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LEADERSHIP 1. The success of any organization depends upon its Man power. 2. Effective utilisation of Human resources in an organization depends upon its Management.
Management can get results from the people in the organization in two different ways. (1) By exercising the authority it has and (2) By winning the support of its workers.
4. The second method is ideally suitable for any organization in the long run. 5. To what extent the management can win the support of the People to attain its objectives depends on effective Leadership.
Definition of Leadership: - Leadership is defined as the process of influencing the activities of an individual or a group for goal achievement in a given situation.
Characteristics of Leadership: 1. Leadership is basically a personal quality, which motivates the individuals to be with leaders.
Leader is one who exercises his Leadership qualities to try and influence the behavior of individuals around him to attain certain. Predetermined objectives. Leadership is a continuous process of influencing behavior.
4. Leadership is exercised according to the situation and the variables in the situation also affect the effectiveness of Leadership. Difference between a Leader and a Manager: 1. Some social scientists treat Leader and a Manager to be one and the same.
However, there is a difference between the two and the key difference between these two lies in the word organisation.
Leadership is viewed as the capacity of an individual to influence the behavior of an individual or a group regardless of reasons. Therefore, a person can be a leader of a completely unorganized group. On the other hand Managers only exist where organized structures create such roles. Another difference between the two concepts his in the context of scope of functions performed. A Manager has to perform all the five functions of Management of planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and control in some measure or the other. Leadership is a part of Management.
Formal and informal Leaders: 1. 2. Leaders could be formal or informal. A formal leader is one who occupies his place by virtue of his position. Where as an informal leader is one who is perceived by other members as being the best person who is capable of satisfying the needs of the group.
Importance of Leadership: 1. 2. It is not an over statement to say that the success of an organization depends upon the quality of its Leadership.
Peter Drunker has rightly said that business Leaders are the basic and most scarce resource of any business enterprise.
The following are some of the good qualities of a Leader: 1. Motivating Employees : a) Capability of a person to extract the will and the abilities of the Subordinates to perform the best possible work is the most essential quality of a leader.
b) A good leader constantly motivates his subordinates to reach new heights. c) Good Leadership in the organization itself is a motivating factor for the subordinates. e.g.: a leader should be a friend and not a boss. 2. Creating confidence : a) Some people in the organization fail to recognize their own qualities and capabilities. b) So a leader is one who should infuse confidence among his subordinates and should advice and help them to perform better in an organization. 3. Building Morale : a) Morale is expressed as attitudes, of employees towards organization, management and voluntary and willful cooperation by them towards the objectives of the firm.
High Morale leads of organizational stability.
Therefore leaders should build the Morale of the subordinates. e.g.: strike is something unknown in the history of TISCO. This is because of effective leadership and high Morale of employees.
Theories of Leadership: There are essentially three theories of leadership namely (1) Trait theory (2) Behavioral theory and (3) Situational theory. 1. Trait theory : a) Trait is defined as an enduring quality of an individual. b b) Traits theory is one which attributes the success of a leader to his c own personal characteristics.
c) From the beginning people have emphasised that a particular individual was a successful leader because of certain of his good qualities. E.g. Gandhi. d) According to the researchers the following are some of the good traits of a successful leader.
Physical and constitutional factors: - heights, weight, Physique, appearance. Intelligence: - Generally expressed as mental ability. Sociability: - Ability to get along with people and mingle with them informally. Self confidence. Will: - Initiative, persistence and ambition. Dominance. Surgency: - Talkative, cheerful, ability to express him self, alertness and originality.
Among the traits of leaders some are innate qualities like (a) Physical appearance and (2) Intelligence and some are acquired qualities. IAcquired qualities of a leader are those that he has acquired by virtue of his experience and learning process. The following are some of the acquired qualities.
Emotional stability: - A leader should be free from bias, should be consistent in action, should be a patient listener and restrain from loosing temper.
2) Human Relations: - A leader should know how to deal with and get along with people and subordinates. 3) Empathy: - This quality relates to observing the things or situations from others point of view. Empathy requires respect for other persons, their rights, beliefs, values and feelings. E.g.: some Managers try to be arrogant or talk in an insulting tone to their subordinates before others.
4) Objectivity: - What a leader does should be based on relevant facts and information rather than be carried away by wrong information fed by certain individuals. 5) Motivating skills:- A leader should have a perfect understanding About the needs, motives and behavior of subordinates and by virtue of this knowledge he should be able to motivate the subordinates to higher performance.
Technical skill: - Should have technical skill about the job. A leader should know more about the work than the worker. E.g. F.W. Taylor. He conducted various studies to prove that he knew more about the work than the worker. Communication skills: - A leader should know how to communicate effectively. Communication is viewed as a great force in getting the acceptance of the subordinates. For the communication to be effective, it should be persuasive, informative and stimulating.
8) Social skills:- A leader should understand people and know their strengths and weaknesses. A leader should have the ability to work with people and conduct himself in such a way that he gains their confidence, loyalty and willingness to Co-operate with him for his and organisational welfare. II Behavioural Approach: 1) As per this approach Leadership is shown more by a persons acts than his traits. 2) Though acts are influenced by traits, they are also influenced by followers, goals and the environment in which they operate.
Therefore, there are four basic elements – leaders, followers, goals and environment, which affect each other in determining suitable behaviour.
4) Leadership acts may be viewed in two ways.
Functional acts (favourable) to leadership and (b) dysfunctional acts (unfavorable) e.g.: inability to accept subordinates ideas, display of emotional immaturity, poor human relations and poor communication.
According to Behavioural approach a leader should use three skills technical, human and conceptual to lead his followers.
Technical skills – refer to a person’s knowledge and proficiency in any type of process or technique.
b) Human skills – is the ability to interact effectively with people and to build team work and c) Conceptual skills – is the ability to devise plans and set up constructive models for their effective implementation. III - Situational Approach: 1) The prime attention in this approach is given to the situation in which leadership is exercised.
The essential contention of this approach is that in one situation a particular style of leadership may be successful, while in others it may not be. E.g.: Indira Gandhi and Emergency.
According to a research group there are four situational variables that affect the performance of leadership. (1) Cultural environment (2) Differences between individuals (3) Differences between jobs and (4) Differences between organisations.
Cultural Environment: - The type of leadership to be adopted also depends on cultural Environment. E.g.: The Japanese culture is absolutely different, where workers take pride in their work. In such a culture leadership can be more participative. Difference between individuals: - It depends on the quality of followers. If people tend to have more qualities of theory ‘X’ authoritarian leadership would be more appropriate.
3. Difference between jobs: - White collar job require less control than the blue collar jobs at the lower level.
Difference between organisations: - Organizations differ on the basis of their size, age, ownership pattern and Managerial pattern. Leadership tends to defer according to the type of organization. The leadership pattern in a Military or a government organization is entirely different from that of a business organization.
Leadership Styles: 1. Leadership styles are essentially the patterns of behaviour which a leader adopts to influence the behaviour of his subordinates. 2. The following are the three Leadership styles.
I - Autocratic Leadership:1. This is also known as authoritarian or a directive style where a leader Centralises decision making power for himself.
Under this style the work is highly structured by the leader and the subordinates are just asked to do what they are told.
3. Autocratic Leadership style can further be divided into two categories (1) Strict Autocrat (2) Benevolent autocrat. Strict Autocrat: - He is a strict follower of the autocratic style where he adopts negative motivation techniques like, criticising subordinates or imposing penalties on them to influence their behaviour. Benevolent Autocrat: - Here the leader centralises the decision making power for himself, but adopts positive motivation techniques to influence the behaviour of his subordinates. Advantages of Autocratic Style: This style is a success where subordinates prefer to work under centralised authority. E.g.: Theory X. Quick decision is taken as the power is centralised. Disadvantages:1. People in the organization dislike it where it is highly authoritative and negative motivational techniques are used.
Lack of motivation, low morale and frustration among the subordinates effect the efficiency of the organization. There is very little or no scope for the leaders to develop from the power levels. E.g.: Mrs. Indira Gandhi’s style of functioning.
II – Participative Leadership: 1. 2. 3. 4. This is called democratic or consultative style where the leader decentralises the decision making process. Instead of taking unilateral decisions, the leader emphasises on consultation and participation of his subordinates. Subordinates are broadly informed about the conditions affecting them and their work. The participation might be real or pseudo. In some cases the leader preaches participation in theory, but he really does not prefer it in practice.
Advantages:1. 2. 3. 4. It is a highly motivating technique to the subordinates as their ideas & suggestions are given weight in the decision making. The productivity and commitment of the subordinates is increased as they are a party to the decision. Subordinates try to share the responsibility with the superior and also try to protect him. There is greater organisational stability due to high morale and commitment.
Free – Rein Leadership (or) Laisser – Faire: 1. 2. This technique gives complete freedom to its subordinates. Under this style the superior once determines the policies programmes and limitations to actions and then the entire process is left to the subordinates . In practice this style is rarely found where it creates confusion in the organization due to excess decentralisation.
MANAGERIAL GRID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9Concern for people 1,9 country club 5,5 Middle road 1, 1 impoverished Task 9, 1 9,9 team
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 CONCERN FOR PRODUCTION
2.1. 1.9. 9.1. 5.5. 9.9.
Exertion of minimum effort to get work done and sustain organization morale. Thoughtful attention to needs of people leads to a friendly and comfortable organization atmosphere. Efficiency results from arranging work in such a way that human elements have little effect. Adequate performance through balance of work requirements and maintain satisfactory morale. Work accomplishment is from committed people with interdependence through common stake in organization purpose and with trust and respect.
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