The Problem Of Equivalence In Translation Works Translation is the act that renders knowledge, whether literary or scientific, a mobile

form of culture. Such mobility, in turn, is what gives human understanding a deep and lasting influence beyond the borders of its original setting. Discussions related to the theory, practice, and history of translation have tended to focus on literary and holy texts. Yet translation has been a central determinant in the history of scientific knowledge as well, therefore a crucial element in its intellectual history, and continues to be so today. Despite such importance, science and medical translation has been a topic of only sporadic scholarly study. The so-called invisibility of the literary translator, whose labor and worth tend to be ignored in favor of the original author, doubly applies to the scientific translator, who has been neglected even by the field of translation studies, with a few important exceptions. These exceptions for example, concerning the transmission of ancient Greek and medieval Islamic science reveal an interesting truth: no less than with literary works, translators of science and medicine have often imposed new elements upon the texts they have rendered, enriching and expanding them by adaptation to new cultural contexts. Just as the world has benefited greatly from the translation of scientific and medical knowledge into many languages, so has this knowledge been advanced by translation in turn. At base, a physics paper in German cannot be perfectly copied into Chinese or Russian for the same fundamental reasons that this cannot be done for novels: differences in grammar, syntax, usage, etc. Interpretation is always involved in translation, and this includes scientific material. The scope of such interpretation has changed over time, for several reasons. One reason, for example, relates to the evolving character of scientific discourse itself, which, as noted, was quite diverse for most of its history. As translation theory evolved, however, the consensus view expanded to include cultural, interpretive, interpersonal, cognitive, and even technical factors as well. With the advent of the functionalist approach in translation theory, the function or purpose of translated texts as communicative tools moved into the center of attention, where it remains today. Although this article lacks space to even outline the great variety of factors that have been investigated to date, it is fair to say that translation studies as a field has moved radically in the direction of embracing an integrative approach to translation that sees itself as a multidiscipline with virtually no aspect of the communicative process being outside its scope of reference. Perhaps one of the most overriding shifts in translation theory has been from the static to the dynamic: from seeing the translation process as one of establishing equivalence between original and translated texts to seeing it instead as one of cognitive, social, and communicative action. Results of think-aloud studies on the mental processes involved in translation, focusing primarily on the interplay between intuitions and strategies, suggest that mental process research can be a fruitful source of knowledge about how experts and novices translate differently. Such research may well make valuable contributions to translation pedagogy in the future, for example in specifying a role for strategy and creativity training. In any event, against the backdrop of the modern understanding of translation, translation pedagogy can no longer be reduced to a simplistic performance magistrale, where a teacher can be expected to transmit the knowledge necessary to achieve linguistic equivalence. As in all other domains of human activity, the skills and knowledge needed to act need to be developed through the authentic practice of that professional domain.

it can maintain the stylistic impact of the SL text in the TL text. Nida and Taber. by circumlocutions The aim of this paper is to review the theory of equivalence as interpreted by some of the most innovative theorists in this field —Vinay and Darbelnet. if this procedure is applied during the translation process. House. there is an everincreasing awareness that translation experts must be actively engaged in the development of individually adapted skills for dealing with the myriad unforeseeable combinations of factors that they will definitely face in their professional work. Language like an ocean cannot be ever measured! Equivalence in Translation: Between Myth and Reality by Vanessa Leonardi he comparison of texts in different languages inevitably involves a theory of equivalence. Their theories will be analyzed in chronological order so that it will be easier to follow the evolution of this concept. This particular aspect seems to have been taken into consideration by the second group of theorists who regard translation equivalence as being essentially a transfer of the message from the SC to the TC and a pragmatic/semantic or functionally oriented approach to translation. later they note that glossaries and collections of idiomatic expressions . idioms. They also suggest that. nominal or adjectival phrases and the onomatopoeia of animal sounds. whilst using completely different wording' (ibid. whenever there is deficiency. and applicability within the field of translation theory have caused heated controversy. and finally Baker. equivalence is therefore the ideal method when the translator has to deal with proverbs.:255). These theories can be substantially divided into three main groups. Catford. relevance. With regard to equivalent expressions between language pairs. and many different theories of the concept of equivalence have been elaborated within this field in the past fifty years. and have provided fruitful ideas for further study on this topic. Vinay and Darbelnet claim that they are acceptable as long as they are listed in a bilingual dictionary as 'full equivalents' (ibid. using different approaches. However.Partly as a result of the equivalence-to-action shift in translation theory. Finally. who claims that equivalence is used 'for the sake of convenience—because most translators are used to it rather than because it has any theoretical status' (quoted in Kenny. 1. and finally. In the first there are those translation scholars who are in favour of a linguistic approach to translation and who seem to forget that translation in itself is not merely a matter of linguistics. the translator is also dealing with two different cultures at the same time.:342). According to them. 1998:77). there are other translation scholars who seem to stand in the middle. such as Baker for instance.1 Vinay and Darbelnet and their definition of equivalence in translation Vinay and Darbelnet view equivalence-oriented translation as a procedure which 'replicates the same situation as in the original. terminology may be qualified and amplified by loanwords or loan translations. These theorists have studied equivalence in relation to the translation process. In fact. Equivalence can be said to be the central issue in translation although its definition. clichés. neologisms or semantic shifts. Jakobson. when a message is transferred from the SL to TL.

they argue that even if the semantic equivalent of an expression in the SL text is quoted in a dictionary or a glossary. regardless of the cultural or grammatical differences between ST and TT. Both Vinay and Darbelnet as well as Jakobson conceive the translation task as something which can always be carried out from one language to another. They provide a number of examples to prove their theory. it is not enough.:234). rewording or paraphrase) Interlingual (between two languages) Intersemiotic (between sign systems) Jakobson claims that.: 255). Jakobson provides a number of examples by comparing English and Russian language structures and explains that in such cases where there is no a literal equivalent for a particular ST word or sentence. However. . 'translation involves two equivalent messages in two different codes' (ibid. They conclude by saying that 'the need for creating equivalences arises from the situation.:256). This means that in interlingual translations there is no full equivalence between code units. and it does not guarantee a successful translation.e. Both theories recognize the limitations of a linguistic theory and argue that a translation can never be impossible since there are several methods that the translator can choose. 1. i. terminology may be qualified and amplified by loanwords or loan-translations. in other words. Both theories stress the fact that. then it is up to the translator to choose the most suitable way to render it in the TT. if the expression appeared as a notice next to a basket of free samples in a large store. On the basis of his semiotic approach to language and his aphorism 'there is no signatum without signum' (1959:232). and it is in the situation of the SL text that translators have to look for a solution' (ibid. the translator makes use of synonyms in order to get the ST message across. and finally. the translator would have to look for an equivalent term in a similar situation and use the expression Échantillon gratuit (ibid. neologisms and the like. that the translator may face the problem of not finding a translation equivalent. He acknowledges that 'whenever there is deficiency. and the following expression appears in their list: Take one is a fixed expression which would have as an equivalent French translation Prenez-en un. by circumlocutions' (ibid. There seems to be some similarity between Vinay and Darbelnet's theory of translation procedures and Jakobson's theory of translation. the translator can rely on other procedures such as loan-translations. Indeed.'can never be exhaustive' (ibid. neologisms or semantic shifts. he suggests three kinds of translation: • • • Intralingual (within one language. but this does not mean that a translation cannot be possible. The role of the translator as the person who decides how to carry out the translation is emphasized in both theories.:233). According to his theory.2 Jakobson and the concept of equivalence in difference Roman Jakobson's study of equivalence gave new impetus to the theoretical analysis of translation since he introduced the notion of 'equivalence in difference'. whenever a linguistic approach is no longer suitable to carry out a translation. in the case of interlingual translation.:256). Jakobson goes on to say that from a grammatical point of view languages may differ from one another to a greater or lesser degree.

that is the text in the TL.It can be concluded that Jakobson's theory is essentially based on his semiotic approach to translation according to which the translator has to recode the ST message first and then s/he has to transmit it into an equivalent message for the TC. Dynamic equivalence is defined as a translation principle according to which a translator seeks to translate the meaning of the original in such a way that the TL wording will trigger the same impact on the TC audience as the original wording did upon the ST audience. He therefore strives to make sure that this message remains clear in the target text. 1. Nida and Taber make it clear that there are not always formal equivalents between language pairs. One can easily see that Nida is in favour of the application of dynamic equivalence. the product of the translation process. namely formal equivalence— which in the second edition by Nida and Taber (1982) is referred to as formal correspondence —and dynamic equivalence. his translation of the Bible. Only in Nida and Taber's edition is it clearly stated that 'dynamic equivalence in translation is far more than mere correct communication of information' (ibid:25).3 Nida and Taber: Formal correspondence and dynamic equivalence Nida argued that there are two different types of equivalence. formal correspondence distorts the grammatical and stylistic patterns of the receptor language.:201). This is perfectly understandable if we take into account the context of the situation in which Nida was dealing with the translation phenomenon. that is to say. of contextual consistency in the transfer. 1997). but as long as the change follows the rules of back transformation in the source language. so as to cause the receptor to misunderstand or to labor unduly hard' (ibid. Formal correspondence consists of a TL item which represents the closest equivalent of a SL word or phrase. Formal correspondence 'focuses attention on the message itself. Nida is much more interested in the message of the text or.4 Catford and the introduction of translation shifts Catford's approach to translation equivalence clearly differs from that adopted by Nida since . Despite using a linguistic approach to translation. the form of the original text is changed. as a more effective translation procedure. must have the same impact on the different readers it was addressing. 1982:200). They therefore suggest that these formal equivalents should be used wherever possible if the translation aims at achieving formal rather than dynamic equivalence. and hence distorts the message. In the second edition (1982) or their work. They argue that 'Frequently. the message is preserved and the translation is faithful' (Nida and Taber. in its semantic quality. 1. The use of formal equivalents might at times have serious implications in the TT since the translation will not be easily understood by the target audience (Fawcett. Nida and Taber themselves assert that 'Typically. the two theorists provide a more detailed explanation of each type of equivalence. and of transformation in the receptor language. Thus. in both form and content'. in other words. unlike dynamic equivalence which is based upon 'the principle of equivalent effect' (1964:159).

2. a verb may be translated with a noun. One of the problems with formal correspondence is that. The grammatical rank at which the translation equivalence is established (rank-bound translation vs.g. The levels of language involved in translation (total translation vs.e. grammar) has a TL equivalent at a different level (e. unbounded translation). 2. 3..:27). In rank-bound translation an equivalent is sought in the TL for each word. since this is the one that concerns the concept of equivalence. Catford defines them as 'departures from formal correspondence in the process of going from the SL to the TL' (ibid. as elaborated by Catford. restricted translation). Structure-shifts. whereby 'a competent bilingual informant or translator' is consulted on the translation of various sentences whose ST items are changed in order to observe 'what changes if any occur in the TL text as a consequence' (ibid. or for each morpheme encountered in the ST. In unbounded translation equivalences are not tied to a particular rank. He implements this by a process of commutation. Catford argues that there are two main types of translation shifts. For this reason we now turn to Catford's other dimension of correspondence.. a formal correspondence could be said to exist between English and French if relations between ranks have approximately the same configuration in both languages. i. which are based on the distinction between formal correspondence and textual equivalence. We will refer only to the second type of translation. Thus. clause and other levels. His main contribution in the field of translation theory is the introduction of the concepts of types and shifts of translation. while in the Caucasian language Kabardian there are apparently only four. which involve a grammatical change between the structure of the ST and that of the TT. As far as translation shifts are concerned.Catford had a preference for a more linguistic-based approach to translation and this approach is based on the linguistic work of Firth and Halliday. The extent of translation (full translation vs partial translation). .g. despite being a useful tool to employ in comparative linguistics. and we may additionally find equivalences at sentence. and we will then move on to analyze the notion of translation shifts. Class-shifts. it seems that it is not really relevant in terms of assessing translation equivalence between ST and TT. namely level shifts. Catford proposed very broad types of translation in terms of three criteria: 1. to be the equivalent of a given SL text or portion of text' (ibid. lexis).:28). Catford finds five of these ranks or levels in both English and French.:73). namely textual equivalence which occurs when any TL text or portion of text is 'observed on a particular occasion . and category shifts which are divided into four types: 1. as Catford claims they do. where the SL item at one linguistic level (e. when a SL item is translated with a TL item which belongs to a different grammatical class.

and the translation is not of a high quality.:80). House also argues that in this type of translation the ST 'is not specifically addressed to a TC audience' (ibid. and his example sentences 'isolated and even absurdly simplistic' (ibid. Central to House's discussion is the concept of overt and covert translations. In an overt translation the TT audience is not directly addressed and there is therefore no need at all to attempt to recreate a 'second original' since an overt translation 'must overtly be a translation' (ibid. By covert translation. the article has the same argumentative or expository force that it would if it had originated in the TL. since translating involves different cultures and different situations at the same time and they do not always match from one language to another. cultural and situational aspects.:49). functional equivalence cannot be maintained.3.* In fact. is addressed to a particular cultural or national group which the speaker sets out to move to action or otherwise influence.:203) sets out the types of ST that would probably yield translations of the two categories. House suggests that it is possible to characterize the function of a text by determining the situational dimensions of the ST. and the fact that it is a translation at all need not be made known to the readers. 4. she does not believe that linguistics is the only discipline which enables people to carry out a translation. which should be taken into consideration when translating. such as textual. After the ST analysis. She considers the concept of equivalence in translation as being an illusion. but when translation involves selection of a non-corresponding term in the TL system' (ibid. In fact. which is an instance of overt translation. as claimed by Catford for instance. She asserts that the translation process cannot simply be reduced to a linguistic exercise. if the ST and the TT differ substantially on situational features. For instance. House (ibid.:194). which involve changes in rank. but employ equivalent situational-dimensional means to achieve that function' (ibid. Catford was very much criticized for his linguistic theory of translation. House is in a position to evaluate a translation. One of the most scathing criticisms came from Snell-Hornby (1988).:19-20). she acknowledges that 'a translation text should not only match its source text in function.5 House and the elaboration of overt and covert translation House (1977) is in favour of semantic and pragmatic equivalence and argues that ST and TT should match one another in function. since there are also other factors. on the other hand. for instance. which occur when 'SL and TL possess systems which approximately correspond formally as to their constitution. An academic article. 1. and it is therefore intended that the ST and the TT function differently. whereas the TT merely informs outsiders what the speaker is saying to his or her constituency. Unit-shifts. then they are not functionally equivalent. In other words. his theory's reliance on bilingual informants 'hopelessly inadequate'. on the other hand. every text is in itself is placed within a particular situation which has to be correctly identified and taken into account by the translator. who argued that Catford's definition of textual equivalence is 'circular'.:189). Intra-system shifts. when the SL singular becomes a TL plural. is meant the production of a text which is functionally equivalent to the ST. A political speech in the SC. is unlikely to exhibit any features specific to the SC. . It is clear that in this latter case. according to her theory.

In fact. when the translator starts analyzing the ST s/he looks at the words as single units in order to find a direct 'equivalent' term in the TL. the purpose of the translation and the text type. including all different aspects of translation and hence putting together the linguistic and the communicative approach. the target audience. gender and tense (ibid. Amongst these grammatical devices which might cause problems in translation Baker focuses on number. she gives authentic examples. Implicature is not about what is explicitly said but what • • • . uses complete texts and. His or her decision will be guided by three main factors. that is. and several others) and made their appearance in the plethora of recent works in this field. She notes that grammatical rules may vary across languages and this may pose some problems in terms of finding a direct correspondence in the TL. when referring to the equivalence between a SL text and a TL text in terms of information and cohesion. when referring to implicatures and strategies of avoidance during the translation process.6 Baker's approach to translation equivalence New adjectives have been assigned to the notion of equivalence (grammatical. She explores the notion of equivalence at different levels. she relates linguistic features to the context of both source and target text. more importantly. 1. in a bottom-up approach to translation. Textual equivalence. In fact. This means that the translator should pay attention to a number of factors when considering a single word. An extremely interesting discussion of the notion of equivalence can be found in Baker (1992) who seems to offer a more detailed list of conditions upon which the concept of equivalence can be defined. such as number. when referring to the diversity of grammatical categories across languages. Texture is a very important feature in translation since it provides useful guidelines for the comprehension and analysis of the ST which can help the translator in his or her attempt to produce a cohesive and coherent text for the TC audience in a specific context.:11-12). Grammatical equivalence. in relation to the translation process. Baker acknowledges that.House's theory of equivalence in translation seems to be much more flexible than Catford's. In fact. These changes may induce the translator either to add or to omit information in the TT because of the lack of particular grammatical devices in the TL itself. she claims that different grammatical structures in the SL and TL may cause remarkable changes in the way the information or message is carried across. voice. Pragmatic equivalence. pragmatic equivalence. She distinguishes between: • Equivalence that can appear at word level and above word level. equivalence at word level is the first element to be taken into consideration by the translator. Baker gives a definition of the term word since it should be remembered that a single word can sometimes be assigned different meanings in different languages and might be regarded as being a more complex unit or morpheme. It is up to the translator to decide whether or not to maintain the cohesive ties as well as the coherence of the SL text. when translating from one language into another. person and gender. tense and aspects. textual.

the translated text). translation is a cover term with three distinguishable meanings: 1) translating. the translator needs to work out implied meanings in translation in order to get the ST message across. Introduction In any account of interlingual communication. and 3) translation: the abstract concept which encompasses both the process of translating and the product of that process Bell (1991: 13). PhD | Published 10/21/2008 | Translation Theory | Recommendation: Contact the author Quicklink: http://www. and the term interpretation to the spoken (Newmark. the process (to translate. The term has caused. Professionally. implied. heated debates within the field of translation profile 1. This term has been analyzed. PhD Indonesia English to Indonesian translator View all articles by Nababan. and it seems quite probable that it will continue to cause.g. 1991: 35). EQUIVALENCE IN TRANSLATION: SOME PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES By Nababan.proz. This equivalence relation is generally considered the most salient feature of a quality translation. The role of the translator is to recreate the author's intention in another culture in such a way that enables the TC reader to understand it clearly. translation is used as a generic term. and refers to both the product and process of translating. The first discussions of the notion of equivalence in translation initiated the further elaboration of the term by contemporary theorists. . the term translation is confined to the written. The term 'translation' used and discussed throughout this paper is confined to the written language. The difficulty in defining equivalence seems to result in the impossibility of having a universal approach to this notion. 2) a translation: the product of the process of translating (e. evaluated and extensively discussed from different points of view and has been approached from many different Author: Nababan. If confined to a written language. PhD See this author's ProZ. 1.7 Conclusion The notion of equivalence is undoubtedly one of the most problematic and controversial areas in the field of translation theory. the activity rather than the tangible object). The definitions of translation suggested above imply that producing the same meaning or message in the target language text as intended by the original author is the main objective of a translator. Even the brief outline of the issue given above indicates its importance within the framework of the theoretical reflection on translation. This notion of 'sameness' is often understood as an equivalence relation between the source and target texts. Therefore.

2000: 151). formal and aesthetic equivalence. Newmark (1981) makes a distinction between communicative and semantic translation. connotative. it may not be possible for translators to determine how audiences responded to the source text when it was first produced (ibid. then a simplified translation may well have greater impact on its readers that the original had on the readers in the source culture. Formal equivalence focuses attention on the message itself. Thirdly. Thus. 5. . No translator would hinder the reader's comprehension by using absolute expressions in order to achieve equivalent effect (Miao. According to these translation scholars: before one could objectively assess textual effects.Text-normative equivalence is related to text types. Nida (1964) suggests formal and dynamic or functional equivalence. especially between nearsynonyms. 3. or 'communicative equivalence'. Like Nida's dynamic equivalence. producing an objective effect on the target text readers. 2000: 202) Because the target text can never be equivalent to the source text at all levels. pragmatic. 4. textual. among other things. researchers have distinguished different types of equivalence (Lauscher. 47). one would need to have recourse to a fairly detailed and exact theory of psychological effect.Denotative equivalence is related to equivalence of the extralinguistic content of a text. 2. Higgins and Haywood (1995: 14). Koller (1997) proposes denotative.159). Miao (2000) gives a specific example of the impossibility of the equivalence relation: If an original was written centuries ago and the language of the original is difficult to comprehend for modern readers. 159). is oriented towards the receiver of the text or message.Connotative equivalence is related to the lexical choices. 14). Munday (2001) describes these five different types of equivalence as follows: 1. of giving an account of the aesthetic sensations that are often paramount in response to a text (Hervey. Firstly. Dynamic equivalence is based on the principle of equivalent effect. translation is a matter of subjective interpretation of translators of the source language text. which is the same as that on the source text readers is an unrealistic expectation. in both form and content. it is impossible for a text to have constant interpretations even for the same person on two occasions (Hervey. includes word plays and the individual stylistic features of the source text (p.Formal equivalence is related to the form and aesthetics of the text. Problems of Equivalence The principle that a translation should have an equivalence relation with the source language text is problematic. where the relationship between the receptor and message should be substantially the same as that which existed between the original receptors and the message (p.2. a theory capable. with texts behaving in different ways. p. Higgins and Haywood (1995: 14). Secondly. There are three main reasons why an exact equivalence or effect is difficult to achieve.Pragmatic equivalence. It requires that the message in the target language should match as closely as possible the different elements in the source language (p. communicative translation also tries to create the effect on the target text reader which is the same as that received by readers of the source language text.

have the word marhusip which literally means 'to whisper'.e. . Family members of the groom also do they same thing while deciding whether to accept or reject it. Bell (1991: 6) suggests a similar point that 'something' is always lost or. textual and pragmatic equivalences. information added to the translation is normally cultural (accounting for the differences between SL and TL culture).e. Due to semantic. 3. one might suggest. BasnettMcGuire (1991) states that once the principle is accepted that sameness cannot exist between the two languages. technical (relating to the topic). 27). The additional information may be put in the text (i. Native speakers of Batak Tapanuli language (the native language of Batak community in North Sumatra). grammatical differences between the source language and the target language. and in most cases the meaning(s) of a word can only be understood through its context of use. or linguistic (explaining wayward use of words). she begins with simple words and phrases and continues with grammatical. but additional information to clarify the meaning of marhusip is needed to help target readers understand its underlying concept. socio-cultural. for example. In the meeting. The equivalence problems emerge due to semantic. If the word marhusip is used in the context of discussing marriage within the community in question. According to Newmark (1988: 91). 1992) and is obligatory specification for comprehension purposes. 2) addition of information. These three areas of equivalence problems are intertwined with one another. and /or 3) skewing of information" (p. if the word men in Tannen is an apologist for men is translated into para pria in Indonesian. and grammatical differences between the source language and the target language. ranging from word to textual level. its meaning is more than 'to whisper'. for example. socio-cultural. These possibilities are expanded below. Adopting a bottom-up approach. and according to Nida (1975). it is possible to approach the question of loss and gain in the translation process (p.Baker (1992) classifies various problems of equivalence in translation and suggests some strategies to deal with them. "all types of translation involve 1) loss of information. Addition of information for specification purposes is also required "if ambiguity occurs in the receptor language formation and if the fact that greater specificity may be required so as to avoid misleading reference" (Nida.30). To conform to the stylistic demands and grammatical conventions of the target language. The meaning(s) that a word refers to are culturally bound. family members of the bride whisper with one another while deciding the amount of dowry they ask from the groom. Such additional information is regarded as an extra explanation of culture-specific concepts (Baker. loss and addition of information in translation cannot be avoided. Strategies to solve problems of equivalence As has been mentioned above. 1964: 227). In this context. It refers specifically to a situation where family members of the bride meet family members of the groom to talk about the dowry. problems of equivalence occur at various levels. The reason is that it does not actually refer to men in general but to American men in particular. gained in the process.1 Addition of information Information which is not present in the source language text may be added to the target language text. by using a footnote or annotation). 3. It would be misleading. by putting it in brackets) or out of the text (i. structural adjustment in translation is inevitably needed. the word marhusip may be translated into 'to whisper'.

It is by convention the Indonesian transitive verb membulatkan. Addition of information may also be required due to the shift of voice and the alteration of word classes to avoid misinterpretation (Nida. If the meaning conveyed by a particular item or expression is not vital enough to the development of the text to justify distracting the reader with lengthy explanations. The adjective adjustable in I have an adjustable chair is changed or translated into an adjective clause yang dapat disetel (which can be adjusted) in which the addition of yang (which) is obligatory to achieve grammaticality. If translated into Indonesian. an addition of information of suatu angka yang berada pada dua batas kategori (a number lying between two categories) and alteration of word class (the active verb membulatkan into the passive verb dibulatkan) are required to achieve grammaticality and produce an explicit meaning for Indonesian readers. is implicitly stated and can easily be understood by readers of the original text (See Nababan. The word cut in I cut my finger is an active voice. . as the equivalence of to round. the meaning of the sentence. 1992: 40). There are cases where omission is required to avoid redundancy and awkwardness (Nida. 1989 and 1999) If translated into Indonesian. the word class should be changed into a passive one. She states further that this strategy may sound rather drastic.g. a number lying between two categories is rounded to the nearest even number. 227). There are also cases where two languages use a different class of words and a different level of utterances to denote the same meaning. 1992: 40). Back-translation: According to the rule. tersayat (was cut) and the addition of oleh pisau (with knife) is needed if a native speaker of Indonesian means that he or she did it by accident. translators can and often do simply omit translating the word or expression in question (Baker.who became the focus of Tannen's study on male-female interactions. 2003). suatu angka yang berada pada batas dua kategori dibulatkan ke angka genap terdekat. that sentence should be rendered into: Target sentence: Menurut aturan pembulatan ini. The category of plural in English is both morphologically conditioned (e. In a given context. needs an object. 3. 1964: 228) and this strategy is particularly applied if the source language tends be a redundant language. 1964: 227). Nida (1964) states that 'important semantic elements carried implicitly in the source language may require explicit identification in the receptor language' (p. In relation to this.2 Deletion of information Baker (1992: 40) refers to deletion as "omission of a lexical item due to grammatical or semantic patterns of the receptor language" (Baker. This rule is to round to the nearest even number. It can be argued that translators should add the word Amerika to the Indonesian version to avoid ambiguity or to avoid a misleading interpretation of the outcomes of the study by Indonesian readers (Nababan. but in fact it does no harm to omit translating a word or expression in some contexts. Amplification from implicit to explicit status is another factor that requires additions. In such case.

3.child/children. deletion may also refer to pieces of content rather than restructuring for grammatical purposes. Structural adjustment Structural adjustment is another important strategy for achieving equivalence. Once a given noun is in the plural form. Newmark (1988: 85-87) divides the shift of forms into four types. will not include unimportant information in his or her writing.3. the noun in question should be in the singular form or the repetition of the noun should be avoided. If the 'double' expression of such category is reflected in Indonesian.e. for example. Translators are not an exception. An adjective in Indonesian always comes before a noun. including: 1) to permit adjustment of the form of the message to the requirements of structure of the receptor language. In some circumstances. to alter the forms. mouse/mice). The English sentence The man to whom she is talking on the phone lives in Jakarta can be translated literally into Laki-laki kepada siapa dia sedang berbicara di telepon tinggal di Jakarta. and 4) to carry an equivalent communication load. Structural adjustment. 2) to produce semantically equivalent structures. Therefore. anyone who reads such a text should consider that all information in the text is important. The alteration of form may mean changes of categories. a difficult text) or before and after a noun (i. for example. In English. As implicitly stated by Baker (1992: 40) above. This literal translation is accurate in content but doesn't sound Indonesian .e. pen/pens). The third type of shift is the one where literal translation is grammatically possible but may not accord with natural usage in the TL. and phonologically conditioned (e. for example. and word orders. three pens). a difficult text available in the library). 1965) or transposition (see Vinay and Darbellnet.g. such cohesive devices always occur at the beginning of a sentence. may occur before a noun (i. Bell (1991: 6) states that to shift from one language to another is. In Indonesian. Anyone who writes an academic text. Similarly. 1988: 85). That is to say that this notion of information deletion should not be used as 'an excuse' to hide the inability of translators to understand and transfer message of the original text. A second type of shift is required when a SL grammatical structure does not exist in the TL. The position of an adjective in English. It is by convention that the category of plural in Indonesian is lexically formed by repetition of the noun buku-buku (book-book) or by adding a noun quantifier such as beberapa (some) or tiga (three). the quantifier has to be deleted. word classes. a plural noun is also preceded by a determiner showing plurality (some books. a difficult text and a difficult text available in the library should be translated into sebuah teks sulit (a difficult text) and sebuah teks sulit yang tersedia di perpustakaan itu (a difficult text which is available in the library or a difficult text available in the library) respectively. redundancy will occur. To conform to natural usage in Indonesian. cohesive devices such as however and nevertheless may be put at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. has various purposes. 1977) or alteration (see Newmark. once there exists a quantifier denoting plurality. book/books. Similarly. Structural adjustment which is also called shift (see Catford. On the other hand. according to Nida (1964: 226). One type of shift is the change from singular to plural or in the position of adjective. 3) to provide equivalent stylistic appropriateness. the structure of the sentence should be adjusted into . Such a deletion of expressions or information is debatable in relation to the translation of academic texts. box/boxes. 1988) refers to a change in the grammar from SL to TL (Newmark. however. they should read the text as the original reader or a non-translator reader reads it. by definition.

_________. W. Higgins. W. 191-222. The fourth type of transposition is the replacement of a virtual lexical gap by a grammatical structure (see Newmark. “The limitations of equivalent effect”. and Darbelnet. ______. 1999. M.. Towards a Science of Translating. J. The prepositional phrase in red in The woman in red is my wife is altered into an adjective clause yang berbaju merah (who wears the red clothes). 2000. 1991.P.Laki-laki yang sedang berbicara dengannya di telpon tinggal di Jakarta (The man who is talking to her on the phone lives in Jakarta).T. Hervey. About Translation. 1991. London: Sage Publication. London: Longman. Thinking Spanish Translation: A Course in Translation Method: Spanish into English. Introducing Translation Studies. 1992. Vinay. Bell. Stylistique Comparee du Francois et de L’angalis. New York: Routledge. New Zealand. Walizer dan Paul. 1965. New York: Methuen & Co. Nababan. Unpublished Ph. I. Victoria University of Wellington. J. The preposition with in I am married with three young girls is changed into a conjunction dan (and). 1988.1991. Approaches to Translation. In addition to the types of alteration described above. Koller. 1965.C. E. 1981. London: Longman. shifts from one class of words to another or from word level to phrase or clause level) are also required due to grammatical differences between the source and target languages. “The concept of equivalence and the object of translation studies”. Ltd. _________. 2001. P. 1975. alterations of word classes (i. London. Newmark. Thesis. 2003. In Other Words: A Coursebook on Translation. 1964. and the verb mempunyai needs to be added in Indonesian. 3. Oxford: Pergamon Press Nida. Translation Studies. M. Surakarta: Universitas Sebelas Maret. Target. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. Schools of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies. Vol. J. Leiden: Brill.. Ltd. Bassnett-McGuire. Miao. Teori Menerjemah Bahasa Inggris. 7 (2). “Analisis terjemahan buku Research Methods and Analysis: Searching for Relationship karya Michael H. J. 1995. M. “Translation Processes. Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice. 1988: 87). California: Standford University Press. A Textbook of Translation. New York: Prentice-Hall International. J. Great Britain: Longdunn Press. Practices and Products of Professional Indonesian Translators. L. References Baker.R. Wienir ke dalam bahasa Indonesia oleh Sadiman dan Hutagaol”. Unpublished Thesis. R. S. London. 1995.e. Perspectives: Studies in Translatology. .1989. __________. __________. 8. No. New York: Routledge. Paris: Didier. Standford. and Haywood. Catford. S.D. Munday. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar. Language Structure and Translation. 197-205.

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