TABLE OF CONTENTS

OFFICE MANAGEMENT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 COURSE DESCRIPTION: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 COURSE OBJECTIVES: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 LESSON 1: THE OFFICE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 OBJECTIVES: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 THE MODERN OFFICE ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 WHAT IS AN OFFICE? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 WHAT IS A BUSINESS ENTERPRISE? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 WHAT IS A BUSINESS ORGANIZATION?--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 WHAT ARE THE FIVE ELEMENTS OF A BUSINESS ORGANIZATION? (5 M’S) --------------------------------------- 3 WHAT IS AN OFFICE STAFF?---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 WHAT IS BUSINESS INFORMATION?------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 WHO ARE THE OFFICE WORKERS? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON FORMS OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION?------------------------------------------- 4 WHAT ARE THE SIZES OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION? ---------------------------------------------------------------- 4 WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF BUSINESS ENTERPRISE? ----------------------------------------------------- 4 WHAT ARE THE FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN CHOOSING THE KIND OF COMPANY YOU WANT TO BE CONNECTED WITH?-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 WHAT ARE THE TWO KINDS OF BUSINESS ENTITY?------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT GOVERNMENT EXAMS THAT A SECRETARIAL GRADUATE SHOULD TAKE AND PASS?------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 5 WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF OFFICE WORK? -------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 WHAT ARE THE SPECIFIC SKILL REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICE JOBS? ----------------------------------------------- 6 WHAT ARE THE 8 CATEGORIES OF OFFICE CAREER AND JOB CLASSIFICATIONS UNDER EACH CATEGORY? -- 6 DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF OFFICE WORKERS-------------------------------------------------- 7 STUDENT ACTIVITIES ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 LESSON 2: THE SECRETARY’S ROLE IN BUSINESS------------------------------------------------------ 9 OBJECTIVES: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 DEFINITION-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 WHAT ARE THE STARTING POSITIONS YOU CAN APPLY FOR AFTER FINISHING YOUR SECRETARIAL COURSE? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 SUMMARY OF SECRETARIAL DUTIES ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 SPECIALIZED SECRETARIAL JOBS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12 PERSONALITY TRAITS REQUIRED FOR A SECRETARY ------------------------------------------------ 14 GROOMING REQUIREMENTS FOR A SECRETARY-------------------------------------------------------- 17 JOB OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SECRETARIAL FIELD------------------------------------------------------ 18 SECRETARY’S IMPORTANCE IN BUSINESS----------------------------------------------------------------- 18 HOW TO BECOME A SUCCESSFUL SECRETARY ---------------------------------------------------------- 18 STUDENT ACTIVITIES --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18 LESSON 3: HUMAN RELATIONS IN BUSINESS ------------------------------------------------------------19 OBJECTIVES: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 HUMAN RELATIONS DEFINED ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 PUBLIC OR BUSINESS RELATIONS DEFINED ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 TWO KINDS OF HUMAN NEEDS--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 THE SECRETARY’S ROLE IN PUBLIC RELATION --------------------------------------------------------- 20 FACTORS AFFECTING PUBLIC RELATIONS ---------------------------------------------------------------- 20 TEN COMMANDMENTS OF HUMAN RELATIONS --------------------------------------------------------- 24 EMPLOYER-EMPLOYEE RELATIONSHIP -------------------------------------------------------------------- 25

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STUDENT ACTIVITIES --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26 LESSON 4: COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN THE OFFICE ----------------------------------------------27 OBJECTIVES: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27 SEGMENTS IN THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS --------------------------------------------------------------------- 29 IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30 THE FLOW OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30 BARRIERS IN THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 31 VERBAL COMMUNICATION -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 31 LISTENING ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 32 POOR LISTENING HABITS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 32 ACTIVE LISTENING ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 33 BODY LANGUAGE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 33 READING------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 33 WRITING ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 34 LESSON 5: WORKING EFFICIENTLY AND EFFECTIVELY ------------------------------------------36 OBJECTIVES: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 36 DEFINITION:-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 36 ORGANIZING YOUR DESK. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 36 TIME MANAGEMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 38 INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 41 WORK SIMPLIFICATION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 42 SCHEDULES -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 42 TICKLER FILES ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 44 APPOINTMENTS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 44 SWISS CHEESE METHOD ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 45 MESSAGES ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 45 MAIL ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 45 TO DO LISTS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 45 CHRONOLOGICAL FILES. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 46 OFFICE SAFETY AND HEALTH. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 46 LESSON 6: TELEPHONE SYSTEMS AND TECHNIQUES -----------------------------------------------49 OBJECTIVES: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 49 TELEPHONE TECHNOLOGY--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 49 KEYPHONE PHONE SYSTEM ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 51 RECEIVING A CALL.----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 51 PLACING A CALL.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 52 PLACING DOMESTIC CALLS. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 53 CONFERENCE CALL ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 53 PLACING LONG DISTANCE CALLS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 53 LEARNING TO LISTEN --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 54 HOW TO MANAGE A DIFFICULT CALLER ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 54 ANSWERING CALLS FOR OTHERS WHO ARE AWAY FROM THEIR TELEPHONES. -------------------------------- 55 WHAT YOUR VOICE SAYS ABOUT YOU. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 56 USE OF TELEPHONE DIRECTORIES------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57 STUDENT ACTIVITIES --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57 LESSON 7: HANDLING VISITORS EFFECTIVELY--------------------------------------------------------58 OBJECTIVES: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 58 POINTERS IN HANDLING RECEPTIONIST DUTIES ------------------------------------------------------------------- 58 HOW TO HANDLE EXPECTED VISITORS (THOSE WITH APPOINTMENT) ----------------------------------------- 58 HOW TO HANDLE UNEXPECTED VISITOR (THOSE WITHOUT APPOINTMENT)---------------------------------- 59 HOW TO MAKE APPOINTMENTS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 60 HOW TO AVOID CONFLICTS WHEN PREPARING APPOINTMENTS ------------------------------------------------- 60

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HOW TO CANCEL APPOINTMENTS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 61 HOW TO MAKE RECORDS OF VISITORS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 61 HOW TO MAKE THE VISITOR FEEL COMFORTABLE ---------------------------------------------------------------- 62 WHAT TO DO AND WHAT TO SAY WHEN HANDLING DIFFERENT KINDS OF VISITORS ------------------------ 62 LESSON 8: BUSINESS MEETING ------------------------------------------------------------------------------67 OBJECTIVES: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 67 PLANNING FOR THE MEETING. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 67 DATE AND TIME --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 67 LIST OF ATTENDEES.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 67 LOCATION OF MEETING ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 67 GUEST SPEAKER OR SPEAKERS --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 68 THE AGENDA ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 69 FINALIZING MEETING ARRANGEMENTS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 69 USE REMINDER SYSTEMS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 70 TAKING, PREPARING AND DISTRIBUTING MINUTES OF THE MEETING ------------------------------------------ 70 THE CORPORATION MINUTES ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 71 CONVENTIONS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 72 DOCUMENTATION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 72 PROFESSIONALIZATION OF MANPOWER FOR MEETING AND CONVENTIONS ----------------------------------- 73 LESSON 9: MAKING TRAVEL ARRANGEMENTS --------------------------------------------------------74 OBJECTIVES: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 74 AIRLINE RESERVATIONS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 74 STEPS TO BE FOLLOWED WHEN MAKING AIRLINES RESERVATION ----------------------------------------------- 75 MAKING HOTEL RESERVATIONS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 75 PREPARING AN ITINERARY --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 75 INTERIOR OFFICE OPERATIONS --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 76 MATERIALS TO BE PREPARED FOR THE BOSS:----------------------------------------------------------------------- 77 INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 77 FOLLOW-UP ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 78 TRAVEL PROCEDURE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 79 TRANSPORTATION------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 80 LESSON 10: RECORDS MANAGEMENT--------------------------------------------------------------------81

OBJECTIVE:--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 81

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Course Objectives: Cognitive Aspect Develop clear and meaningful understanding of general procedures. systems. and respect for others. Make travel arrangements. 1 . time management. Psychomotor Aspect Use interpersonal skills to develop effective working relationships and function as a member of an office team Manage work and time effectively. with a focus on knowledge and skills for administrative assistants and office managers. Develop a knowledge and skill base that assists in understanding the office environment and in enhancing performance as an effective administrative employee in an organization. Understand the roles and value of administrative staff in the effectiveness and success of modern organizations. Develop a clear and meaningful understanding of the different office procedures. Understand the broad scope of responsibilities of the administrative office manager. set up meetings. and processes. Schedule appointments. positive attitude. and decision-making skills to contribute positively to the work environment.OFFICE MANAGEMENT Course Description: This course covers a range of topics in office procedures and administration. Emphasis is placed on the practical application of office management and administrative skills required to endure that an office runs effectively and efficiently. Understand the roles and value of administrative assistants in the effectiveness and success of modern organizations. Understand the impact of office technology. in efficient company operations. and administration. administrative. Affective Aspect Exhibit business standards of behavior with respect to attendance. Set up and maintain records. Administrative assistants use their organizational. as a key person. Develop a knowledge and skill base that assists in understanding the office environment and in enhancing performance as an effective administrative employee in an organization. and receive visitors. punctuality. Provide exemplary customer service by increasing listening and communication skills.

processed. It is the show window of the business enterprise which serves as the reflection of the company’s image. Name members of the organization – top management. Identify some new inventions found in homes and offices today. Enumerate key office functions. Identify the persons known as the “office staff”. and the job opportunities for each.Use the telephone effectively. middle management and support staff. It is the nerve center of a modern business enterprise where the day to day happenings of the business are being planned. and state-of-the-art office. the skills needed. Identify characteristics of the traditional office. 2. 4. and recorded. 5. office in transition. Lesson 1: The Office Objectives: 1. The Modern Office What is an Office? the term “office” refers to any physical structure where business transactions are being held. Use effective personal and interpersonal skills in different business situations. 3. 2 .

What is a business enterprise? is an organization by means of which the capital. talents. process. of Contribution Production Further Objectives Host Individual Owner Office worker Capital/ideas Goods/services Talents/skills/physical Goods/services exertion Profit Salary/wages What is a business organization? it is an association formed towards the attainment of a predetermined objective which contains the five elements. technical factor 5. Market -the transferring of goods and services from the producer to the consumer What is an office staff? is the backbone of a business organization It is composed of the office workers who create. What are the five elements of a business organization? (5 M’s) 1. Machineries -modern technology. 2. store and provide business information What is business information? consists of any information (data) needed by the company to determine its objective and the means of accomplishing them. Methods -techniques. funds 3. ideas. Money -cash. It provides basis for organizing the work force in a profitable manner and for motivating office workers to achieve the planned objectives 3 . and physical exertion of efforts of a host of individuals are coordinated to produce salable goods and/or services in order to attain their further objectives. use. Manpower -human factor. strategies. capital. physical exertion of human efforts. approaches. equipment 4. skills.

Owners are called stockholders - What are the sizes of business organization? 1. They help company executives. Advertising 7. or labor to a common fund with the intention of dividing the profits and/or losses among themselves. Legal 12. created by operation of law. 4 . Construction You may now decide in what kind of business enterprise you want to work with in the future. Corporation is an artificial being. Financing 11. 2. big or large organization What are the different kinds of business enterprise? 1. Owners are called partners.Who are the office workers? they are the members of the office staff who expedite the day-to-day operations of the company. property. Single or Sole Proprietorship -ownership is vested in one person. Banking 8. small organization 2. department managers. medium-size organization 3. Insurance 5. Marketing 3. attributes. Real State 4. Medical 9. Publishing 10. -Owner is sometimes called proprietor -this form of ownership is small and is readily established under the control of one man. - 3. Education 6. and properties expressly authorized by law or incident to its existence. Production 2. having the right of succession and the powers. supervisors. and fellow workers meet their responsibilities What are the most common forms of business organization? 1. Partnership is a medium-sized business organization where two or more persons bind themselves to contribute money.

9. Privately owned business entity. There are more and better opportunities for advancement. 2. Sub-professional Examination Professional or Career Examination Junior Stenographer Examination Senior Stenographer Examination What are the advantages of office work? 1. Field of interest training educational attainment health values in life location chances for advancement salary and other benefits What are the two kinds of business entity? 1. 4. Civil service and military opportunities are available. Office work is pleasant and prestigious. 10. 5. 8. 4. 7. 6. both male and female. thereby requiring more office workers. 6. Part-time and temporary jobs are always available. 2.What are the factors to be considered when choosing the kind of company you want to be connected with? Factor to be considered when you are hunting for a job is the kind of business in which you want to work. Government owned business entity (employees in a government owned business entity should pass the Civil Service Examination given by the Government) What are the different government exams that a secretarial graduate should take and pass? 1. Around-the-clock schedules are available. Attractive salaries and wide range of benefits. 5 . 4. 3. 3. Jobs are tailored to temperament. Above are some kinds of business that most companies are engaged in. 8. 2. 3. 7. Is in demand here and abroad. Positions are open to all. 5. Jobs are everywhere. Many industries are expanding. 2. Your choice will depend mainly on your: 1.

d. adding machines. mail handling. Skill in shorthand 3. Cashier Accounting clerk Bookkeeper Payroll clerk 6 . Filing and related occupations a. medical. technical. Business Data Processing-Computer Technology a. 5. word processor. c. d. c. Word Processor Data Encoder Programmer System Analyst 2. etc. Clerk-typist 4. Stenographic and related Occupations a. copier. Skill in performance of the various office procedures like filing. Skill in human relations. Secretary (legal. Skill in typing 2. Skill in computing and basic mathematical procedures. b. telephone techniques. What are the 8 categories of office career and job classifications under each category? 1. 7. 4. Filing clerk 5. Skill in the operation of the different automated office machines like computer. b. Skill in communication (oral and written) 6. etc. Stenographer (company stenographer or court stenographer) 3. calculator. general) b. Typing and related occupations a. mimeographing machine. Computing and Bookkeeping a. Secretarial.What are the specific skill requirements for office jobs? 1.

To handle mail To use shipping services To handle telephone callers To handle other methods of telecommunications like telex. d. telegraph. b. Information and Message Distribution a. Stock clerk c. e. d. Telephone Operator c. Machine Technician Sanitation Engineer/Janitor Electrician Building Maintenance 7. ADMINISTRATIVE DUTIES –include the ability… a. b. Maintenance and related occupations a. f. c. b. Messenger b. Miscellaneous Clerical Occupation a. To manage your work and time To get along with others in the office To locate business information quickly To receive and entertain callers To make appointments To handle meetings and conferences To order supplies To make travel arrangements 2.6. c. cablegram. Receptionist 8. e. Checker DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF OFFICE WORKERS 1. Bank clerk b. 7 . f. etc. h. g. c. COMMUNICATIONS –include the ability… a. d.

. 2. What are the major tasks performed in the office? b.. Talk with an office employee of your school. To proofread (proofreading –is the act of reading a typed or printed documents to find and correct errors) c. Ask the same questions as in no. in what ways? 8 . To dictate or type business letters. to operate the various copying and duplicating process and should know which process is best suited for each reproduction job. ACCOUNTING. COMPUTING. ability to keep financial records c. AND DATA PROCESSING –include. to have some knowledge of records control 4. What does the employees think is the type of his organization and its major goals? Prepare a brief report summarizing the answers to these questions.1 and also prepare a brief report. to do basic filing and finding systems b. Are their functions different? If so. RECORDS MANAGEMENT –includes the ability. basic knowledge of data processing which involves taking unorganized facts and arranging them in such a way as to obtain the desired information with the use of high speed electronics equipment like computer machines Student Activities 1.3. basic ability to calculate b. REFROGRAPHICS –include the ability… a. a. Ask the following questions: a. What are some types of equipment that are found in the office? c. Talk with a family or a friend who is an office employee. a. b. 6. To use the word processing machine 5. reports and other business papers. PROCESSING WORDS –includes the ability… a. To take and transcribe dictation d.

3. to coordinate future activities. who displays initiative. Define the secretary’s role in business. exercises judgment. Identify the different secretarial duties involved in an office. 2.Lesson 2: The Secretary’s Role in Business Objectives: 1. etc. and to follow through the various projects. and memos she types. Identify and explain some pointers on how to become a successful secretary. 4.” The term “SECRETARY” really means keeper of secrets. in her filing. The secretary in the office is usually seated closest to the executive. letters. Identify the personality traits required for a secretary. She relieves her boss of such office details plan. - 9 . and dictation given by her boss. DEFINITION -The National Secretaries Association (International) defines the SECRETARY this way: “As an assistant to an executive possessing a mastery of office skills and ability to assume responsibility without direct supervision. and makes decisions within the scope of authority. The secretary is the first one to learn about the many confidential developments involving the office staff and company policies thru meetings.

and sort incoming mail 7. Secretary in a small or medium-size office 6. Telephone operator 5. Word processor 7. Filing clerk 3. Type letters with proper style and punctuations. Receptionist 4. Meet visitors in the office 10 . Arrange appointments and keep a record of them 14. Organized data from rough drafts into finished reports. Take dictation by shorthand or machine 5. Use of shorthand skill: 4. Data Encoder SUMMARY OF SECRETARIAL DUTIES Use of typing skill: 1.What are the starting positions you can apply for after finishing your secretarial course? 1. 2. Handling of office visitors: 13. Take notes at meeting and reports of minutes 12. 3. Open. Clerk-typist 2. Take a dictation at the typewriter. Answers all incoming calls 10. Type from rough drafts. Prepare outgoing mail Handling telephone calls: 9. Make outgoing calls for the boss Helping with meetings: 11. Transcribe shorthand notes Handling mail: 6. Assist in the preparation of written reports and speeches and prepare copy for publication. Keep a record of all incoming and outgoing mail 8. read.

Make travel reservations and prepare itineraries 18. Handle certain types of correspondence and communications. 34. 29. 28. 20. 16. Use adding and calculating machines Keep company financial records of employer Keep personal and financial records of employer Help employer in filing tax returns and other financial reports Handle simple banking transactions Filing and management 24. Take care of the routine office duties while the boss is on trip Handling financial records and banking activities: 19. 27. Compose routine letters and interoffice memo. Understand and use basic filing system 25. 36. 38. 37. organize office procedures Supervise other workers Implement company policies Initiate systems and procedures useful and effective in the office Other related duties: 30. Handling travel arrangements: 17. 33. Help in organizing office social functions Serve as buffer to relieve your employer of many details Operate various automated office machines Requisition and keep record of office supplies Understand the use and preparation of numerous office forms Use reference books of various kinds Do some personal shopping for the boss Keeping the office presentable at all times Serve coffee for the boss and his visitor. 11 . 31. 35. 32. 21. Keep records of company for future references Administrative duties: 26. 22. 23.Letter writing: 15.

which you should be able to handle efficiently with understanding. a medical supply company. 2. You should be able to type at least 60 words a minute and preferably 70 to 80. a research organization. You should be particularly adept at dealing with all types of people. etc. be able to prepare legal papers such as deeds. Medical Secretary 1. medical. and concern. However. 4. You need to have an extensive knowledge of legal terminology. you may choose a specialized field such as the legal. Legal Secretary 1. wills.SPECIALIZED SECRETARIAL JOBS As a prospective secretary. you will probably work for one who is highly specialized such 12 . you must possess specialized knowledge and skills. an insurance company. you need to have a good typing and communication skills and a thorough general education. In order to handle the jobs in these areas. In some law offices you will take shorthand while in others you will use voice recording machines. a medical publishing company. People who come into law office for solutions of extremely serious problems. a doctor’s or dentist’s office. and have a knowledge of the legal system in general such as the court system and law as it relates to the business world. briefs. you may work in a hospital. a law firm with a number of attorneys or a large corporation. Your skills need to be top-notch. If you work for a doctor. and contracts. 2. As a legal secretary. As a legal secretary. a clinic. if you are preparing for legal secretarial career. 3. or technical area. you may work for a lawyer. you should take shorthand and attempt to develop your skill to at least 100 words per minute since you may work for an attorney/s that require this ability. As a medical secretary.

5. 13 . making appointments. teachers.as pediatrician. Many of the people that come into a doctor’s office or to a hospital may be critically ill. 3. As a medical secretary you need to be perceptive and sensitive in the needs of clients. you may be working for a company that is developing products or materials of a highly confidential of a research project in the hands of a competition could cost your company millions of pesos. Your effectiveness in dealing with all types of clients will determine to a large extent your success as a medical assistant. 4. Education Secretary 1. Technical Secretary 1. you need to have an extensive knowledge of medical terminology. transcribing record of patients. The technical secretary is one whose education and experience qualifies him or her to work in an engineer’s or a scientist’s office. equations. ordering medical supplies. an anesthesiologist. students. The education secretary may work at an elementary school. 2. A look or a gesture can convey much about your feelings. As a technical secretary. and statistical calculations. As a technical secretary. 3. You will be expected to deal with not are your verbal communications important. the board of education and the general public. Some of the duties that you will perform as a medical secretary include completing hospitalization forms. but your non-verbal behavior is quite significant also. or an ophthalmologist. parents. you will prepare correspondence containing formulas. The educational secretary deals with administrators. To become a medical secretary. mathematical symbols. a gynecologist. 2. college or university. and preparing patients for examination. a secondary school.

The duties of an educational secretary include ordering books. Ability to build goodwill a good secretary is a good public relation person of her immediate superior as well as the company. filing grade.3. Sense of Anticipation . this means knowing in advance what will be needed and being prepared for it when the need arises. 2. 4. . . Tactfulness . This secretary must be able to relate to a wide range of age groups and diverse needs of various individuals. etc. handling inventory.an efficient secretary should know what the boss will need before he asks for it and what activity the boss will do next and is always prepared for it. She should create a good image of the boss and the company where she belongs. fellow executives. and other people especially to clients and customers. The secretary should check from time to time the work to be done to be sure that she will not fail in her commitments with her immediate superior. She should always make her boss looks good to his subordinates. - - 14 . 3. Ability to follow through this means secretary should see to it that every job is carried to its completion.An efficient secretary follows up frequently and seriously every job she undertakes until it is completed. but equally important is knowing how and where to do it.She should not only know the right thing to say and do. typing tests. 4. working on the budget.the word “tact” means doing and saying the right thing at the right time and in the right place. PERSONALITY TRAITS REQUIRED FOR A SECRETARY 1. preparing class schedules.

and the way she interprets the rules and regulations of the company will influence the attitude of the other members of the organization. A loyal secretary should be dedicated to her work always by giving an honest work for a day’s pay.5. - 15 . A secretary who is dependable is always prompt in reporting to the office and stands by in any emergency. - - A dependable secretary is willing to make personal sacrifices for the call of duty. work habits. if need be. Loyalty a person who is loyal sticks to someone or to the company not only in times of “plenty” but also in times of “crisis” until it can recover and in due time bounce back to prosperity. she should be thoroughly familiar with the objectives and policies under which the company operates. to the clients or customers. - 6. A loyal secretary should defend her boss. Ability to reflect company objectives and policies the secretary being part of the management team should help interpret the management’s point of view to her co-workers. A loyal secretary understands her boss’s weaknesses and does not reveal them to others. Dependability a secretary is said to be dependable if she can be relied upon in any activity. 7. A loyal secretary should believe in the company as a whole –in its objectives and its management. the secretary should be a “model” because of her attitude. As an assistant to the executive. To do this. to anyone who question his motives. and to the public.

Secretaries who talk about what they know about the company can cause incalculable damage to the company and their bosses. or a key employee creates situation in which the secretary should always remain calm in solving each problem. Having a pleasant voice is not enough. money. unexpected absence of the boss. A secretary who knows how to keep confidential information is well trusted by her superiors and her co-workers. envy. and effort will be wasted. A secretary who reveals confidential information even destroys herself because nobody wants to have or to work with a secretary who does not know how to keep secrets to herself. Cost-consciousness a secretary is expected to perform her job in the most economical way. Secretaries are often used by bosses as sounding boards when they want to talk about confidential matters. sadness. A secretary who is cost-conscious avoids waste in everything he or she does. Since the secretary often speaks for her boss. A cost-conscious secretary should know how to budget her time and carefully organize her work so that no time. although that is very important for a secretary. hatred. the secretary should be able to express her idea clearly. and the like must be controlled so that everyone will the work moving and no office function will be delayed or hampered - 10. - 16 . she should communicate her ideas effectively. They can do this only if they know that their secretaries will keep to herself all confidential matters revealed to her.8. 11. Almost every office experience crises like peak work loads. Ability to keep confidential information it is an undeniable fact that the secretary knows about what is going on in the company than anyone else in the organization. Emotional Stability This trait involves a thorough knowledge of the job and self-control no matter what happens in the office. Personal emotions like anger. - - 9. Ability to communicate ideas effectively. irritations. She should learn to put ideas into words what she want to say or communicate.

jealousies. and businesslike appearance from the head down to the feet. and is not even afraid to say “NO” tactfully whenever she is not in agreement with the other person’s point of view. She should be sweet-smelling at all times with the right fragrance.12. 17 . neat. 7. 5. Jewelries and other accessories should be simple and well-coordinated with her basic wardrobe. Ability to develop variety of interest a secretary is expected to keep up-to-date in outside affairs because being interested in the world happenings is a sign of a healthy mind. 15. Make-up should be suitable and evenly applied. 4. 9. This will keep her mind active and her whole being alive. A secretary should be involved in civic. She should do everything well even without an observer because she knows it is her duty and she values highly every job assigned to her. 3. Dress should be simple and appropriate for office wear. She is tolerant and understanding about gossips. Independent mind an alert secretary should have a mind of her own. A secretary should promptly and tactfully speaks up her ideas. 8. A secretary should always have a clean. community. criticisms. 10. Shoes should be clean and well-shined. Sense of responsibility a responsible secretary accepts and does her job with seriousness a responsible secretary tries all means to finish any task assigned to him or her on due time and with satisfactory results. Shoes and bags should be in matching colors. 13. Sense of moral value A good secretary should have a high sense of moral values and not easily overcome by temptations. and shortcomings of others. Fingernails are well cared and properly trimmed. She should show that she is an organized person by her appearance. and social affairs. 2. GROOMING REQUIREMENTS FOR A SECRETARY 1. This is obviously true because how can you as a secretary organize your work properly if you can not even make yourself presentable. 6. 14. She should always look her best and presentable at all times. Hair should be neatly combed with becoming hairstyle.

Many executives. The SECRETARY is an extremely important part of the business world today. 4. Every year thousands and thousands of persons are being hired in occupations requiring secretarial skills. 3. 2. They must agree with their antecedents (nouns for which they stand) in person. that) Jerico is using is IBM PC. “It would be very difficult for me to perform my duties and responsibilities without my secretary assisting me in the performance of many routine activities in my office. “if I lose my secretary. number. The job market today and in the predictable future is very encouraging. All students need dictionaries available to (them.. The number of employed secretaries is expected to continuously increase in the years to come due to fast expansion of business and to thousand of jobs that will be available as secretaries retire form the labor market. 5. Learn to operate as many modern office machines as you can. You can be become a valuable member of an organization if you: 1. after working with an efficient secretary remarked. 18 . Student Activities ENGLISH REFRESHER: PRONOUNS are words that serves as substitutes for nouns. Develop your personality and acquire the right kind of attitude towards yourself and other people. it would be like losing my right arm. Acquire knowledge and skills required of a secretarial job. HOW TO BECOME A SUCCESSFUL SECRETARY Your success in the secretarial field depends on you. Underline the correct pronoun: 1. Train yourself well in various office procedures. particularly computers. as well as the office clerks. 2. they). The secretary. Business people recognized the importance of the SECRETARY as an administrative assistant who is able to take the responsibility of initiating and completing varied assignments and duties. 4. 2. 2. SECRETARY’S IMPORTANCE IN BUSINESS 1. and gender. 3. Learn to deal with and adjust yourself to different kinds of people. Joyce and Jamie submitted (her. Classified sections of newspapers reveal that there are always great needs for secretaries. The computer (who. their) projects today. they) should do about the problem. was given the instructions on what (she.JOB OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SECRETARIAL FIELD 1. Career in the secretarial field is exciting and challenging. 3.” Another one said.

during which an atmosphere of trust and confidence is created. need to be understood 19 . food and water 2. 2. Define business ethics and explain its components. 3. Primary Needs ( Biological needs in order to live) 1. need to be important 2. clothing 3. Identify and explain qualities of good appearance. need to be respected 3. Identify and explain some desirable personal qualities. air B. 4. Secondary Needs (Psychological needs which are satisfied by dealing with other people) 1. Public or Business Relations Defined -is the objective of the company to build goodwill towards its customers and clients thereby creating a good image of the company in the business world. shelter 4. TWO KINDS OF HUMAN NEEDS A. rest and sleep 5. need to be loved 4. Define human relations and give its relationship to productivity. need to be needed 5. need to be recognized 6.Lesson 3: Human Relations in Business Objectives: 1. Human Relations Defined is the art of getting along with different kinds of people.

20 . By her telephone manners. Be being genuinely cooperative and helpful to customers and others outside the company. The secretary is in a key position to develop good public relations through: 1. What customers are saying about the company. the company’s customer is your customer. FACTORS AFFECTING PUBLIC RELATIONS 1. By the letters she writes or types for the company. 4. 2. by what she says. by what she says. telephone conversations 3. By helping her boss do a better job. The company’s role in the community. What employees are saying about the company. thus improving procedures or services. By constantly striving to improve her own work methods thereby producing fast and accurate work. 5.THE SECRETARY’S ROLE IN PUBLIC RELATION The secretary’s role in public relations is an important one. 3. Misspell a name of client or customer Type an address incorrectly Write a letter that contains a thoughtless remark affecting the reader’s dignity. 2. 5. and by the way she answers questions about the company. 7. 3. and by the way she answers questions about the company. 4. By promoting the company to everyone with whom she comes in contact through her general actions. The success of the company is your success and the downfall of the company will also be your downfall. By her telephone manners 6. OPPORTUNITIES BY WHICH A SECRETARY CAN MAINTAIN GOOD PUBLIC RELATION 1. WAYS IN WHICH THE SECRETARY CAN HURT OR OFFEND THE PUBLIC 1. By promoting the company to everyone with whom she comes in contact through her general actions. By the letters she writes or types for the company. Transfer a customer’s call to a wrong person. If you work for a company. 2. greeting callers or visitors The success of a company is the concern of everyone that works for it. 6. business letters 2. 3.

21 . 2. b. you make someone do unwillingly what you want him to do. To persuade is to appeal not to threat. 10. then you will have passed the first step toward increasing your interest in other people. Use persuasion instead of argument. The next step is learning to cultivate the friendship of many persons of all types. whatever irritates you will probably irritate him. 6. customers. Deal with others tactfully. 3. 9. HOW TO DEVELOP GOOD HUMAN RELATIONS AT WORK 1. Exchange a clever remarks with a friend in the presence of a caller. Greet people warmly. 4. a. you make him do it of his own free will. The secret of adjusting oneself to others included in the simple formula: “Treat others as you would like to be treated by them”. visitors all appreciate a personal greeting before getting down to business. b. b. a. The secretary’s personality is basically founded in her ability to get along well with people and to make favorable impressions on them. 2. By threat. 11. Tact is based on common sense. Tact is defined by Webster as a nice discernment of what is appropriate to do or say in dealing with others without giving offense. A cheerful “good morning” or “good afternoon” is a welcome gesture of your friendly disposition. When you realize this and can make allowances for those differences in individuals. Your own personality grow in proportion to the variety of experience you have as a result of contacts with many other people. Keep a caller waiting too long without sufficient reasons. People in an office should work together in harmony and in a friendly atmosphere of “one big happy family” 3. Each person is of different temperament and disposition. THE ART OF HUMAN RELATIONS 1.8. 5. but to make persuasion. Just put yourself in other fellow’s place. It is not only liking people that matters but really an understanding of people that counts. Schedule appointments that conflict. Good public relations begins with good internal HUMAN RELATIONS –with people within the company. 12. a. Co-workers. It is better to urge than to argue. Hang up the telephone before the caller hangs up Fail to help the customer solve her complaints.

These words are examples of little touches of courtesy and high regard for others. A secretary who is afraid to consult her own boss for advice when someone else gives her an assignment will not only be imposed upon by everyone but will also be unable to give her own superior adequate attention. A secretary who assumes a sullen attitude when she is told to do something gets no satisfaction from her action and she endangers her own position. c. b. a. better still greet them personally.4. corrections. when necessary. b. and timely message of sympathy. Superiors in the office and people outside the company should be addressed as Ms. Be deserving of respect. Mrs. A genuine friendship in the office contributes a pleasant atmosphere and harmonious working condition. c. 5. and even criticisms may be a determining factor in your progress. Be friendly but not too personal a. The manner with which you accept instructions.. 7. Little things means a lot. a. birthday cards or greetings. A helping hand or a thoughtful gestures shows. Recognize authority a. 8. d. manner of talking and in dealing with people. When dealing with persons with the same age and rank within the department. 6. c.. c. be the first one to show respect for yourself in your behavior. 22 . Respect all authority. Find out your company’s preferences about names and titles and guide yourself accordingly. manner of dressing. In order for other people to respect you. This kind of relationship does not usually lasts long. b. You will be creating a lot of trouble at the end. far more affective that words. Avoid serious personal relationship with your boss especially if he is a married man. b. Don’t bore or embarrass others with long recitals of your personal troubles and achievements d. e. that you are a considerate person. Be considerate of other people’s feelings. You may send unexpected anniversary cards. Use names and titles appropriately. Be thoughtful a. It is important to be able to recognize the various shade of authority and to know just who is supposed to give your orders. Say “please”. the informal manner of addressing each other by their first name is acceptable. almost anyone and everyone may give you instructions. “thank you”. When you are a beginner. or Ma’am. Sir.

Allow plenty of time.Don’t doodle. 8.Try to put yourself in his place so that you can se his point of view. Do not interrupt him. Remember you were once a new employee yourself. you lose. or shuffle papers. so take time to welcome and help new employee. 23 . Go easy on arguments and criticisms.Look and act interested.You cannot listen if you are talking. 2. Do your full share.9.An angry man gets the wrong meaning from words. HOW TO HANDLE AN ANGRY COMPLAINANT 1. Practice office etiquette. Recognize the importance of others. 12. even if you win. . You lost an important customer. Be a team player a. 7. Show him that you want to listen. 11. Will it be quieter if you talk in a private place? 5. This is often done by offering him a seat. tap. allowing him to rest or cool off for a moment. 10. b. c. Assist in everyway you can to attain the objectives of your company. 4. Remove distractions . Help new employees a.Help him feel that he is free to talk. Do not read your mail while he talks: Listen to understand rather than oppose. Hold your temper.This puts him on the defensive. Stop Talking! . . 3. Do not argue. Put the talker at ease. Be patient . 6. Practice the Golden Rule: Do not do unto others what you would not like others do unto you. . Do your best in everything you do. He may get angry. Empathize with . be cooperative at all times. .

10. . the other fellow’s.Speak and act as if everything you do were a genuine pleasure. Ask questions . Smile at people. . Stop talking! . 3. 5. and the right one. TEN COMMANDMENTS OF HUMAN RELATIONS 1.9. 2. .If you would like to have friends. Call people by name. 24 . 10. It will be appreciated. . so that he listens more than he talks. Be thoughtful of opinion of others.Nature gave man two ears but only one tongue.The sweetest music to anyone’s ears is the sound of his own name. It helps to develop points further. be friendly.This is first and last. Be genuinely interested in people .You can like everybody if you try.It takes 65 muscles to frown: only 15 to smile. 7. cautious with criticisms.There is nothing as nice as cheerful word of greeting. Be considerate with the feelings of others. 9. Speak to people. Be alert to give service. . Be generous with praise.There are three-sides to controversy: yours.This encourages him and shows you are listening.What counts most in life is what we do for others. because all other commandments depend on it. Be cordial . Be friendly and helpful . 6. 8.You just can’t do a good listening job while you are talking. . 4. .

12. and give ourselves wholeheartedly to everyone. 2. 7. all we have to do is wake up. Avoid calling your employer by his or her first name. In order that an employer will respect his employees. “Mrs. 14. be pure in heart. or “Ma’am”. reach out. 9. This kind of relationship does not usually lasts long.EMPLOYER-EMPLOYEE RELATIONSHIP 1. Employees should treat their employers with respect and not with fear. courtesy. If you have nothing good to say. 25 . Don’t argue with your employer. and you become the loser at the end. Employees should always be willing to accept responsibilities. HOW TO ACHIVE HAPPINESS IN DEALING WITH PEOPLE 1. Do not by-pass authority. To achieve real happiness. the employees should first show self-respect. Thus. 2. Always strive to improve on the job. You can check him nicely if there had been some mistakes. Tell your problems in the office to the right person who can really help you solve you problems related to your work. and consideration. 4. “Sir”. This can be done right here on earth. When more work are assigned to you. be sincere in deeds. do not complain. An employee should be friendly but respectful to his employer. 3. open our eyes. 6. 13. 8. Always do the correcting tactfully and in private. Avoid personal jokes or wise remarks. 3. Your employer might resent it as an affront to his dignity or position. we have gained perfect joy and happiness. but don’t insist on your way. Address your employer “Mr. Employers are expected to treat their employees with respect. we have done it to the LORD. But see to it that you also learn from your mistakes. 15. The most important thing is to be loyal to your employer. 10. Nothing but praises for him should come from you. If you do not know how to do the job. Look for your employer’s good points and understand his weaknesses. either you leave the job or don’t say anything bad. Always think that your employer is assigning to you the job because he believes you can do it better than others. Be willing to admit your mistakes. 11. Employees should respect the chain of command. Know your immediate superior. If we have done something good to others.”. 5. ask questions. Real happiness can be yours only when we have done something worthwhile for ourselves and others.”. Always do your best in everything you do. Avoid serious personal relationship with married people in your office.

______ Laughing more so that my attitude will be infectious and others will pick it up. etc. ______ Sharing my attitude to others by setting a better example as a positive person. the more positive it will remain. remind yourself that the more you give your attitude away. ______ Sharing my sense of humor through more teasing. _______ Transmitting my positive attitude to others whenever I use the telephone. others may not. telling jokes or using the flipside technique. paying compliments to others. Some may appeal to you. _______ Being more positive with those whom I have daily contact. _______ Going out my way to visit friends who may be having trouble with their attitudes.Student Activities Attitude Give-Away Exercise Below are different ways people share their positive attitudes. 26 . ______ Sharing my positive attitude by sending token items such as cards or flowers to those I care about. As you implement your choices. Place a mark in the square opposite three attitudes that fit your style and that you intend to incorporate into your behavior. ______ Being more sensitive as a listener so that others can regain their positive focus. ______ Communicating my attitude through upbeat conversations.

giving and receiving instructions. Explain the importance of communication 5. Define communication and explain the communication process. and receiving visitors. Explain the flow of communication 6. Define and explain substantive and subjective meanings communication 4. composing memos and letters. Enumerate and explain pointers for better verbal communication 8. Define and explain the importance of feedback 3. Enumerate and explain the barriers to communication 7. Enumerate and explain pointers for better reading skills 10.1 Communication Methods Reading Writing Speaking Listening 27 . 2. The office worker deals daily with spoken and written word through such activities as handling telephone calls and taking messages. Enumerate and explain pointers for better writing skills in Communication is the for all office tasks. Enumerate and explain pointers for better listening 9.Lesson 4: COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN THE OFFICE Objectives: 1. Figure 4.

There must be understanding for there to be effective communication. Communication process consists of the following: • The sender formulates a message • The sender transmits the message • The receiver intercepts and filters the message • The receiver formulates a response 28 . It is the transmission of ideas from the sender (source) to the receiver through the channels. message. Figure 4. Communication is not complete. however.Communication Process.2 Communication Process Communication is defined as the transfer of information from one person to another that is understood. and receiver. channel. if there is no feedback or response from the receiver back to the sender. Let's see how this works. The segments of communication are the source. The communication process may be defined simply as the exchange of messages by human beings.

The factors of communication are communication skills. and by tasting (use of the mouth) –the message will be received more clearly than if the sender used only one channel. That response takes the form of a message to the original sender who then becomes a receiver. Feedback is valuable. it becomes a communication cycle. See figure 4. The sender’s message results in a response. attitudes. The message has two kinds of information: the substantive as well as the subjective. The receiver may react positively or negatively. cultural background. dispositions. knowledge. the receiver. the quality of the message is influenced by the personal characteristics of the sender: his/her communication skills. The sender creates a message with an idea of the response he or she hopes to evoke. by smelling (use of nose). and culture. by talking (use of the ears). beliefs and values. 29 . social system. The cycle repeats itself. attitudes. and values. by feeling (use of hands). Valuable interpersonal communication tales place when the message creates positive attitudes and feelings for both the sender and the receiver. and values of the receiver influence the way message is received. and culture. During the fourth stage. attitudes.It is at the third and fourth stage of this process that understanding should occur. feelings. the sender will not know that the message has been received. social system. If it does not occur then there is a breakdown in communication. for it lets the sender know whether the message has been correctly interpreted and how the receiver reacts to the message. As the communication process continues. It is in the subjective aspect that the feelings. writing and speaking skills. In other words. education level. if the message is sent by means of an illustration (use of the eyes). That response is called feedback.3 diagrams these elements. attitudes. The quality of message is influenced by the personal characteristics of the sender: intelligence level. A response or reaction occurs whenever a message is received. While it may appear that the spoken word is the element of communication that needs to be understood. The receiver of the message also possesses a unique set of personal characteristics like the sender. For example. The exchange of feelings and attitudes in the communication process is known as interpersonal communication. The use of the five channels or senses makes the message clearer. knowledge. the response should then be a renewed attempt to gain understanding. Unless there is a feedback. and the response. the message. beliefs. Segments in the Communication Process The complete communication process consists of four segments: the sender. that is only part of the puzzle.

“Your transcript is wrong”. They may be exchanged between individuals.” Importance of Communication Communication is the lifeblood of an organization. Communication networks or channels are developed and facilitate the flow of messages. or laterally within the organization. downward. between and among groups. “You always criticize my work. communication flows upward from the support staff. I will improve it. through middle management to top management. or between an individual and a group/s. which for one reason or another was not communicated in the official channels. Besides formal communication networks. Effective interpersonal communication helps satisfy the psychological needs. Managers spend as much as 95% of their time in interpersonal communication. however. In the organizational structure. Effective communication is more than simply speaking and writing well. as an insult. It may be positive when the real and true feelings and attitudes of a group are communicated. motives or feelings of individuals within the organization. The Flow of Communication Process In the office. Good interpersonal communication requires empathy (putting oneself in another’s shoes to understand the other’s point of view) and concern for others. The receiver sees this message subjectively. It means choosing the words carefully and knowing when to talk and when it is better to remain silent. Lack of positive interpersonal communication skills will hinder the efficient and effective accomplishment of the goals of the organization. every organization develops an informal communication channel known as the grapevine. communication may flow from the Board of Directors down to the support staff.3 Communication cycle Example: The sender says. messages can flow upward. and not directly to the top. Getting such information into proper hands can 30 .” But if the message is received substantively.Figure 4. so he says defensively. Usually. Okay. Management acquires information for decision making and control through communication. the receiver will say.

should be sincere. Grapevine information reduced to gossip and hearsay has little value in an organization. Words spoken. you are so busy with what you are doing that when someone approaches you to talk to you. uncomfortable chairs. A good vocabulary is an asset to the office worker who must communicate verbally. Technical vocabulary should only be used with those who understand the same technical vocabulary.be the task of the executive assistant. Active listening on the part of the receiver is very important in overcoming these barriers. Voice quality is important. large room. thoughts. Emotions can get in the way of effective communication. you may miss entirely the meaning of the other person’s message in your haste to get your point across. Lack of trust also causes a decrease in the amount of information shared and increase in suspiciousness regarding the validity of information. The level of difficulty of the language used by the sender of a message must be geared to the language level of the receiver. Words mean different things to different people. is one method of exchanging ideas. or profanity detracts from the professional image of the office worker. weak voice. When this happens. Each person interprets messages from a frame of reference or perspective learned from his or her total life experiences. A distortion of the communication occurs when you tend to cover up your inadequacies to ensure positive reaction from your superior rather than communicate your real concern. but you also may communicate a feeling of not caring. Oftentimes. barriers are psychological in nature. He or she must use a vocabulary that the receiver will understand. This causes the sender to have negative feelings and make future communication even more difficult. Although you have experienced all these barriers at one time or another. not only do you fail to receive the messages the sender intends. Speaking can be made effective in several ways: 31 . etc. there are things you can do to overcome these barriers. Consequently. and the voice friendly. incorrect grammar. Different interpretations can be given in the message because the sender and the receiver operate from different frames of reference. Barriers in the Communication Process Communication breakdown can be caused by physical and environmental conditions –noisy room. you are not able to detach yourself from the task to listen effectively. Emotional involvement can also cause miscommunication. information. Verbal Communication Communicating with words. These intentions are not always made clear. whether they be formal or informal communication. The sender’s intentions are private and exist only in his or her mind. especially if they concern feelings of liking or disliking –hence miscommunication takes place. hot weather. For the most part. The use of slang. and feelings.

g. Listening is an intellectual and emotional process in which one integrates physical. Listening Listening is not the same as hearing. Hard-to-understand messages should be delivered slowly. c. b. Poor Listening Habits Below are some poor listening habits. In order to be good listeners. pace. “bali” d.uh”. Avoiding eye contact –although people listen with their ears. Listening to employees is one of the most valuable and effective tools for helping employees feel understood and accepted. We should concentrate on what the speaker wants to communicate and not what we want to hear. or in Filipino. bores the listener. c. “you know”. The normal listener is likely to understand only 50% of a conversation. Active listening requires a conscious attempt to understand the speaker without letting personal opinions influence the content of the speaker’s message. tone. and speed by using a tape recorder. Speaking too fast may cause the listener to miss the message. they judge whether the receiver is listening by looking at his her eyes. Analyze your pitch. e. usually the result of habit. a. Improve grammar and other language-skills by enrolling in an English Grammar or Business English Course. Eliminate such expression as “okay”. Do not tell people what their problems are and how to solve them. Correct serious speech defects by seeking professional speech therapy. This drops to 25% after 48 hours. but too often its meaning is lost or distorted. 32 . Speaking in a monotone. Doing all the talking –do not monopolize the conversation by doing all the talking.a. People usually hear the entire message. f. Vary the pitch of your voice. Study them and begin a program of improvement in the art of listening. b. inputs in search of meaning. Maintain eye contact. but not too loud to distract others who are not concerned. Interrupting –saying “I know what you mean” before the other person finishes speaking is another listening problem. It helps to accurately determine the employee’s problems and goals and to understand how the employees really feel about them. but do not speak too slowly or it gets boring. we should be objective. Pace the speed of your speech. emotional. “uh. Speak loudly enough to be heard by the person you are speaking to. This means that recall from memory of a particular conversation which took place more than a couple of days before will always be incomplete and usually inaccurate.

Responding refers to the active listener’s giving feedback on the accuracy of the message and feelings. ex. gathering more information. you listener’s body language may help you to judge how they feel about what you are saying. and responding. making the speaker feel understood. gestures. and posture are called body language. What you have read becomes part of your memory and is available to you as you think and act. Read with understanding and reasonable speed –you need to understand in order to use the information. or overhearing another conversation. keeping the speaker talking. shuffle papers. It makes the other person feel unimportant. Sensing is the ability to recognize the silent messages (vocal intonation. Attending refers to the verbal. There will be many occasions when you must read information quickly in order to respond to an inquiry or to determine what you should do. Paying attention to a speaker’s body language when you listen can improve your understanding of what the speaker is telling you. and visual messages that the active listener sends to the speaker (eye contact. vocal. passersby. Active listening takes great concentration and attention. not on the process of moving your eyes from word to word. Reading is the process of translating printed information into useful mental impressions. An adequate reading skill means that you: a. Being easily distracted –looking out at the window to see if anything is more interesting or being distracted by external noise. Allowing telephone interruptions –do not make incoming or outgoing telephone calls while someone is speaking. Showing boredom –do not play with a pencil. doodle. Active Listening The active listener is skilled at sensing. b. Instruction on how to operate the fax 33 . Reading Your reading skills will be valuable to your work. Body Language People communicate not only with words but also with their movements. attending. The messages people give with their facial expressions. and getting the speaker to better understand the problems being discussed. or play with some objects while the other person is speaking. or nonverbal communication.) that the speaker is sending. fix your hair. facial expressions. body language. read naturally – concentrate on the meaning of what you are reading. f. Acting rushed or looking at your watch are also signs of boredom. e.d. body language. wipe your glasses. head nods and facial expressions). When you are talking.

Do not use long words when you can use short ones. Will it give a positive response? 34 . you must: a. Correctness Observe the rules of grammar. Writing As an office worker. Consideration Put yourself in the other person’s shoes. c. familiar words. The reader has to understand the words you use. State what you want to communicate in as few words as possible. “You are invited” instead of “I am inviting you”. spelling. and punctuation. Maintain files and scrapbooks of newspaper and magazine clippings pertaining to your company’s business. A speed reading course is recommended. A document with misspelled words and other mistakes can give the impression that you and your company are careless d. read newspapers and magazines pertaining to your business b. Clearness Use plain. f. memos. b.machine. Some qualities of business writing are: a. including letters. d. c. Courteousness Say “please”. and “thank you” somewhere in your message. “I appreciate”. Interpret and condense large quantities of information going thru your desk. reports. Use the pronoun “you” to emphasize the reader’s point of view. Good writing can make you more productive and increase your opportunities for advancement. Example. Read with few pauses because of unfamiliar words –a good command of an extensive vocabulary is helpful To improve your reading skill. e. Set aside a particular time each day to read job-related material. You need to read within a reasonable amount of time. c. Imagine yourself reading what you have written. Completeness Your message must contain all the information the reader needs in order to understand it and to respond to it. Conciseness Go straight to the point. you will be helping to create many kinds of documents.

school. Enumerate ways you can have better reading skills. What is the communication process? What are its segments and factors? Give examples. at school. Action Use the active voice as against the passive voice. 4. Organization Present your information in an order that the reader can follow easily. Explain the importance of communication at home. Explain the flow of communication. Prepare an outline before writing so that all points will be covered. Explain the importance of feedback and give examples in various situation –home. 3. etc. “The computer ordered by you will be sent…” The better way: “We will ship your computer by November 15” h. among friends. Enumerate pointers for better writing skills. 6. Give examples of verbal communication. How will you improve you verbal communication skills? 8. 7. in your dealings with your friends? 5. Enumerate and give examples of barriers to communication. 10.g. What is meant by substantive and subjective meanings in communication? Give examples. How will you improve your listening habits? 9. End of Chapter Questions 1. Ex. 35 . 2.

Lesson 5: Working Efficiently and Effectively Objectives: 1. Explain the concept of productivity and planning. 5. Define workstation and how to arrange your desk. Time and motion studies were done on - offices in the 60s to find the most effective and efficient ways of doing work. If it is cluttered. Explain the use of “to-do” list. 2. 6. An unorganized work area may appear humorous. Define time management and explains its importance. the employer will conclude that the employee is unorganized and unable to complete assignments. 3. Define ergonomics and explain its role in the office. These studies resulted in ergonomics or the study of all office equipment and environmental factors that contribute to worker productivity and job satisfaction Organizing your Desk. The workstation (desk) should be 36 . Productivity and efficiency improve tremendously in an organized workstation. 7. but it is one of the greatest time wasters in the office and causes low productivity. Definition: Efficient means utilizing the best way of accomplishing a task. 4. The office desk gives an employer a quick impression of how the employee approaches his or her work. Define effective and efficient work habits. It provides the physical space for you to do your job. Effective means making the best use of time in accomplishing a task. Explain the purpose and use of a time-use log.

A telephone 6. 2.arranged so that the materials and supplies can be organized for ease of location. and office procedure manuals. Many offices today are using modular furniture which is designed for flexibility. office assignment calendar. 5. Calendar – day to day calendar. thesaurus. Below is a typical executive/assistants desk. outgoing mail. Disk file or diskettes Figure 5. Reference manuals such as dictionary. It is usually L-shaped. A telephone directory or rolodex of frequently used telephone numbers. 1. 4. The top of the desk should have the following items. A three tier metal tray for incoming mail. and “for file” 3.1 A workstation layout 37 .

This work should be divided into three piles: (a) Rush – (a-priority) work to be completed as soon as possible (b) Regular – (B priority) work to be completed after the rush items are done. folders. legible Work surface: allow flexible arrangements. 8. handbag. Time Management Books and more reading materials have been written on time management. onionskin. 9. 11. Letterheads. extra things for emergencies –first aid or earthquake supplies. envelopes. and other stationery items are kept in the top right hand or left hand drawer. and (c) (C-priority) work to be complted later. How many times have we heard the statement. 7. pens and pencils.2 Workstation Environment 1. Adequate Lighting Adequate contrast . stapler. adjustable. 2. Work in progress is kept in the second drawer. 5. but we only have 24 hours. detachable. 3. The proper management of time can be the most efficient way to accomplish office tasks. glare/reflection free Keyboard: usable. It can be defined as the process of planning your activities to gain better control over your time. readable. scissors. etc. adjustable.Figure 5. 4. right? 38 . umbrella. The bottom drawer is for personal items –extra references like your typing book. carbon paper. spacious. In the topic on time management. you will learn how to categorize these priorities. If only there were 36 hours a day. glare free Work chair: Adjustable Footrest In the center drawe should be supplies like paper clips. 6.no glare or distracting reflections Distracting noise decreased to a minimum Leg room and clearances to allow postural changes Window covering Appropriate software Screen: stable image. “But I don’t have time!” or “Where did time fly?”. 10.

Figure 5. You may do it every 15 minutes or every 30 minutes. “She is not doing anything. For a week. all the activities you perform in your office. This log is important. Below is an example of a TimeUse Log. ask yourself if that activity contributes to the satisfactory completion of your job requirements. For each activity.The first step is to analyze the use of your time now.3 Time log 39 . not only for improving your time use but also for showing your executive what are the things you do so that when someone says.” you have a document to prove that you are busy all day. list down each day on a sheet similar to the one shwon below.

m.m. 10:30 a.m. 2:30 p. How did I lose (or waste) my time? Was it because of unnecessary interruptions. 12:30 a. 11:30 a.m. a. During what time of the day was I most productive? When was I least productive? Why? 2.m. 40 . 8:30 a.3a Time Log Mon 8:00 a.m.m. 12:00 a.m.m. meetings.m. etc. drop-in visitors from both inside and outside the office c. 1:30 p. 1:00 p. 9:00 a. You will be able to spot problem areas and trends quickly.m. 9:30 a. personal telephone calls b. chatting in the restroom. discussions with coworkers. Improper or incomplete directions and/or information. Study your time wasters. Failure to plan.m. 10:00 a. filing. telephone? Who and what was involved in each case? Time wasters and interruptions come from many sources. Tues Wed Thurs Fri Log all activities –telephone calls made or received.Figure 5. and to prioritize e. editing. d. crises.m. visitors/socializing. and so forth. Be alert to the following: 1. 11:00 a. to set objectives. 2:00 p.m. photocopy room.

Ask yourself the question: “What will happen to me if this is not done now?” if the answer is “I’m dead!”.C-priority are tasks that do not need to be done tomorrow or even next month. Using your priority choices. Avoid procrastination . e.B-priority are tasks that can wait for tomorrow or even the day after. what was C-priority yesterday could be B-priority today. d. c.A-priority tasks are those that you must finish today. arrange a loose.Increasing productivity You will work more efficiently and productively if you plan activities ahead of time.this is a bad Filipino habit. list down the main tasks that you do in order to reach your goals. Establish office aids and files that will help work flow more smoothly. . A plan will enable you to carry out your tasks in the order that makes the most of your time and effort. You can save yourself a day of anxiety if you stop putting off doing things. throw them away. Putting off filing can be very stressful when files pile up. Is work getting out of time? Evaluate how long it takes to complete projects Locate time wasters and establish solutions to stop them. then do them first. . Planning requires four steps: 1. 4. Listing your tasks -After you have entered what you do daily on your time log. and so on. These priorities may change. but not immediately. It is called the “mañana habit” –putting off for tomorrow what you can do today. Evaluate personal office productivity performance level. Putting off a task repeatedly can be disastrous. 41 . What was B-priority yesterday can be A-priority today. flexible schedule. a. 3. Schedule your work . Gather these in one drawer for the time being and if you have not touched them or they are not needed after a month. b. They are needed.Decide the order in which you should do these tasks. Establish a work pattern. What are your duties according to your job description and what are the tasks needed to accomplish them? 2. Establish priorities .

Pocket calendars are useful to carry around in your bag of briefcase for easy reference. put stamps at one time. Here are four suggestions: 1. Group and complete similar tasks together. Determine how to best organize and arrange the equipment and supplies you need to complete a task for smoother work flow. Example: if you are doing bulk mailing. You can schedule any work you did not accomplish today as well as other tasks which may come suddenly.4 42 . Schedules Office workers keep schedules. attach all labels. prepare a schedule for the next day. Reserve a time for all outgoing calls. Use pencil. When you finish work for each day. Your boss’ schedule can also be on the same calendar so that you can see at one glance how you can adjust you schedule to her or her schedule. 2. such as. Calendar entries should be neat. 3. if you are making photocopies. It involves streamlining some steps and eliminating others. or quarterly schedules including budget preparation. Be alert to combining tasks. annual. meetings. so you use the most logical and efficient way.m. pick up your supplies. if you are going to the mailroom to deliver outgoing mail and you are picking up your office supplies in an adjoining room. like a phone call asking for meeting at 2:30 p. See figure 5. in case you have to change. Weekly schedules will help you set aside blocks of time for tasks as they become due.Work Simplification This is the process of improving procedures that you use to get your work done. make them in sequence. If you make several phone calls. Remember to be flexible. List the procedures you do in completing a large task. You may also make your calendar entries on your computer. 4. Example. A look at your calendar will tell you immediately if that is possible. or tax reports. and seal them all simultaneously using a wet sponge. Be alert to the sequence of these tasks. Example. Maximize the use of your computer. semi-annual. inventories. Long-term. make them all at once rather than making several trips to the copier. after delivering the mail.

5 This medical assistant uses a computer to maintain a listing of appointments.4 An office assistant who maintains an electronic calendar providews an executive with a printout of the day’s schedule.Figure 5. Figure 5. 43 .

Identify yourself or your manager and your company. put the necessary correspondence or memo that you may need for that particular project or meeting for each day. check you boss’ calendar before committing him. 1. Tell the other person how to get in touch with you if the appointment must be changed. 44 . 5. It is a file folder. Say why you want the appointment.Tickler Files This is a system for reminding you on a daily basis what you have to do for that day. In each pocket. 4. 3. Write down the details of the appointment—date. Write everything and make sure that you have entered the appointment on your boss’ calendar as well. purpose. time. and other person’s request for time 6. 7. one for each of the month. If you are the one receiving a request for an appointment. numbered 1-31. Indicate how much of the other person’s time you need Have your calendar in front of you so you can propose a time or respond to the other person’s request for time. location. 2. to make sure it is correct. Repeat all this information to the person you called. Appointments Business appointments are usually made by telephone. Make sure you have the authority to confirm a date and time when the boss’ calendar shows that he is available. To make sure that the appointment is made properly.

labeled with their names. If you work for several executives. Mail Sort mail. To prepare for a big conference on June 10. You may also make notations on the margins of the incoming mail if you know the answer that the boss could give in his reply. with the rush or important mail on top and the others under the other in the order as mentioned above.Swiss Cheese Method For a big project. they can pick up their messages from their trays. Set target dates for each task until the whole project is completed. To do Lists Almost everyone has a to-do list. If their messages are important. then internal memos. Label these trays with their names. break it into smaller parts with individual deadlines. Available in the market today are books called “organizers”. next bills. if time permits. Telegrams and faxes first. Inside are calendars are appointment schedules. you will have completed all the similar tasks involved. then client letters. Everyone who has used these to-do lists know they work. You can make you own to-do list in the evening or early in the morning. and phone numbers. You may have mail pickup stations in front of your desk or put the mail on the corresponding executives’ desk. Ex. This is called the Swiss Cheese Method. send notices of meeting – deadline – May 15. addresses. By the date of the meeting on June 10. Confirm attendance at meeting – deadline – June 5. Be sure to indicate the priority (A. You can use hooks and tack in their messages to their corresponding hooks beside your desk or in front of your desk. the small tasks of the projects could be (1) make meeting room reservations – deadline – May 10. or C). for easy reference. or both. list of names. Messages If you work in an office where take messages for more than one principal or executive. you may pull out the files corresponding to each letter. If you work for only one executive. confirm menus – deadline – May 30. Do the A’s first and carefully question the necessity of the C’s. It is not efficient to stand and deliver the messages to each one as you get them personally. 45 . and lastly personal mail including magazines. you can give them personally. and when they pass you desk. and daily to-do lists. place their messages in their trays. Put the mail in individual folders. You can save time and energy by writing down the things you have to remember to do. B. first sort them by addressee. Then sort them accordingly to importance. have as many little trays as persons you are taking messages for.

Research has shown that most of these are very minor. to be referred to when needed. Equipment and furniture manufacturers are modifying conventional designs to accommodate the new technologies and ergonomic needs of the worker. and stress have been known to be by-products of today’s electronic office. Office Safety and Health. and back strain. Only copies of correspondence. Copies of memos. such as cancer-causing emissions of computer CRT monitors have been discovered. perhaps once or twice a year. Many business firms have safety programs.Chronological files. Also negative effects of modern technology. reports. 46 . Fire drills and earthquake drill are held periodically. should be filed in this reading file. This file contains an up-to-date record of work that has been completed. shoulder. and not originals. This can be sorted and thrown away each month. neck. and other correspondence are filed in the chronological file. The purpose of this file is easy to access current work without having to go to the filing cabinet. Eye. Currently completed work is filed on the top.

The following checklist can be used to rate an office’s safety: 1. 2. 47 . 7. 9. 3. 8. 4. 5. 6. are proper ashtrays available and kept out of the way of desk of papers and trash cans? Are workers careful with coffeepots and other electrical items? Do all employees know where the fire exits are and the safety procedures to follow in case of fire? Are fire drills held regularly in the company? Is the furniture in the office “fireproof”? A “yes”. will give you a high “safety quotient”. to these questions. 10. Are all desks and file drawers tightly closed? Are all pencils kept in a drawer or a pencil holder? Are electrical outlets out of the general pathway? Are all wall sockets properly secured? Are all computers and typewriters turned off at the end of the day? If smokers are in the office.

Also reserve a room at Davao Insular Hotel. You cam to work today. and you find following instructions on your desk: (1) Confirm my meeting with Mr. 2. I have to edit it today. decide which your priorities are in the cases below and how you would go about your day’s work.Student Activities 1. June 14. (3) Order flowers from the Flower Shop for my wife. relatives. If you were the executive assistant/secretary in the office. (4) Call the travel Agency. Also reserve the Davao Insular Hotel. or friends who are working. With a checklist of time management and work planning techniques that you have learned in this chapter. ask them what they are and have them explain each one. Reserve a flight to Davao for Friday. at 9:00 a. Report your findings to the class. write your conversation with the other person. (2) Finish the report we started yesterday. ask them which technique they are using. Reyes in Davao for next week. Talk to your family members.m. June 8. If it involves telephone conversations. It is her birthday tomorrow. Number each task 1 to 4 –1 representing the first task and 4 representing the last task you will do. which ones? If they have other techniques which they use and are not on your list. 48 . If they have found some to be effective. Meeting Room 1. June 15.

Lesson 6: Telephone Systems and Techniques
Objectives: 1. Enumerate and describe some of the features of today’s telephone equipment. 2. Enumerate some pointers for receiving telephone calls. 3. Enumerate some pointers for placing telephone calls. 4. Enumerate some pointers on placing local long distance calls. 5. Enumerate some pointers on placing international long distance calls. 6. Differentiate between station-to-station and person-to-person calls. 7. Define conference call. 8. Enumerate pointers for telephone listening techniques. 9. Enumerate pointers for managing difficult callers 10. Give reasons why personal calls are not efficient.

Telephone Technology You should be acquainted with the variety of desk phone equipment available so that you may use it effectively and/or choose which best accomplishes your office needs. 1. Dial telephone – the conventional type called the “rotary” telephone is a 10-hole dial telephone which is now being replaced by the touch-tone telephone being installed for all new telephone subscribers by the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company.

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2. Touch-tone phone is a 12-button keyboard arrangement. It includes 10 number buttons plus some special buttons that activate automatic electronic feature, making it possible to place a call in half the time it takes to dial a rotary-type phone.

Cellular Telephone The cellular telephone is getting more popular not only businessmen but also among many families. You can place a call form one part of the country to another, depending on the cellular’s capacity and franchise. You can carry it with you or leave the unit in your car, and by dialing a code number and the 7-digit number you can reach any number at anytime.

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Keyphone Phone System

Similar to the touch-dial telephone for the house but having many more features is the Keyphone System for business use. It has a speaker or hands-free feature, background music, call back, call pick-up, call transfer, call forwarding, conference call, and headset compatibility.

Receiving a Call. 1. Be prepared to answer. Make sure pencils, pens, message pads, and calendar are on hand before picking up the telephone. Be mentally prepared to handle the call and block out all distractions in your environment so that you can concentrate on your call. 2. Answer promptly. Answer on the second ring. When a customer is calling, quick service helps build a reputation of efficiency for you and your company. Answer with a smile. 3. Identify yourself. If you are the switchboard operator: “Good morning (or afternoon), ABC company, may I direct your call.” If you are answering for Mr. Santos: “Good morning, Mr. Santos’ office, may I help you?” If you have your own line: “ Good morning, Mari Cruz Speaking, may I help you?” 4. Get the person’s name at the other end of the line, write it down and use it in conversation. Example: “Mr. Reyes, Mr. Santos will be with you in a moment.” This shows courtesy and respect for your customer or caller. It communicates a businesslike manner. Us first name, only if given permission. 5. If you have “hold” button, use it properly. This is done, when you have to make the caller wait for just a moment. Do not cove the mouthpiece with your hand and shout. The earpiece picks up the sound. Use the “hold” button and lay the handset down gently on a soft surface. Before leaving the line, ask the caller’s permission by saying. “could you hold a moment please?” Be sure you wait for a reply, he or she may say “no”. Every 30 seconds give a progress report by saying, “Mr. Reyes, I am still checking for you. Would you care to hold or can we call you back?” When you return on the line, say “Mr. Reyes, thank you for holding.” 6. Manage call interruptions when you have simultaneous calls. Excuse yourself from the first call. Provide an explanation. “Will you please excuse me for a moment? I have another call coming in.” Put the customer on hold and answer the second call the same way you answered the first call. Say, “I’m on another call. Would you be willing to hold or may I call you back?” Return to your original call and say, Thank you for waiting.” 51

I am calling for Mr. Goodbye. time and irritation. If you do not know when is the best time to reach someone. Reyes. Complete calls courteously. Santos of ABC Company.7. Identify yourself and your company. “Thank you for calling. Keep a journal notebook. by leaving complete messages. Explain why the transfer is necessary and to whom he or she is being transferred. Leave complete messages. Be sure of the telephone number. 1. Plan your call in advance. Reyes available? 5. “Would it be more convenient for me to call you back today between 3 and 4?” Keep in mint time differences when placing long distance calls. Know whom you want to call. The best time to call us back is between 9 and 10 in the morning or 3 and 5 in the afternoon. It is up to you to prove your interest in the caller’s concerns and needs. Wrong numbers annoy the party called and cause needless delays and cost money. Thank you. Save yourself some time and avoid wrong numbers by using a personal telephone list for those frequently called numbers (a rolodex is a must). This will eliminate misunderstandings and wasted time later and will enhance your professional image. “Please ask Mr. Rather than relying on your memory. Placing a call. Ask. what you want to accomplish and what you want to say. You can save yourself and the person you are calling. “Mr. or binder close at hand to help you organize your calls before placing them and to make notes during the conversation. Is Mr.” 52 . Place your call when the party is most likely to be available. “My telephone number is 833 (pause) 4904” Give the reason you want the person to call you back. “This is Aida Cruz. 3. Provide your name. develop the habit of preparing a call agenda that summarizes your message and the questions you need answered. they will be prepared to assist you when they do call you back. Mrs. Jot down the pertinent information discussed on the call. 2.” This leaves the caller with a favorable impression of your company. Do not expect others to recognize you by your voice. either ask the person when a call would be convenient or ask someone in their organization who might know when the person is available for telephone calls. Reyes to confirm his meeting with Mr. Santos in Davao on June 15. questions that need answering before the call is completed and any commitments that were made. Time your call carefully. 9. Transfer calls only when necessary. such as when you are unable to help the caller. If you let people know the purpose of your call. Mr. Make the customer feel important. the name of your company and your telephone number. 4. May I transfer you or can I ask her to call you? May I have your name and number please?” 8. Reyes. pause after each group of numbers so that the person taking the messages has time to write it down accurately. Say. When you give your telephone number. Roxas handles our insurance claims. You must give each caller the impression that they are your most important call.

Tell the “operator” you wish to make a “Conference” call. You can leave the message with the secretary. Timing starts when the conversation begins. Santos of ABC Company would like to speak with you. When the operator answers. Using DDD budget calls for domestic calls. Santos and Mr. Please inform the operator at once if it is collect call. (2) dial the country code: 1. Reyes is available. dial 108. (1) dial the International access code: 00. Rates are also lower for station-to-station calls. (3) dial the telephone number you wish to call. the following steps are needed: (1) dial the access code: 0 (for all cities). 53 . Placing Long Distance Calls If you wish to call the United States. You can call “collect” if the person or firm your are calling agrees to pay the charge. country. Rates are higher for person-to-person than station-to-station. or world. Placing Domestic calls. (2) dial the area code: example (32 for Cebu) . say you would like to call station-to-station if you wish to talk to anyone who answers or person-to-person if you talk to a particular person or extension. through an operator. This call saves travel cost among executives needing to talk to each other in different parts of the city. “Mr. using the DDD budget calls. “Confirming of appointments are usually handled by the executive assistants/secretaries and you do not need the executives to talk you. If you need to go through an operator. Tell the operator you wish to make an international call and give the number of the country you are calling and the telephone number. Mr. For making call overseas. (4) dial the telephone number you wish to call: Example: 828-3227. for domestic calls. (3) dial the area or city code (213-Los Angeles). Conference Call You can talk with several persons in different places at the same time. say. Reyes.If you are placing a call for Mr. dial 109.

Listen for overtones. 3. not to you. worries and problems from interfering with listening to the customer. Limit your own talking. Sison…” 7. 1. Use the caller’s name if possible. Even if the caller has interrupted you. you lose…period! 2. “Let me make sure I understand what happened. is have the bed 54 . the greater the temptation to talk. Confirm your understanding. you cannot talk and listen at the same time. 4. you stop. “Mrs. Jot down the idea of what the caller is saying. Obtain his/her agreement with your solution.Learning to Listen One of the most important telephone skills is how to listen. Never interrupt the caller. I’m glad you called about this.” 6. How to Manage a Difficult Caller People who are not happy with the way you answered the telephone will tell others how poorly your business is run. The more comfortable you are with the subject. Remember this at all times and remain calm. We are so preoccupied with our own thoughts and what we want to say that we often interrupt the other person in mid-sentence. Let me help you. you can learn a great deal about the customer from the way he or she says things. Do not let yourself be angry or defensive. Repeat the problem. My name is Maria Cuneta. Mrs. Caller concerns and needs are important. Take notes. Keep your voice at the same tone and level you always use with every caller. Never interrupt. Ask questions if there are points you missed. her him out. 3. 2. and the way he or she reacts to the things you say. Follow the following steps: 1. 5. concentrate on what he or she is saying. 5. Read between the lines. Focus on a solution and give your customer options if possible. Sison. Listen carefully to the caller’s message. The customer’s emotions are directed at your company. Give the assurance that you will help. Most customers will not continue for more than thirty seconds. Sison. When the customer starts talking. Our mind wanders. Remember. may I ask you a few question?” 8. I’m sorry you’re inconvenienced. Even if what the caller is saying may seem wrong or irrelevant. Apologize and do not blame anyone. If you are really paying attention. not the actual words. “What I can do. When you lose control. Mrs. Think of how you would feel in the same situation. Practice keeping your personal feelings. 4. Negative word-of-mouth advertising can destroy a business quickly. Let the customer exhaust his/her emotions. “So that I can help you quickly. Wait for pause. Keep the caller’s point of view. This will help you remember the things he or she has said. Most of us listen with half an ear. Our attention span is short.

Use telephone message forms and ask for the caller’s full name. “Yes. “Thank you for calling and allowing me to help you. Is everything to your satisfaction?” Answering Calls for others who are away from their telephones. “I want to be sure your name is correct. May I have your name and number. or can someone else help you?” Say that the executive/co-worker is not in before you ask for the identity of the caller.” 11. firm name and telephone number. I will give Mr. Sometimes the telephone rings for the executive or a co-worker who is in a meeting or away from his or her desk. let me offer my apologies for the convenience. let the customer know what you are going to do and give a timeframe for you callback. 55 . Would you please spell it for me?” 2. Is this okay with you?” 10. The following steps are recommended: 1. repeat and verify the telephone number.delivered first thing tomorrow morning. Make a follow-up telephone call. Be discreet. Santos can call you?” Thank you fro calling. May I take your name and number or can someone else assist you? Screen calls tactfully – This means be aware of how you say something. I am calling about the delivery of the furniture. Santos your message. It is up to you to create a good image of the person for whom you are taking the call. Santos stepped away for awhile.” And example of a message pad is found below. Ask the caller to spell jie or her name if it is unusual or you did not hear it clearly. Again. Thank the customer for calling and allowing you to resolve the problem. “Mrs. Ask for the specific message to save time on callback. Explain executive’s or co-worker’s absence. Reyes. Mr. “I will look into the matter and call back within the hour. “Mr. Santos is at meeting at the moment. Mr. “Is there a message you would like to leave? When is the best time Mr. If you cannot solve the problem on the phone. Obtain customer agreement. Accurate and complete messages save time. Sison. 3. Santos is not in at the moment” or I am sorry Mr. Is that all right with you?” 9. The table can be delivered the next day. Take accurate messages.

Say it again with a smile. gum. How you say it is what puts it across. hand gestures. Reduce your rate of speech. It makes it easier for people to concentrate and understand what is it your saying. You have to work twice as hard to communicate. Enunciate your words. and f.MEMO OF CALL To Steve Franklin__________________ ___________ 19 ________ Ms Gail Talbot______________ Called from Coleman Perry Telephone No. all these are lost. Please call ASAP________________________________________ Message taken by __________________ Time _______________________ What your voice says about you. Practice saying one of the phrases in the previous page without smiling. Say S in Sam. body movements and facila expressions. etc. In face to face conversation. Speak slower than your natural rate of speech. P as in Peter.: _____(212) 565-7921_______________________ I told the person You were: ____ out ____ not in today ____ not in your office ____ talking on telephone ____ in conference ____ out of town The reply was _____ No message _____ see message below _____ will call again _____ answering your call _____ please call back _____ it is urgent Additional Remarks Contract has been received: there are couple of questions about utilities. Begin by putting a smile on your own face –literally! It makes a world of difference in coming across as lively. Do not speak with food. b. aware and alive. The only instrument you have is your voice. enthusiastic. more than 50% of our communication is done through body language: eye contact. Put a smile in your voice. or pencil in your mouth. Do you feel a difference? 2. Your lips should be about half an inch from the mouthpiece. 4. On the telephone. Keep the following in mind: 1. Speak directly into the telephone. Be careful with your t and d. 56 . 3. and p.

placing a call.5. Listen to your own voice. Do not overlook the vast store of reference material in the telephone directory. banks authorized to accept payments. Practice them with your classmates. the executive is in and not in. The white pages is an alphabetic listing of all subscribers and the yellow pages is a subject listing of businesses. Does it convey warmth. 6. how to apply for telephone service. Ex. If you have an accent. interest? Record your voice. and organizations that pay for the listing of their name and perhaps for an advertisement. Sound natural. Guard against a bored tone of voice. Student Activities Get a partner and act out different telephone conversations. Making appointments. answering for someone else. etc. dialing instructions. Beside telephone numbers. 57 . Use of telephone directories There are two types of telephone directories: the white pages and the yellow pages. Listen to some of the newscasters on TV and radio. receiving a call. how to understand your telephone bill. confidence. agencies. the front pages highlight emergency numbers. long distance rates. Memorize and practice the different phrases as given in the previous pages. sincerity. using the phrases suggested in this chapter. Study the telephone directories when you have spare time in your office so that you’ll know where to look for the information you need when you see it. etc. Make out different situations that would use all phrases. listen to your voice on tape and improve or take speech improvement classes. answering a customer who is angry.

Enumerate pointers for making appointments. 7. 4. Sometimes people may come to the office by mistakes. and the secretary has to try tactfully to screen them. the secretary wants him to go away with a good impression of the company. a receptionist is the first person to greet the visitors. Although there are many callers from the outside. they should be alerted so that they will be available at the right time. Before a visitor arrives. they have an appointment. How to Handle Expected Visitors (Those with Appointment) 1. 5. The important consideration is dealing with visitors are that the executive’s time must be scheduled to the best advantage. the secretary tries to anticipate what the employer may need during the visit –correspondence. 6. 9. 8. Of course. With regards to employees at any level. the secretary must decide whether they should be given priority unless.Lesson 7: Handling Visitors Effectively Objectives: 1. of course. If the call is one that may involve other people in the organization. 3. If the visitor is very 58 . 10. the receptionist notifies the secretary. 2. and so forth. he or she can be prepared to talk with the visitor without losing available time. price lists. The secretary must be courteous to everyone. too. IN some offices. 3. Enumerate pointers for handling receptionist duties. Pointers in Handling Receptionist Duties 1. the secretary must be as pleasant as she would to outsiders. because the cold or abrupt remark may be interpreted as reflecting the boss’s attitude towards the individual. or request he makes must be refused. 2. the secretary discourages co-workers from coming for just idle chatter. Nevertheless. It may be that the visitor can not be admitted to the employer’s office. The caller must feel that he has been treated well and that his business has been taken cared of efficiently. no matter what the secretary is working on at the time. If these materials are gathered together and given to the boss. 3. 2. Some executives on the employer’s level and above will walk in at will. Enumerate pointers for making records of visitors. Here again. reports. In all cases. she must be especially careful. When a visitor arrives. Each visitor should be greeted promptly. the secretary needs to know the people in the organization and their responsibilities. The secretary tries to be as helpful as possible in directing them to the right place. When company personnel want to see the boss. The secretary gives the receptionist a list of people who have appointments and the time at which they are expected. members of the organization will often come in.

too. If the executive is free and wants to se the visitor. he can be introduced in this way: “MR. Friend and family members sometime arrive unannounced. Unexpected callers make it necessary for the secretary to use extra discretion. the secretary. important or if he is unfamiliar with the building. 7. there is no problem. If there is no receptionist. 9. each visitor is allotted only a certain segment of time. takes a caller’s wet umbrella and offers a comfortable chair in which to wait. any material that is on the typewriter can be rolled back out of sight. Unfortunately. it should be refused. 13. 10. A precious appointment may have run longer than planned. 8. If the caller has never met the executive. or it can be covered up by inserting a plain sheet of paper under the paper bail. the executive will see them immediately. or the executive may be involved in a long-distance call. The most difficult unexpected visitor is the one who insist on seeing the executive but who will not state his name and business. 5. but they must be able to make people feel at ease. When the executive is ready. The only thing the secretary can do is give him an envelope. If any visitor tries to offer gift or an invitation. 2. some paper. the secretary must be careful to keep any work that is on the desk confidential. In the day’s schedule. 5.4. Usually. Papers can be placed in a folder if one does not want to let visitor to be able to glance at them. receives callers directly. even if it means that the secretary personally sees to emptying ash trays and discarding outdate magazines and newspapers. 59 . Many secretaries set up signals to use on these occasions –a buzz on the intercom. So it may be necessary for the secretary to help terminate a visit that is running too long.” The visitor is usually presented to the executive. for security reason. How To Handle Unexpected Visitor (Those without Appointment) 1. They don’t have to make long conversation with the visitors. this is Mr. such as pens or calendar. 12. delays that occur are nobody’s fault. a written or oral reminder of a meeting or whatever device the employers prefer. It would be fine if every visitor could be ushered into the executive’s office immediately on arrival. should one unidentified and unknown visitor be admitted. and a pencil so he can write a message to be taken to the boss. the secretary escorts the visitor into the boss’s office. del Prado. the secretary goes out to meet him and escorts him to the office. If a secretary must leave the desk for any reason. After secretly conferring with her employer. she can accept small gifts that are obviously advertising items. The secretary explains the situation as discreetly as possible and apologizes to the caller. the secretary can usher the person right in. acting as host. 11. but there are occasions when they. must be asked tactfully to wait. However. The secretary. While a visitor is in the office. In no case. Proficient secretaries should learn how to make “small” talks. 3. The office should be inviting. 4. Sometimes problems arises with other people in the organization who feel that they should have access to the executive at any time he or she is not busy with these people. 6. Castro of the Equipment Company. of course.

6. The secretary should learn to schedule appointments as best as possible learning to judge how much time to allow each person. the secretary keeps her desk calendar coordinated with the boss’s calendar. the secretary can later attach it to an index card and put it in the file. 6. 7. 5.How to Make Appointments Any executive’s day is crowded one. too. 3. Some of the steps you will want to take are: 1. How to Avoid Conflicts when Preparing Appointments If the secretary is systematic in coordinating both calendars. including the expense account. and do any needed follow-up on the business covered during the trip. Problems may occur if the executive makes appointments without telling the secretary. such as birthdays and anniversaries. 5. The secretary can help the boss get through all this work by scheduling appointments judiciously. Mail must be taken card of. payment dates for membership dues. When a visitor presents his calling card. 4. is the day the employer returns from an extended business trip. Enter all regular meetings as soon as you learn about them. The secretary’s calendar can be up-dated by asking the executive of appointments he made outside the office. with notations about the caller. meetings must be scheduled and attended too. The secretary will soon learn that it is not wise to schedule appointments the first thing in the morning. The card file of callers will help. An executive has time preferences. reports must be read and acted on. 2. are only a few of the activities. 4. Pay careful attention to incoming and outgoing correspondence that contains something that must be noted on the calendar. insurance payments. Keep on checking dates that have not been definitely established. 2. if possible. Note deadlines –tax reports. The executive will want to make any necessary reports. conflicts will be kept to a minimum. At the end of the day most executives like to have some free time to clear up anything they have not been able to finish during the busy day. 60 . Note personal “red-letter days” for the executive. Indicate blocks of time you anticipate will be needed for various activities. As with telephone callers. the secretary must determine preferences as to who the employer wants to see. To avoid conflicts. Check with your employer as frequently as you think advisable to be sure you have complete records of upcoming activities because your boss may have entered items on his calendar that do not appear on you. 7. and the like. Another time that should be kept free. An executive is particularly prone to do this while out of the office attending meetings or making calls on the other business people. because that time needed to organize work for the day and to take care of important mail. 3. The following pointers may help: 1.

61 . the secretary should suggest more than one possible time for a future appointment. 2. He is eager to talk with you and regrets the inconvenience he may cause you in postponing this appointment. the secretary can write a note to the person with whom the appointment had been made. JOYCE DE VERA Secretary 4. How to Make Records of Visitors 1. the secretary must keep a careful record of visitors and the length of each visit. the scheduled caller should be phoned as soon as it is known that a change is necessary. Would November 2 or 13 at 2 p. 1. it is a matter of the executive’s preferences as to whether a register of visitors is kept.How to Cancel Appointments At times. because the doctor or lawyer will need this record as the basis for billing. In other office. Borja: Because Mr. 3. such as doctor or lawyer. Castro must make an unexpected trip next week.m. A note canceling an appointment that a secretary could send might read this way: Dear Mr. 2. be convenient for you? If you will call me at 5558989. at 2 p.m. Sincerely yours. the secretary can ask the employer for suggestions as to another person in the organization who can talk with the visitor. In the offices of professional people. we can arrange a definite date and time. When canceling appointments. If an appointment must be cancelled with someone from out of town and he cannot be reached in time. there is not time. If there is time. he will not be able to keep his appointment with you on October 31. it may be necessary to cancel appointments because of emergencies that arises. If however.

reply only in generalities. I know Mr. de Vera has made since I saw him. respond. If he has to wait any length of time. but if you will let me have your telephone number I will call you either later today or surely tomorrow morning and arrange an appointment for you. If the caller deserves special attention. Samson.” 62 . coat. de Vera will be glad to see you. 3. offer him a newspaper or magazine. Do not offer to assist a man with his wraps. 4. de Vera’s secretary. de Vera. ask him to have a seat. Caller states his business. indicating a chair. 6. which is of interest to your employer. The caller enters your office or your greet him in the reception room. What can I do for you?” 2. Mr. Be careful not to divulge confidential information to the visitor. He is not in the office at present and I wonder if there is anything I can do for you?” Or: “ You are waiting to see Mr. because many men are embarrassed to have a secretary perform this service. You might say: “I’m sorry I cannot arrange a definite engagement right now because I do not know what additional commitments Mr. I am Mr. but if he shows an inclination to talk. The receptionist tells me that you wish to see Mr.How to Make the Visitor Feel Comfortable 1. Garcia. I’m Mr. ask him. Mr. I am his secretary. Garcia. I wonder if you would be good wnough to tell me what you wish to see him about? Or: “Good morning. I wonder if I can be of any help to you?” Or: “Good morning. “Os there I can do for you while you are waiting?” 5. Show the visitor where to leave his hat. de Vera’s secretary. I am Mr. 2. de Vera? I am Ms. Do not begin a conversation with a waiting visitor. What to do and What to say when Handling Different Kinds of Visitors (For Role Playing) 1. He is busy at the moment. Is there anything I can do for you?” Or: “Good morning. Mr. de Vera’s secretary. Garcia. Mr. If the visitor asks questions about the business. You might say: “How do you do. de Vera’s secretary. brief case and any other articles that he has with him. When the caller has to wait.

Or: You arrange a definite appointment at that time. Or: You take him to see your employer, or arrange for him to see an assistant, or handle the matter yourself, as the occasion requires. 3. Caller refuses to state business, probably saying it’s personal. You might say: “I’m sorry but I can not be able to ask Mr. de Vera to make an appointment for you unless I can tell him what you want to discuss with him. If you care to take it up first with me perhaps I can save your time by discussing it with MR. de Vera for you.” Or: “I’m sorry Mr. Garcia. But Mr. de Vera sees people only by appointment. I make all his appointments, and I have to ask you what you want. You’ll understand, I’m sure that I am not being arbitrary, merely following instructions. Or: (in a light, laughing manner): “I’m very personal secretary.’ Mr. Garcia, I’ve been with Mr. de Vera for many years now and there is little to do with his business or personal affairs that I do not know about.” Or: “I’m sorry, Mr. Garcia, but I will have to know what it is you wish to see Mr. de Vera about because the first thing he will ask me when I tell him you are here is, ‘What does the gentleman wish to take up with me?’ and if I don’t know you well, you can see that I’d have to come back and ask you once again, and it would be just a waste of your time and that of Mr. de Vera. 4. Caller still refuses to tell you why he wants to see your employer. You might say: “I’m exceedingly sorry, Mr. Garcia, that I cannot be help to you, but office rules are office rules –they are made by Mr. de Vera himself, and not by me, and Mr. de Vera expects me to honor them. So if you cannot give me even a hint as to what business you want to take up with Mr. de Vera, I’m afraid that I cannot be of help to you in seeing him. I’m very sorry indeed. Good day.” Or: “In that case, Mr. Garcia perhaps you will write Mr. de Vera a note. Just tell him briefly what you want to see him about and ask for an appointment. Then he can make his own decision. Or: “That is unfortunate, Mr. Garcia, for until I know what you wish to discuss with Mr. de Vera, I cannot very well make an appointment for you.” 5. How to announce a caller. If the caller is known to your executive and has visited the office before, you may nod to him and say something like, “Mr. de Vera is free. You can go right in” However, if it is the caller’s first visit, or he is an infrequent visitor, accompany him to the door of the executive’s office, open it if it is kept closed, step to one side and say “Mr. de Vera, Mr. Garcia.” Or “Mr. de Vera, here is Mr. Garcia.” 6. A caller with an appointment

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When a caller with an appointment arrives, notify you executive immediately unless he is in a conference that cannot be interrupted. You may say to your executive over the interoffice communication system, “Mr. Garcia is here for his ten o’clock appointment. “May I bring him in?” If the caller is already in your office, near your desk, it is better to go into your executives office and tell him that the caller has arrived. When the executive is ready to receive the caller, say, “Will you come with me, Mr. Garcia.” On reaching the executive’s office, open the door, steo inside and to one side, and say, “Mr. de Vera, Mr. Garcia”. If your executive has to keep a caller with an appointment waiting, explain the delay: “MR. de Vera has someone with him at the moment, but he will be free in a few months. Will you have a seat? If the delay will last for any length of time, tell the caller the approximate time he will have to wait. He can then judge whether he wants to wait or make a later appointment. 7. When the executive is not in his office When this happens, apologize for your executive and explain the circumstances. You can say, “Good morning, Mr. Garcia. Mr. de Vera called into the palnt about ten minutes ago because of a production problem. He should be back any minute now. Do you mind waiting?” If an unexpected emergency will keep the executive out of his office for more than a few months, you might explain his absence this way: “Good morning, Mr. Garcia. I’m so sorry, but Mr. de Vera was called to the office of the Chairman of the Board a little while ago. I’m not sure when he will be back. I tried to reach you, but your secretary said you had already left. Can you wait? The visitor can then decide, whether to wait, come back later, or make another appointment, or even see someone else –the executive assistant, for instance. 8. A caller who has no appointment, but whom your executive will see. Usually, when a person your executive will see calls at your office without an appointment, you know him well enough to greet you him by name: “How are you, Mr. Garcia? It is nice to see you again.” You might inquire about his family or ask him about his vacation. Then ask him the nature of the unexpected visit, if you have the least doubt as to whether your executive wants to see him, ask your executive whether he will see the visitor.

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If your executive is engaged, ask the caller to wait until he is free, telling the caller approximately how long that will be. Unless the unexpected caller is someone your executive is always eager to see, it is wise to keep him waiting a few minutes so that he will realize he should have made an appointment. You might limit the unexpected caller’s visit by saying, “Mr. de Vera has another appointment in ten minutes, but he will be glad to see you in the meantime. 9. A caller your executive does not want to see. When you know that your executive is not interested in the purpose of the visit or is too busy to see the visitor, you might say: “I wish I could be more helpful to you, Mr. Garcia, but Mr. de Vera is concerned with some emergencies and will be away for some time; and for that reason, he must limit his engagements to those matters directly connected with his business affairs. It will be some time before this situation changes and the only thing I can suggest is that you take your matter up with him in writing.” 10. A caller who is a friend of your executive When you know that your executive is not interested in the purpose of the visit or is too busy to see the caller, you might say: “I wish I could be more helpful to you, Mr. Garcia, but Mr. de Vera is concerned with some emergencies and will be away for some time; and for that reason, he must limit his engagements to those matters directly connected with his business affairs. It will be some time before this situation changes and the only thing I can suggest is that you take your matter with him in writing.” 11. A caller whom you refer to another person in the organization. When you find that the purpose of a caller’s visit involves a matter that should be taken up with another person in the organization, you might say: “I’m sorry, Mr. Garcia, but that is something that is handled for Mr. de Vera by Mr. Cruz of our Sales Department. He is more familiar with the matter than Mr. de Vera and can be more help to you. If Mr. Garcia agrees to see Mr. Cruz, as he probably will, call Mr. Cruz on the phone and explain the situation. Then say, “Mr. Cruz will be glad to see you now, Mr. Garcia. Will you go down to the fourth floor and tell the receptionist that Mr. Cruz is expecting you. He may have to keep you waiting a few minutes, but not long.” Or, if necessary, tell Mr. Garcia, “I’m very sorry, Mr. Garcia, but Mr. Cruz cannot see you this morning. He asks if you will come tomorrow at eleven o’clock.” If the caller objects because he cannot see your executive personally, tell him that the instructions are made by your executive and you have to abide by them.

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the visitor says that he will call back. simply take the visitors card to him or type the name on a slip of paper. the date. call your executive on the telephone and notify him for another appointment.12. 14. The call is put through. just as you would to your executive. addressing it to the visitor. and also type your name. Your executive can then handle the matter with minimum of interruption. do so quietly and unobtrusively. you should offer him a chair if he wait. just as you would do any other caller. Interrupting conferences Try to avoid interrupting a conference. If the person calling insists upon speaking to the visitor. If several people are in conference with your executive and you must deliver a message to one of them. type it out and take it to that visitor. Do you care to take it here?” (indicating which telephone he should use). Often however. type the message on a sheet of paper. If he is wanted on the phone. but if it essential to enter a room where your executive is in conference. in which case you give the message to the person calling and type out the telephone number as a reminder for the visitor. type the questions. Mr. Reyes is on the phone and wishes to speak to you. and with a glance that takes in both your executive and the visitor. If so. Try on a slip of paper any message that must be delivered to someone in the conference room. ask the person calling if it is possible for you to take the message. Student Activities 66 . When a visitor overstays for his appointment. Mr. go into the conference room. and the time at the bottom of the sheet. If it is essential to announce a caller to your executive while he is occupied with another. but it is not necessary to stand up every time an officer enters your office. apologize for the interruption: “Pardon me for interrupting. also type on the card: “Do you want to take the call in my office?” The visitor can then leave the conference without disturbing the others. Telephone calls for the visitor When there is a telephone call for a visitor. Calls by office personnel Always treat officers and executives of the company with deference and respect. If he says yes. However. If you want instructions. 13. Garcia (looking at the visitor).

Date and Time The chairperson of the meeting has the information on the date. if a regional sales meeting is held. you send out notices on the computer and the response can be received within 24 hours. Enumerate parts of an agenda and give example. attendees will have to approve the date and time convenient for them. 7. 3. It is your duty to send out notices or make telephone calls asking the participants to make choices as to the date and time. a folder should be started for that meeting. Identify meetings. 5. Enumerate the details included in a letter of invitation for the speaker. and be able to differentiate one from the other. Describe corporation minutes. This meeting would need hotel and travel accommodations to be coordinated by all executive assistants/secretaries in all branches. For example. Enumerate the steps in planning of meetings. you would have to receive the names of attendees from all branches of the company. conventions. Lesson 8: Business Meeting Objectives: 1. Brochures and other printed information on the venue or location of the meeting. time. Location of Meeting 67 . Identify things to consider in the preparation and distribution of minutes of meetings. seminars. Planning for the Meeting. List of Attendees. Use this folder to collect items related to the meeting. travel. The list of persons to attend the meting can be researched by you or provided by the executive. and congresses. A meeting folder should be prepared. The FAX machine can also be used for this purpose. and place of the meeting. 2. 6. and social arrangements should be provided. 4. Enumerate items to be checked before a meeting. Thorough planning is the key to a successful meeting. hotel. For smaller meetings. Dining and social arrangements are also sometimes made. In a computerized office. Once a meeting is to be set up. dining.Group yourselves into two and role play “What to do and what to say when handling different kinds of visitors”. conferences.

Larger meetings of department heads. The letter should contain the following information: 1. 6. Date. 4. or poor attitude of employees will make for unproductive conference. such as a staff or committee meeting can be held in the executive’s office. The attitude and morale of attendees will be low. like medical conference. multi-media equipment (in some cases). overhead projectors. 2. Location A central location. a committee is usually formed to handle all of the above. The number of participants expected to attend. special presentations. Cost Many hotels offer low corporate rates and if food is served. In these cases. publicity and registration procedures for small meetings. A careful selection process should be followed: 1. easily accessible by all modes of transportation should be chosen. 68 . 7. Guest Speaker or Speakers A letter will have to be mailed requesting the person/s to speak. slow meals.An informal meeting. 3. lack of personnel. time. The purpose of the meeting. An offer to provide equipment needed for his speech. A request for bio data. lunch is usually served. For large ones. 5. a copy of outline of proposed speech. Service Poor service. An agenda is included if already available. will be held in a hotel convention center. and location of the meeting. and a picture for publicity. branch managers or an executive committee would be held in the company’s conference room. 2. screens. 4. The name of the organization invited and a summary of its activities if the person is not a member. The facilities needed are microphones. The company’s or organization’s policy on paying expenses and honorariums. You will also be responsible for exhibits. comfortable tables and chairs. 3. A formal conference. the use of the room is free. Airport hotels are popular because of their proximity in commuting and traffic time is not a factor. Sufficient and excellent room facilities should be looked into.

Roll Call 3. Reading of the Minutes 4. AGENDA Homeowner’s Association 1. President 8. committees. Old Business: Topics remaining from last meeting Topics taken from previous minutes New business –topics chairman wishes to discuss Date and time of next meeting –this is important for participants to block this date on their calendar. 4. Bessie Po Chairperson – Safety Committee Building Insurance – Bessie Po Chairperson – Safety Committee Increase in Homeowners’ Dues – Efren Alarcon. This will contribute to a productive and efficiently run meeting. Secretary Benilda Santos. The agenda usually follows the format below: Approval of past minutes. 5. Adjournment Finalizing Meeting Arrangements You should make sure that sufficient quantities of all materials needed for the meeting are placed in the meeting room. Call to order 2. Unfinished Business 7. Extra copies of the agenda and minutes of the previous meeting. and special reports. Date and Time of Next Meeting 9. President Rose Katigbak. copies or various reports. 2. You should inform this person in advance to let them know the topics they are to report on: 1. 3. Reports –departments. It is equally important that this agenda be distributed well in advance of the meeting date. The topic should also include the name of the person responsible for discussing each item. Treasurer’s Report 5.The Agenda This is a guide or list of topics to be discussed at the meeting (example below). New Business : : : : : : : Efren Alarcon. Secretary Rose Katigbak. Copies of the minutes of the last meeting can be attached to the agenda so that the participants can read them before the meeting. copy of the constitution and by-laws and pertinent 69 . Committee Report 6. Treasurer Safety Committee.

4. Needed equipment should be available and in working order (pre-tested). Speaker’s lectern should be available. a copy of the parliamentary procedure (Robert’s Rules of Order) should be available. In formal meetings. tables. The minutes are the official record of a meeting. use a tickler file (discussed in a previous chapter) for all important planning dates and details. Election forms should be ready if it is an election meeting. ashtrays (if smoking is allowed). Taking. They provide the participants with a concise presentation of factual information about the meeting. water pitcher. Preparing and Distributing Minutes of the Meeting The attendance record is your responsibility. and ventilation should be checked. heating. Have a seating chart on which the participants fill in their names or pass around a sheet/s of pad paper for them to write their names on. Use Reminder Systems Mark your calendar and the executive’s calendar with meeting time and place. 3. and glass. 5. Take notes as 70 . 2. writing supplies. Arrangements for all breaks and lunches reviewed. Using the Swiss cheese method break up the whole project into little pieces with dates for each task. Lighting. Ample and comfortable chairs.file information should be ready on a side table. The following items must be checked: 1.

usually meet once a year. 71 . Corrections are written in and the incorrect portions ruled out in ink. 10. The name of the person making the motion. For the first review. Committee when they refer to the group. Single space or double space the minutes. 3. The Corporation Minutes The minutes of corporation meetings are taken by the corporate secretary. Too many notes is better than too few. Stockholders. 9. The following rules may be followed in taking the minutes: 1. must appear in the minutes. Have marginal captions following the captions of your agenda for easy reading. each signed and dated by the corporation secretary (b) employing pages watermarked with a code symbol or (c) using a keylock binder that can be opened only with a key. If some details were forgotten. Minutes of the Meeting and the date. but directors’ meetings are held frequently. Establish that the meeting is properly called to order. Edit your notes before finalizing them for review of the executive. Do not include personal opinions. Every motion made and seconded. type a line for recording the date of the approval. Capitalize the heading with the name of the group. The pages of this book are carefully guarded by : (a) using pre-numbered pages. the complete motion. Give the names of the presiding officer and the secretary. 4. The following minutes are typical of most meetings. interpretations. the person seconding the motion. Take notes with understanding and follow the outline of the agenda in your presentation. Corporation. At the end of the minutes. or comments. who may also be a lawyer. but for longer minutes. 2. Record only business actions. Capitalize words like Board of Directors. whether approved or not. Use a tape recorder for a more accurate recording of the minutes of the meeting.unobtrusively as possible. a summary of the discussion –all must be entered in the minutes. 6. giving reasons presented for and against its adoption. 7. double space it. Corporations are required by law to keep a book for recording the minutes of meeting of stockholders and directors. single space them. Try to summarize the gist of the discussion about a motion. Company. These changes are initiated on the margin. The records of the corporation are kept by the secretary of the organization who is assisted by his own executive assistant/secretary. Transcribe your notes while still fresh in your memory. 5. 8. Send the official minutes to the secretary of the organization or presiding officer for signatures. play the tape back and plug in your missing pieces. These books are legal records. Also place “Respectfully submitted” at the end of formal minutes.

resolutions. These abstracts are published in a book of abstracts which is given to all participants usually at the time of the conference. the construction and equipping of convention facilities. reports. However. printed and circulate din the original language or translated into and printed in the official language of the conference. “establishing the Philippine Convention Bureau. list of participants. usually invited speakers only. Amendments. which are concerned mechanics and logistics of the meeting. 867 was passed on January 2.” Until today. the PCB. is actively promoting conventions and the like. Presidential Decree No. There appear to be three stages. Authors or contributors are asked to submit a 150-200-word summary of their proposed paper or contribution either on a specified theme or on the general subject of conference. two main types of documents which have different functions. recommendations After : Proceedings or Minutes –These are the only lasting record of the conference.Conventions With the expansion of international travel and the development of communication techniques. There are the information documents: programs. preprints : Verbatim (word-for-word reports). English is sometimes Before During 72 . invitation forms. now called the Philippine Convention and Visitors’ Bureau (PCVB).. and the growth and development of tourism accommodations and facilities. congresses. papers are rarely rejected. Documentation There are. summaries. some contributions are entered by title only and the author’s name is entered on the program. etc. They are: 1. Preprints and Reports The papers to be delivered by individuals. summary reports. Translations are sometimes required. These abstracts are useful fro the participants in their choice of the session they wish to attend. The program committee would then select or reject the papers offered. regional and international conferences. In this century. and conventions have become standard phenomenon. 1976. since the participant’s hospital or university gave financial support to the conference. Martial law has provided the proper climate for tourism. are requested in advance. Abstracts or Summaries of Papers to be presented. Asia has 10% of the world’s international conventions and the Philippines has been a popular venue since the 80’s. in any meeting.” among the objectives of which is “to conduct continuing program to develop Manila as a Convention City. These fall into several categories: : Abstracts. Then there are the working documents. In the medical field. 2.

and in such cases no translation into other languages is necessary. At the time of the conference. Fast. The cost is governed by the method of production. e. because they are sold to persons of the profession who are unable to attend. a limited time is given to the reporter and discussion follows in the form of panel discussion. Secretaries or executive assistants knowledgeable in reproduction techniques. précis i. c. a. except those who are in the permanent staff or international organizations. b. and expert text-editors.the one recognized as a world-wide means of communication. In certain cases. They consist of copies of the papers presented or summaries of these papers. Reports are presented by a reporter but is a group effort. accurate. abstracts j. who will decide which method would be the most efficient and effective for a particular situation. Professionalization of Manpower for Meeting and Conventions The following is needed for successful conduct of meetings: 1. professional journals undertake the publication of the proceedings as part of their special issues. These are collated and presented to the conference for discussion. verbatim h. These reports are circulated to all registrants several weeks/months before the conference so that they have time to read them and prepare their reactions and comments. 4. Convention staff is mostly “ad hoc” or only good for a particular convention. computer-operators 2. and the scope of the content. d. typists. Stenographers competent in the language who can transcribe the notes from the floor and from tapes accurately. Student Activities Define and/or explain the following in your own words. Proceedings These documents have commercial value. 3. Précis writers or summary writers who are very good in English 3. the number of languages used. convention staff 73 . prepared by a reporter or a professional précis writer (summary writer). agenda g. Meeting Seminar Convention Congress Minutes f. An association of convention specialists is recommended.

Explain air travel requirements. By the travel department of your company.Lesson 9: Making Travel Arrangements Objectives: 1. 2. If you will be the one assigned to make travel arrangements for your boss. 2. Explain the term “itinerary” and what it includes Enumerate and explain travel documents required. 2. You should. Identify sources for making travel plans Prepare travel procedures for an executive assistant or secretary. 7. There are 3 ways by which travel can be arranged: 1. By the use of travel services or travel agency. 6. 9. remember the following procedures: Your responsibility before the trip—when your boss tells you that he is planning a trip get the necessary information like: 1. 5. 3. Define credit cards. Define traveler’s checks One of your interesting and yet most exacting tasks as a secretary will be to make travel arrangements for your boss’s business trip. By the secretary herself. 4. know the procedures to be followed when making travel arrangements. First Class –the traveler is seated in front of the plane and received special meals and free drinks 74 . 8. 3. 3. 4. therefore. 5. 7. dates times individuals to be visited companies to be visited travel fund (money needed to finance his trip) preferences as to hotel mode of transportation important business and documents to be needed who will take over during his absence (if there is any) Airline Reservations Two-classes of Air Services: 1. 6.

Length of time room is needed 6. 6. Tickets may be picked up at the airport just before flight time.2. Write a letter to the hotel or motel 3. This kind of service is scheduled not normally meal times. Approximate rate 3. so that the person traveling will know exactly where to go and what to do. Kind of accommodation. Tickets may be paid by: a. 2. Write down the reservation date and time you call and the name of the clerk handling the reservation. 5. Steps to be followed when making airlines reservation 1. whether domestic or overseas. Economy or Coach –passengers may also receive free meals or snacks but they are not as elaborate those served in the first class. or suite room. 3. Date and approximate time of arrival 5. you should specify the following information: 1. Therefore. whether single or double. You should also request a written confirmation Preparing an Itinerary Itinerary defined a summary of all arrangements for a trip. Send a telegram to the hotel or motel 2. the reservation may be confirmed. airline credit card which is usually issued in the company’s name. your employer should arrive at the airport at least 30 minutes before departure. Supply the necessary information to the reservation clerk. Telephone the hotel or motel if the time is limited In making hotel reservations. cash upon receipt of tickets Making Hotel Reservations Hotels reservations can be made by means of the following procedures: 1. 2. b. If there is no space available. 4. Call the reservation listed in the directory. 75 . Confirmation or Reservation – is a rapid process since airlines use on-line computers to check seat availability. Number of persons registering 4. After supplying the necessary information. check mailed to the airline company c. your employer’s name can be placed on a waiting list.

Make adjustments as to when to telephone the executive if he or she does not report in regularly. If your boss does not make periodic calls. Ask whether there are nay personal matters. to keep digest of important mail and how it had been handled. This ability is one indication of a secretary’s potential for advancement. (When possible only photocopies should be taken). and send copies of urgent items to the executive. notify associates and other company personnel who may need to see your boss before he or she leaves. 5. Itineraries vary in form. be prepared with a list of items that should be brought to his or her attention. Ask whether special mail should be forwarded. 2. It would be advisable to take and have an extra copy of these numbers for the executive to take along. 6. the secretary makes sure that these responsibilities have been carried out 1. 3. Determine who is to make decisions during the executive’s absence 3. Check the calendar to find out what is to be done about meetings and other activities until the boss returns 4. that the executive wants taken care of. 7. 76 . flight time flight numbers dates hotel reservations appointments important reminders special information contained in the brief case Checklist for the trip: Immediately before the trip. cities or states or provinces to be visited. Some of the activities that you should handle are: 1. 2. 6. acknowledge others. which is used as a guide by the traveler. Prepare a list of credit card numbers and traveler’s check numbers to have on file in case of loss. such as paycheck. If the trip will involve several days. Answer routine letter. 7. 4. Make a list of files the executive will take on the trip. In addition.- It is also called the detailed outline of a trip. 8. nut the basic information consists of: 1. 2. 5. Interior Office Operations (What to do during the absence of the boss) A comment that executives frequently make when discussion of a secretary’s value in their office is that they appreciate the secretary’s ability to keep the office running during their absence.

replacing file folders. Road maps and other guides. . Speeches. 12.A legal document or official permit issued by the local authority to citizens securing a legal exit of one’s country to make him eligible. 10. after all his papers and all the clearances have been granted. 13. If possible. 2.License to travel in a foreign country. 5. There are many things you can do while your employer is away. Keep a record of important office activities for the executive information when he or she returns. credit cards. etc. 6. Office supplies and stamp Background about the people or company to be seen Reading materials like magazines and newspapers. (Important: maintain a record files that your boss will take on the trip. and traveler’s check A list of number of credit cards and traveler’s check Expense account forms Business calling cards Travel documents Files like copies of Correspondence.3. 77 . 8. 4. 11. 9. 7. 4. 14. Materials to be prepared for the Boss: 1. or something that can be done when your boss your returns to increase your own personal knowledge and efficiency. 3.a formal document that is issued by an authorized official to a country to one of its citizen and usually necessary for exit and re-entry into the country that in accordance with VISA requirements that request protection for him while abroad. and an entrance to another country. like filing. International Travel Passport Defined . Schedule appointments after the trip allowing time first for the executive to catch up on business resulting from the trip or that has accumulated during his or her absence. just give him the duplicate copy and maintain the original in your office). Transportation tickets Hotel confirmation Information about alternative transportation Itinerary and daily activity cards Travel funds. transferring inactive files. . VISA defined an official endorsement on a passport indicating that it has been examined by the government authorities so that the traveler may proceed. 5.

7. Sample of Letter of Reservation: The style is AMS Simplified Style Note: TS (3 spaces) before and after the subject. 6. 4. Of course. 3. 2. This is usually shouldered by the company sponsoring the trip. there will be many things you can do to help your boss get back on schedule. FOLLOW-UP As soon as the executive returns from the trip. Complete the expense account as soon as possible and return any travel advances. Sample Letter of Reservation and Itinerary Below you will find a sample letter of reservation as well as an itinerary. STOP-OVER defined . Brief the executive rapidly on important events that occurred during his or her absence. you try to plan your time so that you are free to work with your boss. This style has no salutation and complimentary close. You should: 1. 8. Check and return to the files any original materials the executive took on the trip. 78 .this is the amount or the budget allocated to finance the trip. You may study them and carefully use them as a guide should you be given the responsibility of preparing such for your boss in the future. Travel-Fund defined . Help your boss with the preparation of his reports regarding his trip. Give your boss the folders or material you have been accumulating for his or her information and attention. His success will also be your success. REMEMBER: You are contributing factor to the success of your boss.is a place where the plane will stop for refueling before proceeding to its destination. Help with the preparation of any reports resulting from the trip 5.- It is an official signature or endorsement on the document showing that it has been examined and had been approved duly signed by consul of each country that you intend to visit.

March 11. JONI SELLERIO –SECRETARY TO MRS. Know what limit the executive is allowed fro expenses. NIMFA DE VERA Sampl e of an itiner ary: ITINERARY FOR JERICO D. Is he/she allowed to use the company car? Is first class travel allowed and for what level of executive? What price range is allowed for the hotel room? Which credit cars can be used? 2. 1980 Reservation Desk Pines Hotel 71 Dominican Hill.m. (c) airline 79 . I should appreciate your sending me written confirmation and letting me know the checkout time. Baguio City 19006 RESERVATION FOR DECEMBER 12 and 15 Please reserve a single room at the minimum rate for Mrs. please hold her reservation for later arrival. De Vera will not land at the Philippine Domestic Airport until 7:30 p. Learn company policy regarding travel. A list of procedures will be helpful: 1. Because Mrs. it is assigned to you. times and names of persons he or she is meting with. de Vera for the nights of December 12 and 15. In most cases. DE VERA August 16 to August 25. 1984 From Manila Chicago Cincinnati New Orleans Mexico City Time 9:30 a 11:00 p 2:20 p 9:27 a 10:05 a Flight AA/184* AA/426 DL/565 EA/907* MX/900** To Chicago Cincinnati New Orleans Mexico City Manila Arrive 3:16 p 12:20 p 3:40 p 10:30 a 12:25 p Hotel Ascot Hilton Brent Aristos Travel Procedure The task of travel arrangements is assigned to one person in the administrative support group or the executive assistant/secretary of an executive. Nimfa D. Set up a file folder and type an itinerary as soon as you know (a) the executive’s destination (b) dates.

or internationally. 5. can make the appropriate reservations for a return flight. Pedro Cruz. regionally. information gathered for a report to be given. For example. When a date or a time of return is indefinite. If the company is equipped with an electronic network system. and maintain a file of mail. Call the travel agency or go to the company travel agent and make the necessary reservations. Type an itinerary. Forward mail. you will arrive on Manila on May 3.3. materials forwarded. he or she can pick up your input data on a computer anywhere in the world. and seat preference. Flights as early as 3am are scheduled so that the busy executive can have a morning meeting and return in the afternoon. Make up the destinations. Enter data on your computer. 7. Keep the executive’s schedule relatively free the first day after a business trip so that time can be used for “catching up” on accumulated work. including credit card receipts so that an accurate expense report can be made. Request the executive to keep all receipts of expenses. for your boss Mr. Evening flights are also scheduled so he or she can rest and have meetings all day the next day. For domestic or local travel. Sometimes a messenger service such as Federal Express or DHL is used to send these ahead. Once the return time is known. (d) use of a company car and time of pickup (e) names of other executives traveling with him or her. such as messages received. Traveling to Hong Kong and Indonesia has no time difference. 10. time differences will have to be considered in making reservations. 80 . other communications. if you leave the United States on May 1. Europe is another time zone. the meetings and other appointments. 9. when the travel involves different countries. the traveler. appointments you may have made for the executive while traveling and summarize information for his action. There are no first class or economy class seats. An example of an expense report is found below. However. whether locally. Student Activities 1. Perform follow-up activities resulting from the trip. Thank you letters may have to be written. but traveling to Japan has a time difference of a few hours. the airline and car used and hotel reserved. Transportation Air travel is the preferred mode of transportation. Assemble the materials to be taken and determine how they are to be sent or who is to hand-carry them. 6. an open ticket can be purchased. etc. by phoning a local airlines office or travel agency. This is a summary of all expenses incurred during the trip. and information that the executive needs upon arrival. if necessary. Call the persons he is meeting with to confirm the dates and time. Philippine airlines offers many flights fro the executives to choose to suite his meeting requirements. Handle daily communications and mail within the scope of your authority. 4. leaving the Philippines on May 1 will get you there also on May 1. Remember. when traveling to the United States. 8.

index card control file. 6. Bring a schedule of Philippine Air Lines flights to different domestic destination. Identify retrieval. 8. 9. geographic. retention and destruction concepts in filling. 4. Distinguish between centralized and decentralized systems. 2.2. 3. and subject. Identify storage equipment and supplies Enumerate the phases of a record file cycle and explain each Identify the four types of filling –alphabetic. Define filling and records management filling system. numeric. 7. 10. Lesson 10: Records Management Objective: 1. Identify a system of filling records Identify a requisition card. Enumerate and give examples of filling rules. 5. Type an expense report for the above trip. 81 . 3. Define records management and explain its importance. and out-guide card.

Records are any written or graphic material related to the business which reflects the activities of any office such as material in active use and in storage like reports. and efficient manner so that they may be located when they are wanted. To provide methods to ensure prompt attention.is the process of classifying and arranging of records in a systematic way so they will not only be safely stored but also quickly retrieved or located when needed. Why must records be managed? 1. A record maybe any material thing which serves to perpetuate or preserve knowledge of acts. and newspapers are not considered as “records” - What is an important characteristic of records? An important characteristic of “records” is that they usually consist of material that can be classified and arranged in a methodical manner for preservation and ready reference. rapid movements. Published matter like books. 3.Another definition is the placing of papers in acceptable containers according to some pre-determined arrangement so that any paper. and related activities. . 2. legal documents. To control and reduce cost of paperwork. new function. facts. To regulate the great volume and variety of documents and papers currently received and created in transacting business. can be located fast and conveniently. when required. or ideas. Importance of Managing Files 82 . orderly.What are records? Records are the memory of any business organization. and proper disposal of documents and papers. safe storage. and other administrative documents. 4. To accommodate and control natural increase in volume and variety due to growth of population. events. magazines. What is filing? .System of arranging and storing safely business papers in a neat. guide finding. .

but more in the information which can be obtained from them. 2. 4. 3. 6. Remember. To keep all related materials together so that the history of the dealings of one office with other offices or individuals will be available in one place. 2. Establishing and managing an effective system and arranging the records that an office must maintain. 5. when needed. by the name of individual or organization by the subject matter they contain by the location or geographical area a record may cover by the number assigned to a record by the date What are the different kinds of filing system? 1. simplicity Purposes of filing 1. The safekeeping of records is important. needed paper when lost or misplaced can delay the work of a dozen employees or even the entire office. Objectives in filing 1. efficiency 2. To provide a permanent and safe place for records of business information and transactions during the time the records are not in use. the emphasis is more upon the “finding” rather than the “storing” aspect. 3. How are records being filed? 1. the so-called “finding” aspect is essential in paper-work management. 2. In filing. Management is not only interested in the files as such. Since the written information is being retained or filed for future possible use. and placing them at their proper locations. 5. 3. To make records available when they are needed whether for reference or evidence. will help promote operational efficiency in the office. economy 3. but being able to find them promptly.1. is more important. Alphabetic Name File (by name of individual or organization) 83 . 4.

city/municipality. It is convenient reminder or unfinished work. Administrative files . supplies and other administrative matter which have no direct bearing on the operation of the office.a file material related to overall policy. or day as reference indicates. Alphabetic Subject Title (by subject) .The advantage of this plan are: a.records to which primary reference is made by date of the record should be filed chronologically (in the order of time) by year. . it is very simple. mission of organization. direction of the office. that is month or week are its main division with days for its subdivisions .Some correspondence. presidential decrees. month.record which are identified by numbers assigned to them and are referred to by their respective number should be arranged in numerical sequence . region. or barangay.The chronological filing system simply arranges material according to its time sequence. insurance policies. tax declaration and the like. province. maintenance of service. Types of office records to be filed 1. Numerical File (by the number assigned to record) .records which are referred to by geographic location should be alphabetically arranged by location name which may be by country. b. guides. and pending accounts payable can be handled on a chronological plan .- records that are referred to by name of an individuals organization be arranged by name in strict alphabetic sequence or successive continuity. 4. 84 .records which are referred to by the subject matter they contain should be arranged alphabetically by subject title or caption. barrio.a numerical file is often used for records pertaining to bank checks. 5. Alphabetic Location File (by geographic location) . including management improvement programs. Correspondence from individual representing an organization should be arranged under the name of the organization 2. formal rules and regulations. bills. Filing is easy c. invoices.All records on a particular subject should be kept together in as much as each fits somewhere to complete a story 3. Chronological file ( by the date of records) . .

3. civil cases. 4. economy.any paper containing the service appointment and the other records related to the individual employees. contracts. 8. Personnel files . Supply Files . It serves the needs of the office. etc. submission of allotments. Fiscal files . 4. and control of funds.consists of records of supplies. 6. 7. Legal files . equipment. 5.2. Folders and fasteners Charge-out cards Requisition slip Tickler file or follow-up file Sorting table and rocks Stapler Filing cabinets and shelves Tapes SELECTING THE APPROPRIATE FILING SYSTEM Characteristics of a good filing system a filing system can only be good if it is tailor-made to fit the condition or situations prevailing in a particular organization. investigation records and the like.materials on budget preparation. 2. Filing system is good if it can meet the three points success formula of efficiency. and simplicity Filing system is good if it can meet the three points Filing system is good if it fills the needs of the operating personnel and serves them satisfactorily.consist of administrative case of personal land cases. 5. purchases. Requisites of a good filing system are: 1. 85 . 3. Tools in files Operation 1.

4.the name by which correspondence or record is most likely to be requested from files. The following guidelines are suggested in choosing a filing system: 1. .Determine the most likely the heading under the paper to be filed.inspect the material to make sure it has been released for filing.2. Guides in selecting appropriate filing system A certain amount of creativeness is necessary in adapting a filing system to the situation at hand. 1. Indexing . STEPS IN FILING HOW TO PREPARE THE MATERIAL TO BE FILED Incoming correspondence once received should be time and date stamped and given to proper person for action. 5. It is not dependent on the memory of the clerk. There are many different types of filing procedures ranging from manual to mechanical to electrical. 3.there are rules for alphabetical indexing that should be followed 3. . Know how the records are requested from the files. The possibilities are: *name of company on the letterhead *name addressed *name in the signature *name or subject included in the paper *file or reference number .Look for a special mark as release signal like the word FILE plus the initials of the person releasing it. Cross-referencing . It has the simplest identification of file contents It use minimum safeguard against filing errors. Know the types of records and files created and maintained by the office. 2. 3. 4. and where the materials to be filed originates. Know why.is used when it is difficult to know which of two or more name is important 86 . It has maximum safeguard against filing errors. 2. Inspecting . Know the procedure steps from post of origin to files. how.

When some word other than the first in a company or situation name clearly identifies the organization.For alphabetic coding. referring to the card index to determine the number to be assigned 3. Marking the number in the upper margin of the paper. material should be filed under the complete name and then crossreference to the explanation. encircled. the indexing caption may be check marked. should be filed under the subject caption but cross-referenced to an individual or company name. or underlined on the record being coded. When it is difficult to decide which part of an individual’s name is the surname. 87 .is accomplished by filing the original under one name and cross reference sheet under the other . When an organization is better known by initials than by its complete name. c. b. you may use the maiden name as the original file but cross-reference it under the married or legal name. Coding .coding highlights the indexing caption and thus speeds up filing. When difficult name is indexed. For numeric coding follow these three steps: 1. . or a paper with distinctive color.You may consider cross-referencing under the following situations: a. 4. When a record is likely to be called for most often by subject. like: NATIONAL COLLEGE (OF) BUSINESS AND ARTS Cross Reference NCBA See: National College of Business and Arts - d. .u may use cross-reference sheets or plain sheets of paper. For example: University of San Carlos would be filed as written but should be cross-referenced to San Carlos University. e.underline or encircle the caption to be used on storing . In the case of Manolo Herbert you might index the name as normally written and use a cross-reference under a transposition of the name. 2.this is marking the file to indicate how they have been indexed . selecting the name under which a paper is to be filed.

SOME USEFUL REMINDERS WHEN FILING Removing attachments 1. Provide enough space in each file drawer of active records to permit easy access and pulling out of folders. 2. 3. you can stock papers as much as three-quarters of an inch high without bulging. 4. lift the folder out of the file drawer in order to make sure you have the correct folder. and other such attachments should be removed from papers before they are filed. usually file folders. When the maximum capacity is reached. Avoid overcrowding the folder. Punch holes into the paper to be filed. it also pulls the back of the folder down and hides the caption.this is the final step in manual filing which is placing the papers in appropriate containers. Overcrowding extend records beyond the top edge of the folder. To insert material.The papers are placed in the proper folders in the filing cabinets Follow these procedures: 1. 2. causing torn edges. Write the subject in the margin of each record. Arranging drawer space 1. it is time to use a second folder. Insert the paper evenly. 5. Use the creases across the bottom of the front flap of the folder to accommodate increasing bulk.Marking for subject coding follow these steps: 1. By expanding the folder. re-sort in each category for more exact sequence 3. 88 . rubber band. Paper clips. Filing or Storing . . assemble all the materials in proper 5. See to it that the material you are inserting is in correct sequence in the folder. 6.

A chargeout system tells you where a record can be located after it has been taken from the files. Indicate the names of the publication and the date of the issue from which they were taken. especially if the files are used by many different people. Charge out record must contain the following information: a. Adjust the “follow block” when the file drawer begin to sag. a description of the material borrowed 89 . 2. 2.2. Small clipping should be mounted on plain paper. and kept clean and dusted. The tabs are not handles and will soon be worn out if used for pulling out folder. 3. Items may need to be cross-referenced to related correspondence files. Filing Clippings 1. finding them when they are needed would be a simple and easy matter. 2. Clearly marked. all records removed from the files should be recorded. name of borrower b. Proper positioning of the drawer compressor helps to keep folder upright in a drawer. Another to account for papers taken from folders The function is the same: to ensure that the records that were removed will be returned 3. RETRIEVING OR FINDING MATERIAL FROM FILES 1. Filing Bulky Material 1. One to account for complete folders removed from a file b. Clipping larger that the ordinary size of bond paper may be folded as needed to fit the folder. 3. Charge Out Procedures 1. 3. 2. 3. either numeric or alphabetic. If papers have been properly prepared in filings and if they have been carefully placed in the correct file folders and in the right drawers. Guides and folders should not be pulled out of the files by their tabs. Charge out procedure should be carefully followed. Bulky material should be filed separately in appropriate storage lockers or a suitable shelves. However. They should be neatly arranged. There are two types of charge out records: a.

Cross-references? 90 . A folder charge out may be either an out-folder or an out-guide 5. 3. Then the executive’s desk. On someone’s desk? .Look first through your own desk when tracking a misplaced record. incoming items are accumulated in a FOR FILE FOLDER until the regular folder is returned. 4. 1. 3. Single papers and even folders have been known to slip gradually under the folders when the guides are not attached by a rod. Copy 2 goes into a follow-up file box where it is filed by date.look into the folder immediately ahead of or immediately behind the folder in which the paper belongs. Incoming items are filed in it until the regular folder is returned.look between the folders on either side of the folder in which the missing paper should be. HOW TO SEARCH FOR MISSING FILES The following clues help to uncover many misfiled papers. Between or under folders? . Not there? Then look under the folders. 2. When out guides are used. This type of filing error usually occurs.c. Prepare the slip in triplicate to save time and control safe return of files. REQUISITION SLIP 1. use a special form called the REQUISITION SLIP. 4. date borrowed 4. 5. These slips become the charge-out record. It replaces a removed folder. Still not there? Look in the “FOR FILING” folder. The folder before or the one behind the right folder? . The Original is put into the pocket of the OUT GUIDE. The OUT-FOLDER is a folder with a tab marked OUT and ruled spaces on the front for recording charge-out information. The OUT-GUIDE has a pocket into which a copy of the requisition slip made out by the borrower may be inserted. 6. 6. 2. Copy 3 goes clipped to the items that were taken from the files to identify them and to remind the user of the due date. To control requests for files.

2.- look under the cross-references. Do file papers in an orderly fashion in folders.files are moved at stated intervals. TRANSFER AND RETENTION METHODS Transferring files is the process of removing old and inactive items from files. 7. TWO GENERAL TRANSFER METHODS 1. 5.moves records to the inactive area as they become inactive 2. Transposition of names? . ask your boss. A letter to Danilo Manuel Enterprises may turn up in the DAnilo folder. transferred materials are not automatically destroyed.look under similarly spelled names. 8. are easily transposed. Perpetual Transfer . This is one of the reasons you are advised from the start not to use paper clips. 6. 91 . Ask your Boss . If you must fasten you can use a fastener folder. Original may sometimes filed with cross reference folder. Similar names? . Some “Do’s and Don’ts of Filing” Do’s 1. However. Periodic Transfer . once or twice a year Remember: See to it that you get the approval of your boss before you transfer any record. Johns. or even Janes. Paper clips . Do staple papers neatly together in upper left hand corners.Paper clips have a way of picking up neighboring papers. He might have taken it and brought home without informing you.if all the solutions were made and still you can’t find the record. The JOans paper may be in Jones. You may do the transferring of files during free times when the boss is away. Joens.Some names such as Danilo Manuel.

Then start to file. 9. 2. Do pre-arrange or sort your papers in exact order according to your file index. 10. 13. keeping the latest date in top. Don’t let your new filing pile up. Do close each drawer as you finish with it. 12. Do file material in one folder. Don’t allow your folders to become cluttered and overcrowded. 4. You will be accurate and your file will be neat. Open file drawer may cause a serious accident. Do use individually tabbed folders with typed labels for ready reference. 6. 5. 5. 13. 92 .3. 7. Do file in back of guide. Perhaps you can read your writing but can the other person read your handwriting? You can write a caption if your hand writing is very readable. 11. Think of the arguments this will save. Even you might forget which is which if you are busy. You can’t be sure they are in the correct place and anyway. Do type all labels on folders. 8. Don’t write captions on folders by hand. 7. Don’t jam papers down into folders. Don’t file in front of guides. Do charge out papers removed and place the “OUT” card in the file. Don’t use pins. Do split the papers up according to date. 3. 10. Do keep your filing “rough sorted” from A to Z if you can’t take care of it immediately. Update your files. Don’ts 1. Don’t allow your folders to become so full that they bulge. paper clips or rubber bands on file papers. Do keep all files in proper alphabetical sequence. Don’t leave your new filing in a disorganized pile. 15. This will save many minutes in locating materials when the boss is in a hurry. 14. Don’t file papers loose in a drawer. 6. or subject so that no folder contains more than the capacity it is designed for (generally ½” to 1”) 8. Don’t allow papers to be all mixed as to dates within a folder. Do type labels in capital letters so they may be easily read and keep one on every drawer. placing a cross-reference sheet in folder for any other subject or customer include in the material. Don’t pull a folder out of place alphabetically just because it may be large. Do file them in date order. 4. You will be able to locate papers so much faster. Don’t start to file with papers in haphazard arrangement. or the back sags down out of sight. 14. They are so easily read. 11. Don’t allow your files to become confusing when letters contain two or more subjects or customers. Do lift the folder out to insert papers in proper place. Don’t flounder around spending precious moments looking for a folder which had been filed under another name. 9. think how messy they will look. customer. Be a good housekeeper. After all “guide” is what the name implies a guide indicating the proper place to locate a folder. 12.

. 10. Don’t pull out more than one file drawer at a time. 3. 7. 17. Such records are generally irreplaceable and are considered essential to the existence of the business. 6. and agreements (seven years after expiration) Accounts receivable ledgers Schedules of fire and other insurance and papers substantiating claims Deposit books and record stubs Inventories of materials with adjustment records Sales records Collection records Record of uncollectible accounts 93 . Keep a record of borrowed file folder.15. 16. paid and unpaid Contracts. Don’t allow the labels on your file drawers to be handwritten dirty or torn off. 2. paychecks. and cashbooks. FOUR CATEGORIES OF RETENTION SCHEDULES Records kept permanently . 8. Old documents may require special restorative or preservative methods to protect them against deterioration. Lists of security holders present at meetings Records of interest coupons. They should be transferred when inactive to secure storage. 4. 8. 4. Some records that should be kept permanently are: 1. 6. 3.records in this category facilitate routine business operations and are replaceable only at considerable cost and delay. Partnership papers Stockholder and director minutes Deeds and other title papers and mortgages General ledgers. 9. 2. 11. Payrolls. 10. 7. and other evidences or payments for services Employee applications Records kept six or seven years. 5. They include the following: 1. 9. Records of cost and inventory value of plant equipment and fixtures Tax backup records Audit reports Records relating to bills and accounts payable Paid drafts. Capital stock and bond ledgers and registers. and cash receipts Correspondence about stop-payment orders and duplicate checks. 5. Don’t lend papers and then depend upon your memory to tell you who took them. leases. checks. Photocopy duplicates of them should be stored in several locations as a precaution against destruction. 12.Two broad classes of business records are generally retained permanently: those that provide evidence of corporate and individual rights and those with historical implications. journals. 13.

They may be safely destroyed after three or four years. 1 Cruz. Individual Names Think of names of individuals in the following order: first the surname or last name. 6. then consider the third unit Examples: Alfredo L. General correspondence Records kept one year or less . second. 8. Examples of this type of records include: 1. about 35% of all records used in business offices can be destroyed in a year or less. 5.Records kept for three or four years many business papers are temporarily useful and replaceable at slight cost. According to the National Records Management Council. Blas Manuel P. the middle name or initial. 8. 4. the given name or the first name or initial. 3. 5. 6. 2. Copies of bank deposits Statements of interest due on daily balances Bank statement Memorandums Announcements Form letters Congratulations Condolences can often be disposed of soon after they have been written. The second unit. Proxies of holder of voting securities Employee fidelity bond records Insurance records-changes and cancellation of policies Records about employee salary adjustments and assignments Purchase orders Credit ratings of customers Expired insurance policies against which unreported or pending claims might arise. Rules in Alphabetic Indexing 1. third. are arranged in alphabetic order. 3 P. In alphabetizing. The following illustrate this category: 1. if different. 3 94 . If both first and second units are identical. 1 Alfredo 2 Manuel 2 L. 3. The first units. 4. are not considered unless the first unit are identical. 7. 7. CruzBlas. 2. names are considered unit by unit.records in this classification are often destroyed after the have served their purpose.

The prefixes St. Delos. “NOTHING COMES BEFORE SOMETHING. 1 Manuel 2 S. is indexed and filed as though fully spelled as Saint. Examples: Del Cano. 1 H. surname prefixes includes San. 2 G. Santa. An initial. the only part of a man’s name that the woman assumes when she is married is 95 . 3 G. precedes the surname with given names or initials. Married Woman The legal name of married woman is one considered in indexing. 1 Javellana. De. 3 F. Cruz- Cruz. Legally. 3 C. 3 2. 3 C. 1 St. 1 MacCarthy.” Examples: 1st Javellana 1 Javellana. 3 (In your mind spell out Saint) NOTE: The abbreviation St. 3 2nd 3rd - Horacio 2 3. Surname Prefixes A surname prefix is considered as part of the surname and not as a separate indexing unit. when not a known abbreviation. precedes a name beginning with that initial. etc. 1 San Pedro. Surnames when used alone Like Javeliana. NOTE: Del Cano is considered as only one unit 4. This rule is sometimes stated. is spelled out only in your mind. Anthony 1 Alfredo 2 Priscilla 2 Tomas 2 Paul 2 Chapel 2 T. Dela. 1 Del Rosario.Manuel S.

Pimental Indexing: First original card: de Leon. Inc. Firm Names The units in the name of firms and institutions are indexed in the same order as they are written if they do not include the complete name of an individual. Chit D. Examples: Maiden name – Chit A. Examples: Skillmaster 1 Resources 2 Corporation 3 Network.his surname. and her husband’s surname. (Mrs. the given or initial. Chit A. If the firm’s name begin with a foreign word. Her legal name will include her first name. meaning it may or may not be included.) 3 Second card as the cross reference: Pimentel. her maiden name.) (Amado G. 1 (Amado G. the surname of the individual is considered as the first unit. Is enclosed in parenthesis at the end of the husband’s first and middle names are placed in parenthesis below the woman’s name. (Mrs. de Leon Husband’s name – Amado G. Mrs. 5.) NOTE: The name and initial of the husband under the name of the wife is optional. it is combined with the word that follows it. Firm’s names including complete individual names When the complete name of an individual is included in the name of the firm or institution.) Chit 2 D. 96 . then the rest of the firm is considered. 4 5 Employment Apprenticeship Research 1 2 3 El Paso 1 Coffee 2 Shop 3 6. if any is considered as the 2nd and the 3rd units. When preparing filing cards or folders. (Miss) 1 2 3 see: Pimentel.

. and prepositions. (same order) Yupangco – Yamaha Corp 1 2 3 McGraw-Hill Book Co. (same order) McGraw – Hill Book Co. Examples: Del Rosario 1 Del Rosario Brother Mktg. and are. with this exception: When the word “the” is the firt word in a name. but the hyphenated surname of an individual is considered as a single unit. therefore. 1 2 3 Yupangco-Yamaha Corp. the sign for “and” (&) and the phase of the. Brothers Marketing Corporation 2 3 4 (same order) 9.7. and similar word are treated as separate indexing units. on. Example: Marilyn T.. Corp. conjunctions. and. Carlos Lumber Company (The) 1 2 3 4 Example: Juanito the Electrician 97 . it is found in the middle of the name. Bros. disregarded in indexing.. it is not moved but enclosed in parenthesis. it is not moved but enclosed in parenthesis. If it is found in the middle of the name. Gut-Omeng Indexing: Gut-Omeng. the individual surnames are indexed as separate units. 1 2 3 4 8. This is also applicable when a hyphenated surname of an individual is included in the firm name. such as: the. of. On filing cards and folders. Articles. Abbreviations Known abbreviations are indexed as though they are spelled in full. Like the following examples –Ltd. Example: The Carlos Tablan Lumber Company Indexing: Tablan. are not considered as units.. for. and prepositions Articles. these words are written in their normal sequence. to by. Corp. Hyphenated names In hyphenated firm’s name. Marilyn T. Inc. conjunctions.

Titles or Degrees Titles or degrees of individual are not considered as units and are therefore. Fernando (Junior) 1 2 3 98 . disregarded in indexing. two words. Examples: Northwest Sales Corporation (Northwest one word = 1 unit) 1 2 3 North West Produce 1 2 Market (North West two words = 1 unit) 3 North-West Rope (and) Supply Co. such as Jr. Examples: Poe. it is considered as one indexing unit. (North-West hyphenated = 1 1 2 3 4 unit) 11. When writing filing cards or folders place the title or degree in parenthesis after the name. One or two words When the same name may be written either as one word.. Compound Geographic Names The part of compound geographic names are indexed as separate unit except when the first part of the name is not an English word. Examples: Le Donne’s 1 Shoes 2 North American Lines 1 2 3 Zamboanga del Sur Rice Mill (Zamboanga del Sur 1 2 3 = 1 unit) El Paso 1 Coffee 2 Shop (same order) 3 12.Indexing: Juanito (the) Electrician 1 2 10. 2nd are placed at the end of the name but are considered as indexing units and should be enclosed in parenthesis. Titles that denote seniority. such as El Paso. or a hyphenated word.

Numbers A number in a name is regarded as though written in words and the entire number is indexed as one unit.Poe. it is considered as the first indexing unit. 1 Jaime 2 (Atty.) 3 Exception: When a title is the first word of a firm name . de Castro Alfredo J. When a name ends with an s apostrophe (s’) the “s” is a part of the name and is included in indexing. it is considered as the first indexing unit. 99 . The numbers are written in figures on index card and folder but you have to spell them out in your mind to get the correct filing order. 1 Dr. Examples: Power’s Oil Corporation (first unit is Power without s) 1 2 3 Powers’ (and) Holman Agency (first unit is Powers with s 1 2 3 is included) 14. Numbers over 1. Think of the apostrophe as the “STOP” sign. Alfredo J. Fernando (Senior) 1 2 3 Miralles.) De Castro. Example: Queen Elizabeth 1 2 Dean Torres (same order) Torres ( Dean) Exception: When a title is the first word of a firm name. 809 should be indexed as Eighteen Hundred Nine and not as One Thousand Eight Hundred Nine. Possessives When a word ends in apostrophe s (‘s) the s is disregarded in indexing.000n such as 1. West Toothpaste (same order) 1 2 3 Madame 1 X 2 (same order) 13. Examples: Atty. 2 3 (Atty.

Cubao 6 5 Quezon City 1575 (higher) 7 16. they should be alphabetized according to the name of the city or town. If it is similar consider the province.. 15. consider the street. consider the street number by arranging from lowest to highest. Bank Names Bank names are indexed first by the name of the bank in the same order. consider the province.. If it is still the same. If it is similar. Cubao 6 5 Quezon City 1315 4 (lower) 7 Mercury Drug Company 1575 Aurora Blvd. but you spell them out in your mind. city or towns are included as the basis for arranging in order. When writing cards or folders the name of the province. Consider first the city or town. consider the street. city. Examples: Mercury Drug Company 1315 Aurora Blvd. if it is the same. If it is 100 . Quezon City Indexing: (1) Mercury Drug Company 1 2 3 Aurora Blvd. Consider first the city or town. 1 2 3 1755 Disco House .Examples: 96th Street Warehouse – Niney-sixth Street Warehouse 1 2 3 The 3 Arts Club . When writing cards or folders the name of the province. Cubao Quezon City (2) Mercury Drug Company 1 2 3 Aurora Blvd. or town is included as the basis for arranging in order. Cubao.Seventeen Hundred Fifty Five Disco 1 2 House 3 Remember: The numbers are written in FIGURES on cards and Folders. – Three Hundred Six Management Co. Addresses When identical names appear with different addresses.The Three Arts Club (The) 1 2 3 306 Management Co. If it is again similar.

division. Mandaluyong 3 4 17. of) Justice (Ministry of) (2) Ministry of Justice 18. such as province. these phrases are enclosed in parentheses and placed at the end of the word they modify. Office of. when used in titles of government bodies are disregarded in indexing. (of the) Investigation (Bureau (Lucena City) of) 19. consider the street number by arranging from lowest to highest.still the same. bureau. However. (Rep. Other Political Divisions Names pertaining to other political divisions. commission or board. Division of. commission. (Rep. Bureau of. Philippine Government Names Name pertaining to our government are indexed first under PHIL. Phases such as Ministry of. Commission of. Mandaluyong Indexing: Banco Filipino 1 2 Punta. On folders and filing cards. phrases are considered as indexing units when they are a part of a non-governmental name. or when custom has established that a name is given more 101 . Example: Banco Filipino Punta. cities or town are indexed and filed under the name of political divisions and then in the following order: title of the ministry. Difficult Individual Names When the given name and the surname of an unusual individual name might be confusing. or board. of) and subdivided first by ministry title. (Rep. of) Health (Ministry of) Diseases Control (Bureau of) Phil. Rep. Example: Lucena City Bureau of Investigation Indexing: Phil. and then by bureau division. Examples: (1) Ministry of Health Bureau of Diseases Control Indexing: Phil.

the given name should be considered as the first indexing unit. and preposition are disregarded. Abellana Abella Doro T. schools. articles. Conjunctions. Example: Makati Lions Club -Lions Club (of) Makati 1 2 3 Rotary Club of Quezon City – Rotary Club (of) Quezon (City) 1 2 3 Alphabetic Indexing & Filing Exercises 1. 11. as the cross-reference. Schools. Atty. the general rule is to index the name in the order of the word that is most important or the most clearly identified organization. Tiok Note: There will be two folders for this file. 20. In Chinese name. 14. and Organization In the names of churches. Abella Ramon A. where you can not be sure which is the name and which is the surname. and similar organizations. Raul Z. 12. 5. clubs.important in point of order than a surname. 15. Raul Z. Tiok (with cross-reference) (2) Pa Tay. Churches. Sr. Example: Tiok Pa Tay Indexing: (1) Tiok Pa Tay See: Pa Tay. Lizondra. 6. 3. 10. Jr. One filed under letter “T” and the second one filed under letter “P”. 4. Ramon G. you should use a cross-reference. delos Reyes Employment Apprenticeship Research Network (with cross reference EARN) Robert Borromeo & Associates Zamboanga del Sur Sugar Mill The House of Ramie Dr. 8. 13. for example. Employment Services of Metro Manila Rio del Mundo North West Bakery North-West Beauty Parlor Northwest Bake Shop 102 . 2. 9. Lizondra. 7.

Balatbat Corporation Bacu-lug Philippines 103 . 38.. 30. 21. Cabungcal Mr. 29. 39. T. 33. Baguio City Sacred Heart Store 985 Magsaysay Avenue Benguet. Jualberto D. 44. 18. 27. 25. Angelito L. Roger T. Lizondra Miss Nora Villamayor –husband Christopher de Leon (with cross reference) Miss Imelda Romualdez –Husband Ferdinand E. Inc. de Leon Sister Josefa A. 32. 41. Fr. Magnolia M. North Western School Supplies Northwestern Beauty Shop North-Western Bound Bus Mat Ranillo I Mat Ranillo II Mat Ranillo III Mat Ranillo IV Lizondras A. Lirio Miss Nimfa A. 35. Rabeje Brother Jose M. 42. Reynaldo M. 36. 49. 26. Inc. Reyes Atty. San Miguel Dean Wilfredo R. Adriano V. 43. Cruz Dr. Wi Sgt. 22. Angeles Jr. 28. 50. 48. 17. Baguio City Ministry of Public Highways Bureau of Investigation McGraw-Hill Book Company Tan-gatue Appraisal Associates. 46. Ramon S. 19. Marcos (with cross reference) Engr. 23. 47. Moore Mrs. 34. 37.16. 31. Velasco Power Sugar Mill Power’s Sugar Corporation 13th Avenue Pawn Shop The 5 Lions Club Sacred Heart Store 689 Magsaysay Avenue Benguet. 40. 20. 24. 45. Balatbat & C.

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