Tourism Concept.

Pankaj Gairola


Amit Sharma (Ernest and Young) Director learning and development. Gunjan Sharma (Marriott director finance Asia Pacific) Amit Midda ( Director finance genpact)


x Sustainable tourism is an industry
committed to making a low impact on the environment and local culture, while helping to generate future employment for local people. x The positive of sustainable tourism is to ensure that development is a positive experience for local people; tourism companies; and tourists themselves

Responsible tourism.
x The pillars of responsible tourism are
therefore the same as those of sustainable tourism – environmental integrity, social justice and economic development. x It is more than a form of tourism as it represents an approach to engaging with tourism, be that as a tourist, a business, locals at a destination or any other tourism stakeholder.


Sustainable Tourism vs Responsible Tourism. Sustainable tourism is where tourists can enjoy their holiday and at the same time respect the culture of people and also respect the environment. All stakeholders are responsible for the kind of tourism they develop or engage in 5 .

1 2 3 4 Resource Maintenance Production Distribution Consumption 6 .Essential economic activity.

To oversimplify. 7 . the cobbler may need new horseshoes. the blacksmith may need a new coat. Early civilizations developed money as a medium of exchange for these increasingly complex transactions. Living in one place allows people to accumulate more personal possessions than nomadic people. redistributive taxation. and the tanner may need a new pot.Essential economic activity. tariffs or tithes from the food producing segment of the population. or private ownership of the land. These people may not be personally acquainted with one another and their needs may not occur all at the same time. Because a percentage of people in civilizations do not grow their own food. the potter may need a new roof. In a city. Some people also acquire landed property. A monetary system is a way of organizing these obligations to ensure that they are fulfilled fairly. the roofer may need new shoes. in a village the potter makes a pot for the brewer and the brewer compensates the potter by giving him a certain amount of beer. they must trade their goods and services for food in a market system. or receive food through the levy of tribute.

A capital stock is a quantity of any resource that is valued for its potential economic contributions. preserving. or improving the stocks of resources that form the basis for the preservation and quality of life.” 8 . Capital stocks are also often referred to as “capital assets.Resource Maintenance Resource maintenance means tending to.

9 . Production is the conversion of resources into usable products. which may be either goods or services.Production The second of the four basic economic activities is production.

In contemporary economies.Distribution Distribution is the sharing of products and resources among people. distribution activities take two main forms: exchange and transfer. 10 .

goods are literally “consumed” in the sense that they are used up and are no longer available for other uses. such as enjoying art in a museum. In other cases. such as eating a meal or burning gasoline in a car. In some cases.Consumption Consumption refers to the process by which goods and services are. the experience may be "consumed" without excluding others or using up material resources. 11 . at last. put to final use by people.

Tourism as an essential economic activity. Tourism industry possesses all the elements of essential economic activity hence it is also a part of the essential economic activity. 12 .

served as the political and economic center of the Mayan civilization The Pyramid at Chichén Itzá (before 800 A.) Yucatan Peninsula.Chichén Itzá. Mexico 13 .D. the most famous Mayan temple city.

Brazil 14 . atop the Corcovado mountain overlooking Rio de Janeiro.This statue of Jesus stands some 38 meters tall. Christ Redeemer (1931) Rio de Janeiro.

the Incan Emperor Pachacútec built a city in the clouds on the mountain known as Machu Picchu ("old mountain"). This extraordinary settlement lies halfway up the Andes Plateau. It was rediscovered by Hiram Bingham in 1911. It was probably abandoned by the Incas because of a smallpox outbreak and. deep in the Amazon jungle and above the Urubamba River. 15 .In the 15th century. after the Spanish defeated the Incan Empire. the city remained 'lost' for over three centuries.

) Rome. The Roman Colosseum (70 .This great amphitheater in the centre of Rome was built to give favors to successful legionnaires and to celebrate the glory of the Roman Empire. Italy 16 .D.82 A.

000. had space for an audience of 4. 17 .C. to 40 A. Masters of water technology. A theater. modelled on Greek-Roman prototypes. the Nabataeans provided their city with great tunnel constructions and water chambers. Petra was the glittering capital of the Nabataean empire of King Aretas IV (9 B.D.On the edge of the Arabian Desert.).

1644 A.The Great Wall of China was built to link existing fortifications into a united defense system and better keep invading Mongol tribes out of China.D.C and 1368 . The Great Wall of China (220 B.) China 18 .

x Objective:maximize revenue (minimize loss of resources / conservation of environment) x “Science of managing the stress on remaining biologically diverse habitats.Global economists forecast continuing international tourism growth. indigenous cultures. depending on the location Integrated management of capacity & conservation. ranging between three and six percent annually. and protecting tourism as an industry 19 . destinations.

Air Ship Zeppelin 20 .History of tourism and transportation.

35 people died Hindenburg Disaster Crusing Speed of airships (80 mi/h) 21 . Of the 97 people on board.Lakehurst. New Jersey.

22 .

Modern cruise liners. 23 .

Recreational tourism 24 .

San Francisco.Fisherman’s Wharf/Golden Gate National Recreation Area. CA 25 .

and Toronto 26 . N.Niagara Falls.Y.

C. America’s most visited national park is neither the Grand Canyon nor Yosemite.Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Tenn. The natural beauty and the four distinct seasons enjoyed in the GSMNP is unmatched! 27 ./N.

28 .

Designed by Gustave Eiffel for the 1889 World Fair. originally built as a tempory structure to commemorate the centenary of the French Revolution. 29 . at 300m it was then the world's tallest building.

7 wonders of the world. 30 .

Newzeland adventure capital of the world. Excursionist : A tourist or traveler 31 .

. Rainbow Springs Nature Park. Otago Peninsula Wildlife Tour from Dunedin 32 . Maori Hangi (feast) and Concert.Waitomo Glowworm Caves.TranzCoastal Train Journey.Milford Sound Cruise. TranzAlpine Train . Scenic Interislander Cruise. Agrodome Farm Show.

and now the city . outside the gates of which the village .  (Life style capital of the world) The Chateau of Versailles (commonly called Versailles) is a royal chateau.of Versailles. 33 .France is the top tourist destination of the world.

SEA AND SAND) Spain is famous for Canary Islands. (SUN.Spain is famous for leisure tourism. 34 . Malaga and several Other Mediterranean Islands. Majorca.

securing and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives. organizing. Project management is the discipline of planning.Demand for sustainable Tourism Using the principles of Marketing and Project management we can forecast demand and design a suitable tourism product. 35 .

Program management is the process of managing several related projects. In practice and in its aims it is often closely related to Systems engineering.Development of Sustainable tourism is rather more complex thus it is complete program management. 36 . often with the intention of improving an organization's performance.

uniforms. (Tourism product) The theme of the destination should be based on sustainable tourism. construction. décor. it should be completely compatible with guest needs and consistent in all respect. This technique helps guest to identify with the theme. 37 . Most themes adopt a human civilization or environment scheme that is repeated on all items.Theme of the destination. Moreover. posters etc.

38 . Sociological. Physiological.needs. Maslow’s Hiarchy basis for understanding consumers' motives for action. Psychological.

39 . Remodel your tourism product on the basis of market survey and target market. Conduct a preliminary market survey to study the customer response. Identify different market segmentation.Market Survey and Segmentation Prepare a rough outline of few sustainable tourism product.

the services offered and the variety of experience and destination. Another feature of this could be high degree of expectation of the planners and the tourist. Tourism product generally include a combination of goods and services. Above all it is even more difficult to minimize the negative impacts of tourism the planners always need to be on there toes to achieve the desired result.Nature of Tourism Product. The challenge is intangibility of the product offered. 40 .

41 . need and benefits should exceed all cost.e. target market and customer needs. There should be a sufficient demand.Design specification. Product blue print should be prepared on the basis of market survey. Availability of sufficient funds and the justification of financial outlay i. SWOT analysis.

Do we have enough infrastructure? 42 . The following points are to be answered : 1.Is the host community supportive and involved? 4.Do we have the skills required to plan and run the sustainable tourism business? 3.Is the new product a good idea? 2.FEASIBILITY The feasibility of tourism concept The key to success: The adaptability of the product to the marketing situations.

What are the risks. 43 .Feasibility Environmental cost and impacts. Program may need to deliver tangible benefits quickly. Sociological impacts. Impact on agriculture and other industries. Identify training needs.

which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. 44 .Promotion and Advertising Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding.

45 .

Marketing Product • Pricing Distribution • Service • Retail Brand management Account-based marketing Marketing ethics Marketing effectiveness Market research Market segmentation Marketing strategy Marketing management Market dominance Marketing process outsourcing 46 .

Promotional content Advertising • Branding • Underwriting Direct marketing • Personal Sales Product placement • Publicity Sales promotion • Sex in advertising Promotional media Printing • Publication • Broadcasting Out-of-home • Internet marketing Point of sale • Promotional items Digital marketing • In-game In-store demonstration • Brand Ambassador Word of mouth • Drip Marketing 47 .

48 .

Increase in foreign trade. Improvement in transportation. 49 .Economic Impacts of Tourism. Growth of crafts & industrial production. communication and medical facility. Rise in Inflation and scarcity of resources. Improvement in Infrastructure. Generate employment. Rise in GDP and per capita Income.

Land slides and erosion of soil. sound) Loss of flora and fauna.Environmental Impacts Rise in pollution (Land. Air. 50 . Rise in carbon dioxide emissions global warming. and coral reefs. Water.

Get money for conservation efforts. Creation of new protected areas for eco tourism. Create awareness and educate people on environmental issues. 51 .Positive impacts on the environment.

Social and cultural impacts.
Evolution of new blended cultures. Change in life style, education and standard of living. Artificial behavior or demonstration effect. Cultural degradation or loss of culture. Rise in illegal activity and crimes such as drugs, liquor, prostitution etc.


Political Impacts.
Improvement in foreign relations at governmental level as well as people to people level. Political activism ( opposition of land acquisitions and new project works ) Rise in terrorism ( Bali bombings, Egypt massacre of tourist )


Forms of travel agency business
Sole Proprietorship Partnership Corporate firm (public, private, Govt., Holding and subsidiary, MNC)


Carrying capacity.
The carrying capacity of a biological species in an environment is the population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water and other necessities available in the environment


and medical care are sometimes considered as part of the necessary establishment. waste decomposition. more complex variables such as sanitation.Carrying capacity from Human Perspective. For the human population. 56 .

Tourism carrying capacity. The World Tourism Organisation argues that carrying capacity is the maximum number of people who may visit a tourist destination 57 .

58 .

48 ha in 1951 to 0.89 ha in 1951 to 0.Per capita land availability 100mt. The per capita availability of agriculture land has declined from 0. Per capita land availability in India has declined from 0. The declining availability of per capita land resources is further exacerbated by degradation and desertification of land. Is one hectare.14 ha in 2001. 59 .3 ha in 2001. At the same time decline in area of common land resources affect the livelihood system of marginal farmers. X 100mt. landless and livestock dependent people of whom women constitute a substantial portion.

World population growth rate and future estimate. a 60 .

61 .Sustainable Development. Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present. but also for future generations.

62 .Field of sustainability. The field of sustainable development can be conceptually broken into three constituent parts: environmental sustainability economic sustainability and sociopolitical sustainability.

e. Benefits of natural or social capital depletion can usually be privatized the costs are often externalized (i. they are borne not by the party responsible but by society in general) Natural capital is often undervalued by society since we are not fully aware of the real cost of the depletion of natural capital.Why there is no systematic solution to the problem. 63 .

in the Swiss Alps (situation in 1979. 1991 and 2002). due to global warming 64 .

Proprietorship Partnership Regulating Act None Management Legal Financial Resources Existence Tax Return Liability Owner No-separate Small Uncertain One Unlimited 1932 Partners No-separate Medium Uncertain One Unlimited None Company 1956 Professional Experts Separate Larger Perpetual Two Limited Compulsory65 Audit Accounts None .Forms of travel agency.

Types of tour packages Independent tours (separate components) Escorted tours Hosted Tours Incentives Travel/Tours (fully paid) Freedom tours or tailor made holidays 66 .

67 . Purpose of tour (objective). Tour Reference tools. Rate. inflationary condition ex.Tour formulation factors affecting tour design. Departure and stay information. Choice of destinations Tourist Budget Legal Requirements Types of tourist accommodation. Feasability. Tour price . Tour period.

Set up booking procedures and offices. benefit. Advertising and promotion. (supplier negotiations) Tour costing and pricing. destination and market) Develop itineraries (few distinct itineraries) Chose destination companies. 68 . cost. Initial research (need. Actual operation of tour.Tour Design and selection process.

Tour bags. valet services and airport lounges. travel kits and surprise gifts. car parking.Tour Components Tour escorts and guides. Transfers. Printed information and stationary. entry passes. cruise packages. visa and documentation charges. train tkts. 69 . Child supplements. meal supplements. sightseeing. Car hire. Travel insurance. Hotels and meal plans. SPA. Airfares. refreshments..

finance. taxes and others? 70 .Market Research. Geographic location of customers. Competition. Characteristics of current or previous clients. Customer needs. Attributes & preferences of potential buyers. permission. market size & segmentation and your own target. restrictions.. Constraints viz. benefits & cost or price that a customer is willing to pay. license.

Simultaneity. A service is a set of singular and perishable benefits. Inseparability.Service characteristics Intangibility. Variability. Perish ability. 71 .

Service Specification Service Consumer Benefits Service-specific Functional Parameters Service Delivery Point Service Consumer Count Service Delivering Readiness Times Service Support Times Service Support Languages Service Fulfillment Target Service Impairment Duration per Incident Service Delivering Duration Service Delivery Unit Service Delivering Price 72 .

73 . These include: • Product • Price • Place • Promotion • People • Process • Physical evidence. The service marketing mix comprises off the 7’p’s.Service marketing mix.

74 .

Promotion. Advertising. change in exchange rates ) Indirect cost (Administration.Tour costing Direct cost like ( tour components. Printing and publishing.) 75 . stationary etc.

location. Means of transport. Name of the travel company. Price & Booking. Itinerary. Details about destinations and attractions.. supplements. currency. Name of the overseas representatives. meal plan.Tour brochure. Travel documents required. Accommodation types. 76 . reservation and xxl conditions.Ins. Other services.

tax. Foreign exchange. Visa.Pre-Departure Necessities. travelers cheque. Stationary and postal material. gift certificates. Passport. ECNR and EC. custom. 2 copies of each travel doc. Tour vouchers. 77 .

Types of contracts Hotel allocation Hotel blocking Group booking Group fares Cat 35 Negotiated fares Consolidated fares 78 .

Seasonal fares Companion fares Family fares Inclusive tour fare 79 .

80 . Most states of India have a Tourism Development Board which provides information and infrastructure to the tourists visiting the state. It consists of 28 States and 7 Union Territories.State Tourism Departments India is a beautiful country with a varied topography and a rich cultural heritage.

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