Boxing Day Tsunami: Natural or Political Disaster?

Randall Kuhn Josef Korbel School of International Studies University of Denver

Key Questions
‡ What were the political and socioeconomic forces leading up to the tsunami? ‡ Has the tsunami relief effort constituted a separate political disaster?

Tsunami Deaths and Homes Destroyed by District

Characteristics of Tsunami-Affected Grama Niladari Division, by Region
% of All Homes Destroyed Southern Province Ampara Muslim Ampara Tamil Batticaloa 12% 20% 40% 26% Homes Destroyed per GN 36 71 107 108

Community Living Standards Index, by Study Group and Severity of Impact
Moderately Affected 0.72 0.05 -0.46 -0.62 0.23 Heavily Affected 0.45 0.44 -0.95 -0.48 -0.30

Study Group Southern Province Ampara Muslim Ampara Tamil Batticaloa Total

Unaffected 0.12 0.03 -1.19 -0.66 -0.19

Ninthavur
Sainthamarathu Tamil Division Removed after 1967 Riots Ninthavur dhobis largely left in 1970s Much of Addaipallam Tamil population disperses Many of these families moved to coastal areas in Karativu, Vinayagapuram, Akkaraipattu

Akkaraipattu
Original Lime Burner Settlement Moved from Akkaraipattu 4th Division after 1958 floods

Sinna Mugathuwaram aka 40th Mile Post: 226 Homes Destroyed

Kalmunai / Marathamunai

Expansion of Marathumanai towards local beach areas and beach areas in Periya Neelavanai and Pandiruppu

Periya Neelavanai

Aerial Photo of Batticaloa, 1972
Navalady Dutch Bar Thiruchendoor

Koddamunai Pulliyanthivu

Major Areas of Housing Impact, Batticaloa Division
Navalady: 433 Homes Dutch Bar: 252 Thiruchendoor: 618

Koddamunai: 0 Pulliyanthivu: 0

Donor Housing Commitment and Expenditure per Destroyed Home, by District
District Ampara Batticaloa Galle Hambantota Matara Commitment $5,060 $6,262 $7,612 $25,388 $13,970 Expenditure $2,613 $2,949 $4,578 $19,185 $7,611

Figure 4: Total Homes Destroyed and Total Homes Built by October 2006, selected sub-populations
10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4065 4000 3000 2000 1080 1000 0 Ampara Muslim Ampara Tamil Batticaloa Tamil Galle Matara Hambantota 997 2555 2759 2500 2394 1290 5297 5262 5557 8597 Homes Destroyed Homes Built

Hambantota Hardly Heaven

Chasing the Bowser in Akkaraipattu

Progress in Periya Nilavanai

On the Beach in Kalmunaikudy

Thank you!!!

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