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6CH01 and 6CH02 Official January 2010 Markscheme

6CH01 and 6CH02 Official January 2010 Markscheme

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Mark Scheme (FINAL) January 2010

Doughboy

GCE

GCE Chemistry (6CH01/01)

Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales No. 4496750 Registered Office: One90 High Holborn, London WC1V 7BH

General Marking Guidance
• • • • • All candidates must receive the same treatment. Examiners must mark the first candidate in exactly the same way as they mark the last. Mark schemes should be applied positively. Candidates must be rewarded for what they have shown they can do rather than penalised for omissions. Examiners should mark according to the mark scheme not according to their perception of where the grade boundaries may lie. There is no ceiling on achievement. All marks on the mark scheme should be used appropriately. All the marks on the mark scheme are designed to be awarded. Examiners should always award full marks if deserved, i.e. if the answer matches the mark scheme. Examiners should also be prepared to award zero marks if the candidate’s response is not worthy of credit according to the mark scheme. Where some judgement is required, mark schemes will provide the principles by which marks will be awarded and exemplification may be limited. When examiners are in doubt regarding the application of the mark scheme to a candidate’s response, the team leader must be consulted. Crossed out work should be marked UNLESS the candidate has replaced it with an alternative response. Mark schemes will indicate within the table where, and which strands of QWC, are being assessed. The strands are as follows: i) ensure that text is legible and that spelling, punctuation and grammar are accurate so that meaning is clear ii) select and use a form and style of writing appropriate to purpose and to complex subject matter iii) organise information clearly and coherently, using specialist vocabulary when appropriate

• • • •

6CH01_01 1001

Using the Mark Scheme
Examiners should look for qualities to reward rather than faults to penalise. This does NOT mean giving credit for incorrect or inadequate answers, but it does mean allowing candidates to be rewarded for answers showing correct application of principles and knowledge. Examiners should therefore read carefully and consider every response: even if it is not what is expected it may be worthy of credit. The mark scheme gives examiners: • an idea of the types of response expected • how individual marks are to be awarded • the total mark for each question • examples of responses that should NOT receive credit. / means that the responses are alternatives and either answer should receive full credit. ( ) means that a phrase/word is not essential for the award of the mark, but helps the examiner to get the sense of the expected answer. Phrases/words in bold indicate that the meaning of the phrase or the actual word is essential to the answer. ecf/TE/cq (error carried forward) means that a wrong answer given in an earlier part of a question is used correctly in answer to a later part of the same question. Candidates must make their meaning clear to the examiner to gain the mark. Make sure that the answer makes sense. Do not give credit for correct words/phrases which are put together in a meaningless manner. Answers must be in the correct context. Quality of Written Communication Questions which involve the writing of continuous prose will expect candidates to: • write legibly, with accurate use of spelling, grammar and punctuation in order to make the meaning clear • select and use a form and style of writing appropriate to purpose and to complex subject matter • organise information clearly and coherently, using specialist vocabulary when appropriate. Full marks will be awarded if the candidate has demonstrated the above abilities. Questions where QWC is likely to be particularly important are indicated (QWC) in the mark scheme, but this does not preclude others.

6CH01_01 1001

Section A Question Number 1 Question Number 2 Question Number 3 Question Number 4 Question Number 5 Question Number 6 (a) Question Number 6 (b) Question Number 6 (c) Question Number 7 Question Number 8 Question Number 9 Question Number 10 Question Number 11 Correct Answer C Correct Answer D Correct Answer A Correct Answer B Correct Answer A Correct Answer B Correct Answer A Correct Answer D Correct Answer B Correct Answer D Correct Answer A Correct Answer C Correct Answer C Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 6CH01_01 1001 .

Question Number 12 Question Number 13 Question Number 14 (a) Question Number 14 (b) Question Number 14(c) Question Number 14 (d) Question Number 15 Correct Answer A Correct Answer D Correct Answer A Correct Answer D Correct Answer B Correct Answer B Correct Answer C Reject Mark 1 Reject Mark 1 Reject Mark 1 Reject Mark 1 Reject Mark 1 Reject Mark 1 Reject Mark 1 6CH01_01 1001 .

1 (g) ALLOW TE from (c)(i) and (a) ALLOW Moles acid x 84.050 / 5x10-2 Ignore units and sf Acceptable Answers Mass Mg CO3 = ((0.3÷2)) = 2.3 ÷2 for TE(from (i) (1) (4.12(g) Carbon dioxide /gas given off Precipitate forms (no TE for MgCl2(s)) Reject Mark 2 Reject Mark 2 Just “exothermic” Reject Mark 1 Question Number 16 (c) (ii) Mark 1 6CH01_01 1001 . can be given even if eg MgCl2 formula incorrect or for H2CO3(aq)(1) CO32-(s) + 2H+(aq)→ CO2(g) +H2O(l) (1 mark max) ALLOW 1 missing/incorrect state symbol Question Number 16 (b) Acceptable Answers Any two from Bubbles (of gas)/ fizzing/ effervescence (1) Solid disappears/ disintegrates /gets smaller /dissolves OR MgCO3 disappears (if given as solid in (i)) (1) IGNORE clear solution forms Mixture gets warmer/cooler OR temperature change occurs/ heat change occurs(1) Question Number 16 (c) (i) Acceptable Answers Moles acid = ((25 x 2/ 1000)) = 0.Section B Question Number 16 (a) Acceptable Answers MgCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) →MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) ALLOW MgCO3(s) + 2H+(aq)→ Mg2+(aq) + CO2(g) +H2O(l) All formulae and balancing (1) State symbols – mark independently.05 x 84.1075/ 2.108 /2.2(15)) if factor of 2 missing for TE from (a)) Ignore sf except 1 sf Ignore units Reject 2 / 2.05/0.11/2.

75 203.82/73.9% Ignore sf except 1 sf Reject Mark 2 70 6CH01_01 1001 .01845 ) 0.6 /other answers rounding to 74 % from earlier approximations /72 (from 0.05 allow TE giving 37/ 36.75 x 100) = 74 % (1) 5.018 (1 ) yield = (100 X 0.018445/0.0184/0.08(25)g) (1) yield = (3.025) /5.78/73.01845/0.3) = 0.08 OR Mol magnesium chloride = (3.3 x 0.Question Number 16 (c) (iii) Acceptable Answers To ensure all acid reacts/ all acid is used up / to ensure product is neutral/ it (HCl) is neutralised Reject All reactants used up To ensure reaction is complete (without reference to HCl) To ensure yield is high To ensure magnesium carbonate is in excess Reject Sieve Collect MgCl2 in filter paper Use filter paper to dry crystals Evaporate Mark 1 Question Number 16 (c) (iv) Acceptable Answers Filter ALLOW centrifuge/ decant/ pour off / (use) filter paper Ignore comments about heating solution first to concentrate it Mark 1 Question Number 16 (c) (v) Acceptable Answers 100% yield = (203. ALLOW 73.8 /73.018 moles) Allow TE from (a) and or (c)(i) and or (c)(ii) If the ratio HCl to MgCl2 is 1:1 ans 37 % (2) If moles of HCl in (c)(i) are wrong (2) If (a) and (c)(i) are correct 37 % scores (1) If moles MgCO3 = 0.025 = 74 % (1) Second mark can be given as TE if expected yield or number of moles is wrong.

” Acceptable Answers Not 100% ionic /almost completely ionic OR (partial) covalent character/ almost no covalency OR Discrepancy in BH values indicates polarisation (of ions) (1) Mark can be given if answer here refers to bond strength and the answer above is included in (ii) Reject Incomplete reaction/side reaction Lost as waste products Lost to environment Lost in manipulation? Hydrolysis Weighing errors Just “spillage” Reject Magnesium chloride is covalent Magnesium chloride is partially ionic Just “polarity of ions” Mark 1 Question Number 16 (d)(i) Mark 1 Question Number 16 (d)(ii) Acceptable Answers QWC I.larger (than Cl-) (1) so (ion) easier to polarise /distort (1) ALLOW for 2 mark increases covalent character / more covalent than MgCl2 / converse for MgCl2 / description of polarisation instead of the term If clearly ions. Direct comparison not needed if (i) covers bonding in chloride. nd Reject Size of atoms rather than ions I2 is larger than Cl2 I2 molecules are polarised Mg2+ is polarised Iodine more electronegative than chlorine Mark 2 Question Number 16 (e) (i) Acceptable Answers (100 x 20) = 2 x 10-3(g) 106 ALLOW 0.002(g) 1/500 (g) 2 x 10-6 kg IGNORE % as unit Reject 2 x 10-3 = 0. allow reference to iodine instead of iodide (“iodine has a larger ion”) Read in conjunction with (i).0002 Mark 1 6CH01_01 1001 .Question Number 16 (c) (vi) Acceptable Answers Some stays in solution / losses on transferring from one container to another/ loss on filtering /crystals left behind/some left on filter paper etc Any one ALLOW correct answers with other comments which are not incorrect eg “there may be some spillage and also …….

06 = 1.09 Moles S= 33.03 14 Moles H = 3.06 = 1. approx half molecular mass Reject Mark 1 6CH01_01 1001 . as empirical formula mass =49.1 ALLOW Moles S= 33.09 (1) 16 (Ratio 1:3:1:3) IGNORE sf/rounding for moles NH3SO3 any order (1) Correct answer.42 = 1. no working (3) If O omitted.03 32 Moles O = 49.Question Number 16 (e) (ii) Acceptable Answers (More) soluble (in water)/ (more) soluble in blood stream/ can be given as solution/ won’t produce gas in stomach / won’t react with stomach acid/ doesn’t produce CO2 Converse answers for MgCO3 Or other valid answers ALLOW can be given in liquid form Acceptable Answers Moles N =14.43 = 3.03 (1) 32. giving NH3S (2) Reject MgCl2 is a liquid MgCO3 is too reactive Mark 1 Question Number 17 (a) (i) Reject Mark 3 Question Number 17 (a) (ii) Acceptable Answers NH3SO3 (any order) since molar mass = empirical formula mass/ since empirical formula mass =97/ with some other justification TE from (i) N2H6S2.

5 mol H2 OR ratio sulfamic acid : hydrogen gas = 2:1 OR 5.75 (x 10-3)) (moles) OR TE using ratio calculated from (ii) (1) Each H2 comes from 2 H+ (So 1 sulfamic acid → 1 H+ ) (1) Question Number 17 (b) (iii) Reject ratio sulfamic acid : hydrogen ions = 2:1 Mark 2 Question Number 17 (c) (i) Acceptable Answers 2H+ + CO32.003 Mark 1 Question Number 17 (b) (ii) Acceptable Answers ( 66 ) = 2.0028 24 000 Acceptable Answers 1 mol sulfamic acid → 0.75 x 10-3 / 0.5 ( x 10-3)(moles) = (2 x 2.Question Number 17 (b) (i) Acceptable Answers Look for workable method.→ H2CO3 Reject Mark 1 Question Number 17 (c) (ii) Acceptable Answers Less easy to spill solid (in storage) OR doesn’t spread if spilt OR easy to sweep up if spilt OR less corrosive/ less strongly acidic than HCl ALLOW Weaker (acid) / HCl is a stronger acid Reject Mark Just “it is a solid” 1 Less reactive (unless with comment on acid strength) HCl produces poisonous gas / Cl2 Less concentrated Has higher pH Just “HCl is harmful/irritant/corrosive” Just “sulfamic acid is not harmful/irritant/corrosive” 6CH01_01 1001 . Workable way of making and collecting gas eg flask or tube + connection/ below inverted funnel with tube of water above Labelling of reactants not needed (1) Suitable (labelled) apparatus for measuring volume eg Gas syringe/ inverted burette or measuring cylinder containing water (1) Reject Mark 2 Uncalibrated tubes Reject 0.00275 / 0.→ HCO32H+ + CO32.→ H2O + CO2 ALLOW H+ + CO32. Don’t penalise lack of labels on simple equipment eg test tubes.

h. 6CH01_01 1001 .s.Question Number 18 (a) Acceptable Answers Allow formulae throughout instead of names Test : add bromine (water) /bromine solution ALLOW bromine gas /bromination (1) Result: no change with hexane / stays orange brown/ stays red brown/ stays yellow and goes colourless with hex-1-ene(1) 2nd mark cq on 1st OR Test : add (acidified) potassium manganate((VII)) (solution) (1) ALLOW potassium permanganate for potassium manganate(VII) Result: no change with hexane/stays purple and goes colourless / brown with hex-1-ene (1) OR Test : add alkaline potassium manganate((VII)) (solution) (1) ALLOW potassium permanganate for potassium manganate(VII) Result: no change with hexane/stays purple and goes green with hex-1-ene (1) Reject Smokiness of flame Bromide Iodine Mark 2 Goes clear Question Number 18 (b) (i) Acceptable Answers Reject Mark 1 CH3 H C C C3 H7 H ALLOW Partially or fully displayed as long as the two H are trans Allow bonds which go closer to the H than to C of alkyl groups on l.

18) = 9676(J) Mark 1 Question Number Reject Mark 6CH01_01 1001 .61 kJ /9.614 kJ (if converted to kJ units must be stated) ALLOW 9610 / 9600 /9.Question Number 18 (b) (ii) Acceptable Answers QWC C=C restricts rotation/ C=C prevents twisting /C=C can’t rotate/ lack of free rotation round C=C (so the groups can’t change position relative to the bond) (1) Hex–2-ene has different groups on the C at each end of C=C / hex-1-ene has 2 hydrogens on the C at one end of C=C / hex-1-ene doesn’t have different groups on the C at one end of C=C / hex-1-ene has no group which takes priority on the C at one end of C=C (1) (answer can be considered from either hex –1ene or hex-2-ene) Reject Alkenes can’t rotate Double bond is fixed Bonds can’t rotate Double bond is on first carbon (unless further explanation) Mark 2 Question Number 18 (c) (i) Acceptable Answers ignore signs (50 x 46 x 4.6 kJ Acceptable Answers Reject (50.18) = 9614(J)/ 9.32 x 46 x 4.

32g in (i) (gives 61.18 (c) (ii) One mark each for moles of hexane energy change sign.72 x 10-3) (1) (9614/ 3. in this experiment Acceptable Answers Reject Just “energy losses” Not all hexane burns Data books give average values Hexane is impure Human error Mark 2 Question Number Reject Mark 6CH01_01 1001 .6x106 J mol-1 Rounding of moles to 4x10-3 gives –2400 kJ mol-1 or-15 kJ mol-1 max 2 (loses moles mark) Answer alone (3) Max 2 if negative sign missing and/or more than 2 sf or error in units 3 Question Number 18 (c) (iii) Acceptable Answers Any 2 from: • Heat losses (from calorimeter)/ poor insulation • Incomplete combustion/burning • Incomplete transfer of heat/ loss by convection • Evaporation of fuel (after weighing) • Heat capacity of calorimeter (not included)/ heat absorbed by calorimeter • Measurements not carried out under standard conditions /H2O is gas.53J).6x106 J mol-1 (1) Allow TE: 0. 2 sig figs (for energy change calculated) Moles hexane = 0.32/86 = (3.32g in (i) (gives 9676J) ∆H = -2600 kJ mol-1 /-2 600 000 J mol-1 /-2. ∆H = -17 kJ mol-1 /-17 000 J mol-1 /-1.72 x 10-3) = 2584000 J/ 2584 kJ (1) ∆H = -2600 kJ mol-1 /-2 600 000 J mol-1 / -2.7x104 J mol-1 50. not liquid. units.

18 (c) (iv) Error in reading temperature is less than the effect of ignoring heat loss etc ALLOW Other errors are greater than error in temperature reading / Readings are within margins of error/ The accuracy with the thermometer is not significantly different from other measurement errors / 0.1°C thermometer does not reduce errors Using 0. “under pressure”.1°C thermometer does not change significant figures in final answer / Using 0.1°C is insignificant compared to temperature change / Using 0. “powdered” Accept combinations of above answers eg Pt and Pd Reject Zeolite Carbon Hydrogen Uv light Mark 1 6CH01_01 1001 . “heat also needed”. “lumps of”.1°C thermometer gives a more precise reading but does not improve accuracy 1 Question Number 18 (d) (i) Acceptable Answers Nickel / Ni Finely divided nickel/ Raney nickel ALLOW Platinum /Pt Palladium/ Pd Rhodium/ Rh Accept one of the above answers combined with a comment such as “at high temperature”.

pointing down. labelled ∆Hc hex-1-ene + ∆Hc hydrogen/ -4003-286/-4289 OR Pointing up with signs given above reversed (1) Right hand arrow pointing down labelled ∆Hc hexane / -4163 OR Pointing up with signs given above reversed (1) Ignore oxygen on both arrows Arrows may be labelled ∆H1 etc if key given or use of numbers in calculation makes this obvious.Question Number 18 (d) (ii) Acceptable Answers Left hand arrow.each time (Similar energy change) as in each case H2 reacts with C=C Reject All are alkenes going to alkanes all have the same double bond which reacts in the same way Reject Cl Just “heat” Mark 1 Question Number 19 (a) (i) Acceptable Answers Reagent: chlorine/ Cl2 (1) Condition: uv/ sunlight (1) ALLOW light Mark independently Ignore reference to temp and pressure if given with uv light. If answers reversed/both on one line 1 out of 2 Acceptable Answers (free) radical (1) Substitution (1) Mark independently Mark 2 Question Number 19 (a) (ii) Reject Mark 2 6CH01_01 1001 . (∆Hreaction – 4163 = -4003 – 286 / or words applying Hess’ law correctly) ∆Hreaction = -126 however obtained(1) TE: If arrows point up and signs are not reversed ∆Hreaction = +126 Max (1) Reject Mark 3 Question Number 18 (d) (iii) Acceptable Answers Same (number and type of) bonds are broken and made in each reaction / one C=C (and one H-H) are broken and two C-H made ALLOW reaction is –CH=CH.+ H2 → -CH2-CH2.

to C+ (1) H C C H H H CL H H H H C C H + Mark 3 H H H C C H H CL H CL - (L in Cl should be lower case) Partial charges on HCl not required Lone pairs on Cl. but give allowance for precise position Correct intermediate without arrows (1) Correct addition of HBr max 2 Correct addition of HCl to propene max 2 Max 2 for addition of Cl2 instead of HCl (forming 1.Question Number 19 (b) (i) Acceptable Answers Hydrogen chloride / HCl Reject Hydrochloric acid Chlorine HCl (aq) Cl2 Reject Mark 1 Question Number 19 (b) (ii) Acceptable Answers Curly (not half headed) arrow from C=C to H (1) Curly arrow from bond in H-Cl to Cl (1) Curly arrow from Cl. tri.etc substituted products form /only one product / no by-products OR no side reactions occur OR no C4 compounds can form (1) [Or reverse argument] Attack by Cl or Cl· loses 3rd mark only δ- Correct free radical mechanism from ethane and chlorine scores 0 Reject Mark 3 Not much product is lost 6CH01_01 1001 .not required It should be clear if arrows are to/ from a bond or an atom.2 -dichloroethane) Max 1 for addition of Cl2 instead of HCl forming chloroethane Question Number 19 (c) Acceptable Answers Higher atom economy from ethene /by electrophilic addition Higher yield from ethene Both correct for (1) From ethene only one product / all atoms are used making product /no unwanted products (1) For ethene yield high as no di-.

Question Number 19 (d) (i) Acceptable Answers Reject Mark 2 Double bond and electrons around C correct (1) Other electrons correct (1) Can be all dots or all crosses First mark can be given if C2H4 drawn correctly Second mark can be given if C2H5Cl drawn correctly Don’t penalise if bonds shown as well as electrons Question Number 19 (d) (ii) Acceptable Answers Reject Formula not displayed One monomer unit shown in bracket with the number 2 outside bracket ALLOW H and Cl below C chain. Cl on C2 and C3 or C1 and C4. formula above with brackets at each end and n outside end bracket End bonds should be shown. but don’t penalise if these don’t go through brackets H atoms should be shown Cl on C1 and C2 Cl onC3 and C4 Mark 1 6CH01_01 1001 .

Question Number 19 (d) (iii) Acceptable Answers QWC Any 2 Answers could consider the following factors: • energy for manufacture • availability / abundance of raw materials • lifetime of product/ how often will it need to be replaced /metal rusts/plastic more easily punctured etc • ease of recycling /steel an excellent recyclable material • consequences of disposal / is it biodegradable? • Is it from a non-renewable resource? • Atom economy in manufacture Allow answers comparing specific properties (if correct) illustrating the relevant property Examples PVC will last longer than iron due to lack of corrosion (1) PVC comes from oil which is non-renewable (1) PVC and metals come from non-renewable sources (1) Credit any two valid points Reject Mark 2 Ignore if other answers given: cost PVC biodegradable its carbon footprint Is it environmentally friendly? Pollution comments without reference to resources needed to clean up 6CH01_01 1001 .

Mark Scheme (Final) January 2010 Doughboy GCE GCE Chemistry (6CH02/01) Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales No. London WC1V 7BH . 4496750 Registered Office: One90 High Holborn.

e. Mark schemes should be applied positively. Examiners should mark according to the mark scheme not according to their perception of where the grade boundaries may lie. punctuation and grammar are accurate so that meaning is clear ii) select and use a form and style of writing appropriate to purpose and to complex subject matter iii) organise information clearly and coherently. The strands are as follows: i) ensure that text is legible and that spelling. Candidates must be rewarded for what they have shown they can do rather than penalised for omissions. Examiners should always award full marks if deserved. Where some judgement is required. mark schemes will provide the principles by which marks will be awarded and exemplification may be limited. Crossed out work should be marked UNLESS the candidate has replaced it with an alternative response. are being assessed. i. All the marks on the mark scheme are designed to be awarded. if the answer matches the mark scheme. Examiners must mark the first candidate in exactly the same way as they mark the last. using specialist vocabulary when appropriate • • • • 6CH02_01 1001 . and which strands of QWC. There is no ceiling on achievement.General Marking Guidance • • • • • All candidates must receive the same treatment. Examiners should also be prepared to award zero marks if the candidate’s response is not worthy of credit according to the mark scheme. Mark schemes will indicate within the table where. All marks on the mark scheme should be used appropriately. the team leader must be consulted. When examiners are in doubt regarding the application of the mark scheme to a candidate’s response.

/ means that the responses are alternatives and either answer should receive full credit. but this does not preclude others. Questions where QWC is likely to be particularly important are indicated (QWC) in the mark scheme. Full marks will be awarded if the candidate has demonstrated the above abilities. Do not give credit for correct words/phrases which are put together in a meaningless manner. The mark scheme gives examiners: • an idea of the types of response expected • how individual marks are to be awarded • the total mark for each question • examples of responses that should NOT receive credit. grammar and punctuation in order to make the meaning clear • select and use a form and style of writing appropriate to purpose and to complex subject matter • organise information clearly and coherently.Using the Mark Scheme Examiners should look for qualities to reward rather than faults to penalise. but helps the examiner to get the sense of the expected answer. with accurate use of spelling. Answers must be in the correct context. ( ) means that a phrase/word is not essential for the award of the mark. Candidates must make their meaning clear to the examiner to gain the mark. 6CH02_01 1001 . but it does mean allowing candidates to be rewarded for answers showing correct application of principles and knowledge. Make sure that the answer makes sense. ecf/TE/cq (error carried forward) means that a wrong answer given in an earlier part of a question is used correctly in answer to a later part of the same question. Quality of Written Communication Questions which involve the writing of continuous prose will expect candidates to: • write legibly. using specialist vocabulary when appropriate. Examiners should therefore read carefully and consider every response: even if it is not what is expected it may be worthy of credit. Phrases/words in bold indicate that the meaning of the phrase or the actual word is essential to the answer. This does NOT mean giving credit for incorrect or inadequate answers.

Section A Question Number 1 Question Number 2 Question Number 3 Question Number 4 Question Number 5 Question Number 6 Question Number 7 Question Number 8 Question Number 9(a) Question Number 9(b) Question Number 10(a) Question Number 10(b) Question Number 11 Correct Answer C Correct Answer A Correct Answer D Correct Answer D Correct Answer A Correct Answer B Correct Answer C Correct Answer B Correct Answer A Correct Answer C Correct Answer A Correct Answer D Correct Answer A Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 Mark 1 6CH02_01 1001 .

Question Number 12 Question Number 13(a) Question Number 13(b) Question Number 13(c) Question Number 14 Question Number 15 (a) Question Number 15 (b) Correct Answer C Correct Answer D Correct Answer B Correct Answer C Correct Answer B Correct Answer B Correct Answer C Reject Mark 1 Reject Mark 1 Reject Mark 1 Reject Mark 1 Reject Mark 1 Reject Mark 1 Reject Mark 1 6CH02_01 1001 .

double bond would be shorter (than single bond) / shorter than dative (covalent) bond. ALLOW Structure has double and single bonds (between N and O) Double and single bonds have different lengths Reject Implication that the single covalent and dative covalent bonds have different lengths Reject Mark 1 Reject Magnesium / calcium / atoms / molecules Reject Mark 2 Question Number 16(a)(ii) Mark 2 Question Number 16(c) Mark 1 6CH02_01 1001 .Section B Question Number 16(a)(i) Acceptable Answers 2Mg(NO3)2 → 2MgO + 4NO2 + O2 Correct formulae (1) Balancing (1) ALLOW multiples or equation divided by 2 Second mark on correct species only Ignore state symbols even if incorrect ALLOW N2O4 Extra oxygen molecules on both sides in a balanced equation Acceptable Answers Stand alone marks Mg2+ / Magnesium ion smaller or fewer electron shells / greater charge density (1) OR Magnesium ion has same charge (as calcium ion) but is smaller (1) Causes more polarisation /distortion of nitrate / anion (electron clouds) / N―O (bond)(1) OR MgO produced has stronger lattice (1) OR production of MgO is more exothermic (1) OR reverse argument based on Ca2+ Question Number 16(b) Acceptable Answers 2NaNO3 → 2NaNO2 + O2 ALLOW multiples or equation divided by 2 Ignore state symbols even if incorrect ALLOW Extra oxygen molecules on both sides in a balanced equation Acceptable Answers No as….

Question Number 16(d)(i) Acceptable Answers Mark independently Goes darker (brown) (1) ALLOW Goes browner Ignore comments on mixture first becoming paler if volume increases Equilibrium moves in the endothermic direction (1) OR Equilibrium moves left as forward reaction is exothermic (1) For second mark ALLOW Equilibrium moves left to counteract addition of heat / increase in temperature(1) OR Reaction removes added heat by moving left (1) Reject Mark 2 Brown (gas evolved) Question Number 16(d)(ii) Acceptable Answers Equilibrium moves right (ALLOW forwards) (so NO2 concentration decreases) (1) OR Reaction reduces pressure (1) As fewer moles / molecules(ALLOW particles) (of gas) on RHS (1) Stand alone marks Reject Mark 2 Question Number 16(e) Acceptable Answers At T2 more molecules/collisions have energy greater than (or equal to) EA (1) This can be shown on the diagram by indicating areas to right of vertical line Energy must be at least EA for successful collision / for reaction (1) OR So more collisions have sufficient energy to react(1) Ignore references to the average energy and speed of the molecules Reject Mark 2 6CH02_01 1001 .

Question Number 17(a)(i) Acceptable Answers A hydrocarbon (solvent) / volasil / named hydrocarbon solvent / tetrachloromethane Formulae Acceptable Answers Red / brown /orange / amber / yellow Or any combination No TE on incorrect / no reagent Acceptable Answers Oxidation number of S in H2SO4 =(+)6 Oxidation number of S in SO2 =(+)4 (1) Oxidation number had decreased (1) ALLOW S has gained electrons for second mark Second mark stands alone provided oxidation numbers have decreased. even if calculated wrongly Reject Ethanol Alkenes Mark 1 Question Number 17(a)(ii) Reject Mark 1 Question Number 17(b)(i) Reject Mark 2 Just ‘S has gained electrons’ without calculating oxidation numbers Question Number 17(b)(ii) Acceptable Answers Black / (shiny) grey solid (1) Purple / violet / pink vapour / fumes (1) Smell of (bad) eggs (1) Yellow solid (1) ALLOW Brown liquid (1) Any two Reject Purple solid Mark 2 Question Number 17(b)(iii) Acceptable Answers Oxidation number of S has reduced more / to –2 (in H2S) (1) OR Oxidation number of S is lower in H2S (than in SO2) If ON of S in H2S is calculated it must be correct Acceptable Answers People can choose whether to take extra fluoride ALLOW Fluoride is not released into the environment Reject Mark 1 Question Number 17(c) Reject Fluoride can be monitored Mark 1 6CH02_01 1001 .

Question Number 18(a)(i) Acceptable Answers Effervescence / fizzing / bubbles (of colourless gas) (1) Mixture gets hot (1) White solid (ALLOW ppt) produced / sodium dissolves or disappears (1) Any two Ignore inferences unless incorrect Acceptable Answers C4H9ONa / C4H9O–Na+ /structural or displayed formulae of any of the isomers: CH3CH2CH2CH2ONa (CH3)2CHCH2ONa (CH3)3CONa CH3CH(ONa)CH2CH3 Acceptable Answers Reject Mark 2 Question Number 18(a)(ii) Reject Structures showing a covalent bond between O and Na C4H9NaO / C4H9Na+O– Mark 1 Question Number 18(b) Reject Missing hydrogen atoms Skeletal formula Mark 2 H H H H C H C C O H Do not penalise undisplayed CH3 or O-H (2-)methylpropan-2-ol(1) Marks are stand alone Question Number 18(c) Acceptable Answers (CH3)2CHCH2OH OR correct displayed formula OR semi-displayed formula ALLOW CH3CH(CH3)CH2OH ALLOW missing bracket round CH3 in this version Ignore names (1) H H C H H Reject Missing hydrogen atoms Skeletal formula Mark 1 6CH02_01 1001 .

Question Number 18(d)(i) Acceptable Answers CH3CH2 CH(OH)CH3 (1) OR correct displayed formula OR semi-displayed formula Do not penalise missing bracket round OH Ignore names Reject Missing hydrogen atoms Skeletal formula Mark 1 Question Number 18(d)(ii) Acceptable Answers O H absorption / peak in 2-methylpropanoic H absorption / peak in Q Reject Mark 1 acid / No O ALLOW C O absorption / peak in 2-methylpropanoic O absorption / peak in Q acid / No C Ignore references to broad or sharp peaks and to the fingerprint region Question Number 18(e) Acceptable Answers PCl5 / PCl3 / conc HCl / SOCl2 / mixture of NaCl + H2SO4 / mixture of KCl + H2SO4 Ignore reference to concentration of H2SO4 OR Names Correct Answer White precipitate/ white solid Acceptable Answers Water has 2 hydrogen bonds per molecule (on average) whereas ethanol only has 1 (1) ALLOW Water has more hydrogen bonds (per molecule) than ethanol Needs more energy to break H bonds in water (so less soluble) / H bonding (ALLOW intermolecular forces) stronger in water (1) Second mark dependent on first. Ignore references to London. SOCl2(aq) Reject Mark 1 Question Number 18(f)(i) Question Number 18(f)(ii) QWC Mark 1 Mark 2 6CH02_01 1001 . dispersion and van der Waals forces Reject Reject Hydrogen chloride Conc hydrogen chloride HCl PCl5(aq). PCl3(aq).

001 (mol) Acceptable Answers 1.Question Number 19(a) Question Number 19(b)(i) Question Number 19(b)(ii) Acceptable Answers Starch (solution) Acceptable Answers I2 at start = 1 x 10-3 / 0.70 x 10-4 ) (1) Mass SO2 in 1 m3 = 64.70 x 10-4 (mol) (1) Mol SO2 = mol I2 = 3.1 x 3.6.30 x 10-4) = 3.00063 (mol) I2 (1) Correct answer with no working (2) Ignore SF except 1 SF Reject Mark 1 Reject Mark 1 Reject Mark 2 Question Number 19(b)(iii) Acceptable Answers I2 used = (1 x 10-3 .26 x 10-3 (mol) thiosulfate (1) 6.70 x 10-4 / 0.2) x 10-6 g = 2.1 x 3.2 / 237 / 240 µg) units required (∴ within limit) Allow TE from (iii) Ignore SF except 1 SF Reject Mark 2 Question Number 19(b)(iv) Reject Mark 2 Question Number 19(c)(i) Acceptable Answers Improved because titration may be repeated /averages could be taken ALLOW Smaller titration reading so greater (%) error Reject Mark 1 6CH02_01 1001 .37 x 10-4g (1) (= 237.3(0) x 10-4 / 0.70 x 10-4 /100 = 237(.00037 (mol) (1) Correct answer with no working (1) ALLOW TE from (i) and (ii) Ignore SF except 1 SF Acceptable Answers Mass SO2 in 100 m3 =(64.

Question Number 19(c)(ii) Acceptable Answers Larger titration reading (1) So smaller (%)error in titration reading (1) OR Smaller mass of sodium thiosulfate used to make solution (1) So greater %) error in the mass measurement (1) Second mark dependent on correct first or near miss Acceptable Answers Smaller titration reading as more I2 reacts/ less I2 left (1) So greater (%) error in titration reading (1) OR Second mark dependent on correct first or near miss) Smaller (%) error in measuring volume of air (1) Acceptable Answers (Strong) covalent bonds between atoms within the layers / good overlap of electron orbitals in layers (1) (Weak) London / dispersion / induced dipoleinduced dipole (ALLOW van der Waals) forces between layers (1) Acceptable Answers Within a layer. one electron per carbon is (ALLOW electrons are) delocalized (so electrons can move easily along layers) (1) Energy gap (ALLOW distance) between layers is too large for (easy) electron transfer (1) Acceptable Answers N has one more (outer shell) electron than C(1) Would increase number of (delocalised) electrons … contributing to the London / dispersion (ALLOW van der Waals) forces (1) OR holding layers together (1) Reject Mark 2 Question Number 19(c)(iii) Reject Mark 2 Question Number 20(a) QWC Reject Mark 2 Intermolecular forces alone Question Number 20(b) Reject Mark 2 Electrons between layers not delocalized Reject Mark 2 Question Number 20(c) Just London / dispersion / van der Waals) forces stronger 6CH02_01 1001 .

benzene or hydrogen 4. Hydrogen has to be stored 6. ‘smaller carbon footprint’ or ‘environmentally friendly’. Reject Mark 1 Question Number 20 (f) QWC Reject Mark 6 References to the ozone layer Question Number 20 (g) Acceptable Answers Delivering drugs to cells ALLOW Delivering drugs to specific / targeted parts of the body Catalyst with big surface area Reject Just drug delivery Mark 1 6CH02_01 1001 . CO2. Benzene toxic / carcinogenic 11.Question Number 20(d) Acceptable Answers No heat energy required / low energy requirement / high temperatures not needed / sunlight (which is renewable) could be used Ignore generalisations such as ‘greener’. is a greenhouse gas / causes global warming 9. Fossil fuel (oil or coal) used as source of energy. Fossil fuels non-renewable 7. ‘environmentally friendly’ ‘smaller carbon footprint’ cheaper or fossil fuels not used. Hydrogen has to be manufactured 5. Reject Mark 1 Question Number 20 (e) Acceptable Answers CO + 2H2 → CH3OH OR Structural and displayed formulae ALLOW CH4O for CH3OH Acceptable Answers Score 1 mark for each clearly made point 1. Reduces CO2 in atmosphere / recycles CO2 8. Beneficial if phenol useful / not beneficial if phenol a waste product Ignore generalisations such as ‘greener’. 100% atom economy in making methanol 12. Need energy to make benzene / catalyst / hydrogen 2. High energy / temperature / pressure needed for the reaction (ALLOW stated T or P) 3. CO toxic 10.

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