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Everythings an Argument Notes

Everythings an Argument Notes


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Published by: jumurph on Jan 23, 2011
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Chapter 1: everything’s an argument an argument can be any text (whether written, spoken, or visual) that expresses a point of view

-Arguments: Inform Convince Explore Make Decisions Meditate/Pray Presenting specific information to inform readers Focus is on the information -Focuses on readers – trying to satisfy or convince them that you have thoroughly examined and present ed information that merits attention. Problem does exist – writer or reader needs to solve it. . Purpose: Writer is hoping to transform something within to reach a peace of mind. Past Future Present Forensic arguments: debates about what has happened in the past. Present evidence from past to justify conclusions. Rely heavily on precedents – actions or decisions in past that influence policies or decisions in the present. Often rely on forensic arguments because what happened in the past usually decid es what will happen in the future. Make some kind of decision (proposals) try to establish policies or project future outcomes Epideictic or Ceremonial Arguments -Ethical premises/assumptions widely held within a society: Arguments of Fact Arguments of Definition Arguments of Evaluation Proposal Arguments Common type of argument: Argument of quality Makes some kind of judgment about topic Present evidence to show there is a problem; then, propose a solution. Recommend most viable course of action. Argument of Fact Argument of Definition Argument of Evaluation Proposal Argument Making a Connection to Reader: Writers do not write in a cultural vacuum. Writers’ works are influenced by who they are. Race Religion Gender Ethnicity Class Intelligence

Readers’ perceptions of writer influence their reception of what has been written. Must think about readers’ perceptions, values, possible prejudices. Establish some connection with readers. Familiarity Presenting yourself as authority -Aristotle identified 3 key ways writers can appeal to their audiences in argume nts: Pathos -Emotional appeals or appeals to the heart Ethos -Ethical appeals or appeals based on the writer’s authority and credibilit y Logos -Logical appeals or appeals to reason evidence of character in arguments: Who is the author? Is writer an authority on topic/knowledgeable about topic? Is evidence presented full/complete, not slanted to writer’s agenda? Does writer acknowledge and address opposition? Are sources documented? Chapter 2: Arguments from the heart—Pathos Emotional appeals influence what people think and believe Understanding how arguments works: Words, images, and sound evoke emotions When writers and speakers cannot use words or images to evoke emotion they can m ove the audience to sympathize with ideas and connect to those feelings. Arguments from the heart count more when your persuading or arguing You can embarrassing readers into doing something You can evoke emotion by telling a moving story Using Emotions to Build Hopes You can use emotions to connect to readers A way to build emotional tie is to help the reader identify with you experiences You can convince people of your view point with an appeal to emotions Using Emotion to sustain an argument You can use emotional appeal to make logical claims stronger or more memorable Photographs and images add power to arguments If you lay out too much emotion; rage, pity, or shame people may become uncomfor table Sometimes strong emotion like anger adds energy to the passage Writers generate emotion by presenting logical arguments in stark terms Using humor You can put humor into at argument to put readers at ease Humor might not work at all in more sober writing A writer or reader can use humor to deal with especially sensitive issues Politicians use humor to admit problems or mistakes The most powerful form of emotional argument is ridicule Humor the expresses bad taste discredit’s a writer Using arguments from the heart You shouldn’t play puppet master with peoples emotion when writing arguments You should think about what emotions you want readers to feel before writing.

Chapter 3: Arguments based on character—Ethos Establishing persuasive ethos is not just a matter of seeming honest or likable, you need to affirm an identity and sharing values with your intended audience. Writers create ethos by: they shape themselves at the very moment they make an a rgument or they way they portray themselves to the audience physically (gestures , eye contact) Writers bring their previous lives, reputations, and work into their arguments Understanding how arguments based on character work To answer serious questions people turn to professionals An expert can be anyone with knowledge and experience Appeals or arguments about character often turn on claims such as the following: a persson does not have authority to speak on the issue, a person is not trust worthy or credible on this issue, and a person does not have good motives for ad dressing the subject. Claiming authority When you read an aggressive argument you have the right to wonder about the auth ors claim Writers and readers are often skeptical of your claims When you write for readers who trust you and your works, you may not have make a n open claim to authority. Sometimes style of writing can present confidence Establishing Credibility Credibility speaks to a writers honesty and respect for audience To establish credibility make reasonable claims and back them up You have to present yourself as person You can establish credibility by connecting to your own beliefs and values to pr inciples that are widely respected You can use language that shows respect for your readers Establishing creditably makes you seems trust worthy Chapter 4: Arguments based on facts and reason—Logos Logos arguments are based on facts Aristotle was the first to write about persuasion Providing hard evidence The types of hard evidence you use depends on your argument Aristotle all arguments consist of Statement + proof Facts Facts make strong arguments People believe facts when they come from honest sources Facts are respected above thinking in political thinking or ideology Compelling facts can stand on their own in low stake arguments Statistics Figures lie and liars figure Its is possible to lie with figures Numbers rarely speak for themselves Surveys and Polls Surveys and polls are one of the most influential forms of statistics

They are persuasive because on democracy majority opinion offers a compelling wa rrant They provide reason for action and inervention The meanings of polls and surveys are affected by the way questions are asked Testimonies narratives and interviews Reliable witness accounts make a course for action change or sympathetic underst anding Using reason and common sense Without hard facts, you can support your argument with compelling reason Aristotle found that most people argue very well using informal logic Cultural assumptions Some assumptions are based on shared values in culture in history Providing Logical Structure for argument Logical arguments are ones your reader will understand without much explanation Degree The most common argument People don’t pay much attention to them Analogies People understand comparisons intuitively People habitually think in comparative terms Precedent: These are related to arguments of analogy They both involve comparisons

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