5:

CHAPTER OVERVIEW

Sensation

Introduction (pp. 197–198)
David Myers at times uses idioms that are unfamiliar to some readers. If you do not know the meaning of the following expression in the context in which it appears in the text, refer to page 154 for an explanation: . . . in a mirror she is again stumped. Objective 1: Contrast sensation and perception, and explain the difference between bottom-up and topdown processing. 1. The process by which we detect physical energy from the environment and encode it as neural signals is . The process by which sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted is . 2. Sensory analysis, which starts at the entry level and works up, is called . Perceptual analysis, which works from our experience and expectations, is called . 3. The perceptual disorder in which a person has lost the ability to recognize familiar faces is .

Sensation refers to the process by which we detect physical energy from the environment and encode it as neural signals. This chapter describes the senses of vision, hearing, taste, touch, smell, kinesthesis, and the vestibular sense. It also presents research findings from studies of subliminal stimulation. In this chapter there are many terms to learn and several theories you must understand. Many of the terms are related to the structure of the eye, ear, and other sensory receptors. Doing the chapter review several times, labeling the diagrams, and rehearsing the material frequently will help you to memorize these structures and their functions. The theories discussed include the signal detection, YoungHelmholtz three-color and opponent-process theories of color vision, and the frequency and place theories of pitch. As you study these theories, concentrate on understanding the strengths and weaknesses (if any) of each. NOTE: Answer guidelines for all Chapter 5 questions begin on page 145.

CHAPTER REVIEW
First, skim each section, noting headings and boldface items. After you have read the section, review each objective by answering the fill-in and essay-type questions that follow it. As you proceed, evaluate your performance by consulting the answers beginning on page 145. Do not continue with the next section until you understand each answer. If you need to, review or reread the section in the textbook before continuing.

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Chapter 5 Sensation

Sensing the World: Some Basic Principles
(pp. 198–203) If you do not know the meaning of any of the following words, phrases, or expressions in the context in which they appear in the text, refer to page 154 for an explanation: A frog could starve to death knee-deep in motionless flies; The shades on our senses are open just a crack; the faintest whimper from the cradle; “satanic messages”; hucksters; price hike . . . to raise the eyebrows; So everywhere that Mary looks, the scene is sure to go. Objective 2: Distinguish between absolute and difference thresholds, and discuss whether we can sense stimuli below our absolute threshold and be influenced by them. 1. The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them is . 2. The refers to the minimum stimulation necessary for a stimulus to be detected percent of the time. 3. The theory of led to the concept that absolute thresholds depend not only on the strength of the signal but also on a person’s state. 4. Some entrepreneurs claim that exposure to “below threshold,” or , stimuli can be persuasive, but their claims are probably unwarranted. 5. Some weak stimuli may trigger in our sensory receptors a response that is processed by the brain, even though the response doesn’t cross the threshold into awareness. 6. Under certain conditions, an invisible image or word can a person’s response to a later question. The illustrates that much of our information processing occurs . 7. The minimum difference required to distinguish two stimuli 50 percent of the time is called the . Another term for this value is the . 8. The principle that the difference threshold is not a constant amount, but a constant proportion, is known as . The proportion depends on the . Objective 3: Describe sensory adaptation, and explain how we benefit from being unaware of changing stimuli. 9. After constant exposure to an unchanging stimulus, the receptor cells of our senses begin to fire less vigorously; this phenomenon is called . 10. This phenomenon illustrates that sensation is designed to focus on changes in the environment. Explain why sensory adaptation is beneficial.

Vision (pp. 204–215)
If you do not know the meaning of any of the following words, phrases, or expressions in the context in which they appear in the text, refer to pages 154–155 for an explanation: blind spot; Rods have no such hotline; Holy Grail; blindsight; Color, like all aspects of vision, . . . the theater of our brains.

Objective 4: Define transduction, and specify the form of energy our visual system converts into the neural messages our brain can interpret. 1. Stimulus energy is converted into messages through the . process of sensory 2. The visible spectrum of light is a small portion of the larger spectrum of radiation. 3. The distance from one light wave peak to the next is called . This value

The axons of ganglion cells converge to form the . The amount of energy in light waves. 9. 8. influences the of a light. or . whereas (rods/cones) enable blackand-white vision. The neural signals produced in the rods and cones activate the neighboring cells. it is routed by the to higher-level brain areas. 7. and (nearby/distant) objects are seen more clearly than (nearby/distant) objects. in dim light the rods are (sensitive/insensitive). determined by a wave’s . 14. 10. and describe the retina’s reaction to light. 4. including an area in the cortex. In farsightedness. Light enters the eye through the . approximately Objective 7: Discuss the different levels of processing that occur as information travels from the retina to the brain’s cortex. By changing its curvature. 12. Most cones are clustered around the retina’s point of central focus. called the . 11. In nearsightedness. or . . whereas the rods are concentrated in more regions of the retina. Clarity. rather than on it. which carries the visual information to the . Many cones have their own cells to communicate with the visual cortex. colored 6. . The retina’s receptor cells are the and network of cells. The process by which the lens changes shape to focus images is called . light rays from (nearby/distant) objects (in front of/in converge back of) the retina. or . then passes through a small opening called the . there are no receptors. Visual information percolates through progressively more levels. 16. 13. Adapting to a darkened room will take the retina minutes. They called these neurons . Where this nerve leaves the eye. and explain how they guide an incoming ray of light toward the eye’s receptor cells. which then activate a . Unlike cones. 15. 5. or sharpness. and (nearby/distant) objects are seen more clearly than (nearby/distant) objects. Objective 6: Contrast the two types of receptor cells in the retina. of vision is called .Vision 131 determines the wave’s color. which responds to specific visual scenes. Feature detectors pass their information to higher-level brain cells in the brain. . the size of this opening is controlled by the . or height. It is the (rods/cones) of the eye that permit the perception of color. light rays from (nearby/distant) objects converge (in front of/in back of) the retina. Objective 5: Describe the major structures of the eye. Hubel and Wiesel discovered that certain neurons in the of the brain respond only to specific features of what is viewed. In the brain. Research has shown that in monkey brains such cells specialize in responding to a specific . thus the area is called the . the can focus the image of an object onto the . the lightsensitive inner surface of the eye.

20. after visual information leaves the receptors it is analyzed in terms of pairs of opposing colors: versus . In an unvarying context. and one to . unlike mixing paints. and discuss its role in visual information processing. This procedure. 17. 24. and also versus . Objective 9: Explain how the Young-Helmholtz and opponent-process theories help us understand color vision. 19. The brain achieves its remarkable speed in visual perception by processing several subdivisions of a stimulus (simultaneously/sequentially). 18. even as the light changes. Mixing lights. According to the - color. We see color as a result of our brains’ computaby any tions of the light object relative to its . An object appears to be red in color because it the long wavelengths of red and because of our mental of the color. this is usually a male because the defect is genetically . If a car to the right honks. versus . one to . Other braindamaged people may demonstrate by responding to a stimulus that is not consciously perceived. a familiar object will be perceived as having consistent color. the eyes have three types of color receptors: one reacts most strongly to . phrases. . The experience of color depends on the in which an object is seen. 25. its Hearing (pp. earlids. ear-splitting noise or music. 21. or expressions in the context in which they appear in the text. is color mixing. 22. 26. A piccolo produces much shorter. 215–224) If you do not know the meaning of any of the following words. This phenomenon is called . called . 23. faster sound waves than does a tuba. cock your head. theory. After staring at a green square for a while. an obvious boon. Hering’s theory of color vision is called the theory. Summarize the two stages of color processing. Objective 10: Explain the importance of color constancy. . According to this theory. Objective 8: Define parallel processing. may explain why people who have suffered a stroke may lose just one aspect of vision. as Young and von Helmholtz did. which is . the culprits are . One out of every 50 people is color deficient. . as an .132 Chapter 5 Sensation Researchers have also identified nerve cells that may respond or not. EEG recordings reveal a moment of neural . refer to page 155 for an explanation: sensitive to faint sounds. depending on how a monkey a given image. Once the distributed parts of the brain have processed sensory stimuli. Other senses process information with (similar/slower/faster) speed and intricacy. lasting for about a fourth of a second and creating waves. you will see the color red.

this is the theory. People who live in noisy environments suffer elevated rates of -related disorders such as . 9. created by the compression and expansion of . Noise is especially stressful when it is or . 13. 15. 10. 5. . and . 8. which do not have such localized effects. This is the theory. For the higher pitches. and outline the series of events that triggers the electrical impulses sent to the brain. As with visual information. and the ear. The ear is divided into three main parts: the ear. is sound waves. In the inner ear. We locate a sound by sensing differences in the and with which it reaches our ears. Sound energy is measured in units called . (Close-Up) On tasks requiring alert performance. The stimulus for hearing. The outer ear channels sound waves toward the . to the Objective 14: Describe how we pinpoint sounds. Objective 13: Contrast place and frequency theories. This movement triggers impulses in adjacent nerve fibers that converge to form the auditory nerve. The pitch of a sound is derived from the of its wave. according principle. . 3. This theory fails to account for the perception of -pitched sounds. 14. The amplitude of a sound wave determines the sound’s . a tight membrane that then vibrates. A sound that comes from directly ahead will be (easier/harder) to locate than a sound that comes from off to one side. The brain interprets loudness from the of hair cells a sound activates. 12. The middle ear transmits the vibrations through a piston made of three small bones: the . and . which is lined with . which carries the neural messages (via the ) to the lobe’s auditory cortex. The absolute threshold for hearing is arbitrarily defined as such units. the ear. The incoming vibrations cause the to vibrate the fluid that fills the tube. the brain uses as specialized neural teams work on different auditory tasks simultaneously. A second theory proposes that neural impulses. allow the perception of different pitches. This theory has difficulty accounting for how we hear -pitched sounds. Objective 12: Describe the three regions of the ear. people in noisy environments work (more/less) efficiently. which causes ripples in the .Hearing 133 Objective 11: Describe the pressure waves we experience as sound. cells may alternate their firing to match the sound’s frequency. One theory of pitch perception proposes that different pitches activate different places on the cochlea’s basilar membrane. and explain how they help us to understand pitch perception. 1. 11. or . 2. 4. . a coiled tube called the contains the receptor cells for hearing. 6. 7. sent to the brain at the same frequency as the sound wave. because individual neurons cannot fire faster than times per second.

An electronic device that restores hearing among nerve-deafened people is a . . but more often it results from the biological changes linked with and prolonged exposure to ear-splitting noise or music. such as tickle. 21. . Pain is a property of the as well as of the . A welltrained nurse may distract needle-shy patients by chatting with them. itch. Damage to the cochlea’s hair cell receptors or their associated auditory nerves can cause hearing loss. Objective 18: State the purpose of pain. 23. Objective 16: Describe how cochlear implants function. and describe the biopsychosocial approach to pain. The basis for their argument is that deafness is not a . People who lose one channel of sensation (such as hearing) (seem to/do not seem to) compensate with a slight enhancement in their other sensory abilities. biological gyroscopes. and . experienced by people is who have a ringing-in-the-ears sensation. refer to pages 155–156 for an explanation: we yearn to touch—to kiss. 18. and semantics. Sign language (is/is not) a complete language. . The influence on touch is illustrated by the fact that a self-produced tickle produces less activation in the than someone else’s tickle. 2. It may be caused by disease. Advocates of object to the use of these before they implants on have learned to . People who become deaf. often experience in another ability. 17. 1. Objective 17: Describe the sense of touch. firewalking. (with/without) its own grammar. or who lose another channel of sensation. People born without the ability to feel pain may be unaware of experiencing severe . . Sometimes the pain in sprain is mainly in the brain. and our 5. . are of the basic ones. 22. 4. The sense of touch is a mixture of at least four senses: . Other skin sensations. 224–235) If you do not know the meaning of any of the following words. A sensation of pain in an amputated leg is referred to as a sensation. there is more to taste than meets the tongue. syntax. putting his feet where his mouth was. and describe some of their causes. 16. Rubbing the area around your stubbed toe. People with illness-related experience extreme sensitivity to things others find only mildly painful. Those who learn only sign language during childhood (have/do not have) difficulty later learning to read and write. or expressions in the context in which they appear in the text. . Other Important Senses (pp. and explain why Deaf culture advocates object to these devices. Scientists have discovered ways to hair cell regeneration. bathing your nostrils in a stream of scent-laden molecules.134 Chapter 5 Sensation Objective 15: Contrast the two types of hearing loss. Problems in the mechanical conduction of sound waves through the outer or middle ear may cause . phrases. Another example . hot. 19. (Close-Up) Deaf children raised in a household where sign language is used express higher and feel more . and wetness. to stroke. Words more readily portray the sound of coffee brewing than its aroma. 20. 3. to snuggle.

11. foods do not taste the same. Taste receptors reproduce themselves every . is a sense.Other Important Senses 135 6. Pain-producing brain activity may be triggered with or without . . The attractiveness of smells depends on associations. The sense that monitors the position and movement of the head (and thus the body) is the . 16. Melzack and Wall have proposed a theory of pain called the theory. the number of taste buds (increases/decreases/remains unchanged) and our taste sensitivity (increases/decreases/remains unchanged). The effect occurs when we a speaker saying one syllable while another. pain is created by the List some pain control techniques used in the Lamaze method of prepared childbirth and in other health care situations. and explain why specific odors so easily trigger memories. Odors are able to evoke memories and feelings because there is a direct link between the brain area that gets information from the nose and the centers associated ancient with memory and emotion. The receptors for this sense are located in the . The pain system (is/is not) triggered by one specific type of physical energy. 9. is Objective 21: Distinguish between kinesthesis and the vestibular sense. smell. . It may be opened by activation of (small/large) nerve fibers and closed by activation of (small/large) fibers or by information from the . and explain the principle of sensory interaction. and of the body. Each contains a that catches food chemicals. and a meaty taste called . 7. . . on the top and sides of the tongue. The body (does/does not) have specialized receptor cells for pain. or . Unlike light. Objective 20: Describe the sense of smell. As we age. 10. The ability to identify scents peaks in Objective 19: Describe the sense of taste. 15. 13. Such influences demonstrate that pain is not phenomenon. . The system for sensing the position and movement of body parts is called . and declines thereafter. which is a enabled by the 200 or more sense. as merely a proposed centuries ago by . 18. 17. which proposes that there is a neurological in the that blocks pain signals or lets them through. The basic taste sensations are . 8. 19. 12. this illustrates the principle of . Individual differences in perceiving pain are an example of influences on pain. . as when we have a cold. Like taste. Rather. 14. an odor (can/cannot) be separated into more elemental odors. When the sense of smell is blocked. Taste. Taste is also affected by and by use.

c. rod. b. 110-pound weight d. b. middle-pitched sounds. our physiology. high-pitched sounds. 12. not cone. The hearing losses that occur with age are especially pronounced for: a. The absolute threshold is defined as the minimum amount of stimulation necessary for a stimulus to be detected 75 percent of the time. low-pitched sounds. If you can just notice the difference between 10and 11-pound weights. there are three different types of colorsensitive cones. Our experience of pain when we are injured depends on: a. The absolute threshold for any stimulus varies somewhat. image falls in front of the retina. iris. chords. b. 5. wavelength. d. c. how well medical personnel deal with our injury. d. retinal cells are excited by one color and inhibited by its complementary color. c. sensory interaction. 3. cornea. read the explanation for why it is correct and then consult the appropriate pages of the text (in parentheses following the correct answer). lens. 105-pound weight c. sensory adaptation. image falls behind the retina. d. 8. our biological make-up and the type of injury we have sustained. d. 1. loudness c. lens is too thin. d. 9.136 Chapter 5 Sensation The receptors for this sense are located in the and of the inner ear. b. experiences and attention. Nearsightedness is a condition in which the: a. fovea. cone d. d. d. intensity is to PROGRESS TEST 1 Multiple-Choice Questions Circle your answers to the following questions and check them with the answers beginning on page 146. b. 101-pound weight b. The absolute threshold is defined as the minimum amount of stimulation necessary for a stimulus to be detected 60 percent of the time. high-pitched sounds. there are four different types of cones. bipolar cell. b. loudness b. lens has become inflexible. c. vision accounts for our ability to detect fine visual detail. If your answer is incorrect. b. c. 4. b. The Young-Helmholtz theory proposes that: a. transduction. c. . d. intensity d. and our surrounding culture. sensory fatigue. sensory adaptation. b. amplitude. a. wavelength. The receptor of the eye that functions best in dim light is the: a. feature detection. rod. b. 10. accommodation. which of the following weights could you differentiate from a 100-pound weight? a. c. The place theory of pitch perception cannot account for how we hear: a. middle-pitched sounds. what our cultural allows us to express in terms of feelings of pain. low-pitched sounds. amplitude. A decrease in sensory responsiveness accompanying an unchanging stimulus is called: a. b. c. chords (three or more pitches simultaneously). c. 2. 6. The absolute threshold for any stimulus is a constant. retina. The process by which the lens changes its curvature is: a. Frequency is to pitch as . 11. accommodation. c. Which of the following is true? a. 7. There is no basis for prediction. The size of the pupil is controlled by the: a.

c. information from the muscles. the bones of the middle ear. 11. 10. and joints. the body’s sense of balance. k. b. b. The brain breaks vision into separate dimensions such as color. c. Structures or Conditions 17. b. see the world in only black and white. All of the above are examples. and works on each aspect simultaneously. also suffer from poor vision. e. a way to alleviate chronic pain would be to stimulate the nerve fibers that the spinal gate. Functions or Descriptions 1. Most color-deficient people will probably: a. i. g. amplifies sounds closes pain gate vestibular sense controls pupil accommodation eyeball is too short opens pain gate admits light eyeball is too long vision in dim light transduction of sound sharpness of vision kinesthesis color vision . m. open c. b. c. 20. large. 3. d. h. Which of the following is an example of sensory adaptation? a. 14. becoming very irritated at the continuing sound of a dripping faucet d. 18. Matching Items Match each of the structures with its function or description. parallel processing. Which of the following explains why a rose appears equally red in bright and dim light? a. d. close d. c. f. n. color constancy 19. One light may appear reddish and another greenish if they differ in: a. d. amplitude. 4. The transduction of light energy into nerve impulses takes place in the: a. accommodation. 2. the Young-Helmholtz theory b. depth.Progress Test 1 137 13. b. 15. membranes within the cochlea. According to the gate-control theory.or green-sensitive cones. large. wavelength. 9. small. Kinesthesis involves: a. d. finding the cold water of a swimming pool warmer after you have been in it for a while b. 16. opponent processes. lack functioning red. 6. and form. brightness. d. This is called: a. movement. a. feature detection d. c. d. l. b. 13. iris. lens iris pupil rods cones middle ear inner ear large nerve fiber small nerve fiber semicircular canals sensors in joints acuity farsightedness nearsightedness a. lens. close 14. c. retina. feature detection. optic nerve. the opponent-process theory c. open b. 7. developing an increased sensitivity to salt the more you use it in foods c. small. j. tendons. have above-average vision to compensate for the deficit. 8. 12. 5. opponent processing.

amplitude d. black-white. c. The inner ear contains receptors for: a. the lowest pitches. lens. blockage in the middle ear because of infection. lens. Weber’s law. hue as is to . Nerve deafness is caused by: a. c. The frequency theory of hearing is better than place theory at explaining our sensation of: a. kinesthesis and the vestibular sense. 15. cortex. d.138 Chapter 5 Sensation PROGRESS TEST 2 Progress Test 2 should be completed during a final chapter review. the process of color vision begins in the cortex. 8. Hubel and Wiesel discovered feature detectors in the visual: a. vestibular sense b. damage to the eardrum. and the vestibular sense. retina d. 12. retina c. intensity b. b. c. b. taste buds. Of the four distinct skin senses. cornea. c. pain. the highest pitches. The receptors for taste are located in the: a. black-white. sense of kinesthesis c. pupil. Which of the following is the correct order of the structures through which light passes after entering the eye? a. c. kinesthesis. b. 13. 3. red-green. hue. transduction. d. d. sweet c. d. b. hue c. fovea. iris. Which of the following is not one of the basic tastes? a. audition and the vestibular sense. feature detection. In the opponent-process theory. b. b. the only one that has definable receptors is: a. c. sensory adaptation. 7. cold. transduction. red-yellow. The process by which sensory information is converted into neural energy is: a. d. sensory interaction 9. frequency. cornea. d. blue-green. the jnd for any stimulus is a constant. b. d. bland 2. What enables you to feel yourself wiggling your toes even with your eyes closed? a. umami b. the absolute threshold for any stimulus is a constant proportion. sensory adaptation. c. 10. warmth. 4. cornea. all of the above. blue-yellow. cornea. there are three types of color-sensitive cones. cochlea. fovea. Weber’s law states that: a. green-yellow. pitches of intermediate range. 6. damage to the cochlea. neurons involved in color vision are stimulated by one color’s wavelength and inhibited by another’s. According to the opponent-process theory: a. salty d. d. dependent upon the individual’s experience. brightness. a. b. intensity. c. lens. Wavelength is to brightness. Multiple-Choice Questions 1. optic nerve. all of the above are true. d. signal detection. b. the jnd for any stimulus is a constant proportion. Answer the following questions after you thoroughly understand the correct answers for the section reviews and Progress Test 1. c. pupil. 11. pupil. wax buildup in the outer ear. d. audition. lens. pressure. retina 14. the three pairs of processes are: a. cortex. The principle that one sense may influence another is: a. sensory interaction. b. 5. the absolute threshold for any stimulus is a constant. c. red-blue. retina b. d. b. the skin senses d. audition and kinesthesis. black-white. pupil. c.

for lower frequencies. you discover that you cannot differentiate between the sounds of models X and Y. the central nervous system plays only a minor role in the experience of pain. color processing is divided into separate red. In order to maximize your sensitivity to fine visual detail you should: a. c. The difference between X and Y is below your: a. b. absolute threshold. d. jnd. b. Color processing occurs in two stages: (1) an opponent-process system in the retina and (2) a three-color system en route to the visual cortex. 18. pitch is coded according to the place of vibration on the basilar membrane. d. Which of the following is the most accurate description of how we process color? a. receptor threshold. stare off to one side of the object you are attempting to see. d. the rate of neural activity in the auditory nerve matches the sound’s frequency. d. pain is a purely sensory phenomenon. c. pitch is coded according to the place of maximum vibration on the cochlea’s basilar membrane. 17. b. 3. For very high frequencies. c. cones in the fovea are nearer to the optic nerve than those in peripheral regions of the retina. b. This is a description of vision’s: a. decrease the intensity of the light falling upon the object. b. One reason that your ability to detect fine visual details is greatest when scenes are focused on the fovea of your retina is that: a. The brain processes some information without our awareness. d. 2. c. stare directly at the object. d. c. d. Multiple-Choice Questions 1. b. signal detection. there are more feature detectors in the fovea than in the peripheral regions of the retina. Because the “absolute” threshold is a statistical average. many cones. all of the above are true. In shopping for a new stereo. green. The phantom limb sensation indicates that: a. which are clustered in the fovea. For all audible frequencies. close one eye. Color processing occurs in two stages: (1) a three-color system in the retina and (2) opponent-process cells en route to the visual cortex. and black-white opponent processes operate throughout the visual system. and blue systems. c. For all audible frequencies. signal detection. PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED Answer these questions the day before an exam as a final check on your understanding of the chapter’s terms and concepts. for lower pitches. clear night can see a candle flame atop a mountain 30 miles away. c. which are clustered in the fovea.Psychology Applied 139 16. Throughout the visual system. absolute threshold. a person standing atop a mountain on a dark. which of the following is the best answer? a. Which of the following is the most accurate explanation of how we discriminate pitch? a. we are able to detect weaker stimuli some of the time. For very high frequencies. Given normal sensory ability. have individual bipolar cells to relay their information to the cortex. have individual bipolar cells to relay their information to the cortex. the rate of neural activity in the auditory nerve matches the frequency of the sound wave. difference threshold. pain involves the brain’s interpretation of neural activity. pitch is coded according to place of vibration on the basilar membrane. many rods. b. the rate of neural activity in the auditory nerve matches the frequency of the sound wave. blue-yellow. b. 19. c. Concerning the evidence for subliminal stimulation. . All of the above are true. d. Red-green. difference threshold. 20. Stimuli too weak to cross our thresholds for awareness may trigger a response in our sense receptors.

14. b. Frankenstein has forgotten to give his monster an important part. lens. green. as a result. Frankenstein omitted the: a. eardrum. Seventy-five-year-old Claude has difficulty hearing high-pitched sounds. rods. eardrum. a decrease in the activity of large pain fibers closed the pain gate. Most likely his hearing problem involves: a. trichromatic b. d. cornea. the hair cells of his inner ear. higher c. d. After staring at a very intense red stimulus for a few minutes. recognizing a stimulus. d. eardrum. cochlea c. 6. Sensation is to as perception is to . finding that despite its delicious aroma. auditory canal. b. a. cones. pupil. Which of the following is true of cones? a. c.140 Chapter 5 Sensation 4. auditory canal. All of the above are examples. middle ear. Dr. finding that food tastes bland when you have a bad cold c. cochlea. Dr. d. semicircular canals. 13. mostly rods. basilar membrane. c. bipolar cell. opponent-process d. his auditory canal. retina. a. In comparing the human eye to a camera. . blue. mostly cones. an equal number of rods and cones. Cones are highly concentrated in the foveal region of the retina. d. Assuming that the visual systems of humans and other mammals function similarly. seeing. higher d. b. I am a(n): a. interpreting a stimulus. lower b. b. d. d. blue. middle ear. middle ear. marathoner Kirsten O’Brien suffered a stress fracture in her left leg. middle ear. auditory canal d. 9. recognizing a stimulus c. As the football game continued into the night. cone. auditory canal 10. hearing 8. 7. the film would be located in the eye’s: a. his eardrum. c. finding it difficult to maintain your balance when you have an ear infection d. the bones of his middle ear. 12. you would expect that the retina of a nocturnal mammal (one active only at night) would contain: a. trichromatic . interpreting a stimulus b. b. green. c. eardrum. Cones enable color vision. opponent-process c. cochlea b. 11. feature detector. While competing in the Olympic trials. LeVar noticed that he was having difficulty distinguishing the colors of the players’ uniforms. b. the monster cannot transduce sound. eardrum. more bipolar cells than an animal active only during the day. 5. cones. I am a cell in the thalamus that is excited by red and inhibited by green. lower 15. Carrie’s experience provides support for the theory. a. Which of the following correctly lists the order of structures through which sound travels after entering the ear? a. the pain gate in her spinal cord was closed by information coming from her brain. b. middle ear. detecting a stimulus d. opponent-process cell. cochlea. a weird-looking meal tastes awful b. have a absolute threshold for brightness than the available light intensity. Cones have a higher absolute threshold for brightness than rods. Which of the following is an example of sensory interaction? a. c. All of the above are true. which enable color This is because the vision. c. an increase in the activity of small pain fibers closed the pain gate. That she did not experience significant pain until the race was over is probably attributable to the fact that during the race: a. detecting a stimulus. rods. Carrie shifted her gaze to a beige wall and “saw” the color . c. her body’s production of endorphins decreased.

Which of the following would she find most helpful in minimizing the syrup’s bad taste? a. her son often finds her cooking inedible because it is so spicy. All of the above are likely explanations. sensory adaptation. b. 18. He does this because: a. Women have higher taste thresholds than men. Superman’s eyes used .Psychology Applied 141 16. Martinez probably has fewer taste buds than her son. bottom-up processing. 20. c. (Use the space below to list the points you want to make. Mrs.) . All the above are true. top-down processing. brain used a. b. Elderly Mrs. Martinez finds that she must spice her food heavily or she cannot taste it. sensation b. It has no special receptors. Unfortunately. and organize them. tasting something very sweet before taking the cough syrup b. Calvin usually runs his fingertips over the cloth’s surface. holding her nose while taking the cough syrup d. It is influenced by both physical and psychological phenomena. Discuss three senses that dancers rely on and explain why each is important. of all the above reasons. c. b. if the cloth were held motionless. keeping the syrup in her mouth for several seconds before swallowing it c. Tamiko hates the bitter taste of her cough syrup. It has no single stimulus. gulping the cough syrup so that it misses her tongue Essay Question A dancer in a chorus line uses many sensory cues when performing. top-down processing d. Men have higher taste thresholds than women. bottom-up processing c. How does pain differ from other senses? a. d. d. What is the likely explanation for their taste differences? a. sensory adaptation to its feel would quickly occur. d. subliminal perception 19. perception. Being elderly. while his . the sense of touch does not adapt. When admiring the texture of a piece of fabric. a relatively small amount of brain tissue is devoted to processing touch from the fingertips. 17. Then write the essay on a separate sheet of paper. c.

The Eye 1. 5. then list them in the order in which they contribute to vision and hearing. 3.142 Chapter 5 Sensation Summing Up Use the diagrams to identify the parts of the eye and ear. 2. 4. 6. . The Ear 1. 7. 5. briefly explain the role of each structure. 4. 7. 3. 2. Also. 6. 8.

conduction hearing loss 41. blind spot 27. optic nerve 26. on a piece of paper write a brief definition or explanation of each of the following terms. frequency theory 40. fovea 28. inner ear 38. sensation 2. audition 34. transduction 14. retina 21. Weber’s law 12. psychophysics 6. bottom-up processing 4. pupil 17. accommodation 20. place theory 39. wavelength and hue 15. absolute threshold 7. 1. cochlea 37. sensory adaptation 13. color constancy 33. sensorineural hearing loss 42. priming 10. cochlear implant 43. kinesthesis 46. signal detection theory 8. sensory interaction 45. parallel processing 30. Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color) theory 31. lens 19. farsightedness 24.Key Terms 143 Key Terms Writing Definitions Using your own words. subliminal 9. intensity 16. nearsightedness 23. perception 3. pitch and frequency 35. iris 18. vestibular sense . difference threshold 11. acuity 22. top-down processing 5. middle ear 36. opponent-process theory 32. feature detectors 29. rods and cones 25. gate-control theory 44.

Nerve that carries visual information to the brain. Sense of hearing. 16. 30. Adjustable opening in the eye through which light enters. 25. 5. given the definition. 26. After you have written the definitions of the key terms in this chapter. and stirrup. 15. Membrane “window” at the entrance to the ear’s cochlea. Type of brain cell discovered by Hubel and Wiesel. anvil. you should complete the crossword puzzle to ensure that you can reverse the process— recognize the term. Visual receptors that are concentrated in the periphery of the retina. respectively. 3. Energy spectrum that contains visible light. Region of the ear that contains the cochlea. The perceptual experience 30 of color. 14. . 10. Study of the relationship between the physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them. 8.” 21 12. 19. Region of the ear that contains the hammer. Aspect of light and sound 25 26 determined by the amplitude of energy waves. 13. Type of vision caused by a shorter-than-normal eyeball. Types of fibers that close the “pain gate. Type of deafness that results from damage in the mechanics of the outer or middle ear. Unit of measurement for 29 electromagnetic energy.” 27. DOWN 22 23 24 27 28 31 6. 17. Region of the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye. Theory of hearing that the rate of auditory nerve impulses matches the frequency of tones. 28. 21. 22. Theory that the region of maximum vibration along the basilar membrane is the basis of pitch discrimination. Term for the color seen after staring at its opponent for a while. Sharpness of vision. Membrane that lies at the end of the auditory canal. 9. 1. 20. 29. Physical dimension of light and sound that determines brightness and loudness. Inner surface of the eye that contains the rods and cones. Ability of some brain-damaged patients to respond to something that is not consciously perceived.144 Chapter 5 Sensation Cross-Check As you learned in the Prologue. -down processing is information processing guided by higher-level mental processes. The basis of a “bionic ear. Part of the eye that changes shape to focus images on the retina. 11. 2. ACROSS 1 3 6 7 2 4 8 9 10 5 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1. The retina’s point of central focus. 18. enabling us to sense pitch. 4. Perception of color is strongly influenced by the object’s . reviewing and overlearning of material are important to the learning process. Sense of the position and movement of body parts. 23. Transparent protective membrane through which light enters the eye. 24. 19 20 7. 31.

similar 19. opponent-process. automatically 7. seem to sensory compensation self-esteem. 50 3. number less. feelings of helplessness. 4. prime. 5. inner eardrum hammer. cones bipolar. oval window. in front of. blue. green. blindsight 18. disability is. 9. 0 outer. 1000 volley speed (timing). accepted . nearby rods. it enables us to focus our attention on informative changes in the environment without being distracted by the uninformative. distant. thalamus. opponent. blue-yellow. conscious 6. just noticeable difference 8. high. subliminal 5. distant. red. which are stimulated by one wavelength and inhibited by its opponent. The resulting signals are then processed in the thalamus by red-green. afterimage 23. top-down processing 3. gaze. 17. 7. reflected. and blue cones respond in varying degrees to different color stimuli. 20. 10. 19. 16. posture.Answers 145 ANSWERS Chapter Review Introduction 1. 7. perceives simultaneously. 23. stimulus 9. as suggested by the three-color theory. constant stimulation that bombards our senses. Vision 1. feature detectors temporal. priming effect. 12. integration. low frequency. psychological 4. bottom-up processing. construction 20. difference threshold. air molecules loudness frequency decibels. and black-white opponent-process cells. in back of. with. Weber’s law. green. have. 15. blue. 17. 20 abstract. subtractive 22. 12. additive. informative Although sensory adaptation reduces our sensitivity. 2. brain blind spot fovea. pupil. sensory adaptation 10. peripheral. 6. anvil. 10. 13. neural. amplitude. ganglion. temporal. psychophysics 2. 4. high blood pressure. speak. transduction electromagnetic wavelength. color constancy 26. nearby. 18. yellow. 14. 21. Young-Helmholtz trichromatic. unanticipated. 22. thalamus. 3. red. nearby. head angle. 11. 8. green. surrounding objects Hearing 1. white In the first stage of color processing. sex-linked 21. audition. parallel processing. 9. optic nerve. 13. loudness harder parallel processing conduction hearing loss sensorineural. 3. reflects (rejects). rods sensitive. brightness cornea. 6. 8. 14. uncontrollable place. absolute threshold. stirrup cochlea. retina accommodation. hue intensity. 11. hair cells. acuity distant. context 25. 15. stress. children. prosopagnosia Sensing the World: Some Basic Principles 1. visual cortex. the retina’s red. middle. sensation. anxiety. 24. 2. 16. bipolar cones. perception 2. basilar membrane. aging stimulate cochlear implant Deaf culture. 5. iris lens. gamma. black. signal detection. body movement.

(p. d. 206) . brain 9. is the answer. pain. (pp. sweet. sour. d. 3. Thus. early adulthood 16. alcohol 13. semicircular canals. The fovea is not a receptor. one cause of this is an eyeball longer than normal in relation to the lens. salty. Sensory interaction is the principle that one sense may influence another. physical. is the answer. deep breathing and muscle relaxation. Sensory adaptation is our diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus. chemical. hyperalgesia senses. umami (meat) 11. 10. and bluesensitive cones. large. learned 17. c. The absolute threshold is defined as the minimum stimulus that is detected 50 percent of the time. b. 6. which make up the optic nerve. is the answer. see. a. social.146 Chapter 5 Sensation Other Important Senses pressure. expectations phantom limb. pore 12. not four. 205) b. & d. c. The cornea lies in front of the pupil and is the first structure that light passes through as it enters the eye. the threshold cannot be a constant. it is a region of the retina that contains only cones. 5. bitter. 4. green-. (p. 7. decreases. c. is the answer. Progress Test 1 Multiple-Choice Questions 1. René Descartes. chemical. tendons. The absolute threshold for detecting a stimulus depends not only on the strength of the stimulus but also on psychological factors such as experience. Inflexibility of the lens may cause the emergence of farsightedness as we get older. d. a. Similarly. This answer describes Hering’s opponentprocess theory. (p. (p. hearing 14. The retina is the inner surface of the eyeball and contains the rods and cones. and counterstimulation through gentle massage. (p. is the answer. According to Weber’s law. and fatigue. Thinness of the lens is unrelated to near. gate. week or two. d. motivation. brain The Lamaze method of prepared childbirth combines several pain control techniques. The lens lies behind the pupil and focuses light on the retina. for burn victims. cannot 15. muscles. The Young-Helmholtz theory proposes that there are red-. (p. 2. Cones have a higher threshold for brightness than rods and therefore do not function as well in dim light. small. they are neurons in the retina that link rods and cones with ganglion cells. c. vestibular sacs 1. warmth. does not gate-control. is the answer. 2. 3. (p. cold. b. sensory interaction. 8. Psychological factors can affect the absolute threshold for a stimulus. expectations. The Young-Helmholtz theory proposes that there are three types of cones. since the difference threshold is a constant proportion. including distraction. is the answer. the difference threshold is a constant proportion of the stimulus. 212) b. kinesthesis. “Sensory fatigue” is not a term in psychology. McGurk. 8.or farsightedness. somatosensory cortex injury. 202) a. variations top-down. vestibular sense. b. A shorter-than-normal eyeball is related to farsightedness. a. In nearsightedness. 5. b. taste buds. 7. joints 19. Transduction refers to the conversion of an environmental stimulus. olfaction. 6. spinal cord. 201) 4. such as light. b. There is a 10 percent difference between 10 and 11 pounds. brain. 205) a. c. objects converge in front of the retina. is the answer. 199–200) a. c. limbic 18. smoking. Feature detection is the process by which neural cells in the brain respond to specific visual features. into a neural impulse by a receptor—a rod or a cone. c. decreases. the weight closest to 100 pounds that can nonetheless be differentiated from it is 110 pounds (or 100 pounds plus 10 percent). 208) a. Bipolar cells are not receptors. Accommodation refers to an adaptive change in shape by the lens of the eye. tinnitus sensory input is not. distraction during painful wound care can be created by immersion in a computer-generated 3-D world. c. d.

The lens accommodates its shape to focus images on the retina. d. Accommodation is the process by which the lens changes its curvature to focus images on the retina. wavelength determines frequency and thereby pitch. 217) b (p. 227) g (p. chord perception can be accounted for by place theory. is based on information from the muscles. 16. (p. 12. these answers are incorrect. that for sounds of middle and. The iris controls the diameter of the pupil. (p. The biopsychosocial approach tells us that our experience of pain depends on biological. place theory accounts well for high-pitched sounds and. Feature detection explains how the brain recognizes visual images by analyzing their distinctive features of shape. not the detection of visual detail. or the sense of the position and movement of body parts. yellow-blue. 18. The gate either allows pain signals to pass on to the brain or blocks them from passing. Kinesthesis. is the answer. 9. 216) a. 10. 205) d (p. 217) k (p. such as movement or shape. 233) l (p. and social-cultural factors. the large fibers conduct most other sensory signals from the skin. 8. and black-white opposing colors. the pain gate is closed and other sensations are felt in place of pain. Wavelength. When the large fibers are stimulated. 206) 6. not properties of light. The optic nerve carries nerve impulses from the retina to the visual cortex. 2. 19. (p. is the answer. 13. d. Therefore. a. (p. Failure to distinguish red and green is separate from. 220) d. 206–207) a. especially. is the answer. The amplitude of light determines its brightness. Color deficiency does not enhance vision. b. 12. These theories explain how the visual system detects color. or the sense of balance. 206) i (p. Although the localization of low-pitched sounds along the basilar membrane is poor. The opponent-process theory suggests that color vision depends on the response of brain cells to red-green. 10. can account for middle-pitched sounds. is the answer. Feature detection is the process by which nerve cells in the brain respond to specific visual features of a stimulus. movement. general visual ability. d. e (p. and angle. 233) a. Chord perception. Because the question is based on a relationship between a physical property (frequency) of a stimulus and its psychological attribute (pitch). 202) 20. hearing in blind people. m (p. (p. is the answer. Equilibrium. b. (pp. The Young-Helmholtz theory concerns only color vision. c. or color. 15. a. they do not explain why colors do not seem to change when lighting does. high pitch is good. 226) 11. 14. (p. 204–205) b. (p. d. A deficit in one sense often is compensated for by overdevelopment of another sense—for example. The small fibers conduct most pain signals. b. 13. Wavelength determines hue. 219) b. 3. c. 206) n (p. 206) . a. Only the adjustment to cold water involves a decrease in sensitivity. rather. and does not usually affect. (pp. 7. is not involved in kinesthesis but is. is the answer. (pp. shows no age-dependent decline. & c. they have difficulty discriminating these two colors. a. a (p. & d. As long as the notes of a chord are within the range of responsiveness of the basilar membrane. Thus. (p. Sensory adaptation means a diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus. & c. Opponent processes are neural systems involved in color vision. 206) f (p. Those who are color deficient are usually not “color blind” in a literal sense. the other examples involve an increase. d. Just as wave frequency determines pitch. c. The ear plays no role in kinesthesis. c. except for chords comprised exclusively of high-frequency notes. c. is the answer. 9. 212) b.Answers 147 d. 205) h (p. tendons. d. and joints. 4. 17. c. 227) c (p. a companion sense. 5. 213–214) a. b. Instead.. amplitude. Amplitude is the physical basis of loudness. so wave amplitude determines loudness. & d. is the answer. and intensity are physical aspects of light and sound. & b. 227) 14. is the answer. together with frequency theory. d. is the answer. c. is the answer. 205) j (p. c. Matching Items 1. psychological. Color constancy is the perception that a familiar object has consistent color. 234) 11. such as red from green. 210) a. (p. is the answer. even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by that object. they are unable to distinguish certain hues.

such as movement or shape. the sense of movement of body parts. 230) b. a. and states that these are constant proportions of the stimuli. 205) 14. d. they have nothing to do with movement of body parts. The vestibular sense is concerned with movement and position. 204) a. a. sensorineural hearing loss is permanent. b. (p. d. This answer is incorrect because it reverses the correct order of the two stages of processing. This answer is incorrect because separate red. 213) a. or balance. it could therefore cause conduction hearing loss. 230) a. b. is the answer. (p. 209) a. Feature detection refers to the process by which nerve cells in the brain respond to specific aspects of visual stimuli. After leaving the receptor cells. b. sensorineural hearing loss involves the inner ear. green. is the answer. Feature detectors are cortical neurons and hence are located in the visual cortex. not sensorineural hearing loss. Weber’s law states that the jnd is a constant proportion of a stimulus. (p. Kinesthesis. and intensity determines brightness. c. would enable you to feel your toes wiggling. (p. (p. warmth. 4. The optic nerve contains neurons that relay nerve impulses from the retina to higher centers in the visual system. Researchers have identified receptors for pressure but have been unable to do so for the other skin senses. 220) a. and some combination of the two theories probably accounts for our sensation of intermediate-range pitches. (p. of the whole body. senses are pressure. d. Sensory adaptation is diminished sensitivity to unchanging stimulation. 8. visual information is analyzed in terms of pairs of opponent colors. pain. does not play a role in this example. Wavelength determines hue. d. is the answer. 5. The cochlea contains receptors for hearing. Weber’s law concerns difference thresholds (jnd’s). Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by destruction of neural tissue as a result of problems with the cochlea’s receptors or the auditory nerve. not absolute thresholds. is the answer. is the answer. (p. tendons. Transduction is the process by which stimulus energy is converted into nerve impulses. c. . (pp. is the answer. c. Wax buildup and blockage because of infection are temporary states. a. c. d. 9. c. neurons stimulated by one member of a pair are inhibited by the other. (pp. (p. those for kinesthesis are located in the muscles. (p. is the answer. is the answer. 11. The skin. According to the opponent-process theory. is the answer. 204–205) 16. 211) a. (p. is the answer. is the answer. (p. & c. not that they remain constant. The inner ear contains the receptors for audition (hearing) and the vestibular sense. c. 200–201) 17. d. is the answer. Sensory adaptation refers to the diminished sensitivity that occurs with unchanging stimulation. a. 225) 3. Place theory best explains the highest pitches. Damage to the eardrum impairs the mechanical system that conducts sound waves. 229) 2. and blue systems operate only in the retina. is the answer. the process of color vision begins in the retina. which controls the diameter of the pupil. (p. The iris is simply a ring of muscle tissue. c. Sensory interaction.148 Chapter 5 Sensation Progress Test 2 Multiple-Choice Questions 1. d. This answer is incorrect because opponentprocess systems operate en route to the brain. and all other theories of color vision. 202) 12. (pp. and joints. is the answer. 213) 15. b. d. 219) 10. is the answer. 217. d. b. b. after visual processing in the receptors is completed. where information detected by the receptors is processed. 233) a. (p. is the answer. The fovea contains cones. Frequency theory best explains the lowest pitches. Moreover. rather than the outer or middle ear. which involves only the sense of kinesthesis. 234) 6. or tactile. d. The idea that there are three types of colorsensitive cones is the basis of the YoungHelmholtz three-color theory. The fovea contains receptors for vision (the cones). not of its parts. is the answer. (p. 13. and cold. The cortex is the outer layer of the brain. d. the principle that the senses influence each other. 7. b. Signal detection is a task in which the observer must judge whether a faint signal is present. c. c.

the retina’s point of central focus. 3. phantom limb pain would not occur. 197) a. . 207) a. If pain were a purely sensory phenomenon. since the receptors are no longer present.Answers 149 18. d. several rods share a single bipolar cell. not in the fovea of the retina. b. their production probably would have increased. sounds. because endorphins are released in response to pain. c. c. is the answer. d. The cones are concentrated in the fovea. The absolute threshold is the minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus. not to whether two stimuli can be differentiated. Greater sensitivity to fine visual detail is associated with the cones. c. Signal detection is a research task. is the answer. (p. If you stare off to one side. 199) a. and angle. Feature detectors are nerve cells located in the visual cortex. That pain is experienced when a limb is missing indicates that the central nervous system. the image falls onto peripheral regions of the retina. is the answer. This answer describes how pitch is sensed in the case of low-pitched. b. 230) 6. since both control the amount of light permitted to enter. is the answer. Since endorphins relieve pain. which have their own bipolar cells to relay information to the cortex. Rods are concentrated in the peripheral regions of the retina. The difference threshold. d. 7. is the answer. staring directly at an object maximizes sensitivity to fine detail. For this reason. is the answer. The proximity of rods and cones to the optic nerve does not influence their ability to resolve fine details. visual images entering the eye are projected onto the retina. 20. Moreover. (p. (p. is the answer. b. is where pain is sensed. Sensitivity to detail is not directly influenced by whether one or both eyes are stimulated. moreover. b. 4. (p. taste and smell in the case of b. This answer would have been correct if the question had read. which are sensitive to visual detail but have a high threshold for light intensity. where rods are concentrated and sensitivity to fine visual detail is poor. This answer is incorrect because it reverses the range of frequencies. a decrease in their production would have made Kirsten more likely to experience pain. b. 219) a. (p. is the answer. d. but not high-pitched. especially the brain. which is also known as the jnd. 207) a. Just as light strikes the film of a camera. sounds.” d. is the minimum difference between two stimuli that a person can detect. c. b. d. d. Since pain is felt in the limb that does not exist. Signal detection is a task in which one must determine whether or not a faint stimulus is present. 227) b. (p. there is only one stimulus—the sight of the flame. 206) a. is the answer. and hearing and the vestibular sense in the case of c. c. a. Both recognition and interpretation are examples of perception. Each of these is an example of the interaction of two senses—vision and taste in the case of a. 213) a. 201) a. The absolute threshold refers to whether a single stimulus can be detected. 2. 5. (p. Neural activity in small fibers tends to open the pain gate. A receptor threshold is a minimum amount of energy that will elicit a neural impulse in a receptor cell. (p. “Perception is to sensation as is to . In this example. the pain is simply the brain’s (mis)interpretation of neural activity. but not low-pitched. The cornea would be analogous to a camera’s lens cap in that both protect delicate inner structures. 227) a. The lens of the eye performs a focusing function similar to the lens of the camera. not a sensory phenomenon. Feature detectors are located in the visual cortex and respond to features such as movement. 8. (p. is the answer. c. c. b.. & b. b. is the answer. An increase in large-fiber activity would tend to close the pain gate. The pupil would be analogous to the aperture of a camera. Sensation and perception are important processes in both hearing and seeing.. (p. This answer describes how pitch is sensed in the case of high-pitched. (p. & c. Cones and bipolar cells are located in the Psychology Applied Multiple-Choice Questions 1. Decreasing the intensity of light would only impair the functioning of the cones. c. d. d. d. c. not in the fovea. 19. shape.

eliminating the odor of the cough syrup should make its taste more pleasant. Receptors for the vestibular sense located in the dancers’ inner ears send messages to their brains that help them maintain their balance and determine the correctness of the position and movement of their bodies. The hair cells. Rods and cones enable vision in dim and bright light. b. & b. c. Whenever dance is set to music. 18. respectively. As people age they lose taste 17. not blue. the contrasting tastes might make the bitter syrup even less palatable. b. 202–203) b. 213) a. because several rods share a single bipolar cell. where they are transduced. thus intensifying the bitter taste. c. they would be able to function and therefore detect the colors of the players’ uniforms. 16. (pp. not hearing. If an animal is active only at night. legs. c. a. c. & d. 19. the following information. is the answer. Because of the powerful sensory interaction between taste and smell. 197) d. On the contrary. it will ensure that her taste pores fully “catch” the stimulus. is the answer. hearing is necessary so that the dancers can detect musical cues for certain parts of their routines. (p. 230) a. 226–227) c. is the answer. (p. is the answer. Moreover. is the answer. If anything. d. If the cones’ threshold were lower than the available light intensity. There is no evidence that women and men differ in their absolute thresholds for taste. d. & b. the extreme sensitivity of the fingertips is due to the relatively large amount of cortical tissue that processes neural impulses from the fingertips. 12. 14. . 9. Your answer should refer to any three of these senses and include. a.. is the answer. 230) a. 220) a. Vision also helps dancers assess the audience’s reaction to their performance. d. b. arms. is red’s complement.. at minimum. The eardrum and bones of the middle ear merely conduct sound waves to the inner ear. (p. 207) a. (p. The semicircular canals are involved in the vestibular sense. It’s probably impossible to miss the tongue completely. are located on the basilar membrane. & c. is the answer. neither are excited by some colors and inhibited by others.150 Chapter 5 Sensation retina. It is the cones. There is no reason to expect that a nocturnal mammal would have more bipolar cells than a mammal active both during the day and at night. and joints provide their brains with information about the position and movement of body parts to determine if their hands. Damage to the eardrum. (p. 20. or bones of the middle ear would probably cause conduction hearing loss and reduced sensitivity to sounds of all frequencies. whereas many cones have their own. Kinesthetic receptors in dancers’ muscles. d. Martinez needs more concentrated tastes than her son to find food palatable. Mrs. is the answer. (p. 207) 13. (p. a nocturnal animal (with a visual system consisting mostly of rods) might be expected to have fewer bipolar cells than an animal active during the day (with a visual system consisting mostly of cones). is the answer. (pp. kinesthesis. d. Hearing also helps the dancers keep their movements in time with the music. b. Dancers rely on vision to gauge their body position relative to other dancers as they perform specific choreographed movements. 15. tendons. rather than the rods. 11. buds and their taste thresholds increase. c. The trichromatic theory cannot account for the experience of afterimages. and the vestibular sense. Essay Question The senses that are most important to dancers are vision. hearing. (p. Hearing losses that result from aging are greatest in the higher frequencies and involve damage to the hair cells on the basilar membrane of the cochlea. is the answer. Green. Bipolar cells link both cones and rods to ganglion cells. that enable color vision. (p. (p. 217) 10. The sense of touch (pressure) adapts very quickly. Afterimages are experienced as the complementary color of a stimulus. is the answer. 208) a. is the answer. it is likely to have more rods than cones in its retinas. 208) d. auditory canal. If anything. and heads are in the proper positions. & c. b. If Tamiko keeps the syrup in her mouth for several seconds. which transduce sound energy. For this reason.

199) 8. Bottom-up processing is analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information. Eardrum. Lying between the outer and middle ear. controlling the size of the pupil to optimize the amount of light that enters the eye. transduction refers to the process by which receptor cells in the eye. memory. Psychophysics is the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them. (p. This transparent structure behind the pupil changes shape to focus images on the retina. the effect of which is to predispose a perception. Detection depends partly on experience. Optic nerve. 2. Middle ear. expectations. (p. Top-down processing is information processing guided by higher-level mental processes. Pupil. 197) 2.and 55-pound weights. (p. In sensation. this air-filled chamber contains the hammer. (p. This bundle of nerve fibers carries neural impulses from the retina to the brain.(“below”) the limen. (p. 8. Light enters the eye through this transparent membrane. The colored part of the eye. 5. anvil. 7. Priming is the activation of an association by an imperceptible stimulus. Hearing begins as sound waves enter the auditory canal of the outer ear. Iris. 199) 6. is the minimum difference between two stimuli that a subject can detect 50 percent of the time. and interpret sensory information. This region of the ear contains the cochlea and the semicircular canals. the retina contains the rods and cones. 200) Memory aid: Limen is the Latin word for “threshold. 2. (p. The absolute threshold is the minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time. Weber’s law predicts that a person could discriminate 10. The Ear 1. 9. 3. which protects the inner structures from the environment. 3. Cochlea. 204) . This bundle of fibers carries nerve impulses from the inner ear to the brain. and stirrup. Lying between the outer and inner ear.Answers 151 Summing Up The Eye 1. 5. 7. 12. anvil. the pupil allows light to enter. The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye. (p. (p. Sensation is the process by which we detect physical energy from the environment and encode it as neural signals. or jnd). Perception is the process by which we select. and nose convert stimulus energies into neural impulses. which play an important role in balance. The region of the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye. and alertness. Outer ear.and 11-pound weights or 50. (p. 202) 13. 4. Weber’s law states that the just noticeable difference between two stimuli is a constant minimum proportion of the stimulus. ear. or threshold. 199) 7. Auditory nerve. the iris functions like the aperture of a camera. the blind spot contains no rods or cones and so there is no vision here. This fluid-filled multichambered structure contains the hair cell receptors that transduce sound waves into neural impulses. Sound waves passing through the auditory canal are brought to a point of focus at the eardrum. The difference threshold (also called the just noticeable difference. or response. this membrane vibrates in response to sound waves. 4. A stimulus that is subliminal is one that is below the absolute threshold for conscious awareness. 6. Signal detection theory explains precisely how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (“signal”). Blind spot. (p. 197) 4.” A stimulus that is subliminal is one that is sub. motivation. These tiny bones of the middle ear concentrate the eardrum’s vibrations on the cochlea’s oval window. which transduce light energy into neural impulses. (p. Cornea. Retina. 197) 5. Lens. 202) Example: If a difference of 10 percent in weight is noticeable. 200) 10. 201) 11. organize. Hammer. Sensory adaptation refers to the decreased sensitivity that occurs with continued exposure to an unchanging stimulus. 197) 3. Auditory canal. (p. and stirrup. Inner ear. (p. 6. skin. Key Terms Writing Definitions 1. The adjustable opening in the iris.

The rods and cones are visual receptors that transduce light into neural impulses. (p. 207) 28. 217) 36. Nearsightedness is a condition in which nearby objects are seen clearly but distant objects are blurred because light rays reflecting from them converge in front of the retina. think of something falling “far short of the mark. that is. (p. Feature detectors. The Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color) theory maintains that the retina contains red-. (p. The rods have poor sensitivity. The lens is the transparent structure of the eye behind the pupil that changes shape to focus images on the retina. Accommodation is the process by which the lens of the eye changes shape to focus near objects on the retina. It contains only cones. 217) . located in the visual cortex of the brain. 206–207) 26. 206) 25. green-. and stirrup) that concentrate the eardrum’s vibrations on the cochlea’s oval window. white. (p. (p. respectively. or angle. 205) 20. are nerve cells that selectively respond to specific visual features. Color constancy is the perception that familiar objects have consistent color despite changes in illumination that shift the wavelengths they reflect. you are able to see clearly at a distance of 20 feet a visual detail that most people cannot see beyond a distance of 10 feet. Comprised of the axons of retinal ganglion cells. (p. 205) Example: Sounds that exceed 85 decibels in amplitude. and function best in daylight or bright light. 209) 29. in turn. The intensity of light and sound is determined by the amplitude of the waves and is experienced as brightness and loudness. This theory explains the first stage of color processing. The rods are concentrated in the periphery of the retina. (p. The fovea is the retina’s point of central focus. the inner ear plays an important role in balance.” 24. This theory explains the second stage of color processing. shape. 210) 30. detect black. The blind spot is the region of the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye. 16. 216) 35. the optic nerve carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain. 213–214) 33. 206) 23. the number of complete wavelengths that can pass a point in a given time. images focused on the fovea are the clearest. Because there are no rods or cones in this area. (p. (p. therefore. 205) 18. and gray. and blue-sensitive color receptors that in combination can produce the perception of any color. 212) 31. such as movement. which refers to the distance from the peak of one light (or sound) wave to the next. 206) Example: If your acuity is 20/10. Farsightedness is a condition in which distant objects are seen clearly but nearby objects are blurred because light rays reflecting from them strike the retina before converging. (p. (p.152 Chapter 5 Sensation 14. The pitch of a sound is determined by its frequency. (pp. (p. 205) 21. The iris is a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored part of the eye that controls the diameter of the pupil. 205) 19. (p. The middle ear is the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing the three bones (hammer. enable color vision. are processed simultaneously. such as light or sound. shorter waves produce higher pitch. 213) 32. anvil. 22. (p. Wavelength. Audition refers to the sense of hearing. yellow-blue. The retina is the light-sensitive. and whiteblack). Acuity refers to the sharpness of vision. 207) 27. 206) Memory aid: To help you remember that farsightedness is caused by a shorter-than-normal eyeball. 215) 34. there is no vision here. Parallel processing is information processing in which several aspects of a stimulus. gives rise to the perceptual experiences of hue. (pp. (p. in vision (and pitch in sound). Frequency. is directly related to wavelength: longer waves produce lower pitch. Feature detectors are evidently the basis of visual information processing. (205) 17. 204–205) 15. function well in dim light. (p. or color. will damage the auditory system. the cones in the fovea. as well as in audition. The cones have excellent sensitivity. The inner ear contains the semicircular canals and the cochlea. (p. The pupil is the adjustable opening in the eye through which light enters. (p. (pp. or intensity. Because it also contains the vestibular sac. and are needed for peripheral vision. (p. which includes the receptors that transduce sound energy into neural impulses. multilayered inner surface of the eye that contains the rods and cones as well as neurons that form the beginning of the optic nerve. The opponent-process theory maintains that color vision depends on pairs of opposing retinal processes (red-green.

219) 40. (p. (p. fovea 7. including the sense of balance.Answers 153 37. 5. 234) Cross-Check ACROSS DOWN 1. nanometer 15. (p. The cochlea is the coiled. (p. (p. 10. 6. (p. cornea 31. bony. activity in large fibers or information from the brain closes the gate. or prolonged exposure to ear-splitting noise. intensity 14. 24. 26. Neural activity in small nerve fibers opens the gates. 27. 3. eardrum 17. pupil 29. 4. 23. 217) 38. 230) 45. (p. Production of these opiatelike chemicals may be the brain’s mechanism for closing the spinal gate. (p. hue 16. 221) 43. aging. A cochlear implant is an electronic device that converts sounds into electrical signals that stimulate the auditory nerve. The sense of body movement and position. retina 1. 227) Example: The gate-control theory gained support with the discovery of endorphins. afterimage 19. 44. frequency farsighted electromagnetic feature detector cochlear implant top kinesthesis blindsight psychophysics context blindspot lens acuity middle inner place rods . 220) 41. which impairs the conduction of sound waves to the cochlea. optic 13. 11. 18. (p. oval 28. The place theory of hearing states that we hear different pitches because sound waves of various frequencies trigger activity at different places on the cochlea’s basilar membrane. 9. The frequency theory of hearing presumes that the rate. Conduction hearing loss refers to the hearing loss that results from damage in the mechanics of the outer or middle ear. fluid-filled tube of the inner ear where the transduction of sound waves into neural impulses occurs. Melzack and Wall’s gate-control theory maintains that a “gate” in the spinal cord determines whether pain signals are permitted to reach the brain. Sensorineural hearing loss (nerve deafness) is hearing loss caused by damage to the auditory receptors of the cochlea or to the auditory nerve due to disease. amplitude 21. Kinesthesis is the sense of the position and movement of the parts of the body. large 12. 220) 42. 219) Memory aid: Place theory maintains that the place of maximum vibration along the cochlea’s membrane is the basis of pitch discrimination. 2. 233) 46. thus enabling us to sense its pitch. 39. is called the vestibular sense. (p. 8. of nerve impulses in the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone. conduction 22. audition 30. Sensory interaction is the principle that one sense may influence another. 20. 25. or frequency.

and everywhere that Mary went the lamb was sure to go.) is suffering from prosopagnosia and cannot recognize faces and even fails (she is stumped) to recognize her own face in the mirror. . a $5 increase in the price of the car would not be a just noticeable difference. parents who are sleeping soundly are more likely to become aware of the quietest cry of distress (the faintest whimper) from the infant in its small bed (cradle) than much louder but irrelevant noise. Just as sunblinds or curtains (shades) let only a little light in through any small opening (a crack). have to share bipolar cells and so do not have as many individual connections (hotlines) to the brain (in dim light. Thus. hidden persuasion). . The frog’s eyes and brain are organized in such a way that only fast moving (zooming). When a volunteer (Mary) is fitted with a special contact lens and miniature projector she sees the same image no matter where her eyes “look” (everywhere that Mary looks the scene is sure to go). Page 202: . allowing us only a restricted awareness of this vast sea of energy. What is interesting in this case is that she can process incoming sensory information (bottom up) but is unable to make any sense of it (top down).000 Mercedes to raise the eyebrows of its potential buyers. or jnd. . ”satanic messages” . its fleece was white as snow. Claims have been made that some of these messages are antireligious and promote devil worship (diabolical or satanic). which normally would be moving back and forth rapidly (quivering) as a result of tiny eye movements. this can be an advantage as several rods can focus or funnel their individual faint energy output onto a single bipolar cell).000. Page 202: So everywhere that Mary looks. This person (E. . which are mostly clustered in the fovea and detect color and fine detail. . Page 199: Exhausted parents of a newborn will notice the faintest whimper from the cradle. . If the frog is surrounded by flies that don’t move (knee-deep in motionless flies). have many more individual connections to the brain than the rods. . which normally costs £40. Those who promote and sell subliminal tapes (hucksters) make claims that are not supported by scientif- ic research. Page 200: . In order to understand this sentence you need to be familiar with the old nursery rhyme: Mary had a little lamb. Cones. H. Rods. Page 201: . . When an image is projected onto the retina in this manner the scene disappears bit by bit and then reappears and disappears again (in meaningful units). would be noticed by interested buyers (would raise their eyebrows). Weber’s law states that a constant proportion of the original stimulus is needed in order for the difference to be detected. it might take a £4000 price hike in a £40. . . These tiny areas (blind spots) are where the optic nerve exits the eye. This happens because the image. however. You can use the suggestion in Figure 5. Vision Page 207: . A huckster is someone who sells merchandise that may be of dubious value. but a $5 dollar increase (price hike) in the cost of a hamburger and fries would exceed a jnd. In fact. small. So a £4000 increase in the cost (price hike) of a luxury car (Mercedes-Benz). In signal detection theory there is no single absolute threshold for detecting stimuli.. it will die of hunger. she has sensation (bottom-up processing). . which give us our black-and-white vision. . dark objects will cause these specialized feature detector nerve cells (“bug detectors”) to become active (snap awake). hucksters . Raised eyebrows express surprise. . is now stationary with respect to the retina and its receptors. . . the available evidence suggests that subliminal tapes do not have the profound. As Myers makes clear. and the precise proportion will change depending on the stimulus. Thus. blind spot . As the receptors fatigue the image disappears.154 Chapter 5 Sensation FOCUS ON VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE Page 198: Shown her own face in a mirror she is again stumped. . Sensing the World: Some Basic Principles Page 198: A frog could starve to death knee-deep in motionless flies. there is not a shred of evidence to support these ideas. . it all depends on the situation. As Myers notes earlier. Page 207: Rods have no such hotline [to the brain].10 of your text to demonstrate that there are two small parts of your visual field (one in the left and one in the right) where you have no sight. It has been suggested that some rock music recordings have hidden or subliminal messages and that behavior can be influenced or manipulated by them (i. completely unaware of the food at its feet. . . . enduring effects on behavior claimed by their marketers. Page 199: The shades on our senses are open just a crack. but her perception (top-down processing) is not working properly. the scene is sure to go. our sensory system is only able to detect a very small part of the large amount (vast sea) of the physical energy that exists in the world. But let one zoom by and the frog’s “bug detector” cells snap awake.e. .

aging and prolonged exposure to ear-splitting noise or music (Figure 5. for this sacred cup (Holy Grail) symbolized spiritual regeneration and enlightenment. attempting to answer the question about how the brain deals with multiple aspects of a visual scene at the same time. Hearing Page 215: We also are remarkably sensitive to faint sounds. and which was later used to catch his blood when he was crucified. This suggests that there are two parallel processing systems operating. your right ear receives a more intense sound. When a sound is equidistant from our two ears (directly ahead. Humans are very good at detecting very quiet noises (faint sounds). blindsight . a blue balloon). like all aspects of vision.26). . automatically. and the brain uses this information to detect where the sound is coming from). we yearn to touch—to kiss. without any conscious awareness of the visual experience. yet they can see (blindsight). disease causes sensorineural hearing loss. and it receives sound slightly sooner than your left ear. We locate sounds because our ears are about 6 inches apart and there is a time. The color we perceive is a product of our brain and exists only in the perceiver’s mind (theater of the brain). Our sense of touch involves a mixture of at least four distinct senses: pressure. We are also very sensitive to changes in sounds and we have the ability to differentiate among thousands of human voices. will enlighten us about brain functioning (the Holy Grail of vision research). you cock your head. but more often the culprits are biological changes linked with heredity. or search. so that your two ears will receive slightly different messages. and there is no visual clue. between auditory reception in each ear. They are blind.Focus on Vocabulary and Language 155 Page 210 (caption): The answer to this question is the Holy Grail of vision research. and without our awareness (parallel processing). brass-wind instrument) produces low-frequency sound waves and thus has a lower pitch than a piccolo (a small flute). . can sometimes be caused by illness. Other Important Senses Page 224: As lovers. In this situation it helps to tilt (cock) our heads so that each ear receives a slightly different message (the sound will be a little louder and sensed a little sooner by one ear. but the agents responsible (the culprits) are more likely to be age-related biological factors and extended encounters with extremely loud (ear-splitting) music or noise. Blindsight refers to the fact that some people with neurological damage have the ability to see. The reference here is to the medieval legend that the cup (grail) Jesus Christ drank from at the Last Supper. Page 212: Color. or nerve deafness (cochlear damage). we have trouble locating (pinpointing) the source. and one that gives us our conscious perceptions. deep-toned. is an important undertaking that. . Page 216: A piccolo produces much shorter. If we hear the sound of a car horn (it honks) to our right. Likewise. Sensorineural hearing loss. which produces high-frequency waves and has a higher pitch. to stroke. if successful. to snuggle. Musical instruments produce stimulus energy called sound waves— molecules of air that bump and push each other along—and these may be long (low frequency) or short (high frequency). Myers makes it clear that prolonged exposure to loud and unpredictable noise can affect our wellbeing and seriously damage our hearing. or above). and thus we locate the direction of the sound to the right. as well as a loudness difference. one that unconsciously guides our actions (the zombie within). Similarly. resides not in the object but in the theater of our brains. an obvious boon for our ancestors’ survival when hunting or being hunted or detecting a child’s whimper. Page 219: If a car to the right honks. So. . faster sound waves than does a tuba. which was clearly beneficial (a boon) to our predecessors’ ability to survive when they were both predator (hunter) and prey (being hunted). . Page 211: . Myers notes that when we view a colored object (for example. it absorbs all the wavelengths except its own (blue) and reflects the wavelengths of blue back to us. the left ear receives a less intense sound somewhat later than the right ear. behind. Page 220: Occasionally. Page 218 (Close-Up): If only our ears had earlids. While digital hearing aids are a partial remedy. when trying to pinpoint a sound. the ability to notice and respond to a youngster's quiet cry of distress (a child's whimper) would have had adaptive value. The quest. the latest cochlear implants can restore hearing for children and most adults. survived and may have been brought to England. to some degree. in a noisy urban environment it would be nice if we could close our ears (with earlids) as we can our eyes (with eyelids). A tuba (a large. Page 220: That is why.

The flavors we experience are a function of more than just the taste buds in the tongue. Myers creates a variation of this expression using a different sense (taste). A gyroscope is a mechanical device used as a stabilizer in navigation and scientific instruments. which suggests that this stimulation (rubbing) will activate “gate-closing” in large neural fibers and.000 breaths of life-sustaining air. in the case of groups (pockets) of Australian keyboard operators. . They are called the semicircular canals and the vestibular sacs and are located in the inner ear. Page 232: Words more readily portray the sound of coffee brewing than its aroma. he then joined several others in putting his feet where his mouth was. If you are nervous or anxious about being injected with a hypodermic needle (a needle-shy patient). etc. due to social and psychological influences (mainly in the brain) and were not the result of damaged ligaments or muscles in the hands or arms. It is easier to talk about and describe (portray) the subtle aspects of coffee brewing than to put into words the sensory qualities involved in the smell (aroma) of coffee. and pain. kiss. Myers is doing a parody of the lyrics from a song in the musical My Fair Lady.) release molecules. you massage (rub) the part around the sore spot. they are carried by the air we breathe (a stream of scent-laden molecules) and wash over (bathe) receptors in our nasal cavities (nostrils). The common expression “there is more to this than meets the eye” suggests that there is something extra going on over and above the obvious or apparent. Page 234: The biological gyroscopes for this sense of equilibrium are in the inner ear. it really hurts. which was based on scientific facts. If you hit your toe against a solid object (stub your toe). they involve sensory interaction with the sense of smell (olfaction). “The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain. This type of distraction can reduce the intensity of the pain. thus. One method of pain control is through distraction. you inhale and exhale nearly 20. So physicist David Willey was willing to support his explanation of firewalking. however. Page 229: A well-trained nurse may distract needleshy patients by chatting with them and asking them to look away when inserting the needle. This supports the gate-control model. If. Page 228: Sometimes the pain in sprain is mainly in the brain.156 Chapter 5 Sensation warmth. fish. it makes you feel better because stimulation interferes with (blocks) some of the pain messages. and closely embrace each other (snuggle). Intimate relations often involve a desire or longing (we yearn) to caress. the nurse may talk to you about unimportant matters (she chats with you) and request that you do not watch the procedure. we have biological stabilizers that monitor the movement and position of our bodies and provide us with a sense of balance (equilibrium). Page 231: Each day. Olfaction seems to be a more primitive sense than vision or audition. Thus. fertilizer. The expression “put your money where your mouth is” means that you should be willing to back or support your words or claims with appropriate behavior. will reduce pain. the sense of taste involves more than simply responding to the chemicals that stimulate taste receptors in the tongue (there is more to taste than meets the tongue). Likewise. as is usually the case. Page 227: Rubbing the area around your stubbed toe will create competing stimulation that will block some of the pain messages.” The main point: reports of repetitive strain injury (the pain in sprain) were. feet. he put his feet (firewalking) where his mouth was (his scientific explanation) and showed that the claims of the “mind over matter” promoters were wrong in this case. Page 228 (caption): After explaining heat-diffusion principles that permit firewalking. By actually walking or stepping across the hot coals without burning his bare feet. Page 230: Taste buds are certainly essential for taste. bathing your nostrils in a stream of scent-laden molecules. but there is more to taste than meets the tongue. by taking the necessary action. Smell (olfaction) is a chemical sense and as substances (flowers. cold.

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