# TUTORIAL CHAPTER 1 1. Define the term i. measurement ii. Instrumentation iii. Error iv. Precision 2.

State three (3) functions of measuring instruments. 3. State 4 categories the standards of measurement. 4. Static errors are categorized as gross error, systematic error and random error. Explain briefly three types of systematic error. 5. An experiment was conducted to measure audio frequency from a speaker. Table1shows the set of 4 measurements that were conducted. Calculate: i. The arithmetic mean ii. Deviation from the mean for each data iii. Standard deviation Measurement number 1 2 3 4 Table1 6. An experiment was conducted to measure voltage across a resistor. The results obtained are shown in Table2. Calculate: i. The value of dT.d2.d3, d4 and d5 ii. The average deviation iii. The standard deviation iv. Which measurement is the most precise? Why? Audio frequency (KHz) 29.5 31.0 32.1 30.6

Measurement number 1 2 3 4 5

Voltage (V) 10.2 9.5 9.8 10.1 10.0 Table2

Deviation, d d1= d2= d3= d4= d5=

and the following values for the resonant frequency of the circuit were recorded. The average deviation 2 marks iv. The precision of the first measurement 2 marks vi. iv. The decade resistor box was used in an error analysis of circuit shown in Figure1. Calculate i. determine: i. The deviation of each value 4 marks iii. The arithmetic mean 2 mark ii. Figure 1 The total resistance of the circuit. If the decade resistor is set to 5500  ±10%. v. The standard deviation 3 marks v. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Resonant Frequency (kHz) 132 148 143 135 146 131 143 136 .7. iii. The precision of the second measurement 2 marks vii. ii. Which one is most precise? (compare between v and vi)1 marks Reading No. RT The expected total current IT The total power dissipated in the circuit percentage error for RT The maximum and minimum percentage of error for RT 8. A circuit was tuned for resonance by eight difference students.

Which of the below measurement is the most precise? Reading No. Calculate the precision of the sixth measurement. The following set of 8 measurements was recorded in the laboratory. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Resonant Frequency (kHz) 98 102 101 97 100 103 99 107 .9. i) ii) Compute the arithmetic mean. the average deviation and standard deviation for the readings.