pod MD3 – Operational economies of scope PepsiCo & Lays Potato Chips distribution – Operational economies of scope . McDonald’s acquires Boston Market and Chipotle (two restaurants where many customers sit at the restaurant to eat their meals). The related diversified firm succeeds because it has a competitive advantage based on scope economies. replaces its old diet cola drink (Tab) with a new diet cola drink called Diet Coke. Head Ski Company introduces a line of tennis rackets. the firm may decide on a somewhat less related diversification strategy. which of these strategies are examples of potential economies of scope underlying a corporate diversification strategy? For those strategies that are an economy of scope. Apple Computer introduces an I-Pod MD3 Player with a larger memory. Under what conditions will a related diversification strategy not be a source of competitive advantage for a firm? Answer: The key to value creation in a related diversification strategy is to exploit economies of scope more efficiently than what is possible by equity holders acting on their own. General Electric borrows money from BankAmerica at 3% interest and then makes capital available to its jet engine subsidiary at 8% interest. Consider the following list of strategies. If a strategy of highly related diversification positions the firm in certain product-market areas where the risks are high. A venture capital firm invests in a firm in the bio-technology industry and a firm in the entertainment industry. why aren’t they? The Coca-Cola Corp. K-Mart extends its licensing arrangement with Martha Stewart for four years. and its Sam’s Club. which economy of scope are the? For those strategies that are not an economy of scope. In your view. If the related diversified firm does not exploit economies of scope then it will not have a competitive advantage. Another venture capital firm invests in two firms in the bio-technology industry. Wal-Mart uses the same distribution system to supply its Wal-Mart stores. PepsiCo distributes Lay’s Potato Chips to the same stores where it sells Pepsi.is invested in this firm. It is possible that the relatedness is based on relatively loose links among the businesses such that there is no great possibility of economies of scope.

Answer: TRUE In general. firms are not able to use alliances to learn from their competitors. Answer: FALSE In an equity alliance. Answer: TRUE Alliances to facilitate entry into new industries are only valuable when the skills needed in these industries are complex and difficult to learn. Answer: FALSE . cooperating firms supplement contracts with equity holdings an alliance partners.K-Mart & Martha Stewart – Financial economies of scope Wal-Mart distribution – Operational economies of scope & Multi-point competition Head Ski Company – Operational economies of scope GE & BankAmerica – Financial economies of scope (internal capital allocation) McDonalds acquires Boston Market – Anticompetitive economies of scope Venture capital investment in biotech – financial economies of scope Venture capital investment in two biotech firms – Financial economies of scope & anticompetitive economies of scope. Strategic Alliances In a nonequity alliance. Answer: FALSE Tacit collusion exists when firms coordinate their pricing decisions not by directly communicating with each other but by exchanging signals with other firms about their intent to cooperate. due to the intangible nature of knowledge. Answer: TRUE When a firm cannot realize the cost savings from economies of scale all by itself. firms create a legally independent firm in which they invest and from which they share any profits that are created. it may join in a strategic alliance with other firms so that together both firms will have sufficient volume to be able to gain the cost advantages of economies of scale.

Answer: TRUE Moral hazard occurs when partners in an alliance possess high-quality resources and capabilities of significant value in an alliance but fail to make those resources and capabilities available to alliance partners. Answer: FALSE . Answer: TRUE In an alliance a holdup occurs when a firm that has not made significant transaction-specific investments demands returns from an alliance that are higher than what the partners agreed to when they created the alliance. rare. Answer: TRUE An alliance will be preferred to an acquisition when there are legal constraints on acquisitions. contracts are sufficient to resolve all the problems associated with cheating in an alliance. Answer: TRUE In general.In new and uncertain environments it is not unusual for firms to develop numerous strategic alliances. Answer: FALSE In general. Answer: TRUE The primary purpose of organizing a strategic alliance is to enable partners in the alliance to gain all the benefits associated with cooperation while minimizing the probability that cooperating firms will cheat on their cooperative agreements. firms will prefer to go it alone rather than enter into a strategic alliance when the level of transaction-specific investment required to complete an exchange is low. Answer: TRUE The rarity of strategic alliances depends solely on the number of competing firms that have already implemented an alliance. and costly-to-imitate resources and capabilities. Answer: TRUE Capabilities theory suggests that an alliance will be preferred over going it alone when an exchange partner possesses valuable.

A) licensing agreement B) supply agreement C) distribution agreement D) joint venture Answer: D Strategic alliances are particularly valuable in facilitating market entry and exit when the value of market entry or exit is A) high. Answer: FALSE A ________ is a form of nonequity alliance that exists when one firm allows another to use its brand name to sell its products. learning new skills and capabilities D) learning new skills and capabilities. learning new skills and capabilities B) learning new skills and capabilities. joint ventures increase the threat of cheating by partners. A) supply agreement B) distribution agreement C) licensing agreement D) joint venture Answer: C In a ________. cooperating firms create a legally independent firm in which they invest and from which they share any profits that are created. C) moderate. using an alliance C) using an alliance. Answer: FALSE When the probability of cheating in a cooperative relationship is lowest. a joint venture is usually the preferred form of cooperation. Answer: TRUE In comparison to strategic alliances. D) uncertain. B) low. Answer: D As long as the cost of ________ to enter a new industry is less than the cost of ________.Sometimes the value of cheating in a joint venture is sufficiently large that a firm cheats even though doing so hurts the joint venture and forecloses future opportunities. an alliance can be a valuable strategic opportunity. vertically integrating Answer: C . A) vertically integrating.

S. B) licensing agreement. has an impressive portfolio of cooperative agreements. an agreement to allow MBNA to use eBay's name on a credit card. Postal Service to facilitate the shipping of goods purchased through eBay auctions. Answer: A When the probability of cheating in a cooperative relationship is greatest. the online auction company. This portfolio includes an agreement with the U. and an agreement in an online auction company in Korea that is supplemented with an investment by eBay in the Korean partner. C) equity alliance. C) relatively many firms may have the complementary resources and abilities needed to form an alliance D) there may be a relatively low amount of transaction-specific assets to enter into similar alliances. with an Australian company known as ecorp. Answer: D eBay's agreement with MBNA is most accurately characterized as a(n) A) supply agreement. In addition.S. called eBay Australia and New Zealand. . at one time eBay had formed an independent firm. B) depends solely on whether or not the benefits that firms obtain from their alliances are not common across firms in the industry. eBay's agreement with the U. C) licensing agreement.The rarity of strategic alliances A) depends solely on the number of competing firms that have already implemented an alliance. D) nonequity agreement. D) depends solely on the number of substitutes available for alliances. A) equity agreement B) licensing agreement C) joint venture D) distribution agreement Answer: C eBay. Postal Service is most accurately classified as a(n) A) joint venture. B) equity agreement. C) depends not only on the number of competing firms that have already implemented an alliance but also on whether or not the benefits that firms obtain from their alliances are not common across competing firms in the industry. Answer: C One of the reasons why the benefits that accrue from a particular strategic alliance may be rare is that A) relatively few firms may have the complementary resources and abilities needed to form an alliance. a(n) ________ is the preferred form of cooperation. B) there is a relatively large number of alliance partners available.

cooperating firms supplement contracts with equity holdings in alliance partners. D) distribution agreement. manufacture. Jointly. but they do not take equity positions in each other or form an independent organizational unit to manage their cooperative efforts. C) equity alliance. firms have to have a large volume of production. In an equity alliance. Identify and discuss the three ways alliances can create economic value by helping firms improve the performance of their current operations. In a nonequity alliance. or sell products or services. Answer: B eBay's agreement with the Korean online auction company is best characterized as a(n) A) licensing agreement. or at least a volume of production large enough so that the cost advantages associated with scale can be realized.D) joint venture. When a firm cannot realize the cost savings from economies of scale all by itself. these cooperative relations are managed through the use of various forms of contracts. Firms can also use alliances to improve their current operations by learning from their competitors. cooperating firms agree to work together to develop. Answer: A Define a strategic alliance and identify and differentiate between three broad categories of strategic alliances. Firms that are at a competitive disadvantage may want to form alliances with the firms that have an advantage in order to learn about their resources and capabilities. B) equity alliance. To realize economies of scale. these firms may have sufficient volume to be able to gain the cost advantages of economies of scale. C) licensing agreement. . Different firms in an industry may have different resources and capabilities and these resources can give some firms competitive advantages over other firms. Answer: C eBay's former agreement with ecorp is best characterized as a(n) A) joint venture. manufacture. In a joint venture. Answer: One way that firms can use strategic alliances to improve their current operations is to use alliances to realize economies of scale. Rather. cooperating firms create a legally independent firm in which they invest and from which they share any profits that are created. D) nonequity alliance. B) joint venture. joint ventures and equity alliances. it may join in a strategic alliance with other firms. Answer: A strategic alliance exists whenever two or more independent organizations cooperate in the development. The three broad categories of alliances include nonequity alliances. or sale of products or services.

a firm pursuing a strategy of differentiation may also be interested in economies of scale. In other words. Answer: The rarity of strategic alliances depends both on the number of competing firms that have already implemented an alliance and whether or not the benefits that firms obtain from their alliances are not common across firms competing in an industry. only one local firm or a very few local firms may exist with the local knowledge. In many less developed economies. and distribution network needed to facilitate entry into that market. GM has been interested in learning how to profitably manufacture high-quality small cars from its alliance with Toyota. Answer: To the extent that a strategic alliance goes well beyond simple legal contracts and is characterized by socially complex phenomena such as a trusting relationship between alliance partners. While the objective of a cost leader is to lower its cost structure through economies of scale. Additionally. . This is especially valuable when the future state of the environment or the growth rate of the industry is uncertain. only a very small number will be able to form a strategic alliance with the local entity and therefore the benefits that accrue to the allied firms will likely be rare.Finally. Although several firms may seek entry into this market. contacts. it will be costly for other firms to directly duplicate. Discuss when strategic alliances may be costly to directly duplicate. firms can use alliances to improve their current operations through sharing costs and risks. Exploiting economies of scale should reduce a firm’s costs. Moreover. Consider the joint venture between General Motors and Toyota. for such a company distribution is necessary but not a source of competitive advantage. If there is a certain activity (say distribution) which is less important to the differentiator in terms of its competitive advantage. it would seek to minimize its distribution costs. Utilizing economies of scale (through an alliance) helps minimize the cost of this activity. to the extent that the organizational and relationshipbuilding skills required for successful alliance building are rare among a set of competing firms and costly to develop. This is particularly likely when an alliance is formed to enter into a new market and especially a new foreign market. One of the reasons why the benefits that accrue from a particular strategic alliance may be rare is that relatively few firms may have the complementary resources and abilities needed to form an alliance. Identify the conditions under which a strategic alliance can be rare and discuss the role that complementary resources can play in the rarity of strategic alliances. One reason why firms might want to pursue a strategic alliance strategy is to exploit economies of scale. sometimes the government acts to limit the number of these local firms. Does this mean that a firm pursuing an alliance strategy to exploit economies of scale is actually pursuing a cost leadership strategy? Why or why not? Answer: Not necessarily. strategic alliances will be costly to duplicate and firms that are able to exploit these abilities by creating alliances may gain competitive advantages. and even (perhaps) a willingness to suspend narrow selfinterest for the longer-term good of the relationship. friendship.

is motivated to slow the other down. An alliance agreement that allows the firm to buy out its partner is an example of a real option. between firms of equal size and profitability.” Each. By entering into a strategic alliance for. the firm then has the option to buy out the partner. it is manufacturing techniques because Toyota can “choose” to keep hidden certain nuances of its production technology. Also. Which aspect is easier to slow down – manufacturing techniques or distribution structure? Arguably.Toyota has been interested in gaining access to GM’s U. if any. Distribution is more visible and therefore may be harder to slow down. they often evolve after a merger such that one firm is more dominant in the management of the merged firm than the other. This way. Which of these firms do you think is more likely to accomplish its objectives. firms will be willing to pay a price for a target up to the value that the firm adds to the bidder once it is acquired. The second major advantage of strategic alliances in this context is that alliances are options that allow a firm to pursue future opportunities. GM has the bigger challenge because Toyota’s manufacturing expertise (in small cars) may consist of various tangible and intangible factors. does your answer have for a “learning race” in this alliance? Answer: Toyota is more likely to achieve its objectives simply because what it is trying to learn is easier than what GM is trying to learn. network and adhering to local content laws are far more easy to learn than complex manufacturing processes. international market entry.S. in a way. they are engaged in a “learning race. distribution network and in reducing the political liability associated with local content laws. Some have argued that alliances can be used to help firms evaluate the economic potential of entering into a new industry or market. consultants. Answer: TRUE In all acquisitions bidding. Under what conditions will a firm seeking to evaluate these opportunities need to invest in an alliance to accomplish this evaluation? Why couldn’t such a firm simply hire some smart managers. The real options approach considers what are called “embedded” options – options embedded in certain options. since both companies are competitors. the firm can evaluate the market potential and if it is a very attractive market. if anything. some of which may take tremendous amounts of time to absorb. Mergers & Acquisitions While mergers typically begin as a transaction between equals. Answer: TRUE . and why? What implications. This learning opportunity is absent when the firm hires consultants to do the evaluation. about an alliance makes this a better way to evaluate entry opportunities than alternatives? Answer: Strategic alliances are attractive from a learning perspective. and industry experts to evaluate the economic potential of entering into a new industry? What. the firm is evaluating the attractiveness of the new market and learning how to succeed in that new market. These avenues are not open when consultants are used. Accessing GM’s U.S. that is. say.

Answer: TRUE The existence of strategic relatedness between bidding and target firms is sufficient for the equity holders of bidding firms to earn economic profits from their acquisition strategies. Answer: TRUE Operational. Answer: TRUE In a product extension merger. Answer: TRUE To be economically valuable. Answer: TRUE Unfriendly takeovers can generate anger and animosity among the target firm management that is directed toward the management of the bidding firm. it must be because of some sort of strategic relatedness between bidding and target firms. Answer: TRUE Firms should pursue merger and acquisition strategies only to obtain valuable economies of scope that outside investors find too costly to create on their own. then the economic value of these two firms combined is greater than their economic value as separate entities. and cultural differences between bidding and target firms can all be compounded by the merger and acquisition process especially if that process was unfriendly. Answer: FALSE Perhaps the most significant challenge in integrating bidding and target firms has to do with cultural differences. links between bidding and target firms must meet the same criteria as diversification strategies. functional.If there is any hope that mergers and acquisitions will be a source of superior performance for bidding firms. Answer: TRUE . Answer: TRUE If bidding and target firms are strategically related. strategic. a firm acquires complementary products through merger and acquisition activities.

this was an example of a(n) A) joint venture.000 while the current market value of the target firm is $20. Answer: A When Sears and Kmart. A) conglomerate . D) acquisition price.00 Answer: D If an electronics manufacturer were to acquire a chain of retail electronic stores to sell its products. A) $10.000 B) $20. it has acquired enough of that firm's assets so that the acquiring firm is able to make all the management and strategic decisions in the target firm. A) market stake B) equity share C) controlling share D) equity stake Answer: C The difference between the current market price of a target firm's shares and the price a potential acquirer offers to pay for those shares is known as an A) acquisition premium. A) vertical B) horizontal C) market extension D) product extension Answer: A If eBay were to acquire a smaller online auction company.When one firm acquires a(n) ________ of another firm.000. B) acquisition. D) equity agreement. two retail firms of relatively equal size in the United States. this acquisition is likely to generate economic profits of ________ for the acquiring firm. this would be an example of a ________ merger. if 5 firms are interested in acquiring a firm and each of the bidding firms had a current market value of $30. B) acquisition discount.000 C) $50. this would be an example of a ________ merger. C) acquisition margin. Answer: C In an unrelated acquisition. C) merger. agreed to combine their assets.000 D) $0.

Answer: B . this was an example of a ________ merger. D) reduce managerial hubris. managers in these target firms should A) create a thinly traded market for their firm. Answer: A Which of the following actions should bidding firm managers take to help earn superior performance in an acquisition strategy? A) Share information with other bidders. B) generate free cash flow.000.00. C) reduce agency problems.com. B) seek information from bidders. in order to enter the Indian online auction market.000 and the value of the target firm as a stand-alone entity is $30. Answer: C To ensure that the owners of target firms appropriate whatever value is created by a merger or acquisition. B) Delay the closing of the deal. if there is one target firm and ten bidding firms. D) more than $80. D) limit the number of bidders involved in the bidding competition.B) vertical C) market extension D) horizontal Answer: D When eBay acquired Baaze. Answer: D ) Managers of bidding firms continue to engage in merger or acquisition strategies even though they usually do not generate profits for bidding firms in order to A) ensure survival.000. C) Avoid winning bidding wars. the market value of the combined entity will be A) $0. A) product extension B) market extension C) conglomerate D) vertical Answer: B In a related acquisition.000. B) less than $80. C) close the acquisition deal quickly. an Indian auction firm.000. and the value of each of the bidding firms as a stand-alone entity is $50. C) $80. D) Operate in competitive acquisition markets.

they should . B) 82% acquisition discount. D) merger. B) horizontal merger. Answer: D P&G's purchase of AG-Hutchison Ltd in 2004 is an example of a A) conglomerate merger. another consumer goods company. C) market extension merger. P&G acquired Gillette. D) conglomerate merger. P&G acquired AG-Hutchison Ltd to establish a stronger presence in the Chinese consumer goods products market.30 billion. C) friendly acquisition. B) joint venture. this would be an example of a A) hostile acquisition. acquisitions and mergers. Answer: B P&G is a leading consumer goods company in the United States that has grown its business through a combination of international growth. B) vertical merger. In 2004. D) product extension merger. In 2005. in a deal worth approximately $57 billion dollars. this acquisition is best described as a A) vertical merger. D) logistic differences. P&G's $57 billion offer would represent a(n) A) 18% acquisition premium. Answer: A Since both P&G and Gillette are consumer products firms. B) cultural differences. D) conglomerate acquisition. P&G acquired the beauty care company Wella to acquire products that would complement its current product. C) market extension merger. alliances. If P&G's bid for Gillette was invited by Gillette's management. C) 82% acquisition premium. In 2003. C) operational differences. D) 18% acquisition discount.The most significant challenge in integrating bidding and target firms has to do with A) accounting differences. Answer: C If Gillette's total market value on the day the deal was announced was $48. Answer: B P&G's acquisition of Wella in 2003 is an example of a A) market extension merger. C) vertical merger. B) conglomerate merger. Answer: C If Gillette's managers wanted to maximize the value that Gillette received from its acquisition by P&G.

it can purchase a majority of those assets (greater than 51%). or it can purchase a controlling share of those assets (i. C) close the acquisition as quickly as possible. and economic profits will not be created. Answer: A The most significant challenge P&G is likely to face in integrating each of the acquired companies into P&G's operations is likely to be ________ differences between P&G and each of the companies. Acquisitions can be friendly (when the management of the target firm wants to be acquired) or unfriendly (when the management of the target firm does not want to be acquired).000) interested in a target firm that has no strategic relatedness with any of the bidding firms and has a current market value of $25. Therefore. it can go into debt to purchase a target firm.. Also. it can use its own equity to purchase a target firm. When the assets of two similar-sized firms are combined. B) not engage in negotiations with any bidder but P&G. the target firm's equity holders will also gain zero economic profits since the market value of the target firm has not been increased it has only been capitalized in the form of a cash payment from the bidder to the target. an acquiring firm can purchase all of a target firm's assets. An acquiring firm can use cash it has generated from its ongoing businesses to purchase a target firm. or it can use a mix of these mechanisms to purchase a target firm. Some unfriendly acquisitions are also known as hostile takeovers.000 and that is exactly what these equity holders will receive.A) seek information from P&G about the value that P&G will receive from its acquisition of Gillette. identify the economic profits that will be earned by both the bidding firm's equity holders and the target firm's equity holders and discuss this case. the price will quickly rise to its value. . D) stop the acquisition. Answer: A firm engages in an acquisition when it purchases a second firm. A) logistical B) cultural C) operational D) distribution Answer: B Discuss the differences between mergers and acquisitions and differentiate between friendly and unfriendly acquisitions. Alternately. enough assets so that the acquiring firm is able to make all the management and strategic decisions in the target firm).000 because any bid less than $25.000 will generate economic profits for a successful bidder that will.000. in turn. The value for the bidding firm will be zero because the value of any one of the bidding firms when combined with the target firm exactly equals the sum of the value of these firms as separate entities. Answer: The economic value created for both the target firm and the bidding firm will be zero. The target was worth $25. The price of this acquisition will quickly rise to $25. this transaction is called a merger. generate entry into a bidding war for a target.e. If there are five bidders (each of which has a current market value of $50.

Identify and discuss six rules that firms bidding on a target firm in an acquisition should follow to increase the possibility that an acquisition strategy will earn superior performance. thinly traded markets are markets where only a few (often only one) firms are implementing acquisition strategies. information leakage becomes more of a problem over time. Even target firm managers may not fully understand the value of the economic opportunities in these markets. Answer: . Answer: • Search for valuable and rare economies of scope. as private as possible. • Operate in thinly traded acquisitions markets. Operationally. and so forth. • Keep information away from targets. • Close the deal quickly. the search for rare economies of scope suggests that managers in bidding firms need to consider not only the value of a target firm when combined with their own company. This is important because it is the difference between the value of a particular bidding firm's relationship with a target and the value of other bidding firms' relationships with that target that defines the size of the potential economic profits from an acquisition. If a number of firms bid for the same target. Unless it is illegal to do so. and where interests besides purely maximizing the value of a firm can be important. where information about opportunities in this market is not widely known. bidding firms must not fully reveal the value of their economies of scope with a target firm. One of the keys to earning superior performance in an acquisition strategy is to avoid multiple bidders for a single target. it is to a bidding firm's advantage to avoid a bidding war. and about the sources of economies of scope between a bidder and target that underlie this bidding process. Answer: In pursuing an acquisition. Therefore. • Avoid winning bidding wars. there are six rules that firms bidding on a target firm should follow to increase the possibility that the target firm will earn superior performance. Identify and discuss the three rules that target firm managers should follow to maximize the probability of earning economic profits from their merger and acquisition strategies. but also the value of a target firm when combined with other potential bidders. Bidding firms should seek to acquire targets with which they enjoy valuable and rare linkages. and even if they do. • Keep information away from bidders. These unique firms may be the only firms that understand the full value of the acquisition opportunities in this market. they may have other interests besides maximizing the value of their firm if it becomes the object of a takeover. A bidding firm that begins and ends the bidding process quickly may forestall some of these processes and thereby retain some superior performance for itself from an acquisition. In the context of mergers and acquisitions. All the economic processes that make it difficult for bidding firms to earn economic profits from acquiring a strategically related target take time to unfold. it takes time for the target to recruit other bidders. the probability that the firm that successfully acquires the target will gain competitive advantages is very low. It takes time for other bidders to become aware of the economic value associated with acquiring a target. One way to accomplish this is to keep information about the bidding process. A thinly traded market is a market where there is only a small number of buyers and sellers.

By inviting other firms into the bidding process. . not to stop an acquisition. Once a target firm is fully aware of the nature and value of the economies of scope that exist between it and current bidding firms. it can exploit this information by seeking other firms that may have the same relationship with it and then informing these firms of a potential acquisition opportunity. Target firms must inform themselves about the resources and capabilities of current and potential bidders. • Invite other bidders to join the bidding competition. the target firm increases the competitiveness of the market for corporate control. target firms can become fully aware of the value that they hold for bidders. In this way. and they are more likely to be able to extract this full value in the acquisition process. should be to delay an acquisition to create a more competitive market for corporate control. To increase the probability of receiving more than one bid. thereby increasing the probability that the value by an acquisition will be fully captured by the target firm. however. target firms have a strong incentive to delay an acquisition.• Seek information from bidders. • Delay but do not stop the acquisition. The objective.

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