This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

### Publishers

Scribd Selects Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

P. 1

40181627-Jackson-Solutions|Views: 2,303|Likes: 36

Published by jmislins

See more

See less

https://www.scribd.com/doc/47434478/40181627-Jackson-Solutions

05/31/2013

text

original

- Problem 2.11
- Problem 2.12
- Problem 2.13
- Problem 2.15
- Problem 2.16
- Problem 2.17
- Problem 2.18
- Problem 3.1
- Problem 3.2
- Problem 3.3
- Problem 3.4
- Problem 3.6
- Problem 3.7
- Problem 3.9
- Problem 3.10
- Problem 3.11
- Problem 3.12
- Problem 3.13
- Problem 3.14
- Problem 3.15
- Problem 3.17
- Problem 3.18
- Problem 3.19
- Problem 3.22
- Problem 4.8
- Problem 4.9
- Problem 4.10
- Problem 4.13
- Problem 5.10
- Problem 5.11
- Problem 5.12
- Problem 5.13
- Problem 5.14
- Problem 5.16
- Problem 5.18
- Problem 5.19
- Problem 5.23

Homer Reid December 8, 1999

Chapter 2

Problem 2.1

A point charge q is brought to a position a distance d away from an inﬁnite plane conductor held at zero potential. Using the method of images, ﬁnd: (a) the surface-charge density induced on the plane, and plot it; (b) the force between the plane and the charge by using Coulomb’s law for the force between the charge and its image; (c) the total force acting on the plane by integrating σ 2 /2 the whole plane;

0

over

(d) the work necessary to remove the charge q from its position to inﬁnity; (e) the potential energy between the charge q and its image (compare the answer to part d and discuss). (f ) Find the answer to part d in electron volts for an electron originally one angstrom from the surface.

**(a) We’ll take d to be in the z direction, so the charge q is at (x, y, z) = (0, 0, d). The image charge is −q at (0, 0, −d). The potential at a point r is Φ(r) = q 4π
**

0

The surface charge induced on the plane is found by diﬀerentiating this: 1

1 1 − |r − dk| |r + dk|

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

2

σ

= −

dΦ dz z=0 (z + d) q −(z − d) + = − 4π |r + dk|3 |r + dk|3 qd = − 2π(x2 + y 2 + d2 )3/2

0

z=0

(1)

We can check this by integrating this over the entire xy plane and verifying that the total charge is just the value −q of the image charge:

∞ −∞ ∞

σ(x, y)dxdy

−∞

= −

qd 2π

∞ 0 ∞ 0

= −qd

rdψdr (r2 + d2 )3/2 0 rdr (r2 + d2 )3/2

2π

qd ∞ −3/2 = − u du 2 d2 ∞ qd −2u−1/2 2 = − 2 d √ = −q (b) The point of this problem is that, for points above the z axis, it doesn’t matter whether there is a charge −q at (0, 0, d) or an inﬁnite grounded sheet at z = 0. Physics above the z axis is exactly the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. In particular, the force on the original charge is the same whether we have the charge or the sheet. That means that, if we assume the sheet is present instead of the charge, it will feel a reaction force equal to what the image charge would feel if it were present instead of the sheet. The force on the image charge would be just F = q 2 /16π 0d2 , so this must be what the sheet feels. (c) Total force on sheet

∞ 2π 1 σ 2 dA 2 0 0 0 rdr q 2 d2 ∞ 2 + d 2 )3 4π 0 0 (r q 2 d2 ∞ −3 u du 8π 0 d2 ∞ q 2 d2 1 − u−2 8π 0 2 d2

= = = = =

q 2 d2 1 −4 d 8π 0 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 q2 16π 0 d2

3

=

**in accordance with the discussion and result of part b. (d) Work required to remove charge to inﬁnity
**

∞ q2 dz 4π 0 d (z + d)2 ∞ q2 u−2 du 4π 0 2d q2 1 4π 0 2d q2 8π 0 d

= = = =

(e) Potential energy between charge and its image = equal to the result in part d. (f ) q2 8π 0 d = (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs )2 8π(8.85 · 10−12 coulombs V−1 m−1 )(10−10 m ) q2 8π 0 d

= 7.2 · (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs · 1 V ) = 7.2 eV .

Problem 2.2

Using the method of images, discuss the problem of a point charge q inside a hollow, grounded, conducting sphere of inner radius a. Find (a) the potential inside the sphere; (b) the induced surface-charge density; (c) the magnitude and direction of the force acting on q. (d) Is there any change in the solution if the sphere is kept at a ﬁxed potential V ? If the sphere has a total charge Q on its inner and outer surfaces?

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

4

Problem 2.3

A straight-line charge with constant linear charge density λ is located perpendicular to the x − y plane in the ﬁrst quadrant at (x0 , y0 ). The intersecting planes x = 0, y ≥ 0 and y = 0, x ≥ 0 are conducting boundary surfaces held at zero potential. Consider the potential, ﬁelds, and surface charges in the ﬁrst quadrant. (a) The well-known potential for an isolated line charge at (x0 , y0 ) is Φ(x, y) = (λ/4π 0 ) ln(R2 /r2 ), where r2 = (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 and R is a constant. Determine the expression for the potential of the line charge in the presence of the intersecting planes. Verify explicitly that the potential and the tangential electric ﬁeld vanish on the boundary surface. (b) Determine the surface charge density σ on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0. Plot σ/λ versus x for (x0 = 2, y0 = 1), (x0 = 1, y0 = 1), and (x0 = 1, y0 = 2). (c) Show that the total charge (per unit length in z) on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0 is 2 Qx = − λ tan−1 π What is the total charge on the plane x = 0? (d) Show that far from the origin [ρ ρ0 , where ρ = 2 + y 2 ] the leading term in the potential is x0 0 Φ → Φasym = Interpret. 4λ (x0 )(y0 )(xy) . π 0 ρ4 x2 + y 2 and ρ0 = x0 y0

(a) The potential can be made to vanish on the speciﬁed boundary surfaces by pretending that we have three image line charges. Two image charges have charge density −λ and exist at the locations obtained by reﬂecting the original image charge across the x and y axes, respectively. The third image charge has charge density +λ and exists at the location obtained by reﬂecting the original charge through the origin. The resulting potential in the ﬁrst quadrant is Φ(x, y) = = where

2 r1 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] 2 r2 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ]

λ R2 R2 R2 R2 ln 2 − ln 2 − ln 2 + ln 2 4π 0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r2 r3 λ ln 2π 0 r1 r4

(2)

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2
**

2 r3 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ] 2 r4 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y + y0 )2 ].

5

From this you can see that

• when x = 0, r1 = r2 and r3 = r4 • when y = 0, r1 = r3 and r2 = r4 and in both cases the argument of the logarithm in (2) is unity. (b) σ = − d Φ dy 1 dr2 1 dr3 1 dr1 1 dr4 λ + − − = − 2π r2 dy r3 dy r1 dy r4 dy

0

y=0

**We have dr1 /dy = (y − y0 )/r1 and similarly for the other derivatives, so σ = − λ y − y0 y + y0 y − y0 y + y0 + − − 2 2 2 2 2π r2 r3 r1 r4 1 1 y0 λ = − 2 − (x + x )2 + y 2 ) π (x − x0 )2 + y0 0 0
**

y=0

**(c) Total charge per unit length in z
**

∞

Qx

=

0

σdx y0 λ π

∞ 0

= −

dx 2 − (x − x0 )2 + y0

∞ 0

dx 2 (x + x0 )2 + y0

For the ﬁrst integral the appropriate substitution is (x − x0 ) = y0 tan u, dx = y0 sec2 udu. A similar substitution works in the second integral. = − = − λ π

π/2 tan−1 − y 0

0 x

π/2

du −

du

tan−1

x0 y0

λ π −x0 π x0 − tan−1 − + tan−1 π 2 y0 2 y0 2λ x0 = − tan−1 . π y0

(3)

The calculations are obviously symmetric with respect to x0 and y0 . The total charge on the plane x = 0 is (3) with x0 and y0 interchanged: Qy = − 2λ y0 tan−1 π x0

Since tan−1 x − tan−1 (1/x) = π/2 the total charge induced is Q = −λ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2

6

which is, of course, also the sum of the charge per unit length of the three image charges. (d) We have Φ= Far from the origin,

2 r1

λ r2 r2 ln 2 3 2 2 4π 0 r1 r4

= [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] x0 y0 = x2 (1 − )2 + y 2 (1 − )2 x y y0 x0 ≈ x2 (1 − 2 ) + y 2 (1 − 2 x y = x2 − 2x0 x + y 2 − 2y0 y) xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 Similarly,

2 r2 2 r3 2 r4

= (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2

−xx0 + yy0 x2 + y 2 xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 2 x + y2 −xx0 − yy0 = (x2 + y 2 ) 1 − 2 x2 + y 2

Next,

2 2 r1 r4 2 2 r2 r3

= (x2 + y 2 )2 1 − 4 = (x2 + y 2 )2

(xx0 + yy0 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 (xx0 − yy0 )2 1−4 (x2 + y 2 )2

so

The (x2 + y 2 ) term in the denominator grows much more quickly than the (xx0 + yy0 ) term, so in the asymptotic limit we can use ln(1 + ) ≈ to ﬁnd Φ = = (xx0 − yy0 )2 λ (xx0 + yy0 )2 −4 +4 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 2 2 λ −4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 − 2xyx0 y0 ) + 4(x2 x2 + y 2 y0 + 2xyx0 y0 ) 0 0 2 + y 2 )2 4π 0 (x

2 0 −yy0 ) 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 λ (x . Φ= ln 2 0 +yy0 ) 4π 0 1 − 4 (xx2 +y2 )2 (x

As d → ∞. the denominator of both terms looks like d4 . One image charge. (a) Inside of what distance from the surface of the sphere is the point charge attracted rather than repelled by the charged sphere? (b) What is the limiting value of the force of attraction when the point charge is located a distance a(= d−R) from the surface of the sphere. conducting sphere of radius R. The second image charge. so that term wins. and the overall force is attractive. is necessary to recreate the eﬀect of the additional charge on the sphere (the “additional” charge is the extra charge on the sphere left over after you subtract the surface charge density induced by the point charge q). but still the same sign? Let’s call the point charge q. of charge q2 = q − q1 at the center of the sphere. is needed to make the potential equal at all points on the sphere. if a R? (c) What are the results for parts a and b if the charge on the sphere is twice (half) as large as the point charge. π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 7 = = √ Problem 2. isolated. (a) The crossover distance is found by equating the two bracketed terms in (5): . so the dR terms in the numerator cancel and the overall force is repulsive.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 λ 16xyx0 y0 4π 0 (x2 + y 2 )2 4λ (xy)(x0 y0 ) .4 A point charge is placed a distance d > R from the center of an equally charged. isolated sphere may be replaced by two image charges. of charge q1 = −(R/d)q at radius r1 = R2 /d. The charged. The force on the point charge is the sum of the forces from the two image charges: 1 4π 0 qq1 d− R2 2 d F = = + qq2 d2 (4) (5) q2 −dR d2 + dR + 2 − R 2 ]2 4π 0 [d d4 As d → R the denominator of the ﬁrst term vanishes.

(c) If the charge on the sphere is twice the point charge. F = ≈ q2 4π 0 −R2 (1 + a 2 R) a R) R2 (1 + q 2 −R2 − aR (2R + 3a)(R − 4a) + 4π 0 4a2 R2 R4 − R2 2 + a R2 (1 + R )2 + (1 + a R4 (1 + R )4 a R) The second term in brackets approaches the constant 2/R 2 as a → 0. 16π 0 a2 Note that only the ﬁrst image charge (the one required to make the sphere an equipotential) contributes to the force as d → a. .6178.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 [d2 dR − R 2 ]2 = d2 + dR d4 d4 R = (d + R)[d2 − R2 ]2 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + dR4 + R5 I used GnuPlot to solve this one graphically.43. then q2 = 2q − q1 = q(2 + R/d). The root of this one is d/R=1. The ﬁrst term becomes −1/4a2. Again I solved graphically to ﬁnd d/R = 1. The second image charge.88. That means that the limiting value of the force will be as above regardless of the charge on the sphere. So we have F →− q2 . (b) The idea here is to set d = R + a = R(1 + a/R) and ﬁnd the limit of (4) as a → 0. then F = and the equation is dR d2 + 2dR q2 − 2 + 2 ]2 4π 0 [d − R 2d4 0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 4d2 R3 + dR4 + 2R5 . If the charge on the sphere is half the point charge. the one which represents the diﬀerence between the actual charge on the sphere and the charge induced by the ﬁrst image. The root is d/R=1. makes no contribution in this limit. Then (5) becomes dR 2d2 + dR q2 − 2 + 4π 0 [d − R2 ]2 d4 and the relevant equation becomes F = 0 = 2d5 − 4d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + 2dR4 + R5 .

Eq. of an isolated charged conducting sphere. 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) Relate this result to the electrostatic potential.6). The work is W = − = = = = = F dy r (6) q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 q2 a 4π 0 dy y 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 r ∞ ydy (y 2 − a2 )2 r ∞ du 2 2 −a2 2u r ∞ r 2 −a2 ∞ 1 q2 a − 4π 0 2u q2 a 8π 0 (r2 − a2 ) (7) To relate this to earlier results. (2. (2. Eq. Show that the work done is W = q2 a q 2 a qQ 1 .11. and the energy discussion of Section 1. (2. Eq. − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r Relate the work to the electrostatic potential. (b) Repeat the calculation of the work done to remove the charge q against the force. (a) The force is |F | = q2 a 1 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2 4π 0 y ∞ directed radially inward. of a grounded conducting sphere is W = q2 a .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 9 Problem 2. Eq.11. and the energy discussion of Section 1. (2. The potential energy between the point charge and .5 (a) Show that the work done to remove the charge q from a distance r > a to inﬁnity against the force. note that the image charge q = −(a/r)q is located at radius r = a2 /r.3).9).8).

and it is assumed that the other charge does not move and keeps a constant charge during the process. storing up as much energy in the battery as we pleased. and its charge increases. and we should take (7) to be the correct result. which we could store in a battery or something. plus the work needed to remove the point charge from the extra charge at the origin.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 its image is PE = = = 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 1 4π 0 qq |r − r | −q 2 a r(r − a2 /r) −q 2 a r 2 − a2 (8) Result (7) is only half of (8). The second contribution is ∞ − r q(Q − q )dy 4π 0 y 2 = − 1 4π 0 ∞ r qQ q 2 a + 3 dy y2 y ∞ r 1 qQ q 2 a = − − − 2 4π 0 y 2y 1 qQ q 2 a = − + 2 4π 0 r 2r so the total work done is W = 1 q2 a q 2 a qQ . and as the point charge q is brought in from inﬁnity the image charge moves out from the center of the sphere. The work needed to remove the point charge q to inﬁnity is the work needed to remove the point charge from its image charge. This would seem to violate energy conservation. and another of charge Q − q at the origin. Then we could expend an energy equal to (7) to remove the charge back to inﬁnity. but we would still have half of the energy saved in the battery. The traditional expression q1 q2 /4π 0 r for the potential energy of two charges comes from calculating the work needed to bring one charge from inﬁnity to a distance r from the other charge. We calculated the ﬁrst contribution above. But in this case one of the charges is a ﬁctitious image charge. − 2 − 4π 0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r r . So the simple expression doesn’t work to calculate the potential energy of the conﬁguration. It would seem that we could keep doing this over and over again. I think the problem is with equation (8). at which point we would be back where we started. It would seem that we could start with the point charge at inﬁnity and allow it to fall in to a distance r from the sphere. (b) In this case there are two image charges: one of the same charge and location as in part a. liberating a quantity of energy (8).

(9) becomes ∂ψ ∂n V ( φ(x )) · ( ψ(x )) + φ(x ) 2 ψ(x ) dV = S φ(x ) dA x where ∂ψ/∂n is the dot product of ψ with the outward normal to the surface area element. Usually we do know ρ within the volume. we know that so we have φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψ(x ) = −ρ(x )/ 0 . and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary to compute the right side.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 Review of Green’s Functions Some problems in this and other chapters use the Green’s function technique. Then ( V · A(x )) dV = S A(x ) · dA (9) where S is the (closed) surface bounding the volume V . If we take A(x) = φ(x) ψ(x) where φ and ψ are scalar functions. It’s useful to review this technique. so that the term which we can’t evaluate drops out of the surface integral. x − ψx0 (x ) . −ψ ∂n ∂n (10) This statement doesn’t appear to be very useful. boundary. If we write down this equation with φ and ψ switched and subtract the two. ∂φ ∂n dA . (Since this ψ is a function of x which also depends on x0 as a parameter.) Then we could use the sifting property of the delta function to ﬁnd φ(x0 ) = V ψx0 (x ) 2 φ(x ) dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n x − ψx0 (x ) 2 ∂φ ∂n dA . The whole technique is based on the divergence theorem. and also to establish my conventions since I deﬁne the Green’s function a little diﬀerently than Jackson. x ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + φ(x ) S ∂ψx0 ∂n (11) Equation (11) allows us to ﬁnd the potential at an arbitrary point x0 as long as we know ρ within the volume and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. we come up with φ V 2 ψ−ψ 2 φ dV = S φ ∂ψ ∂φ dA . This lack of knowledge can be accommodated by choosing ψ such that either its value or its normal derivative vanishes on the boundary surface. However. Suppose A(x) is a vector valued function deﬁned at each point x within a volume V . we might write it as ψx0 (x). More speciﬁcally. since it seems to require that we know φ over the whole volume to compute the left side. but we only know either φ or ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. suppose we could choose ψ(x) in a clever way such that 2 ψ = δ(x − x0 ) for some point x0 within the volume. x If φ is the scalar potential of electrostatics.

we choose ψ such that ψ = 0 on the boundary. x (13) Again. Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φ(x ) ∂ψx0 ∂n dA . . in both cases the function ψx0 (x) has the property that 2 ψx0 (x) = δ(x − x0 ). we choose ψ such that ∂ψ/∂n = 0 on the boundary. Then φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + S φx0 (x ) ∂φ ∂n dA . x (12) • if we know ∂φ/∂n but not φ on the boundary (“Neumann” boundary conditions).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 • if we know φ but not ∂φ/∂n on the boundary (“Dirichlet” boundary conditions).

1999 Chapter 2: Problems 11-20 Problem 2.4 in units of τ /2πb. on the x axis.3 for the potential of a line charge. the axis of a conducting cylinder of radius b held at ﬁxed voltage such that the potential vanishes at inﬁnity. Find (a) the magnitude and position of the image charge(s). Suppose we put the image charge a distance R < b from the center of the cylinder and give it a charge density −τ .Solutions to Problems in Jackson.e.11 A line charge with linear charge density τ is placed parallel to. (c) the induced surface-charge density. (a) Drawing an analogy to the similar problem of the point charge outside the conducting sphere. Third Edition Homer Reid December 8. the potential at a point x due to the line charge and its image is Φ(x) = τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − Rˆ 2 i| 1 − τ 4π ln 0 R2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . (d) the force on the charge. Using the expression quoted in Problem 2. and plot it as a function of angle for R/b=2. (b) the potential at any point (expressed in polar coordinates with the origin at the axis of the cylinder and the direction from the origin to the line charge as the x axis). including the asymptotic form far from the cylinder. and a distance R away from. i. Classical Electrodynamics. we might expect that the potential on the cylinder can be made constant by placing an image charge within the cylinder on the line conducting the line charge with the center of the cylinder.

but there are diﬀerences: in this case the image charge has the same magnitude as the original line charge. For this to be true everywhere on the cylinder. (b) At a point (ρ. we have Φ= For large ρ. R This is also analogous to the point-charge-and-sphere problem. we have Φ → = (c) σ = − 0 τ 4π τ 2π 2(R − R ) cos φ ρ 0 R(1 − b2 /R2 ) cos φ ρ 0 ∂Φ ∂ρ r=b 2b − 2R cos φ τ 2b − 2R cos φ − = − 4π b2 + R 2 − 2bR cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ = − τ 2π b− b2 + b4 R2 b2 R cos φ 3 − 2 b cos φ R − b − R cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ . ρ2 + R2 − 2ρR cos φ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ 1 − 2 R cos φ ρ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 |x − R ˆ 2 i| . and the potential on the cylinder is constant but not zero. this becomes Φ→ τ 4π ln 0 τ 4π ln 0 ρ2 + R 2 − 2ρR cos φ . φ). Using ln(1 − x) = −(x + x2 /2 + · · ·). which requires R = γR. This requires that the argument of the logarithm be equal to some constant γ at those points: |x − R ˆ 2 i| =γ ˆ2 |x − Ri| or b2 + R 2 − 2R b cos φ = γb2 + γR2 − 2γRb cos φ. the φ term must drop out. We can then rearrange the remaining terms to ﬁnd R = b2 . |x − Rˆ 2 i| 2 = τ 4π ln 0 We want to choose R such that the potential is constant when x is on the cylinder surface.

y = 0. evaluate the coeﬃcients formally.12 Starting with the series solution (2. Problem 2. Φ(x) = − ln 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| with C some constant.71) for the two-dimensional potential problem with the potential speciﬁed on the surface of a cylinder of radius b. and the ﬁeld there is E=− τ 2π 1 ˆ τ i=− R−R 2π R ˆ i. and sum it to obtain the potential inside the cylinder in the form of Poisson’s integral: Φ(ρ. We can diﬀerentiate this to ﬁnd the electric ﬁeld due to the image charge: E(x) = − Φ(x) = − τ ln |x − R ˆ 2 i| 4π 0 i) τ 2(x − R ˆ = − . substitute them into the series. φ) = 1 2π 2π Φ(b. φ ) 0 b2 − ρ 2 dφ b2 + ρ2 − 2bρ cos(φ − φ) What modiﬁcation is necessary if the potential is desired in the region of space bounded by the cylinder and inﬁnity? . 4π 0 |x − R ˆ 2 i| The original line charge is at x = R. R 2 − b2 0 0 The force per unit width on the line charge is F = τE = − τ2 R 2π 0 R2 − b2 tending to pull the original charge in toward the cylinder.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 Multiplying the ﬁrst term by R2 /b2 on top and bottom yields σ = − = − τ 2π R2 b −b b2 − 2bR cos φ 3 R2 + R 2 − b2 τ 2 + b2 − 2bR cos φ 2πb R (d) To ﬁnd the force on the charge. we note that the potential of the image charge is τ C2 .

φ ) 0 n The bracketed term can be expressed in closed form. φ) = = 1 π 1 π 2π Φ(b. (1) Multiplying both sides successively by 1. φ)dφ 0 2π (2) (3) (4) Φ(b. We are left with ∞ Φ(ρ. because the ln term and the negative powers of ρ are singular at the origin. and cos n φ and integrating at ρ = b gives a0 an bn = = = 1 2π 1 πbn 1 πbn 2π Φ(b. 0 Plugging back into (1). . (5) Φ(b. 1 + x2 − 2x cos α + ∞ Plugging this back into (5) gives the advertised result. φ) sin(nφ)dφ 0 2π Φ(b.71). we ﬁnd Φ(ρ. φ) cos(nφ)dφ. sin n φ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 4 Referring to equation (2. φ ) 0 2π ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ρ 1 + 2 n=1 b ∞ ∞ n [sin(nφ) sin(nφ ) + cos(nφ) cos(nφ )] dφ cos n(φ − φ ) . For simplicity deﬁne x = (ρ/b) and α = (φ − φ ). we know the bn are all zero. Then 1 + xn cos(nα) 2 n=1 ∞ = = = = = = 1 1 + xn einα + xn e−inα 2 2 n=1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα 1 − xe−iα 1 1 − xe−iα − xeiα + 1 + −2 2 1 − xeiα − xe−iα + x2 1 − x cos α + −1 1 + x2 − 2x cos α x cos α − x2 + 1 + x2 − 2x cos α 1 − x2 . φ) = a0 + n=1 ρn {an sin(nφ) + bn cos(nφ)} .

13 (a) Two halves of a long hollow conducting cylinder of inner radius b are separated by small lengthwise gaps on each side. and are kept at diﬀerent potentials V1 and V2 . This problem is just like the previous one.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 5 Problem 2. With these coeﬃcients. n odd bn = 2π π 1 cos(nφ)dφ cos(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 n πb π 0 1 π 2π = V1 |sin nφ|0 + V2 |sin nφ|π nπbn = 0. the correct expansion is (1) with expansion coeﬃcients given by (2). Show that the potential inside is given by Φ(ρ. the potential expansion becomes Φ(ρ. Since we are looking for an expression for the potential within the cylinder. (3) and (4): 1 2π 2π a0 = = = Φ(b. n even 2(V1 − V2 )/(nπbn ) . (b) Calculate the surface-charge density on each half of the cylinder. φ) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 2 π b2 2bρ cos φ − ρ2 where φ is measured from a plane perpendicular to the plane through the gap. (6) n odd . φ) = V1 + V 2 2(V1 − V2 ) + 2 π 1 ρ n b n sin nφ. φ)dφ 0 an = = = = π 2π 1 V1 dφ + V2 dφ 2π 0 π V1 + V 2 2 2π π 1 sin(nφ)dφ sin(nφ)dφ + V2 V1 πbn π 0 1 π 2π − V1 |cos nφ|0 + V2 |cos nφ|π nπbn 1 − [V1 (cos nπ − 1) + V2 (1 − cos nπ)] nπbn 0 .

. Jackson and I deﬁned the angle φ diﬀerently).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 6 Here we need an auxiliary result: 1 n x sin nφ = n = = 1 2i 1 (iy)n [einπ − e−inφ ] n (x = iy) n odd n odd ∞ (−1)n 1 (yeiφ )2n+1 − (ye−iφ )2n+1 2 n=0 2n + 1 1 tan−1 (yeiφ ) − tan−1 (ye−iφ ) 2 (7) where in the last line we just identiﬁed the Taylor series for the inverse tangent function. 1 tan−1 2 1 tan−1 2 2iy sin φ 1 + y2 2x sin φ 1 − x2 . (I derived this one by drawing some triangles and doing some algebra. b) = V1 − V 2 V1 + V 2 + tan−1 π π 2ρb sin φ b2 − ρ 2 .) With this. (7) becomes 1 n x sin nφ = n = Using this in (6) with x = ρ/b gives Φ(ρ. n odd (Evidently. Next we need an identity: tan−1 γ1 − tan−1 γ2 = tan−1 γ1 − γ 2 1 + γ 1 γ2 .

y ) = δ(y − y) ∂y 2 and gn (y.) (a) To use as a Green’s function in a Dirichlet boundary value problem G must satisfy two conditions. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. x . y ) satisﬁes ∂2 − n2 π 2 gn (y. in accord with the boundary conditions and the discontinuity in slope required by the source delta function. First. 1) = 0. y ) on the boundary. we have ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. y ) appropriate for Dirichlet boundary conditions for a square two-dimensional region. (b) Taking for gn (y. 0) = gn (y. The second condition on G is 2 G= ∂2 ∂2 + 2 ∂x ∂y 2 G = δ(x − x ) δ(y − y ). has an expansion ∞ G(x. The ﬁrst is that G vanish on the boundary of the region of interest. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) 2 ∂y ∂y 2 n=1 ∞ ∞ . y ) appropriate linear combinations of sinh(nπy ) and cosh(nπy ) in the two regions y < y and y > y. y ) vanishes for points (x . y. y. x . y ) vanishes when y is 0 or 1. The suggested expansion of G clearly satisﬁes this. So G(x. y. y ) sin(nπx) −n2 π 2 sin(nπx ) ∂x 2 n=1 ∂2 ∂2 G = 2 gn (y. x .15 (a) Show that the Green function G(x.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 7 Problem 2. y ) = −2 1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) sinh(nπy< ) sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ where y< (y> ) is the smaller (larger) of y and y . y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) where gn (y. (I have taken out a factor −4π from the expressions for gn and G. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. y. sin(nπx ) is 0 when x is 0 or 1. Second. x . show that the explicit form of G is G(x. (8) With the suggested expansion. see the Green’s functions review above. y ) = 2 n=1 gn (y. in accordance with my convention for Green’s functions. g(y.

(b) The suggestion is to take gn (y. the lower line in (9) becomes gn (y. Next we need to make sure that the two halves of (9) match up at y = y: An1 sinh(nπy) = γn sinh[nπ(1 − y)]. (12) . the condition that gn vanish for y = 0 is only relevant to the top line of (9). Thus gn as deﬁned in (9) satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation (at all points except y = y ) for any choice of the As and Bs. we could multiply (11) by an arbitrary constant γn and (10) would still be satisﬁed. (9) The idea to use hyperbolic sines and cosines comes from the fact that sinh(nπy) and cosh(nπy) satisfy a homogeneous version of the diﬀerential equation for g n (i. The condition that gn vanish for y = 1 only aﬀects the lower line of (9). and − An2 + Bn2 = enπ . y > y. y ) = An1 sinh(nπy ) + Bn1 cosh(nπy ). y < y. where it requires taking Bn1 = 0 but leaves An1 undetermined for now. This leaves us free to choose these coeﬃcients as required to satisfy the boundary conditions and the diﬀerential equation at y = y .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8 We can add these together and use the diﬀerential equation satisﬁed by gn to ﬁnd ∞ 2 G = δ(y − y ) · 2 n=1 sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) = δ(y − y ) · δ(x − x ) since the inﬁnite sum is just a well-known representation of the δ function.e. where it requires that 0 = An2 sinh(nπ) + Bn2 cosh(nπ) = (An2 + Bn2 )enπ + (−An2 + Bn2 )e−nπ One way to make this work is to take An2 + Bn2 = −e−nπ Then Bn2 = enπ + An2 so An2 = − cosh(nπ) → and 2An2 = −enπ − e−nπ Bn2 = sinh(nπ). First let’s consider the boundary conditions. satisfy that diﬀerential equation with the δ function replaced by zero). An2 sinh(nπy ) + Bn2 cosh(nπy ). we haven’t completely determined An2 and Bn2 . (10) With this choice of coeﬃcients. Actually. y ) = − cosh(nπ) sinh(nπy )+sinh(nπ) cosh(nπy ) = sinh[nπ(1−y )] (11) for (y > y). Since y is somewhere between 0 and 1.

y ) from Problem 2. and • that its integral over any interval (y1 . and vanish otherwise. y2 ) equal 1 if the interval contains the point y = y.4 yprime 0. (14) To say that the left-hand side “equals” the delta function requires two things: • that the left-hand side vanish at all points y = y. The ﬁnal step is to choose the normalization constant βn such that gn satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation: ∂2 ∂2y 2 − n2 π 2 gn (y. The second condition may be satisﬁed by making gn continuous.6 0.41. y > y. y ) = δ(y − y ). y = . y=.2 0. which we have already done.8 1 Figure 1: gn (y. Figure 1 shows a graph of this function n = 5.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 70000 9 60000 50000 g(yprime) 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 0.15 with n=5. The ﬁrst condition is clearly satisﬁed regardless of the choice of βn .41 This obviously happens when An1 = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] and γn = βn sinh(nπy) where βn is any constant. βn sinh[nπ(1 − y )] sinh(nπy). In other words. y < y. (13) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) with y< and y> deﬁned as in the problem. but giving its ﬁrst derivative a ﬁnite jump of unit magnitude at y = y: . we have gn (y. y ) = βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy ).

Referring to my Green’s functions review above. nπ sinh(nπ) n=1 Problem 2. x ) x ∂Φ ∂n dA . nπ sinh(nπ) and the composite Green’s function is ∞ G(x. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1) bounded by “surfaces” held at zero potential.16 A two-dimensional potential exists on a unit square area (0 ≤ x ≤ 1. x (16) In this case the surface integral vanishes. We’re also given that . and G vanishes there by construction. because we’re given that Φ vanishes on the boundary. show that the solution can be written as Φ(x. x . y) = 4 π3 0 sin[(2m + 1)πx] (2m + 1)3 m=0 ∞ 1− cosh[(2m + 1)π(y − (1/2))] cosh[(2m + 1)π/2] .15. y ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) n=1 ∞ sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx ) (15) . Over the entire square there is a uniform charge density of unit strength (per unit length in z). y. y =y − Diﬀerentiating (13). y ) = − sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) nπ sinh(nπ) 1 . we ﬁnd this condition to require nπβn [− cosh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy) − sinh[nπ(1 − y)] cosh(nπy)] = −nπβn sinh(nπ) = 1 so (14) is satisﬁed if βn = − Then (13) is gn (y. Using the Green function of Problem 2. x )ρ(x )dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G ∂n − G(x0 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10 ∂ gn (y. y ) ∂y y =y + = 1. y ) = 2 = −2 gn (y. the potential at a point x0 within the square is given by Φ(x0 ) = − 1 0 V G(x0 .

The x integral is 1 sin(nπx0 ) 0 sin(nπx )dx = − = sin(nπx0 ) [cos(nπ) − 1] nπ (2 sin(nπx0 ))/nπ . (19) nπ Inserting (18) and (19) in (17). but this is tedious to show so I’ll skip the proof. . (17) The integrals can be done separately. n odd 0 . Then we can plug in (15) to ﬁnd 2 Φ(x0 ) = π 0 1 n sinh(nπ) n=1 ∞ 1 0 0 1 sinh[nπ(1−y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx0 ) sin(nπx )dx dy . The thing in brackets is equal to what Jackson has. we have Φ(x0 ) = 4 π3 0 n odd sin(nπx0 ) n3 1− sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] + sinh(nπy0 ) sinh(nπ) . n even (18) The y integral is y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] 0 sinh(nπy )dy + sinh(nπy0 ) y0 sinh[nπ(1 − y )]dy = = = 1 y0 1 sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] · cosh(nπy ) 0 − sinh[nπy0 ] · cosh[nπ(1 − y )] y0 nπ 1 {sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] cosh(nπy0 ) + sinh(nπy0 ) cosh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 ) − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )]} nπ 1 {sinh[nπ] − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 )}.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11 ρ(x )dV = dx dy throughout the entire volume.

ρ . ρ ) for ﬁxed ρ is a diﬀerent linear combination of the solutions of the homogeneous radial equation (2. Show that apart from an inessential constant. x . ρ ) G= 2π −∞ where the radial Green functions satisfy 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 δ(ρ − ρ ) gm = . with a discontinuity of slope at ρ = ρ determined by the source delta function. φ.) (a) R = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 + (z − z )2 ]1/2 ≡ [a2 + u2 ]1/2 . +Z −Z Integrating. (As in Problem 2.68) for ρ < ρ and for ρ > ρ. the Green function can be written alternately as G(x.17 (a) Construct the free-space Green function G(x. y. y. [a2 du + u2 ]1/2 = ln (a2 + u2 )1/2 + u . ∞ 1 eim(φ−φ ) gm (ρ. u = (z − z ). φ ) = 1 1 ln(ρ2 ) − > 4π 2π 1 m m=1 ∞ ρ< ρ> m · cos[m(φ − φ )] where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of ρ and ρ . y ) = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )]. ρ2 ρ Note that gm (ρ. (b) Show explicitly by separation of variables in polar coordinates that the Green function can be expressed as a Fourier series in the azimuthal coordinate. (c) Complete the solution and show that the free-space Green function has the expansion G(ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12 Problem 2. y ) for twodimensional electrostatics by integrating 1/R with respect to z − z between the limits ±Z. a = [(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ]1/2 Z −Z . I modiﬁed the text of the problem to match with my convention for Green’s functions. where Z is taken to be very large. x .15.

φ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 + Z (Z 2 + a2 )1/2 − Z (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 + 1 (1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 − 1 2+ a2 2Z 2 a2 2Z 2 2 13 = ln = ln ≈ ln = ln 4Z + a2 a2 2 = ln[4Z + a2 ] − ln a2 . ρ2 If gm satisﬁes its diﬀerential equation as speciﬁed in the problem. . The Laplacian in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates is 2 = 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂ ∂ρ − 1 ∂ . φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ )δ(φ − φ ). ρ . φ. φ )ρ dρ dφ = 1 but 2 G = 0 at points other than (ρ. The remaining term is the 2D Green’s function: G = − ln a2 = − ln[(x − x )2 + (y − y )2 ] in rectangular coordinates = − ln[ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )] in cylindrical coordinates. φ. the ﬁrst term is essentially independent of a and is the ’nonessential constant’ Jackson is talking about. ρ . ρ . (b) The 2d Green’s function is deﬁned by 2 G(ρ. φ). ρ . These conditions are met if 2 G(ρ. ρ 2 ∂φ 2 Applying this to the suggested expansion for G gives 2 G(ρ. Since Z is much bigger than a. the term in brackets equals δ(ρ − ρ )/ρ for all m and may be removed from the sum. φ ) = = δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ δ(ρ − ρ ) ρ · 1 2π ∞ eim(φ−φ ) −∞ δ(φ − φ ). leaving 2 G(ρ. φ. ρ (20) You need the ρ on the bottom there to cancel out the ρ in the area element in the integral. φ ) = 1 2π ∞ −∞ 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂gm ∂ρ − m2 gm eim(φ−φ ) .

the solution to the homogenous equation 1 ∂ ρ ∂ρ is f (ρ ) = Am ρ m + Bm ρ −m . and the second solution be ﬁnite at inﬁnity.15.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 14 (c) As in Problem 2. 2m = 1 ρ . we have to take B1m = A2m = 0. Thus we take gm = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m . ρ <ρ ρ >ρ The ﬁnite-derivative step condition is − ρ =ρ+ dgm dρ = ρ =ρ− 1 ρ 1 1 + ρ ρ 1 . ρ > ρ. . For m ≥ 1. we’ll construct the functions gm by ﬁnding solutions of the homogenous radial diﬀerential equation in the two regions and piecing them together at ρ = ρ such that the function is continuous but its derivative has a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ. Then the condition that the two solutions match at ρ = ρ is A1m ρm = B2m ρ−m which requires A1m = γm ρ−m for some constant γm . . ρ >ρ = − ρ< ρ> . ρ ∂ ∂ρ − m2 ρ2 f (ρ ) = 0 In order that the ﬁrst solution be ﬁnite at the origin. ρ <ρ . Now we have γm gm = γm dgm dρ or −mγm so γm = − Then gm = − 1 2m − 1 2m 1 2m ρ ρ ρ ρ m m m B2m = ρm γm ρ ρ ρ ρ m m . ρ <ρ .

no mistake is made in its use. (c) What changes are necessary for the Green function for the exterior problem (b < ρ < ∞).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 15 Plugging this back into the expansion gives G = − = − 1 4π 1 2π ∞ −∞ ∞ 1 m 1 m ρ< ρ> ρ< ρ> m eim(φ−φ ) m cos[m(φ − φ )]. For situations in which the potential falls of fast enough as ρ → ∞. (21) The ﬁrst boundary conditions are that gm remain ﬁnite at the origin and vanish on the cylinder boundary. b2 |ρ − ρ |2 (b) Show that the solution of the Laplace equation with the potential given as Φ(b. 1 Jackson seems to be adding a ln term to this. we write the general solution of the radial equation for gm in the two distinct regions: gm (ρ. See (1.18 (a) By ﬁnding appropriate solutions of the radial equation in part b of Problem 2. for both the Fourier expansion and the closed form? [Note that the exterior Green function is not rigorously correct because it does not vanish for ρ or ρ → ∞. ρ ) = A1m ρ m + B1m ρ −m A2m ρ m + B2m ρ −m .12. Problem 2.17. ﬁnd the Green function for the interior Dirichlet problem of a cylinder of radius b [gm (ρ. First ﬁnd the series expansion akin to the free-space Green function of Problem 2.40)]. Then show that it can be written in closed form as G = ln or G = ln ρ2 ρ 2 + b4 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) b2 (ρ2 + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (b2 − ρ2 )(b2 − ρ 2 ) + b2 |ρ − ρ |2 . ρ > ρ. which comes from the m = 0 solution of the radial equation.] (a) As before. ρ = b) = 0. but I have left it out because it doesn’t vanish as ρ → ∞. ρ <ρ . φ) on the cylinder can be expressed as Poisson’s integral of Problem 2.17. This requires that B1m = 0 .

1 ρ = dgm dρ − ρ =ρ+ m−1 dgm dρ b m ρ =ρ− = mγm = 2mγm so ρ bm b ρ + m ρm+1 − mγm ρ b m − b ρ m 1 ρ 1 ρ 1 ρ 2m b m m γm = and gm (ρ. Plugging into the expansion for G gives G(ρ. . Next. ρ <ρ m ρ > ρ. ρ ) = γm = γm ρ b ρ b m = γm = γm ρm ρ b ρ b m b ρ m b − ρ − m m . . φ ) = 1 2π 1 m n=1 ∞ ρρ b2 m − ρ< ρ> m cos m(φ − φ ). ρ . dgm /dρ must have a ﬁnite jump of magnitude 1/ρ at ρ = ρ. ρ< ρ> m − . (22) . ρ ) = = or gm (ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 16 and A2m bm + B2m b−m = 0 so A2m = γm b−m B2m = −γm bm for some constant γm . gm must be continuous at ρ = ρ : A1m ρm A1m With this we have gm (ρ. Finally. m ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. φ. − − b ρ b ρ m ρ ρ m m . ρ ) = 1 2m 1 2m ρρ b2 ρρ b2 1 2m − m − ρρ b2 ρ ρ ρ ρ m m .

φ) = Φ(b. with an additional ln term thrown in for good measure. the volume integral vanishes. If there is no charge inside the cylinder. and we are left with the surface integral: Φ(ρ. For this we need the normal derivative of (23) on the cylinder: ∂G 1 =− ∂ρ 4π 2ρ − 2ρ cos(φ − φ ) 2ρ2 ρ − 2ρb2 cos(φ − φ ) − 2 2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) +ρ ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ ) b4 . The integral in the second-to-last step can be done by partial fraction decomposition. Did I do something wrong? (b) Now we want to plug the expression for G above into (16) to compute the potential within the cylinder.17 (c). although I cheated and looked it up on www. φ ) = − 1 1 + (ρρ /b2 )2 − 2(ρρ /b2 ) cos(φ − φ ) ln 4π 1 + (ρ< /ρ> )2 − 2(ρ< /ρ> ) cos(φ − φ ) ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < ρ2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 > = − ln 4π b4 ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ ) > < 2 ρ> 1 = − ln 4π b2 b4 + ρ2 ρ 2 − 2ρρ b2 cos(φ − φ ) 1 ln 2 2 − 4π b (ρ + ρ 2 − 2ρρ cos(φ − φ )) (23) This is Jackson’s result. We can apply this result individually to the two terms in (22): G(ρ. . ρ =b (24) where the integral is over the surface of the cylinder. 2 = − (I summed the inﬁnite series here back in Problem 2. I’m not sure why Jackson didn’t quote this term as part of his answer.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 17 Here we need to work out an auxiliary result: 1 n x cos n(φ − φ ) = n n=1 = 0 x ∞ ∞ 0 x un−1 du cos m(φ − φ ) ∞ n=1 x 1 un cos n(φ − φ ) du u n=1 cos(φ − φ ) − u 1 + u2 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) du x 0 = 0 1 ln(1 − 2u cos(φ − φ ) + u2 ) 2 1 = − ln[1 − 2x cos(φ − φ ) + x2 ].com). φ. φ ) ∂G ∂ρ dA . ρ . he did include it in his answer to problem 2.integrals.12.

In the surface integral. But the closed-form expression was symmetrical in those two expressions (except for the mysterious ln term) so the closed-form expression for the exterior Green’s function should be the same as the interior Green’s function.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 18 Evaluated at ρ = b this is ∂G ∂ρ =− ρ =b 1 2π ρ2 − b 2 b(ρ2 + b2 − 2ρb cos(φ − φ )) . This is the same gm we came up with before. the extra factor of b on the bottom is cancelled by the factor of b in the area element dA . Now the boundary conditions are diﬀerent. The ﬁnite derivative jump condition gives −mγm or γm = − ρ b m − b ρ m 1 − mγm ρ 1 2m m ρ b m m + b ρ m 1 1 = ρ ρ b ρ .12. . but with b2 and ρρ terms ﬂipped in ﬁrst term. while the condition at b gives A1m = γm b−m B1m = −γm bm . (c) For the exterior problem we again start with the solution (21). Putting it all together we have for the exterior problem gm = 1 2m b2 ρρ − ρ< ρ> m . and (24) becomes just the result of Problem 2. From the continuity condition at ρ = ρ we ﬁnd A2m = γm ρm ρ b m − b ρ m . the condition at ∞ gives A2m = 0.

Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from -1 to 1 gives 1 Φ(r. Include terms at least up to l = 4. b(b > a) and each is divided into two hemispheres by the same horizontal plane. θ) = l=0 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). 2l + 1 1 . Classical Electrodynamics. 2l + 1 At r = a this yields 1 V 0 Pl (x)dx = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) . θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2 Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) . 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 1-10 Problem 3. The upper hemisphere of the inner sphere and the lower hemisphere of the outer sphere are maintained at potential V . Check your solution against known results in the limiting cases b → ∞ and a → 0. The other hemispheres are at zero potential.1 Two concentric spheres have radii a. Third Edition Homer Reid June 15. Detemine the potential in the region a ≤ r ≤ b as a series in Legendre polynomials. (1) We ﬁnd the coeﬃcients Al and Bl by applying the boundary conditions. The expansion of the electrostatic potential in spherical coordinates for problems with azimuthal symmetry is ∞ Φ(r.Solutions to Problems in Jackson.

θ) → − V 4 7 r P1 (cos θ) + V b 16 r b 3 P3 (cos θ) + · · · This agrees with equation (3.36) in the text. the problem goes over to the interior version of the same problem. with the sign of V ﬂipped. θ) → 3 V 4 a r 2 P1 (cos θ) − 7 V 16 a r 4 P3 (cos θ) + · · · in agreement with (2. V 0 Pl (x)dx = −1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) .3 of the text.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 and at r = b. In that limit the above expression goes to 3 Φ(r. because here the more positive potential is on the lower hemisphere. the above expression becomes Φ(r. 2l + 1 1 (2l + 1)(l − 2)!! αl = V (− )a(l−1)/2 . When a → 0. as treated in section 3. .7 of the text. 2 2 2 ! The integral from -1 to 0 also vanishes for l even. This gives 1 (l − 2)!! V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! (l − 2)!! 1 −V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 2 2 2 ! or αl −αl with = Al al + Bl a−(l+1) = Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) = = 2 Al al + Bl a−(l+1) 2l + 1 2 Al bl + Bl b−(l+1) . 2l + 1 The integral from 0 to 1 vanishes for l even. In that limit.27) with half the potential spacing. and is just the above result inverted for l odd. θ) = 3 V 4 (a2 + b2 )r a2 b2 (a + b) a4 b4 (a3 + b3 ) 7 (a4 + b4 )r3 − 2 3 − 4 7 P1 (cos θ)− P3 (cos θ)+· · · a3 − b 3 r (a − b3 ) 16 a7 − b 7 r (a − b7 ) In the limit as b → ∞. and is given in the text for l odd: 1 0 (l − 2)!! 1 Pl (x)dx = (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 . 2 4 l+1 ! 2 bl+1 + al+1 a2l+1 − b2l+1 al+1 bl+1 (bl + al ) a2l+1 − b2l+1 The solution is Al = α l Bl = −αl The ﬁrst few terms of (1) are Φ(r. the problem reduces to the exterior problem treated in Section 2.

What is the potential outside? (b) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at the origin.2 A spherical surface of radius R has charge uniformly distributed over its surface with a density Q/4πR2 .28 in the text) Pl (x) = d 1 [Pl+1 (x) − Pl−1 (x)] (2l + 1) dx . 3. (2) becomes ∂ Φ(r. and (2) so large that the area with charge on it becomes a very small cap at the south pole.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 Problem 3. for l = 0. (a) Show that the potential inside the spherical surface can be expressed as Φ= Q 8π 0 ∞ l=0 1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ) 2l + 1 R where. θ) = ∂r ∞ lAl rl−1 Pl (cos θ) l=1 Multiplying by Pl and integrating at r = R gives 1 0 1 σ(θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = −1 2l Al Rl−1 2l + 1 Pl (x)dx. so Al = 2l + 1 · 2lRl−1 Q 4πR2 cos α 0 −1 To evaluate the integral we use the identity (eq. Diﬀerentiating that expansion. so the Bl in (1) are zero. Pl−1 (cos α) = −1. except for a spherical cap at the north pole. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of the potential (part a) and electric ﬁeld (part b) as the spherical cap becomes (1)very small. At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the sphere. deﬁned by the cone θ = α. (2) The expression for the potential within the sphere must be ﬁnite at the origin. the electric ﬁeld is F=− Φ=− so ∂Φ ∂r σ 0 σ 0 ˆ r = r=R . (a) Let’s denote the charge density on the sphere by σ(θ).

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

4

so

cos α

Pl (x)dx =

−1

1 [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] . 2l + 1

(We used the fact that Pl+1 (−1) = Pl−1 (−1) for all l.) With this we have Al = Q [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] 8π 0 lRl+1

**so the potential expansion is Φ(r, θ) = Q 8π 0
**

∞

l=1

1 rl [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ). l R

Within the body of the sum, I have an l where Jackson has a 2l + 1. Also, he includes the l = 0 term in the sum, corresponding to a constant term in the potential. I don’t understand how he can determine that constant from the information contained in the problem; the information about the charge density only tells you the derivative of the potential. There’s nothing in this problem that ﬁxes the value of the potential on the surface beyond an arbitrary constant. (b) The ﬁeld at the origin comes from the l = 1 term in the potential: E(r = 0) = − Φ|r=0 ∂Φ 1 ∂Φ ˆ ˆ+ r θ ∂r r ∂θ r=0 d Q ˆ [P2 (cos α) − 1] P1 (cos θ)ˆ + P1 (cos θ)θ r = − 8π 0 R2 dθ Q 3 3 ˆ = − cos θˆ − sin θ θ r cos2 α − 8π 0 R2 2 2 = − = 3Q sin2 α ˆ k. 16π 0 R2

The ﬁeld points in the positive z direction. That makes sense, since a positive test charge at the origin would sooner ﬂy up out through the uncharged cap than through any of the charged surface.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

5

Problem 3.3

A thin, ﬂat, conducting, circular disk of radius R is located in the x − y plane with its center at the origin, and is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . With the information that the charge density on a disc at ﬁxed potential is proportional to (R2 − ρ2 )−1/2 , where ρ is the distance out from the center of the disc, (a) show that for r > R the potential is 2V R Φ(r, θ, φ) = π r (b) ﬁnd the potential for r < R. (c) What is the capacitance of the disk? We are told that the surface charge density on the disk goes like σ(r) = K(R2 − r2 )−1/2 1 r 2 K 3·1 1+ = + R 2 R (2!)(2 · 2) = K R (2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞ ∞

l=0

(−1)l 2l + 1

R 2l r

P2l (cos θ)

r R

4

+

5·3·1 (3!)(2 · 2 · 2)

r R

6

+··· (3)

r R

2n

for some constant K. From the way the problem is worded, I take it we’re not supposed to try to ﬁgure out what K is explicitly, but rather to work the problem knowing only the form of (3). At a point inﬁnitesimally close to the surface of the disk (i.e., as θ → π/2), the component of Φ in the direction normal to the surface of the disk must be proportional to the surface charge. At the surface of the disk, the normal ˆ direction is the negative θ direction. Hence 1 ∂ Φ(r, θ) r ∂θ =±

θ=(π/2)

σ

0

.

(4)

with the plus (minus) sign valid for Φ above (below) the disc. For r < R the potential expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

Al rl Pl (cos θ).

(5)

**Combining (3), (4), and (5) we have
**

∞

Al rl−1

l=0

d Pl (cos θ) dθ

=±

cos θ=0

K R 0

(2n − 1)!! n! · 2n n=0

∞

r R

2n

.

(6)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

6

For l even, dPl /dx vanishes at x = 0. For l odd, I used some of the Legendre polynomial identities to derive the formula d P2l+1 (x) dx = (−1)l (2l + 1)

x=0

(2l − 1)!! . l! · 2l

This formula reminds one strongly of expansion (3). Plugging into (6) and equating coeﬃcents of powers of r, we ﬁnd A2l+1 = ± so Φ(r, θ) = A0 ± K

0 ∞

(−1)l K (2l + 1)R2l+1 r R

0

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ).

I wrote A0 explicitly because we haven’t evaluated it yet–the derivative condition we used earlier gave no information about it. To ﬁnd A0 , observe that, on the surface of the disk (cos θ = 0), all the terms in the above sum vanish ( because Pl (0) is 0 for odd l) so Φ = A0 on the disk. But Φ = V on the disk. Therefore, A0 = V . We have Φ(r, θ) = V ± K

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

r R

2l+1

P2l+1 (cos θ)

(7)

where the plus (minus) sign is good for θ less than (greater than)π/2. Note that the presence of that ± sign preserves symmetry under reﬂection through the z axis, a symmetry that is clearly present in the physical problem. (a) For r > R, there is no charge. Thus the potential and its derivative must be continuous everywhere–we can’t have anything like the derivative discontinuity that exists at θ = π/2 for r < R. Since the physical problem is symmetric under a sign ﬂip in cos θ, the potential expansion can only contain Pl terms for l even. The expansion is

∞

Φ(r, θ) =

l=0

B2l r−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).

**At r = R, this must match up with (7): V ± K
**

0 ∞

l=1

(−1)l P2l+1 (cos θ) = 2l + 1

∞

**B2l R−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).
**

l=0

**Multiplying both sides by P2l (cos θ) sin(θ) and integrating gives B2l 2R−(2l+1) 4l + 1
**

1

= V

−1

Pl (x)dx + 2K

0 ∞

K

0

∞

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

1

0

1

−

−1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx +

0

P2l+1 (x)Pl (x)dx

= 2V δl,0 +

l=1

(−1)l 2l + 1

P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx.

0

φ) sin θ dφ dθ 1 −1 n 2kπ/n V 2l + 1 (l − m)! al 4π (l + m)! Plm (x) dx k=1 (−1)k e−imφ dφ . ﬁniteness at the origin requires Blm = 0. By a coordinate transformation verify that this reduces to result (3. Problem 3. their common line of intersection is the z axis and they are distributed uniformly in the angle φ. (8) For the solution within the sphere. Multiplying by Yl∗m and integrating over the surface of the sphere we ﬁnd Alm = = = 1 al V al n ∗ Φ(a. θ.4 The surface of a hollow conducting sphere of inner radius a is divided into an even number of equal segments by a set of planes. For the nonvanishing terms exhibit the coeﬃcients as an integral over cos θ.) The segments are kept at ﬁxed potentials ±V .3. θ. im This is to be summed from k = 1 to n with a factor of (−1)k thrown in: = − = 1 (e−2mπi(1/n) − 1) − (e−2mπi(2/n) − e−2mπi(1/n) ) + · · · − (1 − e−2mπi((n−1)/n) ) im 2 1 − e−2mπi/n + e2(−2mπi/n) − e3(−2mπi/n) + · · · + e(n−1)(−2mπi/n) . φ) Ylm (θ. φ) = l=0 m=−l Alm rl + Blm r−(l+1) Ylm (θ. and carry the calculation of the coeﬃcients in the series far enough to determine exactly which coeﬃcients are diﬀerent from zero.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 but I can’t do this last integral. (The segments are like the skin on wedges of an apple. φ) dΩ (−1)k k=1 0 π 2kπ/n 2(k−1)π/n 1/2 ∗ Ylm (θ. alternately. (b) For the special case of n = 1 (two hemispheres) determine explicitly the potential up to and including all terms with l = 3. (10) im .36) of Section 3. 2(k−1)π/n (9) The φ integral is easy: 2kπ/n e−imφ dφ = − 2(k−1)π/n 1 e−2imkπ/n − e−2im(k−1)π/n . or the earth’s surface between successive meridians of longitude. φ). (a) Set up a series representation for the potential inside the sphere for the general case of 2n segments. (a) The general potential expansion is ∞ l Φ(r.

with n = 2. m = 3n/2. we have A1±1 A3±1 A3±3 = ± = ± = ± 3 4πV i a 4π · 2 3πV i 7 · 2 2a3 4π · 4! 5πV i 7 a3 4π · 6! 1/2 1/2 1/2 Now we can plug these coeﬃcients into (8) to piece together the solution. the only terms that contribute are those with m = n/2. up to l = 3 the only nonzero terms in the series (9) are those with l = 1. while all the terms with a minus sign come out to -1. otherwise. the thing in braces is 1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · + xn−1 = 1 − xn 1 − e−2mπi = . · · · = 0. 2 2 (b) As shown above. and (10) equates to 2n .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 Putting x = − exp(−2mπi/n). In that case. otherwise. so all the terms with a plus sign in (10) come out to +1. m = ±1. so all n terms add constructively. 3n/2. 3/2. the 2mπi/n term in the exponent of the terms in (10) equates to πi. 1−x 1 + e−2imπ/n Note that the numerator vanishes. et cetera. Then the expression (9) for the coeﬃcients becomes Alm = 2nV 2l + 1 (l − m)! imal 4π (l + m)! 1/2 1 −1 Plm (x)dx. 4 = − −1 1 = −15 −1 (1 − x2 )3/2 dx = − Using these results in (??). We have 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 P1 (x) dx 1 P3 (x) dx 3 P3 (x) dx 1 = − −1 1 (1 − x2 )1/2 dx = −π (1 − x2 )1/2 3π 15 2 3 dx = − x − 2 2 8 15π . Of course there is also the constraint that m < l. 5/2. m = ±1 or ±3. 5n/2. m = n/2. . This involves some arithmetic in combining all the numerical factors in each . which only happens if the exponent in the denominator equates to -1. Then. m= n 3n . · · · . and l = 3. · · · = im 0. This only happens if m/n = 1/2. Thus the only way this thing can be nonzero is if the denominator also vanishes. We need to evaluate the θ integral for these terms.

Φ(r. (a) First of all. take the limit of a → 0 and ﬁnd the potential for r = 0. θ) = = → qa a 2 P1 (cos θ) + P3 (cos θ) + · · · 2 2π 0 r r a 2 p P3 (cos θ) + · · · P1 (cos θ) + 2 4π 0 r r p cos θ as a → 0. (a) Find the electrostatic potential as an expansion in spherical harmonics and powers of r for both r > a and r < a.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 9 coeﬃcient. which I have skipped here. (c) Suppose now that the dipole of part b is surrounded by a grounded spherical shell of radius b concentric with the origin. θ. (b) Φ(r. for a point on the z axis the potential is Φ(z) = = = 1 q 1 − 4π 0 |z − a| z + a a q a a 2 a +··· − 1− 1+ + + 4π 0 z z z z z q a a 3 + +··· 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· for z > a. This is by deﬁnition a dipole along the z azis and its potential. (b) Keeping the product qa = p/2 constant. θ) = q 2π 0 r a a P1 (cos θ) + r r 3 Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) P3 (cos θ) + · · · for r > a. φ) = V 3 r 7 r 3 sin θ(5 cos2 θ − 1) sin φ sin θ sin φ + a 16 a 7 r 3 3 + sin θ sin 3φ + · · · 144 a Problem 3. By linear superposition ﬁnd the potential everwhere inside the shell. 4π 0 r2 . respectively. For r < a we can just swap a and r in this equation.6 Two point charges q and −q are located on the z azis at z = +a and z = −a. Comparing this with the general expansion Φ = at θ = 0 we can identify the Bl s and write Φ(r.

The added potential can be viewed as caused by the surface-charge density induced on the inner surface at r = b or by image charges located at r > b. with Bl = 0 to keep us ﬁnite at the origin. To calculate Φs . but the product qa2 = Q remains ﬁnite. Q r5 Φ(r. 2π 0 r3 b (a) On the z axis. that only the l = 1 term in the sum contribute. 1− Φ(r. as indicated in the ﬁgure. Let’s denote by Φs the potential due to this charge distribution alone (not including the potential of the dipole) and by Φd the potential due to the dipole.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 (c) When we put the grounded sphere around the two charges. by the orthogonality of the Pl . The total potential is just the sum Φs + Φd : Φ(r. A1 = − 4π 0 b3 The total potential inside the sphere is then r p P1 (cos θ). 2π 0 z z z 2 ··· + 1− a a + z z 2 +··· . we pretend there are no charges within the sphere. a surface charge distribution forms on the sphere. −2q. Use linear superposition to satisfy the boundary conditions and ﬁnd the potential everywhere inside the sphere for r < a and r > a. the potential is Φ(z) = = = q 2 1 1 − + + 4π 0 z |z − a| z + a q a a −2 + 1 + + 4π 0 r z z q a 2 a 4 + +··· .7 Three point charges (q. θ. and that p . in which case we have the general expansion (1). (b) The presence of the grounded sphere of radius b alters the potential for r < b. (a) Write down the potential of the three charges in the absence of the grounded sphere. Show that in the limit a → 0. q) are located in a straight line with separation a and with the middle charge (−2q) at the origin of a grounded conducting spherical shell of radius b. θ) = p 4π 0 r2 ∞ cos θ + l=0 Al rl Pl (cos θ). φ) → 1 − 5 P2 (cos θ). Find the limiting form of the potential as a → 0. Write this latter answer in spherical coordinates. θ) = 2 4π 0 b b Problem 3. The condition that this vanish at r = b ensures.

θ) = Q r 1− 3 2π 0 r b 5 Q . Using the appropriate separation of variables in cylindrical coordinates. θ) = Q P2 (cos θ) + 2π 0 r3 ∞ Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 From the condition that Φ vanish at r = b. The potential on the end faces is zero. 2π 0 b5 P2 (cos θ). from this result we can immediately infer the expression for the potential at all points: Φ(r. and that A2 = − Then the potential within the sphere is Φ(r. z). and we add Φs to (11) to get the full potential within the sphere: Φ(r. θ) = = → a 4 a 2 q P2 (cos θ) + P4 (cos θ) + · · · 2π 0 r r r qa2 a 2 P4 (cos θ) + · · · P2 (cos θ) + 3 2π 0 r r Q P2 (cos θ) as a → 0 2π 0 r3 (11) (b) As in the previous problem. while the potential on the cylindrical surface is given as V (φ.9 A hollow right circular cylinder of radius b has its axis coincident with the z axis and its ends at z = 0 and z = L. the surface charges on the sphere produce an extra contribution Φs to the potential within the sphere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 As before. The φ function is of the form Q(φ) = A sin νφ + B cos νφ . The general solution of the Laplace equation for problems in cylindrical coordinates consists of a sum of terms of the form R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). Again we can express Φs with the expansion (1) (with Bl = 0). we determine that only the l = 2 term in the sum contributes. Problem 3. ﬁnd a series solution for the potential anywhere inside the cylinder.

which requires F = 0. The potential expansion is (12) with coeﬃcients given by (13) and (14). Z must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. (12) Multiplying by sin ν φ sin kn z and integrating at r = b. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz . The relevant integrals are L 0 0 2π V (φ.10 For the cylinder in Problem 3. 3. the solution must be ﬁnite as ρ → 0. V (φ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 with ν an integer.e.9 the cylindrical surface is made of two equal halfcylinders. n = 1. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ ∞ Φ(ρ. Bnν = 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π πL Iν (kn b)Anν 2 (13) 2 πLIν (kn b) L 0 0 2π V (φ. 2. z) sin νφ sin(kn z) dφ dz = so Anν = Similarly. Since we’re looking for the potential on the inside of the cylinder and there is no charge at the origin. so that V (φ. we ﬁnd L 0 0 2π V (φ. The z function is of the form Z(z) = Cekz + De−kz . z) = V −V for −π/2 < φ < π/2 for π/2 < φ < 3π/2 (a) Find the potential inside the cylinder. z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. · · · Z(z) = C sin(kn z) with kn = L With this form for Z. R must be taken to be of the form R(ρ) = EIν (kn ρ) + F Kν (kn ρ). z) = n=1 ν=0 [Anν sin νφ + Bnν cos νφ] sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ). which means we have to take k imaginary. (14) Problem 3. In this case. i. one at potential V and the other at potential −V . φ.13. consider the potential at z = L/2 as a function of ρ and φ and compare it with two-dimensional Problem 2. πn . z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. (b) Assuming L >> b.

**Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3
**

L π/2 3π/2

13

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2

sin(νφ) dφ −

π/2

sin(νφ) dφ

= 0

L 0 L 0 π/2 3π/2 2π

V (φ, z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz

= V

0

sin(kn z) dz

−π/2 π/2

cos(νφ) dφ −

π/2 3π/2

cos(νφ) dφ

= =

2V νkn Anν Bnν

|sin νφ|−π/2 − |sin νφ|π/2

(n odd)

Hence, from (13) and (14),

0 , n or ν even 8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 1, 5, 9, · · · −8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 3, 7, 11, · · · = 0 = 0, = (−1)(ν−1)/2 · 16V /(nνπ 2 Iν (kn b)), n or ν even n and ν odd

The potential expansion is Φ(ρ, θ, z) = 16V π2 (−1)(ν−1)/2 cos(νφ) sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ) nνIv (kn b) (15)

n,ν

where the sum contains only terms with n and ν odd. (b) At z = L/2 we have Φ(ρ, θ, L/2) = 16V π2 (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 Iν (kn ρ) cos(νφ) . nν Iν (kn b)

n,ν

As L → ∞, the arguments to the I functions become small. Using the limiting form for Iν quoted in the text as equation (3.102), we have Φ(ρ, θ) = 16V π2 ρ (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 cos(νφ) nν b

ν

.

n,ν

**The sums over n and ν are now decoupled: Φ(ρ, θ) = = = 16V π2 16V π2 (−1)n 2n + 1 n=0 π 4
**

∞ ∞

ρ (−1)ν cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0

ν

∞

ν

(−1)ν ρ cos(νφ) 2ν + 1 b ν=0 2ρb cos φ b2 − ρ 2

4V tan−1 π

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3

14

This agrees with the result of Problem 2.13, with V1 = −V2 = V . The ﬁrst series is just the Taylor series for tan−1 (x) at x = 1, so it sums to π/4. The second series can also be put into the form of the Taylor series for tan−1 (x), using tricks exactly analogous to what I did in my solution for Problem 2.13.

**Solutions to Problems in Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition
**

Homer Reid June 15, 2000

Chapter 3: Problems 11-18

Problem 3.11

A modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series on the interval 0 ≤ ρ ≤ a for an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be based on the ”homogenous” boundary conditions: At ρ = 0, ρJν (kρ) d Jν (k ρ) = 0 dρ λ d ln[Jν (kρ)] = − dρ a

At ρ = a,

(λ real)

The ﬁrst condition restricts ν. The second condition yields eigenvalues k = yνn /a, where yνn is the nth positive root of x dJν (x)/dx + λJν (x) = 0. (a) Show that the Bessel functions of diﬀerent eigenvalues are orthogonal in the usual way. (b) Find the normalization integral and show that an arbitrary function f (ρ) can be expanded on the interval in the modiﬁed Bessel-Fourier series

∞

f (ρ) =

n=1

A n Jν

yνn a

**with the coeﬃcients An given by 2 An = 2 a ν2 1− 2 yνn
**

2 Jν (yνn )

+

dJν (yνn ) dyνn

2 −1 0

a

f (ρ)ρJν

yνn ρ dρ. a

1

(b) If we multiply (1) by ρ2 J (kρ) and integrate. dρ (4) This is clearly symmetric in k and k . (1) Multiplying both sides by ρJν (k ρ) and integrating from 0 to a gives a Jν (k ρ) 0 d ν2 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 ρ − dρ dρ ρ Jν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0. the ﬁrst integral (along with the ν 2 /ρ term) vanishes. dρ Plugging this into (3). dρ (3) One of the conditions we’re given is that the thing in braces in the ﬁrst term here vanishes at ρ = 0. we have a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = −λJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) . we ﬁnd a 0 a ρJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0 0 ρJν (kρ) d [ρJ (kρ)]dρ+k 2 dρ ν a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ−ν 2 a 0 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 0. At ρ = a we can invoke the other condition: d ln[Jν (kρ)] dρ = ρ=a 1 d Jν (kρ) Jν (kρ) dρ ρ=a =− λ a d → a Jν (ka) = −λJν (ka). (5) . (2) The ﬁrst term on the left can be integrated by parts: a Jν (k ρ) 0 d d ρ Jν (kρ) dρ dρ dρ a = ρJν (k ρ) d Jν (kρ) dρ a 0 − ρ 0 d Jν (k ρ) dρ d Jν (kρ) dρ. and we are left with (k 2 − k 2 ) proving orthogonality.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 (a) The function Jν (kρ) satisﬁes the equation d ν2 1 d ρ Jν (kρ) + k 2 − 2 ρ dρ dρ ρ Jν (kρ) = 0. so when we write down (2) with k and k switched and subtract from (2).

ﬂat. g (ρ) = Jν (kρ) and integrate by parts: a 0 2 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = ρ2 Jν (kρ) a a 0 a −2 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − a 0 a 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ → 0 ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = 1 2 2 a Jν (ka) − 2 a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ. thin. (b) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the center of the disc is z Φ0 (z) = V 1 − √ a2 + z 2 (c) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the edge of the disc is kz V K(k) 1− Φa (z) = 2 πa where k = 2a/(z 2 + 4a2 )1/2 . a2 2 (ak)2 2 Jν (ka) + aJν (ka) − k 2 2 2 so a 0 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ 2 ρJν (kρ)dρ − ν2 2 J (ka) = 0 2 ν = = ν2 a2 − 2 2 2k a2 2 1− 2 Jν (ka) + a2 2 J (ka) 2k 2 ν d Jν (ka) d(ka) 2 ν2 (ka)2 2 Jν (ka) + This agrees with what Jackson has if you note that k is chosen such that ka = ynm . (a) Using appropriate cylindrical coordinates. disc of the same material and slightly smaller radius lies in the plane. Problem 3. In the second integral we put f (ρ) = ρ2 Jν (kρ). plane sheet of conducting material has a circular hole of radius a cut in it. Using this in (5). A thin.12 An inﬁnite. but separated from the sheet by a very narrow insulating ring. whilc the inﬁnite sheet is kept at zero potential. ﬁnd an integral expression involving Bessel functions for the potential at any point above the plane. ﬁlling the hole. The disc is maintained at a ﬁxed potential V . and K(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the ﬁrst kind. .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 The ﬁrst and third integrals are of the form f (x)f (x)dx and can be done immediately.

In this problem there is no φ dependence. we can write the potential as a sum of terms R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z). I integrated by parts. I appealed to the diﬀerential equation for J0 : 1 J0 (u) + J0 (u) + J0 (u) = 0 u so x 0 x x uJ0 (u) du = − 0 uJ0 du − x 0 0 x J0 (u) du x = − |uJ0 (u)|0 + x J0 (u) du − 0 J0 (u) du = − |uJ0 (u)|0 = −xJ0 (x) = xJ1 (x).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 (a) As before. Also. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk. To do it. 0)J0 (k ρ) dρ 0 = 0 A(k) 0 ρJ0 (kρ)J0 (k ρ) dρ dk = so A(k ) k ∞ A(k) = k 0 ρΦ(ρ. (8) . we multiply both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate over ρ at z = 0: ∞ ∞ ∞ ρΦ(ρ. z) = 0 A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) dk. (7) The ρ integral can be done right away. (6) To evaluate the coeﬃcients A(k). 0)J0 (kρ) dρ a = kV 0 ρJ0 (kρ)dρ.) Then (7) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. Plugging this back into (6). so Q = 1. ∞ a Φ(ρ. Then the potential expansion becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. the boundary conditions on Z are that it vanish at ∞ and be ﬁnite at 0. (In going from the ﬁrst to second line. z) = V 0 0 kρ e−kz J0 (kρ)J0 (kρ ) dρ dk. whence Z(z) ∝ exp(−kz) for any k.

so only the surface integral contributes. For Dirichlet boundary value problems. x ) = − l=0 m=−l ∗ Ylm (θ .1. x (9) Here there is no charge in the region of interest. x )ρ(x ) dV + S Φ(x ) ∂G(x. x ) ∂n dA .13 Solve for the potential in Problem 3. r ) 2l + 1 (10) . The Green’s function for the two-sphere problem is ∞ l G(x. φ) Rl (r. z) = V zJ0 (0) 2 1 u1/2 a2 +z 2 u−3/2 du z2 a2 +z 2 z2 = −V z = Vz 1 1 −√ z z2 + z2 z = V 1− √ a2 + z 2 (b) At ρ = a. du = 2ρ dρ: Φ(0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 (b) At ρ = 0. φ ) Ylm (θ. z) = V J0 (0) 0 a ρ 0 ke−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ ∞ = V 0 a ρ ρ 0 a − − ∂ ∂z ∂ ∂z e−kz J0 (kρ )dk dρ 0 = V = V 0 2 1 ρ + z2 2 dρ zρ dρ (ρ 2 + z 2 )3/2 Here we substitute u = ρ + z 2 . and verify that the answer obtained in this way agrees with the direct solution from the diﬀerential equation. using the appropriate Green function obtained in the text. (8) becomes ∞ Φ(a. (7) becomes a ∞ Φ(0. the basic equation is Φ(x) = − 1 0 V G(x. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (ka)e−kz dk Problem 3.

A similar calculation gives S2 = − = V 2 V 2 ∞ b2 Pl (cos θ) b γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ 2 ∂Rl ∂n ∂Rl ∂n 0 Pl (x) dx r =b −1 l=0 r =b because Pl is odd for l odd. r ). = (− )(l−1)/2 2 2[(l + 1)/2]! = 0. r ). The ﬁnal potential is the sum of S1 and S2 : Φ(r. r ) = 1− 1 a b 2l+1 l r< − a2l+1 l+1 r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . (11) Actually in this case the potential cannot have any Φ dependence. so all terms with m = 0 in (10) vanish. and we have G(x. so its integral from -1 to 0 is just the negative of the integral from 0 to 1. which means the normal to a surface element is always in the radial direction: 1 ∂ G(x. θ) = V 2 ∞ γl Pl (cos θ) r 2 l=0 ∂Rl ∂n r =b (12) r =a . l=0 In this case the boundary surfaces are spherical. x ) = − ∂n 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ ) l=0 ∂ Rl (r. ∂n The surface integral in (9) has two parts: one integral S1 over the surface of the inner sphere. θ )Pl (cos θ )a2 sin θ dφ dθ V = − 2 = − where V 2 a2 Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n Pl (x) dx r =a 0 l=0 a2 γl Pl (cos θ) · 1 ∂Rl ∂n r =a γl = 0 Pl (x) dx l odd l even. (l − 2)!! 1 . and a second integral S2 over the surface of the outer sphere: S1 = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ ∂Rl ∂n π r =a 0 1 0 2π Φ(a. x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ )Rl (r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 6 with Rl (r.

Also. while at r = b the normal is in the negative r direction. whence d Q = 2λ 0 (d2 − z 2 )dz = λ= 4 3 d λ 3 3Q . (a) Find the potential everywhere inside the spherical shell as an expansion in Legendre polynomials. θ) = V 2 ∞ (2l + 1)γl Pl (cos θ) l=0 (ab)l+1 (bl + al )r−(l+1) − (al+1 + bl+1 )rl b2l+1 − a2l+1 in agreement with what we found in Problem 3. x ) = − 1 4π ∞ Pl (cos θ )Pl (cos θ)Rl (r. we are told that the charge density ρ(z) = λ(d2 − z 2 ). (c) Discuss your answers to parts a and b in the limit that d << b. r ) ∂n ∂ Rl (r. to ﬁnd the normal derivative at r = a we diﬀerentiate with respect to r< . A grounded.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7 Since the point of interest is always between the two spheres. (b) Calculate the surface-charge density induced on the shell. a2 b2 ∂ Rl (r. First of all. Problem 3. and that the total charge is Q.14 A line charge of length 2d with a total charge Q has a linear charge density varying as (d2 − z 2 ). at r = a the normal is in the +r direction. where z is the distance from the midpoint. conducting spherical shell of inner radius b > d is centered at the midpoint of the line charge. r ) ∂n = (2l + 1)a2 r =a al−1 1− b 1− a 2l+1 b −(l+2) a b 2l+1 1 rl+1 rl − − rl b2l+1 = (2l + 1)b2 r =b a2l+1 rl+1 Combining these with some algebra gives Φ(r. 4d3 In this case we have azimuthal symmetry.1. r ) l=0 (13) . so the Green’s function is → G(x. and at r = b with respect to r> .

where r = z. This means that the contributions to the integral from the portions of the line charge for z > 0 and z < 0 cancel out for odd l. so we may integrate it directly: − λ b2l+1 0 d l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz = − d λrl z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz b2l+1 0 dl+3 λrl dl+3 − = − 2l+1 b l+1 l+3 = − λrl dl+3 (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 (14) The ﬁrst integral must be further split into two: d λ 0 l r< 2 (d − z 2 ) dz l+1 r> . and (−1)l for z < 0. the potential inside the sphere is given by Φ(r. r ) = r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 . z)ρ(z) dz Rl (r. θ. θ) = − 1 0 V G(r. z)ρ(z) dz = λ 0 0 l r< 1 l+1 r> − l r> b2l+1 (d2 − z 2 ) dz This is best split up into two separate integrals: d =λ 0 l r< 2 λ (d − z 2 ) dz − 2l+1 l+1 b r> d 0 l l r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz The second integral is symmetric between r and r . 0 Rl (r. Pl (cos θ)=1 for z > 0. r . θ )dV. In this case ρ is only nonzero on the z axis. Also.. θ )ρ(r . and add constructively for even l: Φ(r.4..2. Since the potential vanishes on the boundary surface..Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8 with l Rl (r. θ) = We have d d 1 4π 0 ∞ d Pl (cos θ) 2 l=0.

z)ρ(z) dz = λ l d r r2 d2 − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d d2 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 r 0 d r 9 = λ = λ = λ = λ 1 rl+1 1 rl+1 z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz + rl l+3 d2 − z 2 dz z l+1 d r r l 2 2 r2 d2 r2 d2 − + − + d l+1 l+3 d l(l + 2) l l+2 r2 r l 2 2 d2 d − + (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d l(l + 2) d r r 1 d2 − + rl − l + l+1 l+3 lz (l − 2)z l−2 2 l+1 Combining this with (14). Rl (r. which do not satisfy the Laplace equation. because with this result the ﬁnal potential will contain terms like r 0 Pl (cos θ) and r2 Pl (cos θ). we have 2 rl dl+3 − l(l + 2) (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1 0 (15) But something is wrong here.

In the steady state. as well as Ve + Vi = Vt . the potential in those two regions satisﬁed the Laplace equation. which means there must an electric ﬁeld discontinuity in inverse proportion to the conductivity discontinuity. Determine the surface-charge density and show that the electric dipole moment of the sphere is p = 4π 0 σa3 F/(σ + 2σ ). Inside the sphere there is a uniform (chemical) force in the z direction acting on the charge carriers. and this charge gives rise to extra ﬁelds both inside and outside the sphere. and may be expanded in Legendre polynomials: . (a) What’s going on in this problem is that the conductivity has a discontinuity going across the boundary of the sphere. To create this electric ﬁeld discontinuity. electric ﬁelds exist inside and outside the sphere and surface charge resides on its surface.15 Consider the following “spherical cow” model of a battery connected to an external circuit. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld (in addition to F ) and current density everywhere in space. (d) Deﬁne the total voltage through the relation Vt = (Re + Ri )I and show that Vt = 4aF/3.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10 Problem 3. (c) Find the power dissipated within the sphere and deduce the eﬀective internal resistance Ri and voltage Vi . there has to be some surface charge on the sphere. A sphere of radius a and conductivity σ is embedded in a uniform medium of conductivity σ . P = I 2 Re = IVe . (b) Show that the total current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere is I= 2σσ · πa2 F σ + 2σ Calculate the total power dissipation outside the sphere. Show that IVt is the power supplied by the “chemical” force. its strength as an eﬀective electric ﬁeld entering Ohm’s law is F . but the current density must be constant there. Since there is no charge inside or outside the sphere. ﬁnd the eﬀective external resistance Re and voltage Ve . Using the lumped circuit relations.

this is ∞ − ∂ Φ ∂r in + F cos θ r=a = −σ ∂ Φ ∂r out r=a F P1 (cos θ) − lAl al−1 Pl (cos θ) = l=0 σ σ ∞ (l + 1)Al al−1 Pl (cos θ). (17) Outside of the sphere. the radial component of the current density is continuous across the boundary of the sphere. which would mean we aren’t in steady state. θ) = Φout (r.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11 ∞ for r < a. Jr (r = a− . Φ(r.e. θ) = Φin (r. θ). we ﬁnd F − A1 = σ σ 2A1 (18) . θ) = Al rl Pl (cos θ) l=0 ∞ Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) l=0 Continuity at r = a requires that Al al = Bl a−l+1 so Φ(r. θ) = Φin (r. Applying (17) to these expressions. for r > a. θ) = ∞ l l=0 Al r Pl (cos θ). So the current density is continuous everywhere. Ohm’s law says that J = σ E = −σ Φout . (16) Now. θ) = Φ(r. l=0 Multiplying both sides by Pl (cos θ) and integrating from −π to π. there is an extra term coming from the chemical force: ˆ ˆ J = σ(E + F k) = σ(− Φin + F k). which means charge would pile up in that region. because if there were than there would be more current ﬂowing into some region of space than out of it. θ) = Jr (r = a+ . l=0 Al a → Bl = a2l+1 Al r<a r > a. ∞ 2l+1 −(l+1) r Pl (cos θ). which would be a growing source of electric ﬁeld. In particular. i. θ) = Φout (r. Inside the sphere. we have σ Using (16). in the steady state there can be no discontinuities in the current density.

σ + 2σ Then the potential is Φ(r. σ + 2σ = a+ ) − Er (r = a− )] (b) The current ﬂowing out of the upper hemisphere is just J · dA = σ ˆ (Ein + F k) · dA σ σ + 2σ π/2 2π 0 =σ 1− F 0 cos θ sin θ a2 dφ dθ (23) σσ · πa2 F =2 σ + 2σ .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12 for l=1. θ) → 1 p·r 4π 0 r3 as r → ∞. θ) = σ ˆ − σ+2σ F k. (22) The external portion of (21) can be written as Φ(r. and −lAl = σ σ (l + 1)Al (19) (20) for l = 1. θ) = F a3 z σ σ + 2σ r3 and comparing this with (22) we can read oﬀ σ ˆ F a3 k. Since the conductivity ratio is positive. The ﬁrst relation becomes σ A1 = F. θ) = σ σ+2σ σ σ+2σ F r cos θ. r > a r F a 3 r The surface charge σs (θ) on the sphere is proportional to the discontinuity in the electric ﬁeld: σs (θ) = = 0 [Er (r 3 0σ F cos θ. p = 4π 0 σ + 2σ The electric ﬁeld is found by taking the gradient of (21): E(r. r<a r>a (21) The dipole moment p is deﬁned by Φ(r. the second relation is impossible to satisfy unless Al = 0 for l = 1. σ σ+2σ r<a ˆ (2 cos θˆ + sin θ θ). F a3 r−2 cos θ.

θ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 13 The Ohmic power dissipation in a volume dV is dP = σE 2 dV (24) To see this. the current ﬂowing out through the upper hemisphere of the sphere must be replenished by an equal current ﬂowing in through the lower half of the sphere. dy. The current density there is σEx and the cross-sectional area is dydz. suppose we have a rectangular volume element with sides dx. 3πaσ . Hence the power 2 dissipation due to current in the x direction is IV = σEx dV . Adding in the contributions from the other two directions gives (24). Consider ﬁrst the current ﬂowing in the x direction. φ)r2 sin θ dφ dθ dr a = 2πσ 8π = σ 3 σ σ + 2σ σ σ + 2σ F 2 a6 a 2 0 π 1 (4 cos2 θ + sin2 θ) sin θ dθ dr r4 F 2 a3 Dividing by (23). so to ﬁnd the internal voltage and resistance we can just divide by (23): 8 σ Vi = Pin /I = aF 3 σ + 2σ 4 Ri = Pin /I 2 = . we ﬁnd the eﬀective external voltage Ve : Ve = Pout /I = and the eﬀective external resistance: 2 . the voltage drop in the direction of current ﬂow is V = Ex dx. For the power dissipated outside the sphere we use the expression for the electric ﬁeld we found earlier: ∞ π 0 0 2 ∞ 2π Pout = σ E 2 (r. Re = Pout /I 2 = 3πaσ (c) The power dissipated inside the sphere is Pin = σ ˆ (E + F k)2 dV = = 4σσ 2 F2 (σ + 2σ )2 dV 4 σ aF · 3 σ + 2σ 16σσ 2 πa3 F 2 3(σ + 2σ )2 Since we’re in steady state. Also. and dz. so I = σEx dydz.

both of which solve the Laplace equation: Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aekz + Be−kz )[CJm (kρ) + DNm (kρ)] or Z(kz)Rm (kρ) = (Aeikz + Be−ikz )[CIm (kρ) + DKm (kρ)]. x ) must be a solution of the Laplace equation. at all points x = x. (27) (26) The Green’s function G(x. x ) = − ∞ 0 ∞ 1 × 2π sinh(kz< ) sinh[k(L − z> )] . sinh(kL) dk eim(φ−φ ) Jm (kρ)Jm (kρ ) m=−∞ In cylindrical coordinates. (25) There are two possibilities for the combination Z(kz)Rm (kρ). x ) = − ∞ ∞ 1 πL × Im nπρ < nπρ> Km . the solutions of the Laplace equation look like linear combinations of terms of the form Tmk (ρ. . and must thus take one of the above forms. At x = x. φ. L L eim(φ−φ ) sin n=1 m=−∞ nπz sin L nπz L (b) Show that an alternative form of the Green function is G(x.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 14 (c) (Re + Ri )I = 2 3πa 1 2 + σ σ · 2σσ 4 πa2 F = aF σ + 2σ 3 (Vi + Ve ) = 4aF 4 σ + 2σ = aF 3(σ + 2σ ) 3 Problem 3. z) = eimφ Z(kz)Rm (kρ).17 The Dirichlet Green function for the unbounded space between the planes at z = 0 and z = L allows discussion of a point charge or a distribution of charge between parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. (a) Using cylindrical coordinates show that one form of the Green function is G(x. G must be continuous. but have a ﬁnite discontinuity in its ﬁrst derivative.

e. φ)Im (kρ). or φ) do we deﬁne the two “sides” of the source point? (a) The ﬁrst option is to imagine a cylindrical boundary at ρ = ρ. one on either side of the source point x. (b) The second option is to imagine a plane boundary at z = z. to establish continuity at ρ = ρ. φ)eimφ sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). within each region. so we are forced to take Z and R as in (27). The obvious choice of γmk needed to make this a delta function in z and φ is γmk = (4/L)e−imφ sin(kz). and yet it does. Next considering the singularities of the ρ functions in (27). the ﬁrst region is that for which 0 ≤ z ≤ z. Then we can write G as G(x. and take the two distinct regions to be the regions above and below the plane. Then. φ)Km (kρ) and Bmk (x) = γmk (z.e. x ) will consist of linear combinations of terms T as in (25) subject to the restrictions discussed above: G(x. ρ.. imφ sin(kn z )Km (kn ρ ). and take the inside and outside of the cylinder (i. Then we have G(x. x ) = Amn (x)eimφ sin(kn z )Im (kn ρ ). ρ < ρ and ρ > ρ) as the two distinct regions of space. we see that. This requirement excludes terms of the form . The question is. I guess the combination of the requirements that I did impose on this thing is already enough to ensure that it meets the ﬁnal requirement. while for the outer region we can only keep the Km (kρ) term. In other words. the entire range of z must be handled by one function. mn Bmn (x)e mn ρ <ρ ρ > ρ. at the radius of the source point. where γmk is any function of z and φ. that it satisfy the boundary conditions of the geometry. x ) = mk γmk (z. Then G(x.e. with B = −A and k restricted to the discrete values kn = nπ/L. and the second region that for which z ≤ z ≤ L. Clearly. and taking G to be diﬀerent linear combinations of terms T (as in (25)) in the two regions. To obtain this expression I ﬁrst demanded that it satisfy the Laplace equation for all points x = x. to keep G ﬁnite everywhere. But I never demanded that it have the correct delta function behavior in ρ . mk What I don’t quite understand is that this expression already has the correct delta function behavior in ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 15 Furthermore.. z. within each region the entire range of ρ (from 0 to ∞) must be handled by one function. These conditions may be met by dividing space into two regions. in which dimension (i. and that it have the right delta function behavior in z and φ . for the inner region (ρ < ρ) we can only keep the Im (kρ) term. In this case. which means this one function must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. G must vanish on the boundary surfaces. i. x ) = 4 L eim(φ −φ) sin(kz) sin(kz )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ). even though I never explicitly required this. This cannot happen with terms of the form (26). we need to take Amk (x) = γmk (z.

consider the question of corrections to the lowest order expression if a is large compared to ρ and L. x) = ∞ ∞ m=0 0 ∞ ∞ m=0 0 Am (k. ρ) = V 0 dλJ1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) . so the z function in the region 0 ≤ z ≤ z is proportional to sinh(kz ). z) = 0 A(k)J0 (kρ) sinh(kz) dk. Bm (k. Are there diﬃculties? Can you obtain an explicit estimate of the corrections? (c) Consider the limit of L → ∞ with (L − z). Hence we must use terms of the form (26). ρ. the diﬀerential equation and the boundary conditions are satisﬁed for all terms of the form (25) with no limitation on k. (28) . φ) as ∞ Φ(z. For deﬁniteness put the grounded plane at z = 0 and the other plane with the center of the disc on the z axis at z = L. and there is no linear combination of these functions that will be ﬁnite over the whole range of ρ . φ. To ensure vanishing at z = 0 we must take A = −B. z)eimφ sinh[k(z − L)]Jm (kρ ) dk. z)eimφ sinh(kz )Jm (kρ ) dk. 0≤z ≤z z≤z ≤L Problem 3. To ensure ﬁniteness at the origin we must exlude the Nm term.12 is modiﬁed by placing a conducting plane held at zero potential parallel to and a distance L away from the plane with the disc insert in it. over these terms: G(x . but not L → ∞? (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates with angular symmetry that vanishes at z = 0 is ∞ Φ(ρ. ρ. φ. while Im is singular at inﬁnity. Viewing your result as the lowest order answer in an expansion in powers of a−1 . a and ρ ﬁxed and show that the results of Problem 3.12 are recovered. To ensure vanishing at z = L we must take A = −Be−2kL . What about corrections for L a. (a) Show that the potential between the planes can be written in cylindrical coordinates (z. because Km is singular at the origin. but not inﬁnite. With these restrictions. L ﬁxed the solution of part a reduces to the expected result. ρ.18 The conﬁguration of Problem 3. Hence the Green’s function will be an integral. so D = 0. sinh(λL/a) (b) Show that in the limit a → ∞ with z. ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 16 (27). so the z function in the region z ≤ z ≤ L is proportional to sinh[k(z − L)]. not a sum.

z) = V sinh(kz) dk sinh(kL) 0 ∞ sinh(λz/a) dλ. =V J1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λL/a) 0 aJ1 (ka)J0 (kρ) 1 J0 (x) → 1 − x2 + · · · 4 1. L) dρ = 0 0 ∞ A(k) sinh(kL) 0 ρJ0 (k ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ 1 δ(k − k ) k dk dk = 0 A(k) sinh(kL) 1 A(k ) sinh(k L) k ∞ = so A(k) = k sinh(kL) Vk = sinh(kL) V k sinh(kL) x ρJ0 (kρ)Φ(ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 17 Multiplying both sides by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrating at z = L yields ∞ ∞ ∞ ρJ0 (k ρ)Φ(ρ. L) dρ 0 a ρJ0 (kρ) dρ 0 ka = uJ0 (u) du. 0 (29) I worked out this integral earlier. 0 Then (29) becomes A(k) = and (28) is Φ(ρ.12: uJ0 (u) du = xJ1 (x). and for x 1 and y x + 1 x3 + · · · x sinh(x) 1 6 = = 1 + (x2 − y 2 ) + O(x4 ) 1 3 sinh(y) y 6 y + 6y + · · · With these approximations we may expand the terms containing a in (30): J0 (λρ/a) sinh(λz/a) ≈ sinh(λL/a) = 1− 1 4 λρ a λ a 2 2 z L 1+ 1 6 λ a 2 (x2 − y 2 ) +··· (31) (32) z 1− L 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 6 4 . ∞ V · (ka)J1 (ka) k sinh(kL) (30) (b) For x 1. in Problem 3.

coth(kL) diﬀers signiﬁcantly from 1 only for kLa 1. The result is that. (33) can be approximated as exp(−kz ). Calling the ﬁxed distance z . This is just what we expect to get for the potential between two inﬁnite sheets. for all k. (c) In this part we’re interested in taking L → ∞ and looking at the potential a ﬁxed distance away from the plane with the circular insert. We have sinh k(L − z ) sinh(kL) cosh(−kz ) + cosh(kL) sinh(−kz ) = sinh kL sinh kL = cosh(kz ) − coth(kL) sinh(kz ) (33) Now. in which region kz z/L 1. I’m still trying to work out a better procedure for estimating corrections for ﬁnite a. The second integral. Then (30) becomes ∞ Φ(ρ. z) = aV 0 J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk as we found in Problem 3. but the integral goes over all λ up to ∞.12. By the time k gets big enough that kz is starting to get signiﬁcant. so for any ﬁnite a the expansions eventually become invalid in the integral. one grounded and the other at potential V. the z coordinate of the point we’re interested in is L − z . coth(kL) has long since started to look like 1. so cosh(kz ) ≈ 1 and sinh(kz ) ≈ 0. has a bit of an inﬁnity problem. so the two terms in (33) add directly. . so for a inﬁnite the potential becomes simply Φ(z) = V z/L. z) = Vz L ∞ 0 J1 (λ) dλ − 1 1 1 2 (L − z 2 ) + ρ2 a2 6 4 ∞ 0 λ2 J1 (λ) dλ + · · · The ﬁrst integral evaluates to 1. It’s not hard to see where the problem comes: I derived the expansion above based on the premise that λ/a is small.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 18 Then the potential expansion (30) becomes Φ(ρ. unfortunately.

0 < z0 < L. Use Green’s reciprocation theorem of Problem 1.18 as the comparison problem.12 with Problem 3. Classical Electrodynamics.19 Consider a point charge q between two inﬁnite parallel conducting planes held at zero potential. Third Edition Homer Reid August 6.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. with the charge on the z axis at z = z0 . Let the planes be located at z = 0 and z = L in a cylindrical coordinate system. 2000 Chapter 3: Problems 19-27 Problem 3. (a) Show that the amount of induced charge on the plate at z = L inside a circle of radius a whose center is on the z axis is given by QL (a) = − q Φ(z0 . (1) 1 . 0) V (b) Show that the induced charge density on the upper plate can be written as σ(ρ) = − q 2π ∞ dk 0 sinh(kz0 ) kJ0 (kρ) sinh(kL) (c) Show that the charge density at ρ = 0 is σ(0) = −πq πz0 sec2 8L2 2L (a) Green’s reciprocation theorem says that ρ Φ dV + V S σ Φ dA = V ρΦ dV + S σΦ dA.

L)r dr = −q 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) Diﬀerentiating both sides with respect to a. z) dA = −q z=L. Then ρ(r. z) = 0 σ(r. ∞ z = 0 or z = L 0≤z≤L qV 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) +V sinh(kL) ∞ σ (r. L) = −q 0 dk sinh(kz0 ) ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] ∂a sinh(kL) (3) where I’ve blithely assumed that the partial derivative can be passed through the integral sign. so we can do the angular part of the integral right away to give a ∞ 2π 0 σ (r. z) dA = 0 z=L. z) = qδ(r)δ(z − z0 ) σ (r. 0) sinh(kL) V (2) The integral on the left is just the total surface charge contained within a circle of radius a around the origin of the plane z = L. we have ∞ 2πaσ (a. The partial derivative is ∂ ∂ [aJ1 (ak)] = [xJ1 (x)] ∂a ∂x x=ak = |J1 (x) + xJ1 (x)|x=ak = |xJ0 (x)|x=ak = akJ0 (ak) . z) =? Φ(r. = 0.18.r<a 0 dk aJ1 (ak) sinh(kz0 ) q = − Φ(z0 .r<a so σ (r. (b) The integrand on the left of (2) doesn’t depend on φ. and the primed symbols to refer to those of Problem 3.19. z) = 0. ∞ z=0 z = L and r > a z = L and r < a dk aJ1 (ak)J0 (rk) 0 =V sinh(kz) sinh(kL) 0<z<L ρ (r. = V.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2 We’ll use the unprimed symbols to refer to the quantities of Problem 3. z) =? Φ (r. z) = 0. Plugging into (1). =?.

φ ) =A0 + B0 ln ρ + n ρ n [An sin nφ + Bn cos nφ ] + ρ −n [Cn sin nφ + Dn cos nφ ].22 The geometry of a two-dimensional potential problem is deﬁned in polar coordinates by the surfaces φ = 0. which excludes the cos terms (i. L) = − (c) At a = 0. · · · . which excludes the ln term and the negative powers of ρ. Suppose the observation point is (ρ. show the the Green function can be written as ∞ G(ρ. deﬁned by 0 ≤ ρ ≤ ρ and ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. With these considerations we may write down the solutions for G in the two regions: . The general solution of the Laplace equation in two-dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(ρ . Problem 3. 2. m = 1. the procedure for determining the Green’s function is to split the region of interest into two parts (one on each ’side’ of the observation point). (4) becomes σ (0. the solution must vanish at φ = 0. which requires that n = mπ/β. these terms may be included in the solution for the second region. Using separation of variables in polar coordinates. φ). and then join the two solutions at the source point such that their values match up but the ﬁrst derivative (in whichever dimension we chose ’sides’) has a ﬁnite discontinuity. As before. The solution in the ﬁrst region must be admissible down to ρ = 0. φ = β. as indicated in the sketch. The solution must also vanish at φ = β. However.e. φ ) = m=1 − 1 mπ/β ρ mπ < 1 mπ/β ρ> − ρ> a2mπ/β mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β Problem 2. and ρ = a.25 may be of use.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3 so (3) becomes σ (a. In both regions. Bn = Dn = 0). Let’s break the region into two subregions. φ. ﬁnd separate solutions of the Laplace equation that satisfy the boundary conditions in each region. ρ . L) = −q 2π ∞ q 2π ∞ dk kJ0 (ak) 0 sinh(kz0 ) sinh(kL) (4) k 0 sinh(kz0 ) . sinh(kL) I have no idea how to do this integral.

φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ Am ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β . mπφ β . Bm .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4 G(ρ. φ ) ∞ = m=1 ∞ λm λm m=1 ρ a ρ a mπ/β − − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρ mπ/β sin mπ/β mπφ β mπφ β 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. Using these expressions for Am .e. i. ρ . Then (6) becomes ∞ G(ρ. and Cm we can write G(ρ. 0≤ρ ≤ρ ρ≤ρ ≤a (5) (6) = m=1 Bm ρ mπ/β + Cm ρ −mπ/β sin The solution in the second region must vanish at ρ = a for all φ . φ ) = m=1 γm ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β sin mπφ β ρ ≤ ρ ≤ a. This determines Am and γm : Am = λ m ρ a mπ/β − a ρ mπ/β γm = λm ρmπ/β where λm can be anything. φ. ρ . φ.e. ρ . φ. at ρ = ρ. mπ/β = ρmπ/β sin This may be more succintly written as G(ρ. i. φ ) = m λm fm (ρ. . φ. Bm amπ/β + Cm a−mπ/β = 0 so Bm = γm a−mπ/β and Cm = −γm amπ/β where γm can be anything. ρ ) sin mπφ β (7) where fm (ρ. ρ . ρ ) = ρ> a mπ/β − a ρ> mπ/β ρ< mπ/β . The solutions in the two regions must agree on the boundary between the two regions.

φ ) = 1 δ(ρ − ρ)δ(φ − φ). ρ 2 (8) The Laplacian of (7) is 2 G= 1 ∂2 ∂2 G= + 2 ∂ρ 2 ρ ∂φ 2 λm m d2 fm (ρ. φ. β ρ Plugging this into (7) we obtain ﬁnally G(ρ. ρ . Subtracting (12) from (11) we obtain dfm dρ Then from (10) we read oﬀ κm = and plugging this into (9) gives λm = 1 −mπ/β a sin 2mπ mπ β φ. β −mπ/β a 2mπ ρ =ρ+ = ρ =ρ− 2mπ mπ/β 1 a · . ρ . φ. we have d fm dρ d fm dρ = ρ +ρ+ mπ β mπ β ρ a ρ a mπ/β + − a ρ a ρ mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 mπ/β (11) (12) = ρ +ρ− mπ/β ρmπ/β−1 . ρ ) − dρ 2 mπ ρβ 1 sin β 2 (9) 1 δ(ρ − ρ). κm fm (ρ. ρ ) − dρ 2 mπφ β fm (ρ. φ ) = m 1 2mπ ρ< ρ> a2 mπ/β − ρ< ρ> mπ/β sin mπφ β sin mπφ β I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 here. At ρ = ρ. but I can’t ﬁnd where. ρ ) = mπ ρβ fm (ρ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5 The ﬁnal step is to choose the constant λm in (7) such as to make 2 G(ρ. ρ ) (10) dρ ρ ρ =ρ− Referring to (7). ρ At all points ρ = ρ. the condition is achieved by choosing κm to satisfy ρ =ρ+ 1 d = . ρ ) sin mπφ β This is equal to (8) if λm = κ m and κm d2 fm (ρ. the latter condition is already satisﬁed by f as we constructed it earlier. .

ø þ ý þ tý ú ºå î ù Ô ø ¦¦ ¨©¥¢ Ñ §¦ ¥¢ Ñ §¦ ¥£ò ø ¡ð Ù¦ ¥ !t÷ ¦é gº å ø º ï U¥ °¤ ¥ é #Ñ å Ý ¦ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¢ é å ÿ þ ý ü û ú Ñò ì à ¤ à à û ¦é ò ÷ gö±î ï ï óô¦¥ Ñ î ï Pe¦¥ Ñ ï î ï q¦¥ î îí îí ï Pe¦¥ ì °¤ e¦¥ ¤ îí Ô Ý ä 8ã ñ ç ã ñ ç 3ã 3ç ã U¥ ä ä ò ñð ä õ ç ¸ ¯ » ¢ ª ¬ «ª ¡T#UY!¡ ®t£Y5¡© æ å Eg¯ ¼©¾È£g¢¹µÂë³¡¡tP©@ ¶tÂÙ t°E¹ ¶£ £ª « «ª ê ¨ ¢ ª é à ç à ç à á è âæ8¦¥ ¤ iÞ¦¥ ¤ å àß Ý éà èç ä Ì7à 3 ¥ã à âáà £gtE38#P#Í¡· t¡· kÍ´ x¼Ä £ ¢ ª ¨ ª ¨ Æ Ü ³ ª ¡gP ¢$· UEt#$tgkt8¡P¤Pt£Y¡$ t¦·3g¡Í¡ GÛ¡¡ ¬ ¢ ¨ £ª ¯ ª ¬ ¢ ¢ ¬ ¨ ¢ ¢ ¨ £ Ú ³ ¢ Ò Ñ Ð ® ª ¨ ¢ É ¯ × ® ¨ ¬ Æ Õ Ù¶8g¢Èk¡· 7¡t¡P#¡8tØTW£ !¡ ¡'Ö·ªmµEtª8t°U ¼Ä ³ Ô ¢ ªª« £ ¢ ¬ ª xmt'EEt¡ÍE©¼£YÂ· ¨ ¢¡«5Ó·ªW¡t£¶ t¦·Í¡#¡¢È85¢Ï¡tE¡PktU¡ ª ¨ ¢ ¬ ¨ ¢ ¢ ¨ £ ¢ Ò Ñ Ð ¢ »½¡ ¡Y3²¢ÎttÍY©¡ÌEU° 3tµ¨¢Ek5 txt· m¡ £ ¢ £ ¢ É ª ª ¬ª Ê£ ¯ ¢ « Ë ³ ¢ ª ¨ ¢ ÊYYgPg°YÂtg3'Ãx8¡ Y®t£U¡©t7¡ È¹¼Ä ¢ É ¢ ¯ ¬ ª ¯ ® £ ¬ ¢ £ ¨ ¢ ª ¬ «ª ª Ç Æ Å ³ £ µª ¸ £ ¢ « ¢ ¸ ¢ ¢ ¨ ££ Á À¿ £ª ¾ ¬ ¢ ¾ £ Ã¼E¢E¡#tg°g©E8¡88¢£°¹¡ÂtkG k©kPW¡E©E ¢¤Y½¼G¤· ²¬°kt83¶¢£°¹¡¢tk¡· 5©Et¢¡tY¶±t¨!²P ® »º ª ¨ ¸ £ ¢ « ¢ ¸ ¢ ¢ ª ¨ £ £ª ® µª ´ ³ ® ¬ ¢ £ª £ ¢ ¯ £ £ ¢ ª ¬ «ª ¨ ¥¤ £ ¢ Wt¡±g°P¡ Y®t£Y¤¡©§¦tE38¡xtt#U m3C~ } | z gs{y mqd#tsqomkige x jw v u l r p n l j h f d xxGGTy y wy y y w v s¨@xu #©t©sp r!39 gPf8d385GYWUTR@¢GP'G8ECA ¡ § q p © i h F I H e D c b a ` XV I SB Q B D I H F F DB 9 ¡ 6 4 2 0 © & %£ " ¡ ¡ § ¡© § ¥£ ¡ @#87531¦)('$#! ¤¨¦¤¢ .

ü ü þ ed¥ î ed¥ å þ áÔ í ø û º ¥ ï º å Ïef¥ þ #Ñ å ß Ý þ áÔ í å ¥ ÿ ß á u ¤ ï Ý æ å ¥ ø éï é é °á ç ¥ ñ ¥ ñ ð ûé ò ï é û £ » Ý æ #¡TP5Uk#t¢¹E¡¶¢ s £ ¸ ¯ ¢ Ò Ð »ª ª ð þ ü ed¥ î þ í æ å ¥ ÿ ß á u ¤ ï Ý æ å £ é °á ç ¥ ñ áÔ é ¸ ¯» ¥¤ ª ¡TkU¦Â¡· ¨ ø å ¡ tEtY¶¢¢¡ÛÚ ¢ ££ª É « « « é ø º ¦¥ u î ù ¥ fâáæ å ¦¥ ¦¥ ¤ î ò ù ï ß á ø Ý 7tç æ °á å éè ç ã é ç è £ ¡YÏEx#Í´ ¹¼Ä ¢ £ ¢ É ¢ Æ Å ³ ¢ Ò Ð ® ª µ£ ª ® ª sP#ÍYP¡!Et38¹sµtÃg£)¡t £ » ® £ £ ¯ » ® ª ª ¢ ¸ £ ª ¬ ¬ ²¢W¡x$s¡s£ ©gg¶¡t£¨· ¨ £¡T¢Ekº Y±Í´ ¬¬ Yº øå ¢¸ þý º tü î ù ø º ï å ¥ °ïð Ý Ô ç¤ é ç yé ò î þýü ø #Ñ å ¥ ÿ ø å ¥ ÿ tP÷ ø ù º ì ¥ °¤ Ý Ô )é ò !é ò å u¥ ï °¤ Ý u¤ åî u¥ Ô ¥ ã !tð ã 5¥ é ð )tç ò éðç £¢ « ¢¸¢ ¢ ª TtE38#P3¢£¡°#tÍ¡·¨ ¢ ££ª É ¢ ¢ ¯ ¬ ª ¯ µ ¯ ¬ ³ ¢¸ ¡ ÃYÈ¡²g°Y¢g¶T¢3'È¢3g¢k£t²t !£¡Tg¯ gg¯ Ý ú £ » µ ª µ £ £ ® ª £ ³ ª ð « ª E¡xtÍ¡Û¡t38¹Í¡3¡P ¡t$s¡Ã'tE£¨¡© ©5tk¢gE£°¢µtÃ$©gyc¢¢t°°E$Eg¡©Â£UEY¬ £ £ ¢¸ ª ¯ » uu¤ « ¸ ¢ ¯ «ª ª £ ¢ µ¡kÃUÛPÂ¶EÏ£t ·ª5¡ ®t'£¹w¦â¨ !E¡xt ¢ ¬ ¢ ¯ ¢ x ³ ª ¨ ¢ ª ¢ X ª £ ª ³uu¤ £ ª ¢ ¢ ª «ª £ s Æ r «7g¢ s ¡vC¶E®t±µ¡m¢¡«8W°¡©¢¥ á k£±¢ tÛ)Ä î ê iø å tkö ` Tø ó °¤ Ý ¨ g ¨ ¤ q þýü p Ô é îõ ¨ ü g ê iø å tü ö h þý Ô¤ ø ï ó ¨ °ÂÑ Ý ¨ ¤ é î ü ü Ô ê h þýü Ùiø å 5ö ù ó °¤ Ý g ¤ é õ ª t £ ¢ « ¢¸ ¢ ¯ ¨ £ª ¾ »£ ¢ µ « ¬ª ë ³ ¬ ¬ ® t83¢£°¹¡¢ ·G©ÂtE¡ ¢¤¢tWÏY¨¡PRú ¬ ¢ º ¯ £ ª £ ¢ « ¢¸ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ª « ¢X P7mg55¡gt833¢£¡°sµ5g°P$Ã3ÍE¡¡tsE¡ft £ « ¯ £ ´ ³£ ¢ £ ¢ª ¬ ¸ ú ¬ ¢ º ª ¸ ¢ ¯ £ ¢ ¸ ª ¢t¤U¼EÍE¡«ÍtedYWTÎ¨¡ÍEbb gUE£°'¡â¨ å ¦ ¥ ÿ » ë bb x£Â#³ Tcb Y õ #Ñ ` Ñ Ý 5¡· ¨ ê ï ï å mÏ» ccb a ` ø õ Ñ Ñ Ý ð 5¡· ¨ ø ú ª ¬ ¢ Y é ú ª ê Ñ å t½Ãç ¡ç °ç7!ç» Yô¡ Ç ½¡E ò · !Ã£¡°½©ç ¡¨çX tç ¢qç E¼UÍ´ £ ¸ ¬ ¬ ú ª ³ ¢ é ¸ ú ª ¨ £ ¢ ¸ £ ª ® ç ª £ é ï ï ï W § ¥$ S 2 Q I G £ ¥! D ¡ § @ ' ¡ 64 2 0 ¡$ ' $ "! ¥ © § ¥ £ ¡ VUTRPHF¨E¤8CBA987531)( ¤&¡#%#¤¡ ¨¦¤¢ .

£ ª ® ¬ ¸ ® ¢ ª« c©¡sµ¹Et°°#x$!¡tt¢kÍ´ î 8 Xbb YTcb TU8 S ( Ñ ( S ÷ u ( Ñ £å 2 Ð 8 Q I 6 %Ñ Wu ù Ý å ( 5 V ì ø é éõ ò ø î ( d QI ( TU8 S ( ø Ñ ( S £å C ¢ RPu ø ù Ý £å é é £s¼¢EYk¡t©Â£tÓ¡ t·ª5°¡$¬'¯kU!ExkÍ´ µ £ ¬ «ª ¨ ¯ ¢ F G8 8 8 H 8 C ( ( ( 1 $ ( d u H Ñ )å 2 ED5BÑ u ( Ñ )å 2 Ò 8A73Ñ u ( Ñ £å 2 Ð 897%Ñ Ý u ( Ñ £å 234b 0Ñ Ý )å C ¢ 65 @5 é ¸ ¡TP#È é é é é ( 2 1 $ ( d u ( Ñ £å 3!b 0Ñ Ý )å c ¢ é é µ £ ¢ ¬ «ª d ¼EY5¡©#¡¸EC ¢ µ ® ¬ ª£ ¬ ® ¢ ¬ » ¾ ¢ª É ¢ ¬ ¨ µ«ª ¢ ª ¡$¹¶Ex®ÃYxmE¡xYxÏ¬!ttm²¢¤¡x¨G¡tEtg¡ ¢ ¨ ¢ ª ¨ ¯ £ » ¢ ¢ ¨ ¬ & ¨ ª ¬ ¨ txÂ¡ t°E'¡· @°½¡ ¦P·ktg¡©ªW'¡g¡¸T¸tYx £ ª ª ÃtEPÂØ¡tª Ç ³ u Û¢¡xgt°3EY £%8¡8g¡xY¨tgÍ¡xG¢¡x ë Ð ¬ $ ¢ ¬ ¯ ¬ " # m3C~ ³ å ¡ !¶gUE3Et¡¡¶¢ ¢ ¯ ¢ ª« é ü ï î þ í º ¥ ï ü þ #Ñ å ed¥ ß ¢ u ï Ý ø ¤ ¥ ñ áÔ û¦é ø û ò º ï å ef¥ é î û bb cTb Ñ ö ¢ ó þ ö ¢ ó ï gø #Ñ ¢ u ¤ ï Ý Ñ ø Ô Øò Ô ø ò õ î ¢ ø #Ñ ¢ u ï Ý þ ý ¨ tü ©þ ö Ô ó ø ò þ §ò ¤¥ ¤ ¦ þý î ¤ tü þ ÷ é ¤Ô ò £¢å ¤ ¢ Ñ ì u ø ù Ý £¢å ò ï é ï ¢ Ò Ð ¢ #t¢ÏEx ª ¨ ® ¯ » ¯ × ® ¨ ¬ « Xª ¯ » ¬ ¢ ª Æ Õ G¡· ¢¢©Y¡ÂU#TG£ !¡ ¡'¡t·ªµt¦EtªY¤¢v¡U¹Ï¡GE¡t8¢ ¡¼Ä õ W § ¥$ S 2 Q I G £ ¥! D ¡ § @ ' ¡ 64 2 0 ¡$ ' $ "! ¥ © § ¥ £ ¡ VUTRPHF¨E¤8CBA987531)( ¤&¡#%#¤¡ ¨¦¤¢ .

£¬xPE¹#t ¡t·ª3¢8¶¡ Y®t£Y5¡t©¤¨k©¡· x©5Í´ x¼Ä ¾ ¢ª É ¨ « ¢ ª ¬ «ª ¢ ª ¨ Æ Ü þ ü u þ ü ÐC bb cTb fg å dc$ & Ý Y Ñ u E A 8 ß c¨ Ð C øõ # b A 8 ß fg hp C hp i8 8 C ¤¥ ò iu 8 E 8 ¨ ò eð u 0é ü £Â¢ ¢ Ê ¯ x3Â£tg°t °¹a³ `T #t¡gE¡x8¡$¡Et¡U¤¡sµ Y µ £ » ª ¨ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ ª ¢ ¢ ¸ » µ £ ª W TS ¿ ª ¨ ª ¨ ¢ Q Æ r t°°EÏ¡¼8k¡ Ç XVUÁ '¡tt3W¡· ¨kÛ¡±¡ ¢tWEx RÛ)Ä u P p bb ccb 1 & u d6 ( £å Ð C ( b '1 # A 9 B@ 8 ß G 6 ø ¤¥ 75ò 31é £(å )# $ %!ð å u ¤ Ý " 4 2 0 $ ò é ò I H é u 8@ FD8 E C @ £k©¡· ktg°t °Y!©E8¡8W¡xtY¡P 8¢Y¢$¢t ª ¨ ¯ ³£ ¢ ª ¬ « ¬ ¬ ¢ »Ï¬¤tE3Û¡Ã¡¸T¸tYkE8WtE38¡xt²¢± P¹²¡W ¾ ª ¨ £ ª ¬ £ £ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ É ¢ £ ¢ ª ¬ «ª ¢ « Á £ ª £ª Ç Æ Ü tY®t¼£Yk¡t©#ts3¢t¦¡Â§©tW5¡gÃP¢tg¼©¾ ª ²x¼Ä ³ ª ¨ ¢ª ¬ µ £ ¢ ¬ «ª ª ¯ ¢ «ª ª ¸ tE¡t·ªgtedYg£¨¼PYk¡t©¤5Eg$¡ ¡t#tGE¡° ¢ µ ® ¬ ª £ ¯ £ £ ª¸ ¢ ¢ª É ´ ¡Ù¢²µg° ¤Et°G¡tE¡PÛ¡t¹¨Ím³ F Ò Ð å ¡t¡P±g¹gEx®tt£ å µ £ ¢ ¬ «ª ¬ Ê ¬ ¾ £ ª ¢ª É ¢ ¬ Yg¬Et°ttE7PE¹È¢ÈE¡5£ éF ç Ò ç Ð ¢ u ¼¡tP©²EEeEY ôë é ç ç © m3C~ ³¡u ( Ù'PY87¡Ïtx#Â¡· ¨ tEtY¨©©¼¤tÍ£©g¯ $ ¬ ¨ ¢ ª ¨ ¢ ££ª É ¬ª ¬ ¢ £ î S u ( Ñ (S u ù Ý ( u ¨ ( Ñ £å b $ ø î bb X Tcb ¨ é S u ( Ñ ( S V u ù Ý )å ( Ð Ñ 6 ò u ÈsÐ å D5 ø é é £ E¸« õ å ¢¢¨¡Pg£ X ® «¢tYGÚ³ ¢¡ ¢·¨ 2 tYG¡ExE£°'¢#EÍ#¢qtéª Û¡âUÍ´ å ¨ £ ® £ ¢¸ ¬ ¢ £ ¨ª £ é S u ( Ñ (S ¨ §¨ ¦ u g¨Ð å Ñ Ý Ð Ñ 8 ¥ £ ¤¢ d ¤¢ ¡ é ¡ S ( Ñ (S Ð8 Ñ Ý ¡ ø ¡ 8 ( ( Ð 8 S ( ø Ñ ( S Ð 8 u ( Ñ £å 2 I Ñ S ( ø Ñ ( S u ( Ñ )å 2 Ý é 8 é ( Ð 8 S ( ø Ñ ( S ÷ u ( Ñ £å 2 Ð 8 ì I é ù W § ¥$ S 2 Q I G £ ¥! D ¡ § @ ' ¡ 64 2 0 ¡$ ' $ "! ¥ © § ¥ £ ¡ VUTRPHF¨E¤8CBA987531)( ¤&¡#%#¤¡ ¨¦¤¢ .

u d ¢ ¡¡ X þ ¨ ¡ ¡ þ X ¨ üÐ C þ Ð E C C ¤ ¤ ¨ © § ¦ ¤ ¥ ¢ £ þ þ þþ ü üþ ü þ ü þ ü Ð þ ü Ð C C ¨ü Ð C ¨ Ð Ð à Ð Ð ¨ Ð C ¨ Ð þ Ð C Ð ü Ð C Ð V Ð C ¤ ß øï Ý ¨ Ð Ð E C à à ï ò E C à à ï ò E C à à ï ò ¨ E C à C à ò EC à ò EC à ü ü £Xª Tt¨¡©® £ ª ª ª Ð ¢ ¢ ¯ ¬ ¢ Ð £ª 5Y¬©Y¡U¡t°©x¡5¡¸T¸tY¬ 5¶t¨¡#'¡» 8tUExÃ$g¯ ª ¬ ¢ £ £ ª ª £ X ¢ ¯ ¸t°°¸EY5¡Ãk°5¡P Em©Ek°t¤t3¡f8²8Ux» p å t°t £ ¢ ª « £ É ¢PEü» ¹ ³ Ý ( þ $Ãü ¡°#x¨Y¹tEYktgE¸t°°¸ü Eéª YtÏ¡¤Eg¯ ¬ ¸ ® ¬ £ª ¬ ¢ þª £ ¬ ª ð þ þ þ ü üÐ C þ Ð C ü üÐ C þ Ð C þ ü ü Ð þ C þ ü Ð þ C þþ ü Ð þ C üþ V ¨ à Ð à Ð ï ò ¨ E C ¨ à Ð à Ð ï ò E C à Ð à Ð ï ò ¨ E C ¨ à Ð ò E C à Ð ò E C à Ð à ¤ à ß øï µtYgY)ttÍ£ü 5g$E¤È ³ ù å ü ¢)tttªkÍ¡·¨ ° É ª ª ¯ ¢ ü ª ¬ ª ¯ ü þ é ü ü u d ¢ E b $ Ð C Ý Ð C 5 þ Ð C 5 ü Ð C 5 Ý $ b S Ð å E 1 C é ¨ E C¨ ò E C ò E C ü ü ¢ ª ¯ª ® µ þ tgE#x¨T¢ ` å EÍ´ ¢ é Ð C ü¨ Ð C Ý på ¬¢ þ Ð C Ý ü Ð C E C E E C E FC é ¨ FC °P £ » ¾ £ ª ¢ ªþ Ï¬PÂtt¦ÃE¡g¡· ¨ Ý # ü b 1 °PÍ¦âk¡f¹¢8£g¯ °#È ¨ X ¸ ¯ ¢ ü¨ Ð C ü Ð Cðþ ü Ð C ü `å ¨5 ò E C 5 ò E C 5 Ý E C é ü ü $ b u d ¢S Ð å E 1 Ý ¤ à ß b u d ¢S Ð å E 1 é é à à £ ª ¬ ¢ £ ´ ³ ¤ «ª £ tsE#ÍÛ¹W¡©½¡tt5g¼ £ ù å ttg¼©5t¢¤Í´ ¨ ª £ª ¾ £ é ³ ¬x¡E¹#8U©·ª E ¾ ¢ª É £ª ¨ ¬ ¢ £ª ¬ ¢ £ × °t3©¼©YPG¼ '¯ E ÛYtt©x£ 3é ÃP¡tY¬ s ¢Û¡Ât¢¢ s å ¢ ª£ª ¬ ª £ ð ùå ü ü é bb cTb Ð Ð ¤ à ß b @ ü Ð C 8þ Ð C 8 ß ¤ à ß b u d ¢S Ð å 1 ¤ à ß b å E Ý @ E C ò @à 8à à òà à é E òà é ð ü ü P Ðü C þ Ð C Ð Ð 8 ß ï u d ¢ ¡ Ð å 7b bb ccb 1 å ¤ àß Ý @ ¡ IG ø ò é u E à !ð u E 47 6 à òé ò @ u E 8 C @à 8à ü ü å ¤ àß Ý éà u Eà ¸ ¯ ¨ ¢ ¢ Ð £ « ³ «ª ê Tk'»£ g¡x3±#tÂ¼ °8¢¹X ½ ¡¡tP©$t # ¨ ¢ ¡ ²¡ £ xtW£ ¡½!¢ tY®t¼£Y8È¢E¡©¡W°5£ ¢Eg¯ ¬ ¢ » ª ¬ £ «ª ª ¸ £ ª à å # ¤ àß Ý " éà u à ¡ ` W § ¥$ S 2 Q I G £ ¥! D ¡ § @ ' ¡ 64 2 0 ¡$ ' $ "! ¥ © § ¥ £ ¡ VUTRPHF¨E¤8CBA987531)( ¤&¡#%#¤¡ ¨¦¤¢ .

¡ u d ¢¡ p ¡ Ð C ¡ A 8à ß ¡ ¡ ø Ñ Ý ¢ ¡ à E C ¡ 8à ù ³ ù å 8 ¡ !'£ !Y¨&$¸Í£ÍY¡©¡$¬k ¢ × ¢ £ X % µ ® ¢ « ¢ ¬ ª « ¾ ¯ ¢ ª × ¬ ¨ µ «ª ¢ ´ ³ « ¢¸ ¢ ¢ ª tg¡ ¦tE¢£ ¡¡xYgé ï Y¡5EUÍ¢tþþ £¡°©ü£ü P8¡E¡¹¡g¯ Ý A Yå A A ï Ñ Ý A Ý A é ¢ ¨¨ ç ¢ ª ª £ ¢ ¡Â¡t A ©7Í©E¢ £ ¨ £¢ Ê £ ¢ x3¤tÍ°tUÃ3 A 8¡85PY0¡ÍP¹#tU8 à 8Tt¢½´ x¼Ä ¢ ª ¬ £ £ ¢ µ£ Æ Ü ¤ ³ # §Ô å PYt¶¢#EExedYÏP¡ ¦t·ªkk¢8E¬ Ñ £ ¬ ª ¢ª ¬ ¢ ¨ ª vé $ü ø b gBY Ý ï Ô å Ý # ç yé ò ¤ð þ "þ £ ø £ ¬ ª ¢ ¬ ¢ ü Y¡©¡E83¶ Ý A E385¡xtY¡P g õ p Ý !å Û°P$¸5³ £5¡t¤ Pð © b ` ¢ ª ¬ £ ¢ «ª ï « £ £ » £ ¢ é £ ¨ ¢ ¨ ª ¬ t¡ktÂ°P3¢3t¡EE¹m©Â8¡8k¡x¡ ¢ t5°¡U ³T£Y°¢38£ ¤£Y°¼ ¢3E¡¨8¡¡G¬¡t±3Y¡¡tt É ª ¬ ¢ Ô É ª £ ¨ ¸ ª £ « ª µ¼EYg¡t©G©¼P¡#3¹Ã°¢YTÂx¢G¡ Y®t£U¡©GÃ ¹¼Ä £ ¢ ¬ «ª ¢ £ ¢ µ ® ¬ É ª ® ¢ £ ¢ ª ¬ «ª ª Æ Å ü þ þ ¨ ³ ¢« ª ¬ µ £ ¬ª ª !¡tYY¶¢ÍY¡©Í¡UttÍ£ u gb a ï ` Ý ú ©u î ù ø Ý¶u ¨tg» u Ô u î ù td¢ u F Ô ª ¯ ¨ £ ¢ ¤ » ¢ £ð ¢ × X ¢ Ú þ C C ¡E£ þ C å °ð ¡E©¼P¡£¢ ¨¡G£ ª ¯ » Egg¡ x ¨ ²£ ¢ ¢ °t é ø ¬¢ ø b ï Ý A °t g°¹X £s¤¨ s Û)Ä ¢ ¯ ¢ Æ r ¤ð ¦ §ð ¤ ¥ ¤ u ö F C £$¡ ¦tE¢W¡xtY¡%¢E#tg°t °Y x¼Ä ¢ ª ª ¬ ¨ µ «ª ¢ ¯ Æ Ü ³£ ¢ ¨ ¢ £ É « ¢ P¹#t¡ tx#gÍ£Y° F 3¡ ku F C C E C å Y¡©¡3±tg¬E¾ ¢ ¬ª« ¯ t¦ÃEÛt88¹#µ¡Y¢¹W¢¨E©P¾ A E38G ¡x¡BtgE¹Ùë ª ª µ £ ¬ µ £ £ ¬ ¢ ¢ é ª ¬ ¯ £ ¢ ¡ C E C ó A ¢ ù Ñ Ý ¢ ³ £ª ¬ ª ¸ ¬ EEt¨Ã£Y¡¤ü tÍ£©g¯ Ð ÐC p C @ þ @ E C 8 A 8 ß C ø Ý @ þ ü ü 8Ð þ ü X C ¨þ Ð C Ð Ð ¨ü Ð C Ð Ð Ð Ð þ E C ¨ à à ï ò E C ü¨ à à ï ò ü E C à ü à ï ò þ þ þ Ð C þ õ þþ ¨ Ð C þ õ Ñ ¨þ Ðå Ñ Ð å ü Ð C õ Ñ Ð å V Ð C ¤ à ß øï E C à ò ¨ FC é à á ø à @ò E C é à á ø à ò E C é à á ø à ¯ £ £¸ ´ ³µ ¯µ¢ ggUETEÍ£Í7¡TÍ¹¹ þ ª £ » tE¢£5£¢!# b 1 Ñ ttt¨¡©3È¢g±¶T¢3'ÏµP¢ Ç ª £ Xª ® ¯ ¬ ¬ µ ¯ » àá p W § ¥$ S 2 Q I G £ ¥! D ¡ § @ ' ¡ 64 2 0 ¡$ ' $ "! ¥ © § ¥ £ ¡ VUTRPHF¨E¤8CBA987531)( ¤&¡#%#¤¡ ¨¦¤¢ m3C~ .

¤ é Y ø Ý þ ¢ í þ FÔ í ñ ò ñ £ÍE¢Yt¹ÏEtY¢¹¶¢¬E¤5â£ £ ¬ª ª ¬ µ ª £ ¨ ¨ª ª¡· ¨ t° t7Ï¬¡t¶g¡î £Y°¼ ¢$m¡ 3£Y° F m¢¹´ ¢ » ª £ þ ¨ É ª « ¢ É « X Ô ù Ý ¢ £¨¼Yk¡tP©¤þ ¹3¡¸ µ £ ¢ ¬ «ª » ¢ õ £5Y¡¡tªt¶µE¡EÈÃY®t£5£ ¡©888U'¨ s õ Ô î ù Ý T « ¢¸ ¬ ª ¬ «ª ££ ¯ £ 8¡¸GU £Y°U¡¢88E¨P8G£Y°¢'¼ ¢3Eg¢¬E ¡¨ë ¹¼Ä É ª £ ¬ ¢ Ô É ª £ ¯ ª £ ® ¢ Æ Å u Eu î ù Ô Ý b ` ¨ î ð ð uÔ ø u ¨ gb ¢ ù Y ø å é u ù å Ý ¨ gb ù ø b é ¨ ©¤ ð ø £ ¨ u ©¤ü ð £ b £ Èb å þ ¡þ gb å u î ù å ¨ øð õî ü ø¢ ï Ñ Ý é ¤ Y ð õ ø b ïé b £ ¡ ¤ ð ø b ù é ¤ ð þ Ý¢ ¤ ³ ¦¨ u î ù È¢ ©¼P¡#tt¤ktsÃPWT s tx å ¢ £ ¢ ª ª£ ¢ ¾ ¬£ ¸ ª é ¢ £ î ù å þ ¡þ ¤ ¢ ¥£u ø Èb å î ¤b ï Ñ Ý b ü þé ¢"þ ï é ¤ £ ¡ ð ø ð ù £ F ø gb å A ¢ é b x ¤ ð ø b ïù Ñ Ý ¢ ¢ ù Ñ Ý ö C E C C ó ¤ ¦ ð Ær Û)Ä d ¢ ¡¡ Ð C ¡¡ ù u Ñ Ý ÷ ¨ Ð C ï ì Ap Ñ Ý ¢ ¡ ¨ ¡ ¡ ¨ E C¡ A ¨ E C õ ¢ ¢ £ « ª£ ¬ ¢ þ ü E¸« é å t¢g£3¢¢sP ¨ÐC Ñ Ý þ ÐC ü ÐC E C ò E FC ¨ E C ¸ ¯ ¡TP5UY» Ý # b 1 ¢Y® £ þ ü ð þÐ ü ÐC p å ÷¨Ð øï Ñ E C øï Ñ ì A Ñ Ý ¢ ¤ ¨ C E C ò C E C ¸ ¯ » Tk'E£3¢ Y å ¢¡ÛÚ « «« é ¢ W § ¥$ S 2 Q I G £ ¥! D ¡ § @ ' ¡ 64 2 0 ¡$ ' $ "! ¥ © § ¥ £ ¡ VUTRPHF¨E¤8CBA987531)( ¤&¡#%#¤¡ ¨¦¤¢ .

þ þ X ï Ñ ÷ Ô ï þ ï õ ÷Ô ù Ñ þÔï Ñ ` V ¢î Ý ï Ô þ ò õ ì þ ¨ Ô ï ò ø þ õ ì Ô ï FG8 X ù Ñ ÷ Ô ï þ ï ì F ÷ Ô øù Ñ þ Ô ï Ñ ì F V ¤ I ¢ î ï Ý ò þ õ þò õ F G8 þ ÷ þ F þÔ Ñ þ ù Ñ ÷ þ F þÔ Ñ þ þ Fï ¤ I ¢ î Ý ì ø ì ï õ ¡ u ¡¡ ù F G8 Ñ þ þ ï F ¡¡¡ ¤ I ¢ î ï Ý ¡ ¤ £ õ £ £ ¤¢ ¡ ¡ £ § £ þ¥ ¤ á á u I ¤ I ¢ î F8 8 Ñ F å ï Ý £ á é ¨ á á õ £ £ ¤¢ ¡ £ § ¨£ ¥ ¤ uI I F G8 8 æ8 þ Ñ þF å uI õ x¢ þ £ ¤£¨£ ¤¢ ¡ ¤ Ý ¨ ¨ A £ á áé á £ ©§ ¦ ¥ ¦¤ µ ® ¢ « ª £ ¢ ¢ ª ¬ ¨ ¢ ¢ õ ¢ ¹sE¡¸¡g£g¡tÍE8¡8kPtY ÂP8 ¡õ tEÍ´ ¨ W § ¥$ S 2 Q I G £ ¥! D ¡ § @ ' ¡ 64 2 0 ¡$ ' $ "! ¥ © § ¥ £ ¡ VUTRPHF¨E¤8CBA987531)( ¤&¡#%#¤¡ ¨¦¤¢ .

ü î ù ïõ Ý u I V b X Ð 8 Ð å ¥ ÿ þ gÂø å ü ¤ I V b X 8 aå Ð Ñ é é é á £¤ ¢ ef¥ á ¢ î ø ò º ï î ø u 8 æ 8 8 æ å ¥ ÿ æ ¢£ þ u I u I I b ù b ù p Ý £ ø º ï ø Wu¥ ¤ è á é ¨ £¤ ¢ ef¥ á ¦ ¦ ¢ ò ¸ ¯ £ ª ³ « ¢¸ ¢ ¢ ® ¢ T#U5EÍ¡ Ç ¢£¡°#x¡ Ý ú±gÂ©¢E8¡8µ¶¡tW£m¢YPxY¬ W£¤E¢¹ ¯ £ ¢ » ® ª ¢ ¬ ¢ ¢ ª ð è Ã¡t£k ³£ ¢ ¬ £ ® ¯ ¢ £ ¢ É É ¯ ¯ £ » «ª °±¬¡°¸x¶¬ 'm ¡Y¡xW°t¦ÃPYm¬¡U¤'sx¡¡tP©s¢ µ¡¸EdC£UttÛPt£Y¢t¡x¼âÂ¢fâW5¼PYG¡© ª ¢ ¬ ª ¬ ¢ µ ® £ ¨ £ d ¨ µ £ ¢ ¬ «ª ££ ª ÍÃPRE ª ¸ ¯ ³ ¨ ª ¨¥ ¢ ¬ ¢ ¢ ª ¹»Ã¡E'° x § E)¡t·ªg¡â¼©¡tE¡P¤m tY®t¼£Y¬ ª § ¬ ¢ ¥ ¤ ¨ × ª ¯ µ ª ¸ « ¢ ¸ ¢ ¢ «¡© ¨EEeEY ¦¢ dX ©¨ !¢E²'¯ tg¹t¡E ¢£¡T¹¨£ ¢ ¡Ex® £ » ® ª ª ¨ ¢ ¬ ¢ £ ¢ ÉÊ » « X £ ª $E¡tG£t¡· 3¬¡°¸GÛ£¢Yt83¡ ¡YÌ¡xt°P¢¹fEx8µt¦t T æ å U8 ·å ¦¥ ¥ æ x¢ I Ý ¦¤ ¥ é tç ä ã á¹é ç ç á è è µ ® ¢ « ª £ ¢ Æ Ü ¹sE¡¸¡k¡gt83#¡x#Í´ x¼Ä § ¡ ¢ ³£ ¬ ¢ EEÃ8$¢$· ¨ £ ª ¬ª £ ¨ ¢ ª ª ¬ ¯ » ¢ « ª ¬ µ ¸ ¡EYts8tg£Ù¡ ¡©¢¨¡x¡ g!¡tYYd¢U 5 ï t'¡#Et°t¨q Ý ¨t#¡·¤#£Ö¡t¨t¢È¼EY¢¡t©sÍ´ ¨ ££ ø ú ª ¨ ® ª µ £ ¢ ¬ «ª ¢ £ ¢ × X þ ¢ Ú þ µ ® « ¬ µ ® µ ¢ ¨ £ ª ¯ £ ¢ ü ³ tÍ£ ¨¡G¹8¢Y¬¹¸Y¹¨ ·ªgÍE'¡ ª µ ££ª É ³ ¡¡ÛÃYÛ $ ¤ $b a ` Ý ú ¨ u î ù Ý 3GYt'¡U ¡tYY¹t ø uÔ £ ¬ª ª ¢« ª ¬ µ £mtE7ð ¡5ï« ¡ð ©#¡t¦ ÃE#Â£5¡°x ¢ ¢k¡t©Wþ « ¢ ¨ ¢ u ¤ ¬ ¢ ª ¢¢ ª ¸ ® å « ª ¨ ¢ é £ « ¢ £ £ » µ « ª ¢ ¢ ª ¢ ¨ ¬ ¢ « ¢ ª ¬ ¡þ 8°Pg3t¡G¡tE@t¦tE¶tW¡¶Y¢¶¶8EY'» ø Ý A 8¡88PY9 g#P$¢«t¡¢#°#©¼£Y¢tt'¨ s ¹¼Ä ¢ ª ¬ ¯ £ ¢ ª £ É ª Æ Å ¤ð î þ ÷ æ å ÿ ð þ ï ø Ñ ø ù ì u ø ù ¤ å £ é é á þ » £ ¡¡¸¢ t'Et!¢¡«t¡#t ªª » ª ª ¯ £ ¢ » µ ¢ É ¢ ª Æ r E¢kØ°È¬!£ ¢#¢¡xm¹#°²µYáEx88¢8t& Û)Ä ³ ¢ ª ¬ ¢« ¢ £ ¢ É ¢ ¾ £ £ ¢ ¬ «ª E£¡8¡µ¡ x5YP¡E! ¢ P¹#g¡gÃ¡t£5¡Â txWt8g°YWttgEtE38¡xt¤¢£¡°P¡W¢8E¬ ¢ ¢ ¯ ¬ ª ³£ ¢ « ¢¸ ¢ ¢ ª ¬ µ ¢ ¬ « ¬ ¢ ¨ ¢ £ ¢ É X Æ Ü ¢¡Ù¼£EYs¡tªP©¢£t²tsYgtxtÂd¡ ¡Y¶¡xt±$¡ x¼Ä ¦ î æ þ ¢£ þ ø ù p Ý ¢ å é ¢ £¤ ¢ á µ £ ¢ ¬ «ª £ «ª ¨ ¢ ª ¬ ¬ ¼EYk¡t©8g¡PW¡©7¡¶¡ Y®t£Y$EEeEY ië § ¡ m3C~ a W § ¥$ S 2 Q I G £ ¥! D ¡ § @ ' ¡ 64 2 0 ¡$ ' $ "! ¥ © § ¥ £ ¡ VUTRPHF¨E¤8CBA987531)( ¤&¡#%#¤¡ ¨¦¤¢ .

î þ þ ÷ æ å ÿ p á gø ì á u ø ù Ý £ Ñ é þ î ÷ æ å ÿ ¨ p á Ñ øá ì u ø ù Ý )(å £ é é £g£5°P¡$P¡· U©E8¡8#P#$ ¸ ® ¬ ¢ ¨ £ ¢ ¦¥ î ·æå ¥ ü ¦¤ ø î ò ù º ï ß u ø ù Ý £(å ¥ éè tç ¦ ã ef¥ ¤ á é £½tx#$¡ ¡Y#¡xt#Í´ ¢ ¨ ¢ £ ¢ É îù îù þ Ý u p Ý ` Ñ Wu ¤ ø Wvu ¤ ¢¡tY#'Y» a å t¢U£©¡t¢ æ Í· UtEt#8¢Y¹¡TÍ¹¹Âë ® ¯ ª« ¬ ¢ ª ¨ £ £ª « »µ ¯ µ ¢ ³³E£Yµ¡' 8Y¬ ¡ÈE¡¤tÃ²¨E©²t8®P8¤¤E¡f¢¤¢¢£ ³ £ ¢ ¢ £ ¢é ¢ ¬ £ ® £ £ ª Xá £ £ £ X é£#eXsµ¡W !¡¬ s P¡ tEtYm¢tgmEY¬Â£#¡t±¡tÂ°P £ × ¢ ³£ ¢ ££ª É ¯ ¢ ¬ £ « ¢ £ ¢ ¯ » ª ££ ¢ £ ¢ ¬ « ® £ ¬ ¢ £ª ¬ ¢ ¸ ¯ £ »ª ¯ Ã3 ©g¡tktE¡ 8Y±¢x#¡ ©¼©YPm3¡TP3Um½EE'°x ·Y 8Y¨¨t £¡t !¡m¡¨µ ¹ü ¹® á ³ ¨ ¢ £ ¢ ¬ ª × ¢ µ £ ¸ ª ¨ ¢ª tt#t¡k¡t¡Ex X ® ¬ ª ® µ¢ ¨ £ ´ ¨¡8Ã¡©P3T¢G£tÏÂEWÍ³ ¡£¤ ¢¢ ¡Û E3YT8¬¡£ ¢ ¨ £ ¢ £ ¢ ¬ ¸ « ª « ¢ ª ¨ £ £ª ££ ¢ £ ¢ « ® ¬ ¯ £ °t¡t¢ ¡$· s©ÃÃ¡ E8Y¬ f £« ¢¡ x@t ©ªE'd$¢£ s å µE¡¸¦ÃPEt» ï Ý Ù Ý 3· ¨ Y ù ï °¡G©¡t¢ m£ ³ £ª º ¬¢ º ª ¬¢ ¸ £ ª« ð ðï á u I 8 ¥ ¦Ý û á £¤ ¢ ¤á £ ¢ Ã#sE¡¸tY¬ s tU t°©¡E¢i·m ³ Ý P £ª ¬ ª £ª µ ® £ ¢ ª « ¯ ¨ º ¬¢ Ý E¡Â¡· ©¡E¢ U°5EE¤µ¡U'°½¡ °¢t¡· Y¢£ï º ££ ª ¨ ª« ¸ ¬ ¢ ¢ ¯» ¢ ª ¨ ð á ü ³ ¯ª ¡£gt ü ð ¢ þ 8 øå Ð Ñ ¤I Ñ 7 6 Ý Ð é Ð å ¥ ÿ é Ègø å ü ï ÝÝ º é ð 4¢ º ð ç¨ ¢ ³ ¯ª ¬ ¢ x ¡£gtt » Ý Â· ¨ ` ø ù » Ý Â· ¨ õ º ª º ª £ ª « ¬ ¢ ¯ ¯ð ¨ ¡°¸7¡Y¡t¢gG°tÍYg'8©gC·ªT» ï ³ t¡· ½£ !¡Y¨¡% Tï ª ¨ × ¢ ð £ X ¸ ¡ '!¡t«t¢¶EÂ Ç ³ °gW¤¡E±ï ©õ õ g²¢x» Ý W· 8E%¢ ¯ ª ¬ ¢ £ ª ¸ £ £ ¯ º ª ¨ ª ¢ µ¢¡£W©¡«E¢$¼©Èü Â£ï 8¡¹µ¡x²tY½ t#@¼ð ¡¡g U ª £ ª ¾ » ¢ ü ª ¬ ¢ « ¨ µ ü ¢ « ª µ þ þ Ð å ¥ ÿ Ð ü ¤ I sÐ 8 Ð å ¥ ÿ ü ¤ I Ý Ð 8 Ð å ¥ ÿ ggø å ü ¤ I Ñ Ð Ñ é é é ¢ é µ¡Ã#¡g£Ï¡t¢¥ ÿ Í´ £ ¢ ¬ ª « ð ø W § ¥$ S 2 Q I G £ ¥! D ¡ § @ ' ¡ 64 2 0 ¡$ ' $ "! ¥ © § ¥ £ ¡ VUTRPHF¨E¤8CBA987531)( ¤&¡#%#¤¡ ¨¦¤¢ .

³ £ ¨ ¢¸ £ ¶¢tÎ¡t·ª±£°5 gg5¢Ex¡°P¡5W¤E¡8¡t£ Ý ú ¯ £ ª » ¸ ® £ ë ³ £ ¢ ª ª ¨ £ ª ¡¢tÙ¢ S ( Ñ ( S ø ÃYðP¹sUÃ¢ P¡Ã£ P3©s EU¼x¨Eg¯ ¬ ¬ ¢ É ¯ £ ¬ ¢ ¬ ¢ £ª ¾ ¢ ¯ ® ª ü ü ¥ î ¡ X Ð 8 Ð å ¥ ÿ þ gÂø å ü ¤ I V b X 8 ef¥ I V b æ å ¥ ÿ ß u ø ï ø Ý £ Ð Ñ é é á £ ü¢ ¤ ¢ á ¥ á á é ¦¥ î ¡ X æ æå 8 æ 8 æ ¢£ â8¦¥ I V b X 8 £ ef¥ á I V b âå ¦¥ ø øò º ï ß u ø ù p Ý è è ä á ¥¢ á ¥ ¢ ¤ éè ç ã ¨ é ç 3ã î á Ñ ( ( 8 S ( ¡x¢ ( S I u ø ù Ý £å å é é ¢ ª « ª¨ ¬ ® ¢ ª ¨ ¢ £ É Æ r ¡ !¡¡tt¢Ui¡t·5E¢¡tY½£¡t¡PUt½·k¡ Y¡7YGÍ´ Û)Ä ø ø W § ¥$ S 2 Q I G £ ¥! D ¡ § @ ' ¡ 64 2 0 ¡$ ' $ "! ¥ © § ¥ £ ¡ VUTRPHF¨E¤8CBA987531)( ¤&¡#%#¤¡ ¨¦¤¢ u d ¢¡ p ¡ Ð C A 8à ß ¡ ø Ñ Ý ¢ ¡ à FC 8 à E 8 ù ³ ù å ¡ °P G£ !Y¨¡% ¢ × ¢ £ X ¢ E ©ªÈ@¹® ¸s£ ¡ ¡©¢±¡x¡é ï#¡@EÈÍ´ ¹¼Ä ª ¬ µ ¢ « ¢ ª ª ¬ ¨ µ «ª ¢ Æ Å î þ ÷ å ¦ æ å ÿ ð þ ï ø Ñ ø ù ì u ø ù Ý Ð å ùøå £ é é ¨ á é ò é á ¢©Y¡#UY» ¡ø å t¢ õ ø å ¡ ï ø å ¢¡ÛÚ ® ¯ ø ¬¢ « «« é é é þ ï øå ¤ Ð £ ©Í¡ Ðå ¦ ¤ ï Ñ á ¥Ñ éõ þ ð é ò á õ ò ¨á Ñgø å & Y Ð Y Ð p Ð ø Ð Ð ¡p ¨ Ð å Ñ ï Y & ¨øá Ý é á ò 0 ð ï ò ð ï ò ð õ ò ¨ ð ï ò ð õ ò é 0 á ¢ £¤ ¢ ¢ þ þ ò £¤ ¢ ¨ ð u I 8£ ¢ I 8 Ý ¢ á ¤ ¢ á á ò á £ £¤ ¢ á ¨ ø á ¢ ¢ ¢ ¸ ¯ £ Tk'k¡ ï Ý ¤Í Ç º ª øå ¤ Ð £ §Í¡ Ð å ¦ p ¥Ñ ¤ éï ð þ å é Ñ ù ò ï & øá Ý ù ø p ò 0 é ï gá ¢ ò á ò ¨ á £¤ ¢ u I ¢ 8 I 8 Ý u¢ á £ £¤ ¢ ¨ á ò á £ £¤ ¢ á ¢ øá ¢ ¢ ¸ ¯ £ Tk'k¡ Ý ¤Í Ç ©¡ º ª ³£ª ¯ £ ® £ ª « ´ ³ ¸ ® ª « U¼mt¢sxk£©¡E¢¨Í¡°xÛ¡t¢ mt5tE·tg¥ ¢ Eg¯ ð £ ª ¨ ª ª á î þ þ ¢ ÷ æ å ÿ ¢ ` ù ø Ñ u £õù ì u ø ï ø Ý £(å ø ¡ø å £ é é é £ ¢ ª ¯ µ ¯ ª « ¡½¡tE¡P#t5g¨T¢kUx¡tt¢Â°P ª ¨ ¬ ¢ ¨ ¯ £ ¸ « « « ¬ ¢ » ª « ¢ ¬ µ ¬ ¸ ¡· È· UkE°8t²¢¢¡È! ©¡E¢ æ 3YmY¡Ãª8¡TP3g .

¢ Ô ¬ ¢ ¢ µ ® ¸ ¯ »ªª ¢ £ ¢ ¬ X u ¶¡ts ¹sµ3W¡TkUÃ¦Ãt¡¨µ E3YÂ£t¢´ ¨ ¢ î u pa Ý ¢ Að ¢ £ ¬¹µ ` ø å ¢Â£t8¢sP « ¬ ¢ þ é F u î ù þC øð ï Ý C ¸ ¯ » « ¢ª ¡TkU£t¢t°tedW& þ þ þ î Ò Ð ÈÑ gÑ F ï å u ø ð p a Ý þ F é þ þ þ î Ñ ÈÑ gÑ F õ å u ø ð p a Ý Ò Ð é þ þ î ø Ñ æ õ å u ø ð p a Ý £ é þ á î æ å ÿ þ u ø ð ù Ý £(å £ é á é ¸ ¯ » ª ¢ £ ¢ « ª ¢ ³£ ¬ª Tk'$ttÍ¡t¡¤¢¡« s EE¢Yt¹ ¢ £ª ¢ ££ª É ª ¯ª £ £ × ¡Et¡¶¢¨ tEtYÂ°PWgE8UEEg£ E¹» ù ø å k¡¸T¸tYÏP5 ¨ ª ¬ ª ³ ª £ ¢ ® ª µ £ ¢ ¬ «ª Y8 ½´ ½¢«t¡mt¢°¢Ã£¡T¸ ¡t¢£ é ¢d¼PY¶¡t©±¢°P ¨ ¬ £ ¯ £ £ Ê Ê ¬ ¢ £ £ Ê Ê ¬ ¨ « « » ª ¦¡â¨ÈE¢U#E¢5¡Ì ¹Ã±t5¡Ì ¹©ª¢t ·ª$¢¡g¢½Eg¯ é `øå ud ¢¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ F C C E C þ u d ¢ ¡¡ F þ C ¡¡ ù Ý ¡ ¡ ¡ C¡ A u d ¢ ¡¡ F C ¡¡ ù ¢ Ñ Ý ¡ ¡ ¡ C E C ¡ ¡ A ¢ ¡ p u ¢ « Êd ¯ ¡¡Y¬ Pf¨g» A u d ¢ ¡¡ F C ï ¡ ¡ C E C õ u d ¢ ¡¡ F Ñ @ Ò C øï ¡ ¡ C E C þ tþ C E C ¢ Ý ¨¨ A Ý A ï Ñ Ý ï Ñ ï¡ Ý õ ¢ ø ¡¡ A ¢ Ñ # b 1 øï ¡¡¡ A p Ý Ð C ï ¡¡¡ p ¢ Ý ¢ ò 6 E C ø¡ A¢ ü »P«¢£°gEkt½¡ÍtP8 £ü ¢ ¸ ª £ ¢ ¨ £ ¢ ¢ Ñ ¸ ¯»£ ¢ ¢ ª ï ¤¡TPUEPÂ8¡t°s¡' Ç A ïø W § ¥$ S 2 Q I G £ ¥! D ¡ § @ ' ¡ 64 2 0 ¡$ ' $ "! ¥ © § ¥ £ ¡ VUTRPHF¨E¤8CBA987531)( ¤&¡#%#¤¡ ¨¦¤¢ .

³ ª ® £ £ £ ¡8¢5tkx¢¢8¹t©PÍ¢Eg£Í´ x ø ¤ ¬ ø b p¦ ü £ ¡©ª ¨ ð gHTø p Ý ø þ ¡þ u þ Èb a £ ` ð å b Y õ ø b ù £ ¨ é ø å ¤ ð £ b ï gb å ø ð ø ï Ý ø ¤ é ð é ð õ uÔ b ù ¨ ð ï Ý ¤ A ¥¢ ø u Ô ©u î ù ù ¨ ¨ ¨ Aþ b ðøï Ý ¢ ¢ ¸ ¯ »£ª ® ¢ « ¬ ¢ « ³ ® Tk'YE©x¹#t¢¢¢Y$£t3¢& ¶¡P# õø W § ¥$ S 2 Q I G £ ¥! D ¡ § @ ' ¡ 64 2 0 ¡$ ' $ "! ¥ © § ¥ £ ¡ VUTRPHF¨E¤8CBA987531)( ¤&¡#%#¤¡ ¨¦¤¢ .

respectively. in the region outside the shell 1 . right circular. 2000 Chapter 4: Problems 8-13 Problem 4. ϕ) = [An rn + Bn r−n ][Cn sin(nϕ) + Dn cos(nϕ)] For the region inside the shell (r < a). (b) Sketch the lines of force for a typical case of b ≈ 2a. The medium inside and outside the cylinder has a dielectric constant of unity.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. (a) Determine the potential and electric ﬁelds in the three regions. told to neglect end eﬀects. Classical Electrodynamics. Also. and a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric. (a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in two dimensional polar coordinates is Φ(r. the B coeﬃcients must vanish to keep the potential from blowing up at the origin. we can ignore the z direction altogether and treat this as a two-dimensional problem. We will take the axis of the cylinder to be the z axis and the electric ﬁeld to be aligned with the x axis: E0 = E0ˆ Since the cylinder is very long and we’re i. cylindrical shell of dielectric constant / 0 and inner and outer radii a and b. is placed in a previously uniform electric ﬁeld E0 with its axis perpendicular to the ﬁeld. (c) Discuss the limiting forms of your solution appropriate for a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. neglecting end eﬀects.8 A very long. Third Edition Homer Reid October 8.

−E0 r cos ϕ with An = 0 for n > 1.e. ϕ) = The normal boundary condition at r = a is 0 ∂Φ ∂r = x=a− ∂Φ ∂r x=a+ or 0 nan−1 [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ] = nan−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − na−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ] From this we obtain two equations: 0 0 An = Cn − En a−2n Bn = Dn − Fn a−2n (1) (2) Next. the only positive power of r in the sum must be that which gives rise to the external electric ﬁeld.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 2 (r > b). i. −E0 r cos ϕ + r−n [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ]. rn [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] + r−n [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ]. from the normal boundary condition at r = b we obtain − 0 E0 cos ϕ − 0 nb−(n+1) [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ] = nbn−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − nb−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos ϕ] . With these observations we may write expressions for the potential in the three regions: rn [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ]. r<a a<r<b r>b Φ(r. the tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂ϕ or nan [An cos nϕ − Bn sin nϕ] = nan [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + na−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] = x=a+ ∂Φ ∂ϕ x=a− from which we obtain two more equations: An = Cn + En a−2n Bn = Dn + F n a −2n (3) (4) Similarly.

−4b2 E0 = or B1 = b2 ( 1 0 b2 ( + 0) 2 − a2 ( − 0) 2 B1 −4 0b2 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0) 2 E0 . (3). and (8) specify the same degenerate system of equations. for n = 1. (4).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 3 which leads to − − 0 2 0 0 Gn = Cn b2n − En Hn = Dn b2n − Fn (5) (6) b E0 δn1 − Finally. which can only be satisﬁed by taking An = Cn = En = Gn = 0 for all n. Next. the system of equations (2). (6). and −H1 = b2 E0 + 0 D1 b 2 − 0 F1 H1 = b 2 E 0 + D 1 b 2 + F 1 → 0 = 2b2 E0 + b2 1 + 0 D1 + 1 − 0 F1 Substituting from above. The four equations (1). we have 0 B1 = D1 − F1 a−2 ⇒ B1 = D1 + F1 a−2 D1 = 1 1+ 2 0 B1 F1 = 1 2 a 1− 2 0 B1 . for n = 1. (5). and (7) specify a degenerate system of linear equations. we have the tangential boundary condition at r = b: bE0 sin ϕ + nb−n [Gn cos nϕ − Hn sin nϕ] = nbn [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + nb−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ] giving Gn = Cn b2n + En −b E0 δn1 + Hn = Dn b 2 2n (7) (8) + Fn . . However. so Bn = Dn = Fn = Gn = 0 for n = 0.

1 I’ve plotted the ﬁeld lines for b = 2a. we would have a → 0. → 0 . ϕ) = − ( + 0 ) + ( − 0 ) 2 E0 sin ϕϕ . 2( + 2 − a2 ( − 2 b r 0) 0) As r<a a<r<b b < r. r ˆ b < r. E(r. b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 D1 = b2 ( The potential is −4 0 b2 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 · E0 rcos ϕ. r ˆ r>b ( + 0 )2 r On the other hand. ϕ) = ˆ ( 2 − 2) b 2 E i− 0 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ]. ϕ) = E0 cos ϕ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 4 Then −2 0 ( + 0 )b2 E0 + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −2 0 ( − 0 )a2 b2 E0 F1 = 2 b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 −b2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) 0 H1 = 2 E0 . = 5 0 . Also. r ˆ r<a 2( + 2 2 2 0 b 0) − a ( − 0 ) a2 2 0 b2 2 ( + 0 ) − ( − 0 ) 2 E0 cos ϕˆ r b ( + )2 − a 2 ( − )2 r 0 0 a2 E(r. (c) For a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform ﬁeld. The electric ﬁeld is 4 0 b2 E [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . as an appendix to this document I’ve included the C program I wrote to generate this plot. (b) In Figure 4. a2 −2 0 b2 Φ(r. ( + 0 )r + ( − 0 ) b 2 ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r −(b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b2 0 · E0 cos ϕ − E0 rcos ϕ. Φ → −E0 r cos ϕ in all three regions. In that case the ﬁeld would look like 2 0 ˆ r<b + 0 E0 i. which is reassuring. ˆ a<r<b r 2 (b2 − a2 )( 2 − 2 ) b 0 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ] r ˆ − 2 · b ( + 0 )2 − a 2 ( − 0 )2 r +E0 [cos ϕˆ − sin ϕϕ] . a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric corresponds to .

ϕ) = 2 0 2 0( − 0 ) a E0ˆ − i ( + 0) ( + 0 )2 r r<a 2 E0 [cos ϕˆ + sin ϕϕ].Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 5 Figure 1: Field lines in Problem 4. b → ∞. 0 E(r. r ˆ r > a. = 5 0. in which case the ﬁeld becomes 4 0 E0ˆ ( + )2 i. .8 for b = 2a.

(c) Verify that. your result is the same as that for the We will take the origin of coordinates at the center of the sphere. Then the problem has azimuthal symmetry. θ) = l+1 4π 0 d qdl Bl + r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). while Φ2 comes from the external point charge. r > d. (b) Calculate the rectangular components of the electric ﬁeld near the center of the sphere. whence Al rl Pl (cos θ) (r < a). 0 → ∞. r<a l r q Bl r−(l+1) + Pl (cos θ). so within the sphere the potential satisﬁes the normal Laplace equation. (a) Since there is no free charge within the sphere. r > d. we may expand it in Legendre polynomials: Φ1 (r. Φ(r.9 A point charge q is located in free space a distance d away from the center of a dielectric sphere of radius a (a < d) and dielectric constant / 0 . the potential may be written as the sum of two components Φ1 and Φ2 . (a) Find the potential at all points in space as an expansion in spherical harmonics. Φ2 is just the potential due to a point charge at z = d: rl q Pl (cos θ). θ) = l Now. and put the point charge on the z axis at z = +h. a<r<d Φ(r. Since Φ1 satisﬁes the Laplace equation for r > a. But since the permittivity is uniform within the sphere. Putting this all together we may write the potential in the three regions as Al rl Pl (cos θ). where Φ1 comes from the polarization charge on the surface of the sphere. This means that polarization charge only exists on the surface of the sphere. r<d 4π 0 dl+1 Φ2 (r. we may also write ·(D/ ) = ·E = 0 there. in the region r > a. 4π 0 rl+1 . θ) = l Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) (r > a). 4π 0 On the other hand.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 6 Problem 4. ·D = 0 there. θ) = (9) q dl Pl (cos θ). in the limit / conducting sphere.

θ) = − 4π 0 d a2 d l 1 Pl (cos θ). the potential outside the sphere due to the polarization charge at the sphere boundary is 1 qa Φ1 (r. since the ﬁeld within a conducting sphere vanishes. we obtain Al = 0 1 + l+1 l 1 + l+1 l 2l + 1 l 1− 0 q 4π 0 dl+1 qa2l+1 4π 0 dl+1 Bl = 0 In particular. as / 0 → ∞ we have Al → 0 as must happen. rl+1 Comparing with (9) we see that this is just the potential of a charge −qa/d on the z axis at z = a2 /d. . and Bl → − qa2l+1 .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 7 The normal boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂r → 0 = r=a− 0 ∂Φ ∂r r=a+ lAl al−1 = −(l + 1)Bl a−(l+2) + Al = 0 lqal−1 4π 0 dl+1 (10) → −(l + 1) q Bl a−(2l+1) + l 4π 0 dl+1 The tangential boundary condition at r = a is ∂Φ ∂θ → → = r=a− ∂Φ ∂θ r=a+ Al al = Bl a−(l+1) + q al 4π 0 d(l+1) q a2l+1 Bl = Al a2l+1 − 4π 0 dl+1 (11) Combining (10) and (11). 4π 0 dl+1 (12) With the coeﬃcients (12). This is just the size and position of the image charge we found in Chapter 2 for a point charge outside a conducting sphere.

(a) Since the dielectric has uniform permittivity. as shown in the ﬁgure. (c) Calculate the polarization-charge density induced on the surface of the dielectric at r = a. The empty space between the spheres is half-ﬁlled by a hemispherical shell of dielectric (of dielectric constant / 0 ). θ) = π l −(l+1) [Cl r + Dl r ]Pl (cos θ). That region is described by θ = π/2. θ) = A1 rP1 (cos θ) + A2 r2 P2 (cos θ) + · · · = q 4π 0 3 0 1 z+ d2 ( + 2 0 ) 2 5 0 d3 (2 + 3 0 ) (z 2 − x2 − y 2 ) + · · · so the ﬁeld components are Ex = 5 0 4π 0 2 +3 0 q 5 0 Ey = · 4π 0 d2 2 + 3 0 q 3 0 Ez = − 2 4π 0 d +2 0 d2 · q x +··· d y +··· d 5 0 + 2 +3 0 z +··· d Problem 4. we have Φ(r. 0 < θ < π/2. <θ<π 2 First let’s apply the boundary conditions at the interface between the dielectric and free space. respectively. so within its body we may take the potential to be a solution of the normal Laplace equation. Then the region occupied by the dielectric is the region a < r < b. carry charges ±Q. and we .10 Two concentric conducting spheres of inner and outer radii a and b. (a) Find the electric ﬁeld everywhere between the spheres. 0<θ< 2 Φ(r. and the problem has azimuthal symmetry. all the polarization charge exists on the boundary of the dielectric. The potential in the region between the spheres may then be written π [Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) ]Pl (cos θ). a < r < b. We’ll orient this problem such that the boundary between the dielectricﬁlled space and the empty space is the xy plane. (b) Calculate the surface-charge distribution on the inner sphere.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 8 (b) Near the origin.

Bl = Dl . g is the acceleration due to gravity. (15) (16) Next let’s consider the charge at the surface of the inner sphere. If the liquid rises an average height h between the electrodes when a potential diﬀerence V is established between them. For other cases the vanishing of the coeﬃcients must be brought about by taking 0 Al = C l Al = C l 0 Bl = Dl . cylindrical conducting surfaces of radii a and b are lowered vertically into a liquid dielectric. In (13). Since these equations must be satisﬁed for all r in the region a < r < b. (14) is automatically satisﬁed for l odd. and the susceptibility of air is neglected.13 Two long. we can use Gauss’ law to determine the E ﬁeld between the .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 9 must have ∂Φ ∂θ ∂Φ ∂r which leads to Al − Cl Pl (0)rl + Bl − Dl Pl (0)r−l+1 = 0 (13) (14) = θ=π/2+ 0 ∂Φ ∂θ θ=π/2− θ=π/2+ ∂Φ = ∂r θ=π/2− 0 0 l [Al − Cl ] P (0)rl−1 − (l + 1) [Bl − Dl ] Pl (0)r−l+2 = 0. this requirement is automatically satisﬁed for l even. First let’s work out what happens when a battery of ﬁxed voltage V is connected between two coaxial conducting cylinders with simple vacuum between them. one component comes from the surface distribution of the free charge +Q that exists on the sphere. coaxial. Similarly. the coeﬃcients of each power of r must vanish identically. show that the susceptibility of the liquid is χe = (b2 − a2 )ρgh ln(b/a) 2 0V where ρ is the density of the liquid. There are actually two components of this charge. To begin. since Pl (0) vanishes for even l. and the other component comes from the bound polarization charge on the inner surface of the dielectric Problem 4. l odd l even.

However. to establish a potential diﬀerence V between the conductors. Now suppose we introduce a dielectric material between the cylinders.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 10 cylinders. Hence E · dA = 2π r dzEρ = → Eρ (ρ) = q 0 = 1 0 (2π a dz)σ aσ 0r where σ is the surface charge on the inner conductor. If the voltage between the cylinders is kept at V . in order to establish this same E ﬁeld in the presence of the retarding eﬀects of the dielectric. By symmetry there is no component of E normal to the top or bottom boundary surfaces. and the component normal to the side surfaces (the radial component) is uniform around the disc. the battery has to ﬂow enough charge to establish a surface charge of magnitude σ= 0V a ln(b/a) (17) on the cylinder faces (the surface charges are of opposite sign on the two cylinders). So the . a < r < b centered on the axis of the cylinders. This is just Wv = 1 2 0 b a b 0 2π E · D ρ dρ dφ E 2 (ρ)ρ dρ ln(b/a) (18) =π =π = a σ 0 a 2 2 π 0V 2 ln(b/a) where the v subscript stands for ’vacuum’. the D ﬁeld will now be bigger by a factor ( / 0 ) than it was in our above calculation. since (18) is the energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders with just vacuum between them. For our Gaussian pillbox we take a disk of thickness dz and radius r. It is useful to ﬁgure out the energy per unit length stored in the electric ﬁeld between the cylinder plates here. This must integrate to give the correct potential diﬀerence between the conductors: b V =− a Eρ (ρ)dρ = − aσ 0 ln b a which tells us that. the battery now has to establish a surface charge that is greater that it was before by a factor ( / 0 ). because this ﬁeld integrated from a to b must still give the same potential diﬀerence. With this greater charge on the electrodes. then the E ﬁeld must be just the same as it was in the no-dielectric case.

The energy lost by the battery is twice that gained by the dielectric. ln(b/a) On the other hand. In doing this the internal energy of the battery decreases by an amount equal to the work it had to do to ﬂow the excess charge. As we showed earlier. πV 2 Ee = −h( − 0 ) (20) ln(b/a) This must be balanced by the gravitational potential energy Eg of the excess liquid. the liquid between the cylinders is at the same height as the liquid outside. and if this mass is at a height h above the liquid surface its excess gravitational energy is dEg = (dm)gh = πgρ(b2 − a2 )hdh. So suppose that. The height at which we no longer gain by having more liquid between the cylinders is the height to which the system will settle. We’ll take the boundary between the liquid and the air above it to be at z = 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 11 energy per unit length stored in the ﬁeld between the cylinders increases by a factor ( / 0 − 1) over the result (18): ∆Wd = ( − 0) πV 2 . However. so the mass of liquid contained in a height dh between the cylinders is dm = ρπ(b2 − a2 )dh. so the system with dielectric between the cylinders has lower overall energy than the system with vacuum between the cylinders by a factor ∆W = ( − 0) πV 2 ln(b/a) (19) (per unit length).e. . namely ∆Wb = −V dQ = V (2π a dσ) = ( − 0) 2πV 2 ln(b/a) (per unit length). With no potential between the cylinder plates. Turning now to the situation in this problem. with a battery keeping a voltage V between the electrodes. at some point the energy win we get from this is balanced by the energy hit we take from the gravitational potential energy of having the excess liquid rise higher between the cylinders. we’ll take the axis of the cylinders as the z axis. Eg is easily calculated by noting that the area between the cylinders is π(b2 − a2 ). so that the surface of the liquid is parallel to the xy plane. i. The decrease in electrostatic energy this aﬀords over the case with just vacuum ﬁlling that space is just (19) times the height. the combined system of battery and dielectric can lower its energy by having more of the dielectric rise up between the cylinders. Now suppose a battery of ﬁxed potential V is connected between the two cylinder plates. to get to this point the battery has had to ﬂow enough charge to increase the surface charges to be of magnitude ( / 0 ) times greater than (17). the liquid between the electrodes rises to a height h above the surface of the liquid outside the electrodes.

the surface of the liquid outside the cylinders must fall. Hence there are really two other contributions to the energy shift. Actually we should note one detail here.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 12 Integrating over the excess height of liquid between the cylinders. 2 (21) Comparing (20) to (21). since the total volume of the liquid is conserved. Eg = πgρ(b2 − a2 ) 0 h h dh = 1 πgρ(b2 − a2 )h2 . the diﬀerence layer will be thin and its energy shifts negligible. . χe = ρgh(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) . the change in gravitational and electrostatic energies of the thin layer of liquid outside the cylinders that falls away when the liquid rises between the cylinders. we ﬁnd that the gravitational penalty of the excess liquid just counterbalances the electrostatic energy reduction when h= 2( − 0 )V 2 ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) 2χe 0 V 2 = ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a) Solving for χe . 2 0V 2 So I seem to be oﬀ by a factor of 2 somewhere. namely. But if the surface area of the vessel containing the liquid is suﬃciently larger than the area between the cylinders. When the surface of the liquid between the cylinders rises.

else Coeff=1.(EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ). * Homer Reid October 2000 */ #include <stdio. */ double Er(double r.0 /* radius of outer cylinder #define NUMLINES 25.0 .A*A*(EPS-EZ)*(EPS-EZ)) /* * Return r component of electric field at position (r.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM.0 /* permittivity of cylinder #define E0 1.0 * B) / NUMLINES /* horiz spacing of pts */ /* vert spacing of initial pts */ #define DENOM (B*B*(EPS+EZ)*(EPS+EZ) . /* * Program to draw field lines for Jackson problem 4. } . of pts to plot for each line */ #define DELTAX (4.0 /* number of field lines to draw */ #define NUMPOINTS 250.((B*B . return Coeff*E0*cos(phi).A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)).0 /* radius of inner cylinder #define B 8.h> #include "/usr2/homer/include/GnuPlot.h> #include <math.8.phi).8.0 /* no. double phi) { double Coeff. if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4.0 */ */ /* external field (irrelevant here) */ */ */ #define A 4.c" #define EZ 1.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 13 Appendix Source code for ﬁeld line plotting program used in Problem 4. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) .0 /* permittivity of free space #define EPS 5.0 * B) / NUMPOINTS #define DELTAY (4.

fprintf(g.A*sin(phi)).r."set size square\n"). .1.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM. fprintf(g. g=GnuPlot("Field lines")."set yrange [%g:%g]\n". ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n"). FILE *g.A*cos(phi). for(phi=0.2."set multiplot \n").0*B). fprintf(g."plot ’-’ t ’’. fprintf(g.dy.A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM)). ’-’ t ’’ with lines.phi).-2."%g %g\n". */ fprintf(g. double RComp. double phi) { double Coeff."set terminal postscript portrait color\n").PhiComp.2. } void main() { double i."set xrange [%g:%g]\n".0 + ((B*B . /* * Draw circles at r=a and r=b. fprintf(g."e\n").-2.eps’\n").dx."set noxtics\n").0*B. /* * Send basic GnuPlot configuration commands.phi.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 14 /* * Return phi component of electric field at (r.x. fprintf(g. else if ( r < B ) Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) + (EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) ). if ( r < A ) Coeff=(4.0*B). */ double Ephi(double r. */ fprintf(g.y.0*B."set output ’fig4. phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g. else Coeff=1. phi<=2*M_PI. return -Coeff*E0*sin(phi).j. fprintf(g."set noytics\n"). fprintf(g.

"%g %g\n". /* * Draw field lines. fprintf(g. i<=NUMLINES."%g %g\n"."plot ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n").2. fprintf(g.0) { /* * Compute starting x and y coordinates and initiate plot. j<NUMPOINTS.0) ? M_PI/2. dy=sin(phi)*RComp + cos(phi)*PhiComp.y). */ for (j=0. y=2.0 : -M_PI/2. if (x==0.B*cos(phi).sin(phi)*PhiComp. i+=1.0.0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 15 fprintf(g.0*i)/NUMLINES). dx=cos(phi)*RComp .0) { /* * compute polar coordinates of present location */ r=sqrt(x*x + y*y).B*sin(phi)). */ x=-2."e\n"). and y * coordinate up or down by an amount depending on * the direction of the electric field at this point */ x+=DELTAX. else phi=atan(y/x). /* * compute rise and run of electric field */ RComp=Er(r. j+=1. for(phi=0.x. fprintf(g. PhiComp=Ephi(r.0*B * ((NUMLINES .phi).0. phi+=(2*M_PI/100)) fprintf(g. .0*B. /* * Plot NUMPOINTS points for this field line.0) phi=(y>0. y+=DELTAX * (dy/dx). phi<=2*M_PI. */ for (i=1.phi). /* * bump x coordinate forward a fixed amount."e\n").

\n"). }. fprintf(g. printf("Thank you for your support."e\n").Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 16 }. } .

ΦM = −µ0 IΩ/4π. Third Edition Homer Reid November 8. The sign convention for the solid angle is that Ω is positive if the point P views the “inner” side of the surface spanning the loop.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. I like to change the notation slightly: the observation point is r1 . if a unit normal n to the surface is deﬁned by the direction of current ﬂow via the right-hand rule. the coordinate of a point on the current loop is r2 . and the displacement vector (pointing to the observation point) is r12 = r1 − r2 . 2000 Chapter 5: Problems 1-10 Problem 5. Classical Electrodynamics. and negative otherwise. Ω is positive if n points away from the point P . show explicitly that for a closed loop carrying a current I the magnetic induction at P is B= µ0 I 4π Ω where Ω is the solid angle subtended by the loop at the point P . that is. This is the same convention as in Section 1. The solid angle subtended by the current loop at r1 is given by a surface integral over the loop: cos γ dA Ω= 2 r12 S 1 .1 Starting with the diﬀerential expression dB = x−x µ0 I dl × 4π |x − x |3 for the magnetic induction at the point P with coordinate x produced by an increment of current I dl at x .6 for the electric dipole layer. This corresponds to a magnetic scalar potential.

and since the 1 . φ = 0.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. z). using the expressions of parts a and b. (a) Translating Jackson’s equation (5. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 10-18 Problem 5. Since there is no current in the z direction. (b) Show that an alternative expression for Aφ is Aφ (ρ. we have Jφ = Iδ(z)δ(ρ − a) (1) Following Jackson. (c) Write down integral expressions for the components of magnetic induction. (a) Show that the only nonvanishing component of the vector potential is Aφ (ρ. Classical Electrodynamics. so its coordinates are (ρ.33) into cylindrical coordinates. z) = µ0 Ia π ∞ dk cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) 0 where ρ< (ρ> ) is the smaller (larger) of a and ρ.10 A circular current loop of radius a carrying a current I lies in the x − y plane with its center at the origin. Evaluate explicitly the components of B on the z axis by performing the necessary integrations. we take the observation point x on the x axis. Third Edition Homer Reid February 11. z) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dke−k|z| J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).

z ) cos[k(z − z )]I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> )ρ dz dr −∞ dk Substituting (1).16(b) used for the Green’s function instead of equation (3.148). 0 (b) The procedure for obtaining this expression is identical to the one I just went through.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 current density is cylindrically symmetric. so ρ< = ρ. there is no vector potential in the ρ or z directions. In the φ direction we have Aφ = −Ax sin φ + Ay cos φ = Ay = µ0 4π µ0 = 4π µ0 Re 4π Jy (x ) dx |x − x | Jφ (x ) cos φ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )eiφ dx |x − x | Jφ (x )e iφ = µ0 Re = 4π 2 π ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ eim(φ−φ ) cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ) dk dx where we substituted in Jackson’s equation (3. Then Bρ = [ =− Bz = [ = × A]ρ = − Iaµ0 π ∞ 0 ∂Aφ ∂z k sin kz I1 (kρ)K1 (ka) dk 1 ∂Aφ Aφ + ρ ∂ρ ∞ I1 (kρ) + kI1 (kρ) K1 (ka) dk cos kz ρ 0 × A]z = Iaµ0 π . we have Aφ = Iaµ0 π ∞ cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) dk. ρ> = a. but with the expression from Problem 3. Thus Aφ = µ0 π ∞ 0 0 ∞ ∞ Jφ (r . (c) Let’s suppose that the observation point is in the interior region of the current loop.148). Rearranging the order of integration and remembering that φ = 0. we have Aφ = µ0 Re 2π 2 ∞ m=−∞ 0 ∞ Jφ (x )ei(1−m)φ cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> )dx dk If m = 1. the φ integral yields 2π. otherwise it vanishes.

We deﬁne the “rotated” frame R by aligning the z axis with the normal to the current loop. so that in R the current loop exists only in the x y plane.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 As ρ = 0. so Bρ (ρ = 0) = 0 Iaµ0 ∞ k cos kzK1 (ka) dk Bz (ρ = 0) = π 0 ∞ Iaµ0 ∂ = sin kzK1 (ka)dk π ∂z 0 The integral may be done by parts: ∞ 0 1 sin kzK1 (kz) dk = − sin kzK0 (ka) a ∞ + 0 z a ∞ cos kzK0 (ka) dk 0 K0 is ﬁnite at zero but sin vanishes there. 2 (z 2 + a2 )3/2 Problem 5. the magnetic ﬁeld exists only in the xy plane. Can you deduce anything about the higher order contributions? Do they vanish for the circular loop? What about for other shapes? (a) Basically we’re dealing with two diﬀerent reference frames here. but the magnetic ﬁeld now has a z component. and the normal to the current loop has angles θ0 . I1 (ρ)/ρ → 1/2. and I1 (ρ) → 1/2. φ0 . There is an applied magnetic ﬁeld. φ0 . Compare your result with the approximate result (5. and sin is ﬁnite at inﬁnity but K0 vanishes there. R. Comment. The force on the current loop is F= (J × B)dV. In the “lab” frame. (a) Calculate the force acting on the loop without making any approximations.11 A circular loop of wire carrying a current I is located with its center at the origin of coordinates and the normal to its plane having spherical angles θ0 . (b) Calculate the torque in lowest order. so the ﬁrst term vanishes. I1 (ρ) → 0. Plugging it in to the above.69). The integral in the second term is Jackson’s equation (3. (2) . Bx = B0 (1 + βy) and By = B0 (1 + βx). Bz (ρ = 0) = z Iµ0 ∂ 2 + a2 )1/2 2 ∂z (z a2 Iµ0 = .150).

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 PSfrag replacements z1 = z z y1 x φ0 x1 y x1 x R → R1 R1 → R θ0 y = y1 z1 4 Figure 1: Successive coordinate transformations in Problem 5. which takes us to R . To derive the transformation matrix relating the coordinates of a point in R and R . Then we rotate through θ0 around the y1 axis. but more complicated in R. cos θ0 cos φ0 x y = − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 z cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 x − sin θ0 y . I think the former approach is easier. The ﬁrst transformation is a rotation through φ0 around the z axis. which takes us from R to an intermediate frame R1 . 0 z cos θ0 (5) This matrix also gives us the transformation between unit vectors in the two . or we can work out the components of B in R and do the integral in R . I imagined that the transformation arose from two separate transformations. The components of J are easy to express in R .11. as depicted in ﬁgure (??). There are two ways to do the problem: we can work out the components of J in R and do the integral in R. the coordinates of a point in the various frames are related by x1 cos φ0 sin φ0 0 x y1 = − sin φ0 cos φ0 0 y (3) z1 0 0 1 z x1 cos θ0 0 − sin θ0 x y1 y = 0 1 0 (4) z1 sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z Multiplying matrices. in which case we would have to transform the components of the force back to R to get the answer we desire. the opposite is true for B. Evidently.

cos2 φ and sin2 φ turn into factors of π after the integral around the loop. the expressions for coordinates in R in terms of coordinates in R : x cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 x y = cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 y . If the loop radius is a. j ˆ k (6) We will also the inverse transformation. since only these terms survive after the integral around the current loop (we grouped all the remaining terms into (· · · )). y = a sin φ . and the current density/volume element product is ˆ J dV = Id l = (Ia dφ )φ = Ia dφ [− sin φ ˆ + cos φ ˆ ] i j = Ia dφ (− sin φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − cos φ sin φ0 )ˆ i ˆ + (sin φ sin φ0 + cos φ cos φ0 )ˆ + (sin φ sin θ0 )k j We also need the components of the B ﬁeld at a point on the current loop: B(φ ) = B0 [1 + βy(φ )]ˆ + B0 [1 + βx(φ )] i = B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 sin φ0 + sin φ cos φ0 )]ˆ + B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ sin φ0 )]ˆ i j The components of the cross product are [J × B]x dV = −Jz By dV = (· · · )βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 sin φ0 [J × B]y dV = Jz Bx dV = (· · · ) + βIa2 B0 dφ sin2 φ sin θ0 cos φ0 [J × B]z dV = (Jx By − Jy Bx ) dV = (· · · ) + 0 where we only wrote out terms containing a factor of cos2 φ or sin2 φ . (7) z − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z To do the integral in (2) it’s convenient to parameterize a point on the current loop by an angle φ reckoned from the x axis in R . i.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 frames: ˆ i cos θ0 cos φ0 ˆ = − sin φ0 j ˆ sin θ0 cos φ0 k cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 ˆ i ˆ . . In the surviving terms.e. Then the force components are Fx = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0 Fy = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 cos φ0 Fz = 0. then the coordinates of a point on the loop are x = a cos φ .

respectively (b < a). note that the magnetic moment has magnitude πa2 I and is oriented along the z axis: ˆ ˆ m = πa2 I k = πa2 I sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ + sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + cos θ0 k i j so B·m = B0 (1 + βy)mx + B0 (1 + βx)my = B0 β myˆ + mxˆ i j = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0ˆ + sin θ0 cos φ0ˆ i j) in exact agreement with the result we calculated so laboriously above. where Jb is the current density of the smaller loop and Ba is the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop. b and currents I. φ = 0) in . Thus N = rBr (r)Jb (r)dr (8) where Br is the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger current loop. because the current ﬂows in a circle around the origin—there is no current ﬂowing toward or away from the origin. Show that the torque on one of the loops is about the line of intersection of the two planes containing the loops and has the magnitude µ0 πII b2 N= 2a (n + 1) Γ(n + 3/2) (2n + 1) Γ(n + 2)Γ(3/2) n=0 ∞ 2 b a 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos α). current I) lies in the xy plane. and R the frame in which the larger loop lies in the x y plane. We might as well take the line of intersection of the two planes to be the y axis.12 Two concentric circular loops of radii a. so y = y . I . The torque on the smaller loop is N= = r × Jb (r) × Ba (r) dr r · Ba (r) Jb (r) − r · Jb (r) Ba (r) dr. Let R be the frame in which the smaller loop (radius b. Then the z axis has spherical coordinates (θ = α. Problem 5. As in the last problem. it’s convenient to deﬁne two reference frames for this situation. But r · Jb vanishes. have an angle α between their planes.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 To compare this with the ﬁrst-order approximate result.

φ) cos φ dφ To do the integral in (8). the unit vectors ˆ and ˆ coincide. if a point has angular coordinates θ. but we don’t need to.11 to write down z in terms of x and z. θ = π/2. Equation (12) is telling us what our coordinates in R are in terms of our coordinates in R. so Br = Br . (11) expresses r r the ﬁeld in terms of cos θ . Next. we need an expression for the radial component Br of the ﬁeld of the larger loop.48): Br (r . θ ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l P2l+1 (cos θ ). φ0 = 0. How do we write this in terms of the angles θ and φ in frame R? Well. we already have an expression for the ﬁeld in R : in that frame the ﬁeld is just that of a circular current loop in the x y plane. with θ0 = α. (We could also work out what the azimuthal angle φ would be. we ﬁrst note that. note that cos θ = z r x sin α + z cos α = r r sin θ cos φ sin α + r cos θ cos α = r = sin θ sin α cos φ + cos θ cos α (12) where in the second line we used the transformation matrix from Problem 5.) . θ ) = µ0 I a 2r ∞ 2l+1 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! r< P (cos θ ). φ in R. φ) sin φ dφ 0 2π (9) (10) Br (r = b. (11) To transform this to frame R. r> = a and we have Br (r = b. θ = π/2. since the origins of R and R coincide.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 R. Of course. If we choose to evaluate the integral (8) in frame R. and for all such points r = b. then (12) tells us what angle θ it has in R . then r< = b. the polar angle in frame R . the current density is Jb (r) = Iδ(r − b)δ(θ − π/2) − sin φˆ + cos φˆ i j so the components of the torque are Nx = −Ib2 Ny = Ib2 0 2π Br (r = b. Jackson’s equation (5. 2l+2 2l+1 2l l! r> l=0 We are interested in evaluating this ﬁeld at points along the smaller current loop. and for transforming back and forth between the two frames we may use the transformation matrices we derived in the last problem. because (11) doesn’t depend on φ .

To ﬁnish we just need to rewrite the numerical factor under the sum: (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 1 (2l + 1)!! Γ(l + 3/2) P2l+1 (0) = l l! l l! 2 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) (2l + 3 − 2)(2l + 3 − 4)(2l + 3 − 6) · · · (5)(3) Γ(l + 3/2) = l Γ(l + 1) 2 Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) Γ(l + 3/2) (l + 3/2 − 1)(l + 3/2 − 2) · · · (5/2)(3/2) = Γ(l + 1) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) = Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2) 2 = (l + 1)2 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 . The torque is Nx = 0 πµ0 II b2 Ny = a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! b a 2l 1 1 P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α). so for all points on that loop we have θ = π/2. in terms of the angle φ that goes from 0 to 2π around that loop: Br (φ) = µ0 I 2a ∞ l=0 (−1)l (2l + 1)!! 2l l! 2l+1 b a 2l P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) +2 m=1 m m P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) cos mφ . but in fact when we plug it into the integrals (9) and (10) the sin φ and cos φ terms beat against the cos mφ term. evaluated at points on the smaller loop. integrating to 0 in the former case and πδm1 in the latter. whence l Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (0)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (0)Plm (cos θ) cos mφ. We may now write down an expression for the radial component of the magnetic ﬁeld of the larger loop.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 8 To express the Legendre function in (11) with the argument (12). we may make use of the addition theorem for associated Legendre polynomials: Pl (cos θ ) = Pl (cos θ cos α + sin θ sin α cos φ) l = Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos α) + 2 m=1 Plm (cos θ)Plm (cos α) cos mφ. the smaller loop exists in the xy plane. Of course. This looks ugly.

the equations determining H in those regions are ·B= · (µH) = 0. i. Find the vector potential and magnetic-ﬂux density both inside and outside the sphere. so things are not so simple. Can anybody help? Problem 5. We’ll take the cylinder axis as the z axis of our coordinate system.5. but I can’t ﬁnd where. with Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. hollow. and of relative permeability µr . so we eﬀectively have a two dimensional problem. and sketch the logarithm of the ratio of the magnitudes of B on the cylinder axis to B0 as a function of log10 µr for a2 /b2 = 0. in the external region.14 A long. The sphere is rotated about a diameter with constant angular velocity ω. The former is just (1/µ0 )B0 and the second is again derivable from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. and we’ll take B0 along the x axis: B0 = B0ˆ To the extent that we ignore end eﬀects. So. There are two distinct current distributions in this problem. In the external region. × H = Jfree = 0. Since there is no free current within the cylinder or in its inner region.1. Problem 5. These imply that. . we may imagine the ﬁelds to have no z dependence. The second is a current distribution Jbound = × M existing only within the cylinder. 0.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 9 So my answer is Ny = πµ0 II b2 a ∞ (l + 1)2 l=0 Γ(l + 3/2) Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) 2 b a 2l 1 P2l+1 (cos α). Neglect end eﬀects. this current distribution is only nonvanishing at points outside the cylinder. is placed in a region of initially uniform magnetic-ﬂux density B0 at right angles to the ﬁeld. Evidently I’m oﬀ by a factor of 1/(l + 1)(2l + 1) under the sum. Find the ﬂux density at all points in space. To proceed we may separate the H ﬁeld in the external region into two components: one that arises from the free current. there is free current. within the cylinder and in its inner region. The ﬁrst is a current distribution Jfree giving rise to the uniform ﬁeld B0 far away from the cylinder. we may derive H from a scalar potential: H = − Φm . right circular cylinder of inner (outer) radius a (b). H = (1/µ0 )B0 − Φm . and one that arises from the bound currents within the cylinder.13 A sphere of radius a carries a uniform surface-charge distribution σ.

∂φ n=1 . ∂r n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r>b ∞ n=1 ∞ n=1 ρn Cn cos nφ + Dn sin nφ + ρ−n En cos nφ + Fn sin nφ ρ−n Gn cos nφ + Hn sin nφ − − r<a a<r<b r < b. ∂φ n=1 − ∂ Φm = n Cn ρn−1 + En ρ−(n+1) sin nφ. where µ = µ0 outside the cylinder and µr µ0 inside. With the above expressions for the components of H. With this simpliﬁcation we may write down expressions for the components of the H ﬁeld in the three regions: ∂ Φm = −nAn ρn−1 cos nφ.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 10 So our task is to ﬁnd expressions for Φm in the three regions such that the boundary conditions on B and H are satisﬁed at the borders of the regions. ∂r n=1 ∂ − Φm = nAn ρn−1 sin nφ. Hr = ∞ (1/µ0 )B0r − ∂ Φm = (1/µ0 )B0 cos φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) cos nφ . we have 1 B0 cos φ + nGn b−(n+1) cos nφ = µr −n Cn bn−1 − En b−(n+1) cos nφ µ0 n=1 n=1 − 1 B0 sin φ + nGn b−(n+1) sin nφ = n Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) sin nφ. ∂r n=1 ∂ Φm = −n Cn ρn−1 − En ρ−(n+1) cos nφ. we may argue on symmetry grounds that the sin terms must all vanish: otherwise. the ﬁelds would take diﬀerent values on the positive and negative y axes. φ) = Actually. ∂φ n=1 ∞ ∞ r<a a<r<b r < b. and excluding terms which blow up as ρ → 0 or ρ → ∞. µ0 n=1 n=1 We may multiply both sides of these by cos nφ and sin nφ and integrate from ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ (1/µ0 )B0φ − ∂ Φm = − (1/µ0 )B0 sin φ + nGn ρ−(n+1) sin nφ . we have ∞ ρn An cos nφ + Bn sin nφ n=1 Φm (ρ. but there is nothing in the problem distinguishing these axes from each other. Writing down the solutions of the 2-D Laplace equation in the three regions. Hφ = The boundary conditions at r = b are that µHρ and Hφ be continuous.

multiplying (18) by µr and adding and subtracting with (17) yields 2µr C1 = (µr + 1)A1 2µr E1 = (µr − 1)a A1 . . Equating (20) with (22). For n = 1. µ0 On the other hand. n=1 (18) n = 1. the only solution turns out to be An = Cn = En = Gn = 0. − 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = C1 + E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) .Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 11 0 to 2π to ﬁnd 1 B0 + G1 b−2 = −µr C1 + µr E1 b−2 µ0 Gn b−(n+1) = −µr Cn bn−1 − En b−(n−1) . Similarly. (19) A1 = C1 + E1 a−2 An an−1 = Cn an−1 + En a−(n+1) . For n = 1. multiplying (15) by µr and adding and subtracting with (13) yields 2µr C1 = −(µr + 1) 2µr E1 = (1 − µr ) B0 + (µr − 1)G1 b−2 µ0 (20) (21) B0 2 b + (µr + 1)G1 . at r = a we obtain A1 = µr C1 − µr E1 a−2 An a n−1 (13) n=1 (14) (15) n=1 (16) (17) −(n+1) = µ r Cn a n−1 − En a . we ﬁnd A1 = − B0 (µr − 1) + G1 b−2 µ0 (µr + 1) 2 (22) (23) while equating (21) with (23) yields A1 = − B0 µ0 b2 a2 + (µr + 1) G1 a−2 (µr − 1) and now equating these two equations gives G1 = 1 − a b 2 (µ2 − 1)b2 r (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 B0 µ0 b2 .

The ratio r of the ﬁeld within the cylinder to the external ﬁeld is r= (µr + 1)2 4µr 2 .5 (a/b) = 0. The other coeﬃcients may be worked out from this one: A1 = −4µr b2 B0 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 B0 −2(µr + 1)b2 C1 = (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 −2(µr − 1)b2 B0 2 E1 = a .5 log10 r -2 -2.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 frag replacements 12 0 -0. − (µr − 1)2 a2 b This relationship is graphed in Figure .1 -1 -1.5 (a/b) = 0. (µr + − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 2b2 B0 a 2 ˆ a (µr + 1) + (µr − 1) = i − 2(µr − 1) 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r r r 0 2 2 2 2 (b − a )(µr − 1) b B0 B0 ˆ ˆ + 2 sin φ φ . ˆ i+ i = µ (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 r2 1)2 b2 r<a 2 cos φˆ .5 0 1 2 log10 µr 3 4 5 Figure 2: Damping of ﬁeld inside cylindrical cylinder of permeability µr . 2 b2 − (µ − 1)2 a2 µ (µr + 1) r 0 The H ﬁeld is H= 4µr b2 B0 ˆ i.5 -4 -4. a < r < b r r > b.5 -3 -3.

5: ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! r 2n µ0 I P2n+1 (cos θ). which means that throughout the region it may be derived from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation: ∞ µ0 Ia2 − 4r3 2n (25) 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). show that the magnetic ﬁeld at the center of the loop is augmented by a factor (1 + a3 /2b3 ) by the presence of the iron. unity.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 13 Problem 5. (b) What is the radius of the ”image” current loop (carrying the same current) that simulates the eﬀect of the iron for r < b? (a) There are two distinct current distributions in this problem: the free current density J1 ﬂowing in the loop. B2 = − Φ m = − n=0 ∞ An rn Pn (cos θ) (26) (27) → B2r = n=1 ∞ nAn rn−1 Pn (cos θ) 1 An rn−1 Pn (cos θ) n=1 B2θ = . r > a. r < a B1θ = On the other hand. which must be summed at each point in space to get the observed ﬁeld. r > a. 2r3 2n n! r n=0 µ0 I 4a (−1)n (2n − 1)!! 2n−1 n! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ r a a r 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). (a) In the approximation of b a. r < a 2a n=0 2n n! a (24) B1r = µ0 Ia2 ∞ (−1)n (2n + 1)!! a 2n P2n+1 (cos θ). since J2 vanishes for r < b. the ﬁeld B2 to which it gives rise has no divergence or curl in that region. These give rise to two ﬁelds B1 and B2 . B1 is just the ﬁeld of a planar current loop. and the bound current density J2 ﬂowing in the iron.16 A circular loop of wire of radius a and negligible thickness carries a current I. The loop is centered in a spherical cavity of radius b > a in a large block of soft iron. which Jackson has already worked out for us in his section 5. Assume that the relative permeability of the iron is eﬀectively inﬁnite and that of the medium in the cavity.

Find the force acting on the loop when (a) the plane of the loop is parallel to the face of the slab.18 A circular loop of wire having a radius a and carrying a current I is located in vacuum with its center a distance d away from a semi-inﬁnite slab of permeability µ. The An coeﬃcients are thus determined by the requirement that (27) and (25) sum to zero at r = b: ∞ 1 An bn−1 Pn (cos θ) = n=1 µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ a b 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). Problem 5. whence A2n = 0 A2n+1 = µ0 Ia2 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 4b3 2n (n + 1)! a b2 2n . (b) the plane of the loop is perpendicular to the face of the slab. the expressions (28) and (29) can be made to look like the r < a versions of (24) and (25). a. Br (r = 0) = B1r (r = 0) + B2r (r = 0) = 2a 4b3 2a 2b (b) The B2 ﬁeld may be attributed to an image current ring outside r = b if. As r → 0. while B1r → µ0 I/2a. so that the boundary surface is z = 0. B2θ → 0 and B2r → µ0 Ia2 /4b3 . for suitable redeﬁnitions of I and a. Then the ﬁeld of the bound current in the iron is determined everywhere in the region r < b: B2r = B2θ µ0 Ia2 4b3 (−1)n (2n + 1)(2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! 2n (n + 1)! n=0 ∞ ∞ ar b2 2n P2n+1 (cos θ) (28) (29) µ0 Ia2 = 4b3 ar b2 2n 1 P2n+1 (cos θ). the H ﬁeld (and hence the B ﬁeld.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 14 Since the iron ﬁlling the space r > b is assumed to have inﬁnite permeability. and the slab of permeability µ to occupy the space z < 0. (c) Determine the limiting form of your answer to parts a and b when d Can you obtain these limiting values in some simple and direct way? (a) We’ll take the loop to be at z = +d. since B = H for r < b) must be strictly radial at the boundary r = b. The orthogonality of the associated Legendre polynomials requires that each term in the sum cancel individually. . so the total ﬁeld at r = 0 is µ0 Ia2 µ0 I a3 µ0 I + = 1+ 3 .

z>d z < d. and a second component H2 arising from the bound currents running in the slab. 1 1 J1 (kρ) = [J0 (kρ) + J2 (kρ)] kρ 2 . (33) ∞ 0 H1z 1 1 ∂ = (ρAφ ) µ0 ρ ∂ρ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) z>d kρ 0 ∞ 1 J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) . z < d. and since · H = 0 as well we have 2 Φm = 0. Aφ = H1 = µ0 Ia ∞ µ0 dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 2 0 so H1ρ = − 1 ∂ Aφ µ0 ∂z Ia 2 = Ia − 2 Ia 2 = Ia 2 ∞ 0 z>d z < d. for z > 0 we may decompose the H ﬁeld into two components: one component H1 arising from the current loop. dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 2 1 0 ˆ ×A.87).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 15 In the region z < 0. The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite as z → −∞ is ∞ Φm (z < 0) = 0 dk A(k)ekz J0 (kρ).10: ∞ µ0 Ia dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). H = − Φm . dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). (30) and from this we obtain Hρ (z < 0) = − = 0 ∂ Φm = − ∂ρ ∞ ∞ 0 dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ) (31) (32) dk kA(k)ekz J1 (kρ) ∂ Φm = − ∂z ∞ 0 Hz (z < 0) = − dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ). so × H = 0 everywhere. On the other hand. thus H may be obtained from a scalar potential. dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka) kρ 0 (34) dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka) ∞ In the last two equations we may use Jackson’s identity (3. there is no free current. H1 is just given by the curl of the vector potential we worked out in Problem 5. A = Aφ φ.

we have ∞ − 0 dk kA(k)J0 (kρ) = µ0 Ia 2 ∞ 0 dk ke−kd J1 (ka) (J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)) + 0 ∞ dk kB(k)J0 (kρ) . The required forms of the functions A(k) and B(k) are determined by the boundary conditions on H at the medium boundary. z = 0: Hρ (z = 0− ) = Hρ (z = 0+ ) µHρ (z = 0− ) = µ0 Hρ (z = 0+ ). z < d. Equating (32) with the sum of (??) and (??).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 16 Since the H2 ﬁeld arises entirely from bound currents. ∞ 0 Φm (z > 0) = 0 dk B(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) and the components of H2 are ∞ H2r (z > 0) = − 0 ∞ dk kB(k)e−kz J1 (kρ) (36) (37) H2z (z > 0) = 0 dk kB(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). it may also be derived from a scalar potential Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. z > d (35) dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] . The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains ﬁnite for all ρ and as z → +∞ is ∞ to rewrite H1z as Ia 4 H1z = Ia 4 ∞ 0 dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] .

Classical Electrodynamics. Dividing space into three regions ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). both inside and outside. (a) Determing the magnetic ﬁeld H and magnetic induction B at all points on the axis of the cylinder. Φm = dk B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). uniform throughout its volume and parallel to its axis.Solutions to Problems in Jackson. The cylinder has a permanent magnetization M0 .19 A magnetically “hard” material is in the shape of a right circular cylinder of length L and radius a. 0 ∞ dk D(k)ekz J0 (kρ). 0 1 . Third Edition Homer Reid April 20. z) satisfying the Laplace equation. so H(ρ. There is no free current in this problem. (b) Plot the ratios B/µ0 M0 and H/M0 at all points on the axis of the cylinder. 2001 Chapter 5: Problems 19-27 Problem 5. both inside and outside. z) may be derived from a scalar potential Φm (ρ. 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2 The tangential boundary condition at z = +L/2 is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ) (1) This must hold for all ρ. k . integrating from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞. ρ<a ρ > a. 0. and using the identity ∞ dρ ρJn (kρ)Jn (k ρ) = 0 1 δ(k − k ) k (2) we obtain from (1) the relation A(k) = B(k)ekL + C(k). Multiplying both sides by ρJ1 (k ρ). The perpendicular boundary condition at z = +L/2 is Bz (z = L/2+) = Bz (L/2−) or µ0 Hz (z = L/2+) = µ0 Hz (z = L/2−) + Mz (z = L/2−) ∂Φm ∂z ∞ (3) = z= L + 2 ∂Φm ∂z ∞ + M (ρ) z= L − 2 ⇒ dk kA(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) = 0 0 dk k −B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) (4) where M (ρ) = M1 . Now we multiply both sides of (4) by ρJ0 (k ρ) and integrate from ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞ to obtain A(k) = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + M1 ekL/2 = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + γ(k) where we deﬁned γ(k) = M1 ekL/2 0 a a ρJ0 (kρ)dρ 0 (5) ρJ0 (kρ)dρ = aM1 kL/2 e J1 (ka).

Hz = −M1 a dk e−kL/2 sinh(kz)J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). dk cosh 2 0 ∞ dk e−kL/2 cosh(kz)J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 2k C(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3 The solution of eqs. Hρ = M 1 a 0 ∞ kL kz dk cosh e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 0 ∞ −M1 a dk cosh 0 kL kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). 2 . 2 (7) Then the components of the H ﬁeld are ∞ kL −kz M1 a e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ). 2 z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2. 2 (6) From the boundary conditions at z = −L/2 we may similarly obtain the relations B(k) + C(k)ekL = D(k) B(k) − C(k)ekL = D(k) − γ(k) which may be solved to yield 1 B(k) = D(k) − γ(k) 2 Comparing (6) and (7) we ﬁnd A(k) = D(k) = kL M1 a cosh J1 (ka) k 2 M1 a −kL/2 B(k) = C(k) = e J1 (ka). M1 a 2 0 ∞ z > L/2 − L/2 < z < L/2 z < −L/2 M1 a 0 ∞ dk cosh kL −kz e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ). (3) and (5) is B(k) = 1 −kL e γ(k) 2 1 C(k) = A(k) − γ(k).

two things happen. Since there are no free currents in the problem. The force on the cylinder is then readily calculated as F = −dE/dz. 4a2 + L2 a2 (b) Find the limiting form of the force if L We’ll deﬁne our coordinate system so that the z axis is the cylinder axis. Second. but now there is just free space. To begin we write down the general solutions of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates. Moving the cylinder of ﬁxed M up a distance dz is thus formally equivalent to keeping the cylinder put and instead introducing a cylinder of the opposite magnetization −M between 0 and dz. When we move the cylinder up a distance dz. (a) Show that. Then we’ll calculate the shift dE in the energy of the magnetic ﬁeld incurred by moving the cylinder up a small distance dz oﬀ the surface of the medium. First. we’ll ﬁnd the magnetic ﬁeld H0 that exists in all space when the cylinder is pressed up ﬂat against the inﬁnitely permeable medium. observing ﬁrst that by symmetry we can only keep terms with no . Our general strategy for this problem will be as follows. where previously there had been a ﬁxed magnetization M.23 A right circular cylinder of length L and radius a has a uniform lengthwise magnetization M . To calculate the energy shift incurred by moving the cylinder a distance dz away from the permeable medium. + L2 2a . we may derive H from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. The increase in ﬁeld energy in this latter case is fairly easily calculated by taking the integral of µ0 Mc˙ H0 over the regions in which the ﬁxed magnetization changes. a . and we’ll take the surface of the permeable medium at z = 0. it adheres with a force F = 2µ0 aLM 2 where k=√ K(k) − E(k) K(k1 ) − E(k1 ) − k k1 k1 = √ a. between L and L + dz there is now a ﬁxed magnetization M where previously there was none. we won’t have to go through and completely recalculate the ﬁelds and their energy in the new conﬁguration. we can use the following little trick.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 4 Problem 5. Instead. First a gap of height dz opens between the surface and the face of the cylinder. So the ﬁrst task is to ﬁnd the ﬁeld that exists when the cylinder is pressed ﬂat against the surface. while also introducing a cylinder of magnetization +M between L and L + dz. when it is placed with its ﬂat end against an inﬁnitely permeable plane surface.

and using the identity (2). Above the line we may write Bz = µ0 [Hz + M (ρ)]. and using (2) yields µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − µ0 Using (11). the tangential boundary condition is ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 = z=0− ∂Φm ∂ρ ∞ 0 z=0+ dk k D(k)J1 (kρ) = dk k [B(k) + C(k)]J1 (kρ). (11) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is then −µ − µ µ0 ∞ 0 ∂ Φm ∂z z=0− = −µ0 0 ∂ Φm ∂z ∞ + µ0 M (ρ) z=0+ dk k D(k)J0 (kρ) = − dk k [B(k) − C(k)]J0 (kρ) + M (ρ) Now multiplying by ρJ0 (k ρ). Assuming ﬁrst of all that the medium existing in the region below z = 0 has ﬁnite permeability µ. (10) The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is of a mixed type. 0 z>L 0<z<L z < 0. µ0 . (8) The boundary conditions at z = 0 are that Hρ and Bz be continuous. 0 ∞ dk D(k)e+kz J0 (kρ). 0 ∞ Φ(m) = dk [B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz ]J0 (kρ). Below the line we have simply Bz = µHz . 0. integrating from 0 to ∞. ρ<a ρ > a. the integral on the RHS is a ∞ ρ M (ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ. 0 (12) M 0 ρJ0 (kρ) dρ = Ma J1 (ka) ≡ γ(k) k where we deﬁned a convenient shorthand. integrating from ρ = 0 to ∞. where M (ρ) represents the ﬁxed magnetic polarization of the cylinder: M (ρ) = M. (9) Multiplying (9) by ρJ1 (k ρ). we ﬁnd D(k) = B(k) + C(k).Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5 azimuthal angle dependence: ∞ dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). Then (12) is µ D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − γ(k).

The boundary conditions at z = L are ∂Φm ∂ρ − ∂Φm ∂z = z=L+ ∂Φm ∂ρ z=L− z=L+ =− ∂Φm ∂z + M (ρ) z=L− with M (ρ) deﬁned as above. Working through the same procedure as above yields the conditions A(k)e−kL = β(k) sinh(kL) A(k)e−kL = β(k) cosh(kL) + γ(k) with γ(k) deﬁned as above. ρ) = 0 dk β(k) sinh(kz)J0 (kρ). and another cylinder of the ˆ same size but with magnetization +M k between z = L and z = L + dz. so the middle entry in (8) may be rewritten: ∞ Φm (z. height dz) of ˆ magnetization −M k between z = 0 and z = dz. ρ)ρ dρ dz (14) Hz (L. ρ)ρ dρ − Hz (0. ρ)ρ dρ dz + 2πµ0 M 0 a 0 0 a L 0 Hz (z.Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6 Now taking µ → ∞. The change in ﬁeld energy is just the integral of µ0 M · H over the volume in which the magnetization density has changed: dz a L+dz a dU = −2πµ0 M = 2πµ0 M dz Hz (z. Then equation (??) tells us that B(k) = −C(k). ρ)ρ dρ 0 where in the last step we assumed that Hz remains essentially constant over a distance dz in the z direction. we must have D → 0. and may thus be taken out of the integral. 0 Now that we know the ﬁeld. z) = (13) ∞ −M a dk e−kL cosh(kz)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). we want to ﬁnd the change in energy density incurred by putting into this ﬁeld a short cylinder (radius a. Plugging these back into (8) and diﬀerentiating. we see that. . z>L 0 Hz (ρ. (0 < z < L). 0 < z < L. we ﬁnd for the z component of the H ﬁeld ∞ Ma dk e−kz cosh(kL)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka). The solution is β(k) = −γ(k)e+kL A(k) = γ(k) sinh(kL). to keep the B and C coeﬃcients from blowing up.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7 Inserting (13) into (). we ﬁrst do the ρ integral: a a J0 (kρ)ρdρ = J1 (ka). k 0 Then () becomes . and exchanging the order of integration.

- Read and print without ads
- Download to keep your version
- Edit, email or read offline

6038883 Solved Problems of Jacksons Electrodynamics 01

Classical Electrodynamics 3rd Ed J.D. Jackson - Solutions - 214 Pg

Jackson Solutions

Solutions-of-Jacksons-Electrodynamics-02

7.1 Analysing Electric Fields and Charge Flow

Classical Electrodynamics (Undergraduate Course) - Proff. Richard Fitzpatric

Dr. M.J. Perry, Electrodynamics

Jackson Solutions - Solutions to jackson's Electrodynamics

Solved Problems of Jackson's Electrodynamics 02

0262133784Electrodynamics

Solved Problems of Jackson's Electrodynamics 01

jackson solution

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

You've been reading!

NO, THANKS

OK

scribd

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->