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Continuous-wave Modulation

Problem 2.1

(a) Let the input voltage vi consist of a sinusoidal wave of frequency ~ f c (i.e., hal f the desired carrier frequency) and the message signal m( t):

v. = A cos Or f t)+m(t)

1 C C

Then, the output current io is io = a1 vi + a3 vi

= a1 [A cos(lT f t)+m( t.) ]+a3[A cos(lT f thm( t)] 3

c c c c

= a1 [Accos(lTfct)+m(t)] + ia3A~ [cos(3rrfct)+3coS(lTfct)]

+ ~t~ m(t)[1+cos(2rrfct)] + 3a3AcCOS(lTfct)i(t) + a3m3(t)

Assume that met) occupies the frequency interval -W < f < W. Then, the amplitude spectrum of the output current i is as shown below.


I (f) o

3f c

-W 0 W

3f c






From this diagram we see that in order to extract a OSBSe wave, with carrier frequency f c

fran i , we need a band-pass filter with mid-band frequency f and bandwidth Zvl, which

o c

satisfy the requirement:

that is,

Therefore, to use the given nonlinear device as a product mmodulator, we may use the following configuration:

A cos(1Tf t)

c c

m (t)




3'a A2 met) COS(21Tf t)

'2 3 c c

(b) To generate an AM wave with carrier frequency fc we require a sinusoidal component of frequ'ency f to be added to the DSBSe generated in the manner described above. To achieve

. c _

thi s requirement, we may use the following configuration involving a pair of the nonlinear

devices and a pair of identical band-pass filters.

A cos (1Tf t)

c c

m (t)




A cos(1Tf t)

c c




AM wave


3 2

The resulting AM wave is therefore 2" a3 Ac[AO+m(t)]coS(2rrfct). Thus, the choice of the dc

level AO at the input of the lower branch controls the percentage modulation of the AM wave.

Problem 2.2

Consider the square-law characteristic:


where al and ~ are constants. Let


Therefore substitutingEq. (2) into (1), and expanding terms:

v~t) • a1A.r + ~: m(t)] COS(211fct)

+ alm(t) + a2m 2(t) + a2Ac2cos2(21tfct)


The first term in Eq. (3) is the desired AM signal with ka = 2az!al. The remaining three terms are unwanted terms that are removed by filtering.

Let the modulating wave m(t) be limited to the band -W < f~ W, as in Fig. 1(a). Then, from Eq. (3) we find that the amplitude spectrum lv 2(0 I is as shown in Fig. 1(b). It follows therefore that the unwanted terms may be removed from v2(t.) by designing the tuned filter at the modulator output of Fig. P'2.2 to have a mid-band frequency fc and bandwidth 2W, which satisfy the requirement that fc> 3W ..




-w 0

Figure 1


Problem 2.3

The generation of an AM wave may be accomplished using various devices; here we describe one such device called a switching modulator. Details of this modulator are shown in Fig. P2.3a, where it is assumed that the carrier wave c(t) applied to the diode is large in amplitude, so that it swings right across the characteristic curve of the diode. We assume that the diode acts as an ideal switch, that is, it presents zero impedance when it is forward-biased [corresponding to c(t) > 0]. We may thus approximate the transfer characteristic of the diode-load resistor combination by a piecewise-linear characteristic, as shown in Fig. P2.3b. Accordingly, for an input voltage "i (t)

consisting of the sum of the carrier and the message signal:


where Im(t)1 «AC' the resulting load voltage v2(t) is

( ) _ { VI (t),

V2 t -


c(t) > 0 c(t) < 0


That is, the load voltage v2(t) varies periodically between the values VI (t) and zero at a rate equal to the carrier frequency fe In this way, by assuming a modulating wave that is weak compared with the carrier wave, we have effectively replaced the nonlinear behavior of the diode by an approximately equivalent piecewise-linear time-varying operation.

We may express Eq. (2) mathematically as


where gT (t) is a periodic pulse train of duty cycle equal to one-half, and period To = 1lfc' as in


Fig. 1. Representing this gT (t) by its Fourier series, we have


1 2 00 ( 1) n-I

gT (t) = -2 + - L; 1 cos [2nfct(2n -1)]

o n n-



Therefore, substituting Eq. (4) in (3), we find that the load voltage v2(t) consists of the sum of two components:

1. The component


which is the desired AM wave with amplitude sensitivity ka = 4nAC' The switching modulator is therefore made more sensitive by reducing the carrier amplitude Ae; however, it must be maintained large enough to make the diode act like an ideal switch.

2. Unwanted components, the spectrum of which contains delta functions at 0, ±2fC' ±4fe' and so on, and which occupy frequency intervals of width 2W centered at 0, ±3fC' ±5fC' and so on, where W is the message bandwidth.

Fig. 1: Periodic pulse train

The unwanted terms are removed from the load voltage v2(t) by means of a band-pass filter with mid-band frequency t; and bandwidth 2W, provided thatfe > 2W This latter condition ensures that the frequency separations between the desired AM wave the unwanted components are large enough for the band-pass filter to suppress the unwanted components.


Problem 2.4

(a) The envelope detector output is

vet) = A 11+ llcos(2rrf t) 1

c m

which is illustrated below for the case when II =2.

v Ct)

3A c


2 1 1

3f 2f 3f

In In In


1 3f In

1 2

2f 3f

In In

1 f In

We see that vet) is periodic with a period equal to f , and an even function of t, and so

we may express vet) in the form: m


v( t) = aO + 2 I: an cos(2n1T fmt) n=1



aO = 2f f m v( t)d t

m 0

1/3f 1/2f

= 2A f f m [1+2 cos(2rrf t)]dt + 2A f J m [-1-2cos(2rrf t)]dt

c mO' m c m 1 /3f m


A 4A

= ~ + 1T c Sin(2'3)



an = 2f f m v( t ) cos(2mr f t) dt



= 2Acfm f m [1+2cos(2nfmt)]cos(2mrfmt)dt



1 !2f

+ 2A f J m [-1-2cos(2'rrf t)]cos(2mrf t)dt

c m 1/3f m m


Ac 2 Ac 'l-

rm [2 sine ~) - sin(nrr)] + (n+1)1T {2 sin[~(n+1)] - sin[1T(n+1)]}

Ac 2'rr

+ (n-1)1T {2 sin[3"(n-1)] - sin[1T(n-1)]}


For n=O, Eq. (2) reduces to that shown in Eq. (1).

(b) For n= 1, Eq. (2) yields

A (n + 1.)

a 1 = c 21T 3

For n=2, it yields

Therefore, the ratio of second-harmonic amplitude to fundamental amplitude in vet) is






Problem 2.5

(a) The demodulation of an AM wave can be accomplished using various devices; here, we describe a simple and yet highly effective device known as the envelope detector. Some version of this demodulator is used in almost all commercial AM radio receivers. For it to function properly, however, the AM wave has to be narrow-band, which requires that the carrier frequency be large compared to the message bandwidth. Moreover, the percentage modulation must be less than 100 percent.

An envelope detector of the series type is shown in Fig. P2.5, which consists of a diode and a resistor-capacitor (Rf") filter. The operation of this envelope detector is as follows. On a positive half-cycle of the input signal, the diode is forward-biased and the capacitor C charges up rapidly to the peak value of the input signal. When the input signal falls below this value, the diode becomes reverse-biased and the capacitor C discharges slowly through the load resistor Rz. The discharging process continues until the next positive half-cycle. When the

input signal becomes greater than the voltage across the capacitor, the diode conducts again and the process is repeated. We assume that the diode is ideal, presenting resistance rr to

current flow in the forward-biased region and infinite resistance in the reverse-biased region. We further assume that the AM wave applied to the envelope detector is supplied by a voltage source of internal impedance R; The charging time constant (rf + Rs) C must be short

compared with the carrier period lIfe' that is


so that the capacitor C charges rapidly and thereby follows the applied voltage up to the positive peak when the diode is conducting.

(b) The discharging time constant RzC must be long enough to ensure that the capacitor discharges slowly through the load resistor Rz between positive peaks of the carrier wave, but not so long that the capacitor voltage will not discharge at the maximum rate of change of the modulating wave, that is

1 1

-« RiC«fe W


where W is the message bandwidth. The result is that the capacitor voltage or detector output is nearly the same as the envelope of the AM wave.


Problem 2.6


(a) Then the output of the square-law device is

2 V2(t) = alVl(t) + a2vl (t)

= a1AJ1 + kam(t)]cos(21tfct)

+ _!a2A;[1 + 2kam(t) + k;m 2(t)] [1 + cos(41tfct)] 2

(b) The desired signal, namely ¥c2kam(t), is due to the ~vt(t) - hence, the name "square-law detection". This component can be extracted by means of a low-pass filter. This is not the only contribution within the baseband spectrum, because the term 112 ¥c2ka2m2(t) will give rise to a plurality of similar frequency components. The ratio of wanted signal to distortion is 2Ikam(t). To make this ratio large, the percentage modulation, that is, I kam(t) I should be kept small compared with unity.


Problem 2.7

The squarer output is

v1(t) = A2 [1+k m(t)]2 coS2(errf t)

c a c

The ampl itude spectrum of v 1 (t) is therefore as follows, assuming that m( t) is limited to the interval -W < f < W:

Since fc > 2W, we find that 2fc-2W > 2W. Therefore, by choosing the cutoff frequency of the low-pass filter greater than 2W, but less than 2f c -2W, we obtain the output


v2(t) = 2c [1+kam(t)]2

Hence, the square-rooter output is

A c

v3(t) = -- [1+k met)]

12 a


which, except for the dc component -- , is proportional to the message signal m(t).


Problem 2.8

(a) For fc = 1.25 k Hz , the spectra of theimessage signal met), the product modulator output s( t), and the coherent detector output v( t ) are as follows, respectively:




f (kHz)


S (f)



1. 25





(b) For the case when fc = 0.75, the respective spectra are as follows:

M( f)

_______________ ~~_. __ ~--~--~----------~~~--------------f (kHz)

-1 1



·~--~--~--~----------------f (kHz) 61




To avoid sideband-overlap, the carrier frequency fc must be greater than or equal to

kHz. The lowest carrier frequency is therefore 1 kHz for each sideband of the

modulated wave s( t) to be uniquely determined by m( t).

Problem 2.9

The two AM modulator outputs are

SI (t) = Ac[1 + kam(t)]cos(21tfct) S2(t) = AJI - kam(t)]cos(21tfct)

_- . Subtracting ~(t) from 81 (t):

s(t) = s2(t) - sl(t)

= 2kaAcffi(t)cos(21tfct)

which represents a DSB-SC modulated wave.


Problem 2.10

(a) Multiplying the signal by the local oscillator gives:


= ~ met) {cos(2~6ft) + cos[2~(2fc+~f)t]}

Low pa ss fil ter ing leaves:

Thus the output signal is the message signal modul ated by a sinusoid of fr equency M.


If met) = cos(2~f t), m

Problem 2.11


= 2c [1+COS(4~ct)]m2(t)

Therefore, the spectrum of the multiplier output is

A2 00 A2 00 00

Y(f) = 2c J M(~JM(f-~)dA + 4c [J M(A)M(f-2fc-A)dA + J M(A)M(f+2fc-A)d>"]

-~ -~ -~

where M( f) = F[m( t)].

( b)

At f=2f , we have c


A2 = =

+ r [f M ( A) M ( - A) d A + f M ( A) M ( 4 f c - A) d A] .


Since M(_A) _ M*(A), we may write

A2 =

Y (2f ) = 2c f M( A)M(2f -A)dA

c _= c

= =

IM( A) ,2dA + f M( A)M(4f -A)dAJ c




With met) limited to -W < f < Wand fc > W, we find that the first and third integrals reduce to zero, and so we may simplify Eq. (1) as follows

where E is the signal energy (by Rayleigh's energy theorem). Similarly, we find that

The band-pass filter output, in the frequency domain, is therefore defined by

A2 c

V (f) '" -4 E srt o(f-2f ) + o(f+2f )]

c c



vet) '" 2c E M cos(4nfct)

Problem 2.12

The mul tiplexed signal is


where M, (f) = F [m, (t)] and M2(f) = F [~(t)]. The spectrtm of the received signal is


R(f) = H (f)S (f)


= 2c H (f) [M, (f-f )+M, (f+f )+ l:- M2(f-f)- l:- M2(f+f )]

c c J c J c

To recover m, (t), we multiply r(t), the inverse Fourier transform of R(f), by cos(211f t) and then pass the resulting output through a low-pass filter, producing a signal with ~he following spectrum

The condition H(fc+f) = H*(fc-f) is equivalent to H(f+fc)=H(f-fc); this follows from the fact that for a real-valued impulse response h(t), we have H(-f)=H*(f). Hence, substituting this condition in Eq. ('), we get

The low-pass filter output, therefore, has a spectrum equal to (Ac/2) H(f-fc)M,(f).

Similarly, to recover ~(t), we multiply ret) by sin(21Tfct), and then pass the

r esul ting Signal through a low-pass filter. In thi s case, we get an output wi th a



Problem 2.13

When the local carriers have a phase error $, we may write

cos(2"1rfct + $) = cos(2"1rfct)cos $ - sin(2"1rfct) sin $

In this case, we find that by multiplying the received signal ret) by cos(2nfct+$), and passing the resulting output through a low-pass filter, the corresponding lOw-Pass filter output in the receiver has a spectrum equal to (Ac/2) H(f-fc) [COS$ M,(f) - sin$ M2(f)]. This indicates that there is cross-talk at the demodulator outputs.


Problem 2.14

The transmitted signal is given by

(a) The envelope detection of set) yields

To minimize the distortion in the envelope detector output due to the quadrature component, we choose the DC offset Vo to be large. We may then approximate YI (t) as

which, except for the DC component Ac Va, is proportional to the sum mz(t) + mr(t).

(b) For coherent detection at the receiver, we need a replica of the carrier Accos(2nfct). This requirement can be satisfied by passing the received signal set) through a narrow-band filter of mid-band frequency I; However, to extract the difference mz(t) - mr(t), we need sin(2nfct), which

is obtained by passing the narrow-band filter output through a 90°-phase shifter. Then, multiplying set) by sin(27ifct) andt low-pass filtering, we obtain a signal proportional to mz(t) - mr(t).

(c) To recover the original loudspeaker signals mz(t) and mr(t), we proceed as follows:

Equalize the outputs of the envelope detector and coherent detector .

Pass the equalized outputs through an audio demixer to produce mz(t) and mr(t) .


Problem 2.15

To ensure 50 percent modulation, ka = 1, in which case we get

set) = Ac( 1 + ~)cOS(2nfct) 1 + t

(b) set) = Acm(t)cos(2nfct)


(c) set) = 2C[m(t)cos(2nfct) - m(t)sin(2nfct)]

Ac[ 1 t ]

(d) set) = "2 --2cos(2nfct) + --2sin(2nfct)

l+t l+t

As an aid to the sketching of the modulated signals in (c) and (d), the envelope of either SSB wave is

Plots of the modulated signals in (a) to (d) are presented in Fig. 1 on the next page.


- 0
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
- 0
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
.3- 0

-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
'0 0
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
time F' I


Problem 2.16

Consider first the modulated signal

set) = ~m(t)COS(2nfet) - ~m(t)Sin(2nfet)


Let S(j) = F[s(t)], M(j) = F[m(t)], and M(f) = f[m(t)] where met) is the Hilbert transform of the message signal met). Then applying the Fourier transform to Eq. (1), we obtain

1 1 A A

S(f) = 4[M(f - fJ + M(f + fJ] - 4}M(f - fe) - M(f + fe)]


From the definition of the Hilbert transform, we have

M(f) = -jsgn(f)M(f)

where sgn(j) is the signum function. Equivalently, we may write

1 A

--.M(f - fe) = sgn(f - fe)M(f - fJ }

1 A

--.M(f + fJ = sgn(f + fJM(f + fJ }

(i) From the definition of the signum function, we note the following for f> 0 = andf> fe:

sgn(f - fJ = sgn(f + fe) = +1

Correspondingly, Eq. (2) reduces to

1 1

S(f) = 4[M(f - fe) + M(f + fJ] + 4[M(f - fJ - M(f + fJ]


= 2M(f - fJ

In words, we may thus state that, except for a scaling factor, the spectrum of the modulated signal set) defined in Eq. (1) is the same as that of the DSB-SC modulated signal forf> fe

(ii) For t> 0 andf <fe' we have


sgn(f - fe> = -1 sgn(f + fe> = +1

Correspondingly, Eq. (2) reduces to

= °

In words, we may now state that for f <fc' the modulated signal s(t) defined in Eq. (1) is zero.

Combining the results for parts (i) and (ii), the modulated signal set) of Eq. (1) represents a single sideband modulated signal containing only the upper sideband. This result was derived for i> 0. This result also holds for f < 0, the proof for which is left as an exercise for the reader.

Following a procedure similar to that described above, we may show that the modulated signal

set) = ~m(t)cos(21tfct) + ~m(t)Sin(21tfct)


represents a single sideband modulated signal containing only the lower sideband.


Problem 2.17

An error M in the frequency of the local oscillator in the demodulation of an SSB signal, measured with respect to the carrier frequency fc' gives rise to distortion in the demodulated signal. Let the local oscillator output be denoted by A~ cos(21t(fc + M)t). The resulting demodulated signal is given by (for the case when the upper sideband only is transmitted)

1 '

vo(t) = - AcAc [m(t)cos(21tMt) + m(t)sin(21tMt)]


This demodulated signal represents an SSB wave corresponding to a carrier frequency M.

The effect of frequency error Af in the local oscillator may be interpreted as follows:

_(a.) If the SSB wave s(t) contains the upper sideband and the frequency error M is positive, or equivalently if s(t) contains the lower sideband and M is negative, then the frequency components of the demodulated signal v o( t) are shifted inward by the amount Af compared with the baseband signal m(t), as illustrated in Fig. I(b).

(b) If the incoming SSB wave s(t) contains the lower sideband and the frequency error Mis positive, or equivalently if s(t) contains the upper sideband and M is negative, then the frequency components of the demodulated signal vo(t) are shifted outward by the amount Af, compared with the baseband signal m(t). This is illustrated in Fig. Ie for the case of a baseband signal (e.g., voice signal) with an energy gap occupying the interval -fa < f < fa' in part (a) of the figure.



o I. (a)

-I. + ~I 0 (bl

-Ib-~I -I.-~I 0 I.+~I (e)

Fig. 1





Problem 2.18

(a sb ) The spectrum of the message signal is illustrated pelow:

Correspondingly f the output of the upper first product modulator has the following s pee tr lID :

t M(t-!. )

.~) a

The output of the lower first product modulator has the spectrum:

The output of the upper low pass filter has the spectrum:


The output of the lower low pass fil ter has the spectrum:

~ M Cf- f.)

2J - b

The output of the upper second product modulator has the spectrum:

The output of the lower second product modulator. has the spectrum:


Adding the two second product modulator outputs, their upper sidebands add constructively while their lower sidebands cancel each other.

(c) To modify the modulator to transmit only the lower sideband, a single sign change is required in one of the channels. For example, the lower first product modulator could mul tiply the message signal by -sin(21Tf t). Then, the upper sideband would be cancelled

and the lower one transmitted. 0


Problem 2.19


( t) Product po l(t) High-pass ~2 (t) Product \T3(t) s
modulator filter modulator filter (t)

COS(27Tf t) c

(a) The fir st product modulator output is

.. v1(t) = met) cos(2'1rfct)

The second product modulator output is

v 3 ( t) = v 2 ( t) co s [2 'Ir( f c + f b) t]

The amplitude spectra or m(t), v1 (t), v2(t), v3(t) and set) are illustrated on the next page:

We may express the voice signal met) as met) = -21 [m (t) + m (t)]

+ -


where m+ (t) is the pre-envelope of m( t), and m_ (t) .. m+ (t) is its complex conjugate. The

Fourier transforms of m (t) and m (t) are defined by (see Appendix 2)


M (f)

1 <M(f),
f 0,
2M (f) , f > 0

M (f)


f < a

f > a

f < a

Comparing the spectrum of s( t) with that of m( t), we see that s( t) may be expressed in terms of m (t) and m (t) as follows:

+ -

set) = t m+(t)exp(-j2mbt)+ t m_(t)exp(j2mbt)

= F [me t )+jm( t)] ex p(-j27Tfb t)+ ~m( t )-jm( t) ]exp( j27Tfb t) = ir m(t)cos(2mbt)+ ir m(t)sin(2mbt)

(b) With set) as input, the first product modulator output is

v1 (t ) = set) cos(2nfct)



IM(f) I

IM(f ) I


______________________________ --~~~------------------------------ f

-f -f Of f

b a a b

-f -f f

c b c


f f +f

c c b

-E +fa 0 f-f Dba

Is (f) I


-f +f 0 f-f

b a b a


Problem 2.20

(a) Consider the system described in Fig. la, where u(t) denotes the product modulator output, as shown by

Message signal mit)

Product u(l) Band-pass
modulator filter
t Modulated signal sit}


Modulated signal

. s(l)

Product utt ) Low-pass
modulator filter
t Demodulated signal vo(1)


Figure 1: (a) Filtering scheme for processing sidebands. (b) Coherent detector for recovering the message signal.

Let H(j) denote the transfer function of the filter following the product modulator. The spectrum of the modulated signal set) produced by passing u(t) through the filter is given by

S(f) = U(f)H(f)


= 2C[M(f - fJ + M(f + fc)]H(f)


where M(j) is the Fourier transform of the message signal met). The problem we wish to address is to determine the particular H(j) required to produce a modulated signal set) with desired spectral characteristics, such that the original message signal met) may be recovered from set) by coherent detection.

The first step in the coherent detection process involves multiplying the modulated signal set) by a locally generated sinusoidal wave A'ccos(2nfct), which is synchronous with the carrier wave Accos(2nfct), in both frequency and phase as in Fig. lb. We may thus write


vet) = A'ecos(2nfet)s(t)

Transforming this relation into the frequency domain gives the Fourier transform of vet) as


V(f) = -i[S(f - fe> + S(f + fe)]


Therefore, substitution of Eq. (1) in (2) yields

A A'

V(f) = TM(fHH(f - fe> + H(f + fe>]

A A'

e e

+ -4-[M(f - 2fe>H(f - fe) + M(f + 2fe>H(f + fe)]


(b) The high-frequency components of vet) represented by the second term in Eq. (3) are removed by the low-pass filter in Fig. 1 b to produce an output v oCt), the spectrum of which is given by the remaining components:

A A'

Vo(f) = TM(fHH(f - fe> + H(f + fJ]


For a distortionless reproduction of the original baseband signal met) at the coherent detector output, we require Vo(f) to be a scaled version of M(f). This means, therefore, that the transfer

function H(f) must satisfy the condition

H(f - fJ + H(f + fJ = 2H(fe)


where Hife), the value of H(f) at f = fe' is a constant. When the message (baseband) spectrum M(f) is zero outside the frequency range - W 5:.f 5:. W, we need only satisfy Eq. (5) for values off in this interval. Also, to simplify the exposition, we set Hife) = 112. We thus require that H(f) satisfies the condition:



Under the condition described in Eq. (6), we find from Eq. (4) that the coherent detector output in Fig. Ib is given by

A A'

e e

vo(t) = -2-m(t)



Equation (1) defines the spectrum of the modulated signal set). Recognizing that set) is a bandpass signal, we may formulate its time-domain description in terms of in-phase and quadrature components. In particular, set) may be expressed in the canonical form


where s/t) is the in-phase component of set), and sQ(t) is its quadrature component. To determine s/(t), we note that its Fourier transform is related to the Fourier transform of set) as follows:

{S(J - Je) + S(J + JJ, SI(J) =





Hence, substituting Eq. (1) in (9), we find that the Fourier transform of s/t) is given by



where, in the second line, we have made use of the condition in Eq. (6) imposed on H(j). From Eq. (10) we readily see that the in-phase component of the modulated signal set) is defined by


which, except for a scaling factor, is the same as the original message signal met).

To determine the quadrature component sQ(t) of the modulated signal set), we recognize that its Fourier transform is defined in terms of the Fourier transform of set) as follows:

{j[S(J-J )-S(J+J)] -W~J~W

SQ(J) = e e

0, elsewhere


Therefore, substituting Eq. (11) in (12), we get



This equation suggests that we may generate sQ(t), except for a scaling factor, by passing the message signal met) through a new filter whose transfer function is related to that of the filter in Fig. 1a as follows:

H Q(f) = j[H(f - fe> - H(f + fen



Let m' (t) denote the output of this filter produced in response to the input met). Hence, we may express the quadrature component of the modulated signal set) as


Accordingly, substituting Eqs. (11) and (15) in (8), we find that set) may be written in the canonical form


There are two important points to note here:

1. The in-phase component sit) is completely independent of the transfer function H(j) of the band-pass filter involved in the generation of the modulated wave set) in Fig. la, so long as it satisfies the condition of Eq. (6).

2. The spectral modification attributed to the transfer function H(j) is confined solely to the quadrature component sQ(t).

The role of the quadrature component is merely to interfere with the in-phase component, so as to reduce or eliminate power in one of the sidebands of the modulated signal set), depending on the application of interest.


Problem 2.21

(a) Expand ing s( t), we get

s( t) = 1.2 a A A eos(21Tf t) cos (21Tf t) m cern

_ "::"821 A A sin(2nf t ) sin(2nf t) + -21 (1-a) A A eos(2nf t) eos(2nfmt)

me e m em e

+ -21 (1-a) A A sin(e1Tf t) sin(21Tf t)

m e c m

= -21 A A cos(2nf t) eos(2nf t)

m c c m

+ -21 A A (1-2a) sin(21Tf t) sin(21Tfmt)

m c c

Therefore, the quadrature component is:

_!_AA (1-2a) sin(21Tf t)

- 2 em m

(b) After adding the carrier, the signal will be:

s(t) =

The envelope equal s

= A c


[1 + -2 A eos(21Tf t)] d(t)

m m

where d( t) is the distortion, defined by

(c) d(t) is greatest when a = O.


Problem 2.22

Consider an incoming narrow-band signal of bandwidth 10 kHz, and mid-band frequency which may lie in the range 0.535-1.605 M Hz. It is required to translate this signal to a fixed frequency band centered at 0.455 MHz. The problem is to determine the range of tuning that must be provided in the local oscillator.

Let [, denote the mid-band frequency of the incoming signal, and j; denote the local oscillator frequency. Then we may write

0.535 < !c < 1.605


where both fe and j; are expressed in MHz. That is,


When fe=0.535 MHz, we get I. = 0.08 MHz; and when!c= 1.605 MHz, we get Ii= 1.15 MHz. Thus the required range of tuning of the local oscillator is 0.08-1.15 MHz.


Problem 2.23

Let s(t) denote the multiplier output, as shown by

s(t) = A g(t) cos(211'fct)

where fc lies in the range fO ~o fO+W. The amplitude spectra of s Ct ) and g(t) are related as follows:

I G (f) I

I G (0) I


o f -f W c 0

Is (.f) I

~ AIG(O) I

-f -w c.

-f -f -f +W c 0 c


f c

f +W c


With vet) denoting the band-pass filter output, we thus find that the Fourier transform of v( t) is approximately given by

1 6f 6f

V(n ="2 A G(fc-fO) fO- 2 ~ If I s fo+ 2

The rms meter output is therefore (by using Rayleigh's energy theorem)


Vrms = [J l (t) dt] 1/2



= [f



Problem 2.24

For the PM case,

set) = A cos[2rrf t + k met)].

c c p

The angle equals

6i(t) = 2rrfct + kp met).

The instantaneous frequency,

Ak Ak

f. (t ) = f c + _E.._ - L ~ 15 (t - nTO)'

1 2rrTO n '"

is equal to f c



+ Akp/2nTO except for the instants that the message At these instants, the phase shifts by -kpA/TO radians.



For the FM case, fi (t) = fc + kf met)




Problem 2.25


The instantaneous frequency of the mixer is as shown below: "


:rhe . presence of negative frequency merely indicates that the phasor representing the difference frequency at the mixer output has reversed its direction of rotation.

Let N denote the number of beat cycles in one period. Then, noting that N is equal to the shaded area shown above, we deduce that

Since f 0"[ « 1, we have

Therefore, the number of beat cycles counted over one second is equal to


Problem 2.26

The instantaneous frequency of the modulated wave s(t) is as shown below:

f C

_____ ...J ~ '- _



_________ _ll ~~ ~ t

TOT 2 2

f. (t.) l.

f +L!.f c

We may thus express s(t) as follows \ COS(2wfct),

=, COS[21£(fc+~f)t], L co s [ 21£ f c t) ,


The Fourier transform of s(t) is therefore


S(f) = f COS(21£fct) exp(-j21£ft) dt


T t < - ~



! < t



+ f COS[21£(f +~f)t] exp(-j21£ft) dt

-T/2 c


+ f COS(21£f t) exp(-j21£ft) dt

T/2 c

- -co

= f

COS(21£f t) exp(-j21£ft) dt c


+ f {COS[21£(f +~f)t - COS(21£f t)} exp(-j21£ft) dt

-T/2 C c



The second term of Eq. (1) is recognized of two RF pulses of unit amplitude, one having a fr equency equal to f. Hence,

c follows:

as the difference between the Fourier transforms having a frequency equal to fc+6f and the other assuming that f T » 1, we may express S(f) as


S(n ::

+ ~ sinc[T(f-fc-6f)] - ~ sinc[T(f-fc)]' f > 0

Problem 2.27

For SSB modulation, the modulated wave is


s(t) = --2 [m(t) cos(2nf t) ± met) sin(2nf t)],

c c

the minus sign applying when transmitting the upper sideband and the plus sign applying when transmitting the lower one.

Regardless of the .sign, the envelope is

(a) For upper sideband transmission, the angle,

-1 met»~ e,(t) = 2nfct + tan (m(t) •


The instantaneous frequency is,

= f c

where' denotes time derivative.

(b) For lower sideband transmission, we have



Problem 2.28


(a) The envelope of the FM wave set) is

The maximum value of the envelope is

a =A Q

max c

and its minimum value is

= A c


a ~

max 2

= 1+13 a .


This ratio is shown plotted below for 0 ( 13 ( 0.3:











I 0.3

(b) Expressing set) in terms of its frequency components:


The mean power of s(t) is therefore

The mean power of the unmodulated carrier is


which is shown plotted below for 0 ~ s ~ 0.3:











(c) The angle 6i (t), expressed in terms of the in-phase component, s.r(t) , and the quadrature component, s (t), is:

- ~

6i(t) 2lTft+ -1 s-x(t)
= tan [s (t)]
2lTft+ tan -1 [ssin(2rrfmt) ]
Since -1 3
tan (x) = x - x 13 + ••• , The harmonic distortion is the power ratio of the third and first harmonics:

Problem 2.29

(a) The phase-modulated wave is

s(t) = A cos[2lTf t + k A cos(2rrf t)]

c c p m m

= Ac cos[2nfct + Sp cos(2nfmt)]

= Ac cos(2nfct) cos[Sp cos(2nfmt)] - Ac sin(2nfct) sin[Bp cos(2nfrnt)] (1)


If 8p ~ 0.5, then

cos[8p cos(21Tfmt)] =

sin[8p COS(21Tfmt)] = 8p COS(21Tfmt)

Hence, we may rewrite Eq. (1) as
set) = Ac COS(21Tf t) - 8 A sin(21Tf t) COS(21Tf t)
c p c c m
A cos(2nf t ) 1 A sin [21T (f c +f m) t]
= --8
c c 2 P c
1 Ac sin[21T (fc-fm)t]
2 p (2 )

.The.spectrum of set) is therefore


= -21 A [0 (f-f ) + 0 (f+f )]

c c c

(b) The phasor diagram for set) is deduced from Eq. (2) to be as follows:

Lower side-frequency


< Upper side-frequency


/.4~2 A

" _/" P c



The corresponding phasor diagram for the narrow-band FM wave is as follows:


, -,


Upper side-frequency

2nf t m


Lower side-frequency

Comparing these two phasor diagrams, we see that, except .. for a phase difference, the narrow-band PM and FM waves are of exactly the same form. /"

Problem 2.30

The phase-modulated wave is

set) = A cos[21rf t + 6 cos(21rf t)]

c c p m

The complex envelope of s( t) is

set) = Ac exp[j6p cos(21rfmt)]

Expressing set) in the form of a complex Fourier series, we have


set) = 1: Cn exp(j2nnfmt)

n= ......



cn = fm J m set) exp(-j2nnfmt) dt -1/2f



= A f J m exp[j6 cos(2nf t) - j2nnf t] dt

c m -1/2f p m m



Let 2rrf t = n/2 - cj>. m

Then, we may rewrite Eq. (1) as

A . -n/2

c = - ~ exp(- J~1T)! exp[j6p sin(cj» + jncj>] dcj>

n 31T /2


The integrand is periodic wi th respect to cp wi th a period of 2rr. Hence, we may rewr i te this expression as

A . 'IT

C (.J!!!!..) f

cn = 2'IT exp - 2

exp[jBp sin(cp) + jncp] dcp

However, from the definition of the Bessel function of the first kind of order n, we have

1 'IT

In(x) = 2'IT f exp(j x sincp - njcp) dcp -'IT


,We may thus express the PM wave set) as

set) = Re[s(t) exp(j2'ITfct)]


= -Ac Re[ E . J_n(Bp) exp(- j~'IT) expQ2'ITnfmt) exp(j2'ITfct)]

ne ......


n= .....

= A E


The band-pass filter only passes the carrier, the first upper side-frequency, and the first lower side-frequency, so that the resulting output is

s (t) = A JO(B) cos(2'ITf t) + A J ,(B ) cos[2'IT(f +f )t - ~2]

o c P c c - p c m

+ A J,(B) cos[2'IT(f -f )t + ~2]

c P c m

= Ac JO(Bp) cos(2'ITfct) + Ac J_,(Bp) sin[2n(fc+fm)t]

- A J,(B) sin[2'IT(f -f )t]

c p c m



so(t) = Ac Jo(Bp) cos(2nfct)

- Ac J,(Bp) {sin[2'IT(fc+fm)t] + sin[2n(fc-fm)tJ}

= A JO(B) cos(2rrf t ) - 2 A J,(B) cos(2rrf t ) sin(2'lTf t)

c p c c p m c

The envelope of so(t) equals


The phase of SO(t) is

-1 [2 J1 (8p) (

~(t) = -tan Jo(8p) cos 2~fmt)]

The instantaneous frequency of so(t) is

fi ( t ) = fc + _1 dlj> ( t ) 2~ dt

Problem 2.31

(a) From Table A4.1, we find (by interpolation) that JO(8) is zero for

8 = 2.44,
8 = 5.52,
8 = 8.65,
8 = 11.8,
.and so on.
(b) The modulation index is
8 llf kf Am
= r = f
m m Therefore,

Since JO(e) = 0 for the first time when e = 2.44, we deduce that k _ 2.44 x 103

f - 2

= 1.22 x 103 hertz/volt

Next, we note that JO(e) = 0 for the second time when e = 5.52.

Hence, the corresponding

value of Am for which the carrier component is reduced to zero is


Bfm Am = E"" f

5.52 x 103


1.22 x 103

= 4.52 volts

Problem 2.32

For B = 1, we have
JO(l ) = 0.765
J1 (1) = 0.44
J2(1 ) = 0.115 Therefore, the band-pass filter output is (assumi~g a carrier amplitude of 1 volt)

= 0.765 cos(21Tf t) c

+ 0.44 {cos[2n(fc+fm)t] - cos[2n(fc-fm)t]}

+ 0.115 {cos[2n(fc+2fm)t] + cos[2n(fc-2fm)t]} , and the amplitude spectrum (for positive frequencies) is



0. 22
t f
t- ;;, It 2-£
c:. ;", 0.22



c. M




Problem 2.33

(a) The frequency deviation is

~f = kf Am = 25 x 103 x 20 = 5 x 105 Hz

The corresponding value of the modulation index is

. e = ~f = m

= 5

The transmission bandwidth of the FM wave, using Carson's rule, is therefore

BT = 2fm(1+S) = 2x100 (1+5) = 1200 kHz = 1.2 MHz.

(b) Using the un Iver saf curve of Fig. 3-31:, we find that for e=5:


~f = 3


BT = 3x500 = 1500 kHz = 1.5 MHz

(c) If the amplitude of the modulating wave is doubled, we find that

~f = 1 MHz and e = 10

Thus, using Carson's rule we obtain

BT = 2x100 (1+10) = 2200 J.<Hz = 2.2 MHz Using the universal curve of Fig. 3'3b, we get

and BT = 2.75 MHz.


If f is doubled, S = 2.5. m

Then, using Carson's rule, BT = 1.4 MHz.

universal curve, BrI~f = 4, and

BT = 4M = 2 MHz.


Using the

Problem 2.34

(a) The angle of the PM wave is

ei(t) = 2nfCt + kp met)

= 2nfct + kp Amcos(2~fmt) = 2nf t + e cos(2nf t)

c p m

where ep = k A. The instantaneous frequency of the PM wave is therefore p m

1 dei(t) fi(t) = 2n dt

We see that the maximum frequency deviation in a PM wave varies linearly wi th the . modulation frequency fm.

Using Carson's rule, we find that the transmission bandwidth of the PM wave is approximately (for the case when ap » 1)

BT = 2 ( f + a f) = 2f ( 1 + a ) = 2f map

. m p m m p

This shows that BT varies linearly with fm.

(b) In an FM wave, the transmission bandwidth BT is approximately equal to 2M, if the modulation index a »1. Therefore, for an FM wave, BT is effectively independent of the modulation frequency fm.

Problem 2.35

The filter input is

v1(t) = get) set)

= get) cos(2~f t - ~kt2) c

The complex envelope of v1(t) is

~ 2

v 1 (t) = g ( t) ex p ( - j~ kt )

The impulse response h( t) of the filter is defined in terms of the complex impulse response h(t) as follows



= cos(2~f t + ~kt2), c

we have



~~f -t\o.e. complex envelope+filter output

vo(t) =jh(t)* vi (t)

= i l~g(T) eXp(_j~kT2) exp[j~k(t-T)]2dT

is therefore (.see. Ifppe:7'lcL, -x. z)


= ~ exp(j~kt2) 1 geT) exp(-j2~ktT) dr



This'shows that the envelope of the filter output is, except for the scale factor of 1/2, .equal to the magnitude of the Fourier transform of the input signal get), with kt playing the role of frequency f.

Problem 2.36

The overall frequency multiplication ratio is

n = 2x3 = 6

Assume that the instantaneous frequency of the FM wave at the input of the first frequency mul tiplier is

fi1(t) = fc + ~f cos(2~fmt)

The instantaneous frequency of the resulting FM wave at the output of the second frequency multiplier is therefore

fi2(t) = nfc + n~f cos(2~mt)

Thus, the frequency deviation of this FM wave is equal to

n~f = 6x10 = 60 kHz

and its modulation index is equal to

n /).f 60

= -5 = 12 fm

The frequency separation of the adjacent side-frequencies of this FM wave is unchanged at fm = 5 kHz.


Problem 2.37

(a) Figure 1 shows the simplified block diagram of a typical FM transmitter (based on the indirect method) used to transmit audio signals containing frequencies in the range 100 Hz to 15 kHz. The narrow-band phase modulator is supplied with a carrier signal of frequency fI = 0.2 MHz by a

crystal-controlled oscillator. The desired FM signal at the transmitter output is to have a carrier frequency I; = 100 MHz and a minimum frequency deviation !1f= 75 kHz.

In order to limit the harmonic distortion produced by the narrow-band phase modulator, we restrict the modulation index ~l of this modulator to a maximum value of 0.3 radians. Consider

then the value ~l = 0.2 radians, which certainly satisfies this requirement. The lowest modulation frequencies of 100 Hz produce a frequency deviation of !1fI = 20 Hz at the narrow-band phase modulator output, whereas the highest modulation frequencies of 15 kHz produce a frequency deviation of !1fI = 3 kHz. The lowest modulation frequencies are therefore of immediate concern, as they produce a much lower frequency deviation than the highest modulation frequencies. The requirement is therefore to ensure that the frequency deviation produced by the lowest modulation frequencies of 100 Hz is raised to 75 kHz.

Baseb sign

and Frequency
al Narrow-band Frequency FM
-+ Integrator ~ phase -+ multiplier -+ Mixer r+ multiplier f.+
modulator n, "2
to.1MIiZ t9.5MHZ
Crystal- Crystal-
controlled controlled
oscillator oscillator signal

Figure 1

To produce a frequency deviation of !1f = 75 kHz at the PM transmitter output, the use of frequency multiplication is obviously required. Specifically, with !1fI = 20 Hz and !1f = 75 kHz, we require a total frequency multiplication ratio of 3750. However, using a straight frequency multiplication equal to this value would produce a much higher carrier frequency at the transmitter output than the desired value of 100 MHz. To generate an FM signal having both the desired frequency deviation and carrier frequency, we therefore need to use a two-stage frequency multiplier with an intermediate stage of frequency translation as illustrated in Fig. 1. Let nl and n2 denote the respective frequency multiplication ratios, so that

!1f = 75000

!1f 1 20




The carrier frequency n J't at the first frequency multiplier output is translated downward to (12 - nJ't) by mixing it with a sinusoidal wave of frequency 12 = 95 MHz, which is supplied by a second crystal-controlled oscillator. However, the carrier frequency at the input of the second frequency multiplier is required to equalfjn2. Equating these two frequencies, we thus get

Hence, withfr = 0.1 MHz,h = 9.5 MHz, andfc = 100 MHz, we have

100 9.5 - O.lnl = - n2


Solving Eqs. (1) and (2) for nl and n2, we obtain

nl = 75 n2 = 50

(b) Using these frequency multiplication ratios, we get the set of values indicated in the table below:

Table -Values of Carrier Frequency and Frequency Deviation at the Various Points in the Wide-band Frequency Modulator of Fig. 1

At the First At the Second
At the Phase Frequency Frequency
Modulator Multiplier At the Mixer Multiplier
Output Output Output Output
Carrier 0.1 MHz 7.5 MHz 2.0 MHz 100 MHz
Frequency 20Hz 1.5 kHz 1.5 kHz 75 kHz
deviation 101

Problem 2.38

(a) Let L denote the inductive component, C the capacitive component, and Co the capacitance of each varactor diode due to the bias voltage Vb acting alone. Then, we have

Co = 100 V~1/2 pF

and the corresponding frequency of oscillation is


Solving for Vb' we get Vb = 3.52 volts

(b) The frequency multiplication ratio is 64. Therefore, the modulation index of the FM wave at the frequency multiplier input is


13 = 64 = 0.078

This indicates that the FM wave produced by the combination of L, C and the varactor diodes is a narrow-band one, which in turn means that the amplitude A of the modulating wave is small compared to Vb. We may thus express the instantaneous f~equency of this FM wave as follows:


107 A

{1 + 0.266 [1 ~_m_ sin(2'11f t)]-1/2}-1/2

- 3.52 m


107 Am. -1/2

:= -- {1 + 0.266 [1 - 7.04 sln(21Tfmt)]}


= 106 [1 - 0.03 Am Sin(2mrmt)]-1/2 := 106 [1 + 0.015 A sin(21Tf t)]

m m



With a modulation index of 0.078, the corresponding value of the frequency deviation

ss = B fm

= 0.078 x 104 Hz


0.015 A x 106 = 0.078 x '104 m

where A is in volts. Solving for A , we get

m m

Am = 52 x 10-3 volts.

Problem 2.39

The transfer function of the RC filter is

H(f) j21TfCR

= 1+j21TfCR

If 21TfCR « 1 for all frequencies of interest, then we may approximate H(f) as

H( f) ~ j21TfCR

However, multiplication by j21Tf in the frequency domain is equivalent to differentiation in the time domain. Therefore, denoting the RC filter output as v1(t), we may write

v1(t) ~ CR ds(t) dt

d t

= CR dt {Ac cos[21Tf ct + 21lkf f met) dt]} o


= -CR A [21Tf + 21Tkfm(t)] sin[21Tf t + 21Tkf f met) dt]

c c c 0

The corresponding envelope detector output is

Since kftm(t)j < fc for all t, then


v2(t) ~ 21Tf CR A [1 + --f met)]

- c c


which shows that, except for a dc bias, the output is proportional to the modulating signal met).


Problem 2.40

The envelope detector input is

vet) = set) - s(t-T)

= A cos[2'1Tf t+ 4>(t)] - A cos[2'1Tf (t-T) + 4>(t-T)]

c c c c

2lTf (2t-T) + 4>(t) + 4>(t-T) 2nf T + 4>(t) - cj>(t-T)

= -2A sin [ c ] sin [ c ]

c 2 2



4>(t) = ~ sin(2lTfmt)

The phase difference cj>(t) - cj>(t-T) is

4>(t) - 4> (t-T ) = ~ sin(2'11f t) - s sin[2'1Tfm(t-T)]
= ~[sin (2lTf m t) - sin(2nf t) cos(2lTfmT) + cos(2nf t) sin(2nfmT) ]
m m
::: ~[sin(2'11f t) - sin(2lff t) + 2lff T cos(21Tf t)]
m m m m
= 2lT AfT cos (2nf t)
m where

Therefore, noting that 2lTfcT = n/2, we may write

2nf T + 4>(t) - cj>(t-T)

sinE c ] ::: sinE nf T + nMT cos(2lTf t)]

2 c m

= 12 cos[n~fT cos(21Tf t)] + 12 sin[lT~fT cos(2nf t)]

m m

= I~ + I~ nArT cos(2lTf t)


where we have made use of the fact that n~fT «1. We may therefore rewrite Eq. (1) as


::: -2/~ A [1 + lT~T cos(2nf t)] sin[lTf (2t-T) + 1(t) + p(t-T)]

c m c 2

Accordingly, the envelope detector output is

a ( t) ::: 2 12 A [1 + IT MT cos ( 2 nf t)]

c m

which, except for a bias term, is proportional to the modulating wave.


Problem 2.41

(a) In the time interval t-(T ,/2) to t+(T ,/2), assume there are n zero crossings. The phase difference is 6i(t+T,/2) - 6i(t-T,/2) = nne Also, the angle of an FM wave is


= 2nfct + 2nkf f met) dt. o

Since met) is assumed constant, equal to m" 6i(t) = 2nfct + 2nkfm,t. Therefore, 6i(t+T,/2) - 6i(t-T,/2) = (2nfc + 2nkfm,) [t+T,/2 - (t-T,/2)].

= (2 nf c + 2nk fm,) T 1 •


f. (t) = 1

d 6i (t) dt

= 2nf c + 2nkrn, •


Eli (t+T ,/2) - 6i (t-T ,/2) = fi (t) T,.

But this phase difference also equals nne So,

f i (t ) T 1 = nn


fi(t) = nn/T,

(b) For a repetitive ramp as the modulating wave, we have the following set of waveforms







LotJ_ ~ fl'f~e;..



Problem 2.42

The complex envelope of the modulated wave set) is

s ( t ) = a ( t) ex p [ j <j>( t) ]

Since aCt) is slowly varying compared to exp[ j<j>(t)], the compl ex envelope set) is restricted effectively to the frequency band - BT/2< f ~ BT/2. An ideal frequency discriminator consists of a differentiator followed by an envelope detector. The output of the differentiator, in response to set), is


= dt {aCt) exp[j<j>(t)]}

= aCt) exp[j<j>(t)] [_,_ da(t) + j d<l>(t)]

aCt) dt dt

Since aCt) Ls slowly varying compared to <j>(t), we have

IdCP(t)j » 1_'_ da(t), . dt aCt) dt ,

Accordingly, we may approximate v (t) as o

v (t) !:! j aCt) d<j>(t) exp[j<j>Ct)]

o dt

However, by definition


<j>(t) = 21Tkf f met) dt o


vo(t) = j21Tkf aCt) met) exp[j<j>(t)]

Hence, the envelope detector output is proportional to aCt) met) as shown by

Problem 2.43

(a) The limiter output is


z(t) = sgn{a(t) cos[21Tfct + <j>(t)]}


Since aCt) is of positive amplitude, we have
z(t) = sgn{cos[2lTf t + cjl(t)]}
1ji(t) = 2lTf t + cjl(t)
Then, we may write
sgn[cos 1ji] = E cn exp(jn1ji)
n=-GO 1 IT

cn = 2lT f sgn[cos 1ji] exp(-jn1ji) d1ji


1 -IT/2 1 IT/2

= 2lT f (-1) exp(-jn1ji)d1ji + 2lT f (+1) exp(-jn1ji) d1ji

-IT -IT/2



+- 2lT


f (-1) exp(-jn1ji) d1ji IT/2

If n -t 0, then

1 jnlT. -jnlT jnlT . (-jnlT)]

cn = 2lT(-jn) [-exp( 2 )+exp(JnlT)+exp( 2 )-exp( 2 )-exp(-JnlT)+exp 2

= !n[2 sin(n;)-sin(nlT)]

\ L(_1) (n-1 )/2

= lTn '


n odd

n even


If n=O, we find from Eq. (1) that c =0. Therefore, n

sgnl co s 1ji]




(_1)(n-1)/2 exp(jn1ji) n

n= _GO

n odd

4 GO (_1)k

E 21<+ 1 cos[ 1ji(2k+ 1)]

IT k=O

We may thus express the limiter output as


4 DO (_1)k

z(t) = - ~ coS[2mfct(2k+1) + ~(t)(2k+1)]

n k=O 2k+ 1

(2 )

(b) Consider the term

cos[2nfct(2k+1) + ~(t) (2k+1)] =

Re{exp[j2nf t(2k+1)]exp[j~(t)(2k+1)]}

c .

:: Re{exp[j2nf t(2k+1)][exp(j~(t»]2k+1} c

The function exp[ j~(t)], representing the complex envelope of the FM wave wi th unit

amplitude, is effectively low-pass in nature. Therefore, this term represents a band-pass signal centered about ±f (2k+1). Furthermore, the Fourier transform of {exp[j~(t)]}2k+1 c

is equal to that of exp[j~(t)] convolved with itself 2k times. Therefore, assuming that tR+1

exp[j~(t)] is limited to the interval -BT/2 ~ f ~ BT/2, we find that (exp[j~(t)~ is

limited to the interval -(BT/2)(2k+1) ~ f ~ (BT/2)(2k+1).

Assuming that f c > BT, as is usually the case, we find that none of the terms corresponding to values of k greater than zer:o will overlap the spectrum of the term

corresponding to ke O; Thus, if the limiter output is applied to a band-pass filter of

bandwidth BT and mid-band frequency fc' all terms, except the term corresponding to k=O in Eq. (2), are removed by the filter. The resulting filter output is therefore

yet) = ~ cos[2nf t + ~(t)]

n c

We thus see that by using the amplitude limiter followed by a band-pass filter, the effect

of amplitude variation, represented by at t ) in the modulated wave s(t), is completely


Problem 2.44

(a) Let the FM wave be defined by



= A cos[2nf t + 2nkf f met) dt]

c c 0

Assuming that fc is large compared to the bandwidth of s(t), we may express the complex envelope of set) as

_ t

set) = Ac exp[j2nkf f met) dt] o

But, by definition, the pre-envelope of set) is';.;ee !ltpeflol;z J...)


s (t) = set) exp(j21ff t)

+ c

= set) + j ~(t)

where ~(t) is the Hilbert transform of set). Therefore,


set) + js(t) = Ac exp[j21fkf fo met) d t I exp(j21ffct)

Equating real and imaginary parts, we deduce that


~(t) = Ac sin[21ff ct + 2nkf fo met) dt]


(b) For the case of sinusoidal modulation, we have

The corresponding FM wave is


Expanding set) in the form of a Fourier series, we get


set) = A L In(6) cos[21f(f +nf )t]

c c m


Noting that the Hilbert transform of cos[21f(f +nf )t] is equal to sin[21f(f +nf )t], and using the linearity property of the Hilbert tr~ns~rm, we find that the Hilb~rt ~ransform of set) is


~(t) = A E J (6) sin[21f(f +nf ) t]

c n c m


= A sin[ 21ff t + 6 sine 21ff t)]

c c m

This is exactly the same result as that obtained by using Eq , (1) ~ In the case of sinusoidal modulation, therefore, there is no error involved in using Eq. (1) to evaluate the Hilbert transform of the corresponding FM wave.

Problem 2.45

(a) The modulated wave set) is


= Re{exp[-~(t)] exp[j2~fct + j~(t)]} = Re{exp[j2~ct + j(~(t) + j~(t»]}

= Re{exp[j2~fct + j~+(t)]} (1)

where ~ (t) is the pre-envelope of the phase function ~(t), that is, +

~+(t) = ~(t) + j~(t)

Expanding the exponential function exp[j~+(t)] in the form of an infinite series:

lID .n

= 1:: .L ~n(t)

n=O n! +

Taking the Fourier transform of both sides of this relation, we may write

ex p [ j ~ +( t) ]



1:: n=O

F )2 n() () ",n-1(t).

or n_ , we may express ~+ t as the product of ~+ t and y+


where ~ (t ) ~ ~ (f), and '* denotes convolution. Since ~ (f) = a for f < 0, it follows

+ + +

that for all n ~ 0,

for f < a


for f < a

By using the frequency-shifting property of the Fourier transform, it follows that

(3 )

Fr om Eq. (1),

set) = -21 {exp[j2~ t + j~ (t)] + exp[-j2~f t - j~+*(t)]}

c + c


where ~+(t) is the complex conjugate of ~+(t). Therefore,

Applying the conjugate-function property of the Fourier transform to Eq. (3), we find that

for f > ,-1' • c



Hence, it follows that the spectrum of set) is zero for -fc < f < fc' However, this spectrum is of infinite extent, because the expansion of set) contains an infinite number of terms, as in eq. (2).

(b) With

~(t) = B sin(2nfmt), we find that

~(t) = -B cos(2nf t) m


~+(t) = B sin(2nf t) - jB cos(2nf t)

m m

= - jB[cos(2nf t) + j sin(2nf t)]

m m


CD n

= L ~ exp( j2nnf t)

On. m


The modulated wave s( t) is therefore

CD n

L nB, exp(j2nnf t)]

O . m


= Re{

CD n


L -, exp[j2n(f +nf )t]}

On. c m


CD n

= L ~ cos[2n(f +nf )t]

On. c m



Problem 2.46

After passing the received signal through a narrow-band filter of bandwidth 8kHz centered on I; = 200kHz, we get

x(t) = Acm(t)cos(2nfct) + n'(t)

where n'(t) is the narrow-band noise produced at the filter output, and n'J(t) and n' Q(t) are its in-phase and quadrature components. Coherent detection of x(t) yields the output

The average power of the modulated wave is

where P is the average power of mit). To calculate the average power of the in-phase noise component n' J( t) , we refer to the spectra shown in Fig. 1:

Part (a) of Fig. 1 shows the power spectral density of the noise n(t), and a superposition of the frequency response of the narrow-band filter.

Part (b) shows the power spectral density of the noise n' J(t) produced at the filter output.

Part (c) shows the power spectral density of the in-phase component n'J(t) of n'(t).

Note that since the bandwidth of the filter is small compared to the carrier frequency fc' we have approximated the spectral characteristic of n' (t) to be fiat at the level of 0.5 x 10-6 wattslHz. Hence, the average power of n' J( t) is (from Fig. lc):

(10-6 wattslHz) (8 x 103) = 0.008 watts

The output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is therefore


0.008 = 1,250

Expressing this result in decibels, we have an output SNR of 31 dB.


;(J:) (''r )

r .. ) \t. i

:~ I ~I g 4e H, i I Iii

: i -~---~--;---~--.-t.'---.-'-;-."-----i"--'-~-;-----.--~ .


I I I i

-.;......'4'-=;;j.==i- ....... -+--;-+-i-...,..=-~"+..._+--.....,.-+--;--j--I-_,_-t--t'-,....-+-+J -:t1CLiH.y----1

Iii I




Problem 2.47

From Problem 5.38, we note that the quadrature components of a narrow-band noise have autocorrelations:

RN (T) = RN (T) = RN(T) cos(2nfcT) + RN(T) sin(2nfcT) r ~

where RN(T) is the autocorrelation of the narrow-band noise, RN(T) is the Hilbert transform of RN(T), and fc is the band center. The cross-correlations of the quadrature components are

(a) For a nsBse system,

RN (T) = RN (T) = RN(T) cos(2nfcT) + RN(T) sin(2nfcT)


RN N (T) = -RN N (T) = RN(T) sin(2nfct) - RN(T) cos(2nfcT)

rQ (;)t

where f is the carrier frequency, and RN(T) is the autocorrelation function of the

. c

narrow-band noise on the interval f - W < f < f + W.

c - - c

. (b) For an SSB system using the lower sideband,

= -RN N (T) = RN(T) sin(2n(fc- ~)T) - RN(T) cos(2n(fc- ~)T) blr:

where in this case, RN(T) is the autocorrelation of the narrow-band noise on the interval fc- W ~ f ~ fc'

(c) For an SSB system with only the upper sideband transmitted, the correlations are similar. to (b) above, except that (f c - ~) is replaced by (f c + ~), and the narrow-band noise is on the interval fc ~ f ~ fc+ W.

Problem 2.48


Band-pass filter

v (t)

Low-pass filter


cos[21Tf t+8(t)] c


The signal at the mixer input is equal to s(t) + net), where set) is the modulated wave, and net) is defined by


The set) is defined by for DSB-SC modulation

The mixer output is

vet) = [set) + n(t)]cos[2n:fct + Set)]

The postdetection low-pass filter removes the high frequency components of vet), producing the output


When the phase error Set) is zero, we find that the message signal component of the receiver output is ~Acm(t). The error at the receiver output is therefore


e(t) = yet) - 2"m(t)

The mean-square value of this error is


E = E[e (t)]



Substituting Eq. (1) into (2), expanding the expectation, and noting that the processes met), Set), nJCt) and nQ(t) are all independent of one another, we get


Ac 2 2 1 2 2

E = 4E[m (t)]E[(cos Set))] + 4E[n[(t)]E[cos Set)]

2 2

Ac 2 Ac 2

+ 4E[m (t)] - 2E[m (t)]E[cosS(t)]

We now note that

2 2 2 . 2 2

E[n[(t)]E[cos Set)] + E[nQ(t)]E[sm Set)] = «»


2 2

Ac 2 2 o N

E = 2 E [m (t)] E { [1 - cos S (t) ] } + 4

2 where P = E[m (t)].

For small values of Set), we may use the approximation

2 crN 1 - cosS(t) '"' - 2



Since Set) is Gaussian-distributed with zero mean and variance O'~, we have

4 4

E[S (t)] = 30's

The mean-square error for the case of a DSBSC system is therefore


Problem 2.49

Consider the case of a receiver using coherent detection, with an incoming single-sideband (SSB) modulated wave. We assume that only the lower sideband is transmitted, so that we can express the modulated wave as


where met) is the Hilbert transform of the message signal met). The system-dependent scaling factor C is included to make the signal component set) have the same units as the noise component n(t). We may make the following observations concerning the in-phase and quadrature components of set) in Eq. (1):

1. The two components met) and met) are orthogonal to each other. Therefore, with the message signal met) assumed to have zero mean, which is a reasonable assumption to make, it follows that met) and met) are uncorrelated; hence, their power spectral densities are additive.

2. The Hilbert transform met) is obtained by passing m(t) through a linear filter with a transfer function - jsgn({). The squared magnitude of this transfer function is equal to one for all f Accordingly, we find that both m(t) and met) have the same power spectral density.

Thus, using a procedure similar to that in Section 2.11, we find that the in-phase and quadrature components of the modulated signal set) contribute an average power of c' A~P /8 each, where P

is the average power of the message signal met). The average power of set) is therefore C2 A~P / 4. This result is half that in the DSB-SC receiver, which is intuitively satisfying.

The average noise power in the message bandwidth W is WNo, as in the DSB-SC receiver. Thus the channel signal-to-noise ratio of a coherent receiver with SSB modulation is


As illustrated in Fig. la, in an SSB system the transmission bandwidth BT is Wand the mid-band frequency of the power spectral density StlJ) of the narrow-band noise net) is offset from the carrier frequency t; by W/2. Therefore, we may express net) as


The output of the coherent detector, due to the combined influence of the modulated signal set) and noise n(t), is thus given by



As expected, we see that the quadrature component met) of the modulated message signal set) has been eliminated from the detector output, but unlike the case of DSB-SC modulation, the quadrature component of the narrow-band noise net) now appears at the receiver output.

The message component in the receiver output is CAcm(t)/4, and so we may express the average power of the recovered message signal as C2 A;P /16. The noise component in the receiver output is [nJCt)cos(nWt) + nQ(t)sin(nWt)]/2. To determine the average power of the output noise, we note the following:

1. The power spectral density of both nAt) and nQ(t) is as shown in Fig. lb.

2. The sinusoidal wave cos(nWt) is independent of both nAt) and nQ(t). Hence, the power

spectral density of n'I(t) = nI(t)cos(nWt) is obtained by shifting SN (f) to the left by


W12, shifting it to the right by W12, adding the shifted spectra, and dividing the result by 4. The power spectral density of n' Q(t) = nQ(t)sin(nWt) is obtained in a similar way. The

power spectral density of both n' I( t) and n' Q( t) , obtained in this manner, is shown sketched in Fig. lc.

From Fig. lc we see that the average power of the noise component n'I(t) or n' Q(t) is WNoI2. Therefore from Eq. (4), the average output noise power is WNoI4. We thus find that the output signal-to-noise ratio of a system, using SSB modulation in the transmitter and coherent detection in the receiver, is given by

(SNR)o, SSB =


Hence, from Eqs. (2) and (5), the figure of merit of such a system is


= 1


where again we see that the factor C2 cancels out.

Comparing Eqs. (5) and (6) with the corresponding results for DSB-SC modulation, we conclude thatfor the same average transmitted (or modulated message) signal power and the same average noise power in the message bandwidth, an SSB receiver will have exactly the same output signalto-noise ratio as a DSB-SC receiver, when both receivers use coherent detection for the recovery of the message signal. Furthermore, in both cases, the noise performance of the receiver is the


as that obtained by simply transmitting the message signal itself in the presence of the same noise. The only effect of the modulation process is to translate the message signal to a different frequency band to facilitate its transmission over a band-pass channel.

N20 --1Brl-

rr -------- -------- ,







=t: I-Ie + W I IV -1;. + 2


1;. - Wife




_~o!!: 2 2



-W 0 W (c)


Figure 1


Problem 2.50

The power spectral density of the message signal met) is as follows SM (f)




The average signal power is therefore


W :: 2 J o


a - df w

:: aW

The corresponding value of the output signal-to-noise ratio of the SSB receiver is therefore, (using the solution to Problem 2049)

.A2 P
(SNR )0 c
= 4WNo
A2 W
c a
= 4WNO
a A2
= ~ 122

Problem 2.51

(a) If the probability

then, with a probability greater than 1 - 01' we may say that yet) = {EA + A k met) + n (t)]2}1/2

c c a c

That is, the probability that the quadrature component ns(t) is negligibly small is greater than 1 - ° 1 •

(b) Next, we note that if ka met) < -1, then we get overmodulation, so that even in the absence of noise, the envelope detector output is badly distorted. Therefore, in order to avoid overmodulation, we assume that ka is adjusted relative to the message signal met) such that the probability

Then, the probability of the event

yet) = A [1 + k met)] + n (t)

c a c

for any value of t, is greater than (1 - 01)(1 - °2).

(c) When °1 and °2 are both small compared with unity, we find that the probability of the event

yet) = A [1 + k met)] + n (t)

c a c

for any value of t, is very close to unity. Then, the output of the envelope detector is approximately the same as the corresponding output of a coherent detector.

Problem 2.52

The received signal is


x(t) = A cos(2nf t) + net)

o c

= Ac cOS(2nfct) + nc(t) coS(2nfct) - ns(t) sin(2nfct) = [Ac + nc(t)] cos(2nfct) - ns(t) sin(2nfct)

The envelope detector output is therefore

aCt) = {[A + n (t)]2.+ n2(t)}1/2

e c s

For the case when the carrier-to-noise ratio is high, we may approximate this result as

aCt) = Ac + nc(t)

The term Ac represents the useful signal component.

2 The output signal power is thus Ac.

The power spectr al densities of n( t) and n (t) are as shown below: '1

r-----...., _

S (f) N

NO~ ,.. -,

____ J_-- __ ~--------~-- ~--~--~----~f

I 0 I 2:C ~

~ S (f) -----i

NJ: t:Io

-f c



o w


The output noise power is 2NOW. The output signal-to-noise ratio is therefore

(SNR )0


Problem 2.53

(a) From Section 1.12 of the textbook we recall that the envelope ret) of the narrow-band noise nCt) is Rayleigh distributed; that is

where cr~ is the variance of the noise net). For an AM system, the variance cr~ is 2WNo. Therefore, the probability of the event that the envelope R of the narrow-band noise net) is large compared to the carrier amplitude Ac is defined by

P(R?_ AJ = S: f R(r)dr


( 2 J

00 r r

= ex dr

Lc 2WNo p 4WNo


Define the carrier to noise ratio as

average carrier power p =

average norse power in bandwidth of the modulated message signal


Since the bandwidth of the AM signal is 2W, the average noise power in this bandwidth is 2WNo. The average power of the carrier is A~/2. The carrier-to-noise ratio is therefore

p =



(b) We may now use this definition to rewrite Eq. (1) in the compact form

P(R?_Ac) = exp(-p)


Solving peR _?_ AJ = 0.5 for p, we get


p = log2 = 0.69

Similarly, for peR ~AJ = 0.01, we get

p = log 100 = 4.6

Thus with a carrier-to-noise ratio IOlog100.69 = -1.6 dB, the envelope detector is expected to be well into the threshold region, whereas with a carrier-to-noise ratio IOlog104.6 = 6.6 dB, the detector is expected to be operating satisfactorily. We ordinarily need a signal-to-noise ratio considerably greater than 6.6 dB for satisfactory intelligibility, and therefore threshold effects are seldom of great importance in AM receivers using envelope detection.

Problem 2.54

(a) Following a procedure similar to that described for the case of an FM system, we find that the input of the phase detector is


6( t) = k m( t ) P

with nQ(t) denoting is therefore,

nQ(t) + A


the quadrature noise component.

The output of the phase discriminator

na(t) yet) = kp met) + A


The message signal component of y( t) is equal to kp m( t). Hence, the average output signal power is k~ P, where P is the message signal power.

Wi th the post detection low-pass fil ter following the phase detector restricted to


2 the message bandwidth W, we find that the average output noise power is alNO/Ac.

Hence, the output signal-to-noise ratio of the PM system is

(SNR)O =

(b) The channel signal-to-noise ratio of the PM system is the same as that of the corresponding FM system. That is,

A2 c (SNR)O = 2WN o

The figure of merit of the PM system is therefore equal to ~ P.

For the case of sinusoidal modulation, we have

m( t) = A cos(2'1£f t)

m m


1 2

The correspond ing val ue of the figure of merit for a PM system is thus equal to 2" Sp'

where S = k A. CA1 the other hand, the figure of merit for an FM system with sinusoidal

ppm 3 2

modulation is equal to 2" S. We see therefore that for a specified phase deviation, the

FM system is 3 times as good as the PM system.

Problem 2.55

(a) The power spectral densities of the original message signal, and the signal and noise components at the frequency discriminator output (for positive frequencies) are ill ustrated below:

Sp ect . .,'& del\~;~ of- m ess"';::Se.


lL_____j':t---------- f (kHz) 4

Specf.,-...Q.. dQ_l\s'l~ I of. S i3".....Q... = """p 01\ ~ ,'~ ,0.1:: "lisc.,..; nil I\CA.. t. 01 ou.~· puJ-





5 ?e.(;.'t .... .& d<!!"s~tj o~ i\.oi~e...

C-c::> rv-p co t\ Q ..... \- 0. \disc...'\' I !'VI. I\c ... J-o-r.

o v-.\-p ........ \-


o 48

(b) Each SSB mod ed wave contains only the lower sideband. Let Ak and kfO denote the

amplitude and frequency of the carrier used to generate the kth modulated wave, where f 0 = 4 kHz, and k = 1, 2, ••• , 12. Then, we find that the kth mod ulated wave occupies the frequency interval (k - 1)fO~ If! ~ kfO• We may define this modulated wave by

where met) is the original message signal, and met) is its Hilbert transform. Therefore, the aver age power of sk( t) is A~ P /4, where P is the mean power of m( t) •

'fie may eXpress the output signal-to-noise ratio

for the kth SSB mod ulated wave as follows:

where Ac is the carrier amplitude of the FM wave. For equal signal-to-noise ratios, we must therefore choose the Ak so as to satisfy the condition

A2 k

--~=---- = constant for k =

3k2 _ 3k + 1

1, 2, ••• , 12.


Problem 2.56

The envelope r(t) and phase v(t) of the narrow-band noise n(t) are defined by

r(t) = VnI2(t) + n~(t)


'If{t) = tan -1 (nQ(t») nI(t)

For a positive-going click to occur, we therefore require the following:

nQ(t) has a small positive value

Correspondingly, for a negative-going click to occur, we require

nQ(t) has a small negative value d tan -1 (nQ(t») < 0

dt nI(t)


Problem 2.57



Let H(f) be Vout(f)!Vin(f), or the transfer function of the filter. frequencies, the capacitor behaves as an open circuit. Then,

At low

R H(r) "'---:r + R

'" -



Thus, the low frequencies of the input are frequency-modulated. At high frequencieS, the capacitor behaves as a short circuit in relation to the resistor. Then,


H (f) ::! -- ....... ,;-- ::! j2nfCR ,

R +



Frequency modulating the derivative of a waveform is equivalent to phase modulating the waveform. Thus, the high frequencies of the input are phase modulated.

Problem 2.58

(a) For the average power of the emphasi zed signal to be the same as the average power of the original message signal, we must choose the transfer function Hpe(f) of the preemphasis filter so as to satisfy the relation

co co 2
f SM( f) df = f IHpe I SM(f)df
-co -co
\ So -W<f<W
, + (f/fO)2
SM( r) =1
o , elsewhere •
H (f) = k Cl .K)
+ f
pe 0
we have
W df W 130
f 2 = k2 f df
-W1 + (fIfO) -W Solving for k , we get


k = [_Q_ tan -1 (!!..._)] 1 12

W fO

(b) The improvement in output signal-to-noise ratio obtained by using pre-emphasis in the transmitter and de-emphasis in the receiver is defined by the ratio


D =


= -:-:---:------

W f2 df

31 '2 2

-W k 1 + (fIfO)

(2 )

Substi tuting Eq. (1) in (2), we get

2 -1

(W/fO) tan (W/fo)

D = --___;---~:__---

-1 3[(W/fO) - tan (W/fO)]

This result applies to the case when the rms bandwidth of the FM system is maintained

the same with or without pre-emphasis. When, however, there is no such constraint, we

find from Example 4 of Chapter 6 that the corresponding value of D is

(4 )

In the diagram below, we have plotted the improvement D (expressed in decibels) versus the ratio W/f 0 for the two cases; when there is a transmission bandwidth constraint and when there is no such constraint:



------ -- ---

10 ~t8 » '0







Problem 2.59

In a PM system, the power spectral density of the noise at the phase discriminator output (in the absence of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis) is approximately constant • . Ther-efore, the improvement in output signal-to-noise ratio obtained by using pre-emphasis in the transmitter and de-emphasis in the receiver of a PM system is given by


f df o

D = ~-----------


f IHde(f) 12df o

Wi th the transfer function Hde( f) of the de-emphasis fil ter defined by

Hde(f) = 1 + 1
(j flf 0) ,
we find that the correspond ing value of D is
D = W
W df
f (f/f 0)2
0 1 + W/fo

= ----:-----


tan (W/f 0)

For the case when W = 15 kHz, f 0 = 2. 1 kHz, we find that D = 5, or 7 dB. The

corresponding value of the improvement ratio D for an FM system is equal to 13 d B (see

Example 4 of Chapter 5). Therefore, the improvement obtained by using pre-emphasis and

de-emphasis in a PM system is smaller by an amount equal to 6 dB.


Problem 2.60

Matlab codes

% Amplitude demodulation %problem 2.60, CS: Haykin % Mathini Sellathurai

clear all Ac=1; mue=0.5; fc=20000; fm=1000; ts=1e-5;

% message signal t=[0:250]*1e-5; m=sin(2*pi*fm.*t); plot(t, m) xlabel('time (s)') ylabel('Amplitude') pause

% amplitude modulated signal u=AM_mod(mue,m,ts,fc); plot(t,u)

xlabel('time (s)') ylabel('Amplitude')


% demodulated signal

[t1, dem1]=AM_demod(mue,u,ts,fc); plot(t1*ts, dem1)

xlabel('time (s)') ylabel('Amplitude')

axis([O 2.5e-3 0 2])


function u=AM_mod(mue,m,ts,fc) % Amplitude modulation

'loused in problem 2.60, CS: Haykin % Mathini Sellathurai


t=[0:length(m)-1]*ts; c=cos(2*pi*fc.*t); m_n=m/max(abs(m)); u=(1+mue*m_n).*c;


function [t, env]=AM_demod(mue,m,ts,fc) % Amplitude demodulation

%used in problem 2.60, CS: Haykin % Mathini Sellathurai


fS=1/ts; fsofc=round(fs/fc); n2=length(m);

v=zeros(1,round(n2/fsofc)); % initializing the envelope R_L=1000; % load

C=0.01e-6; % capacitor

%demodulate the envelope 1=0; v(1)=m(1);

for k=1:fsofc:n2-fsofc 1=1+2;

v(l)=m(k)*exp(-ts/(R_L*C)/fsofc); % discharging v(1+1)=m(k+fsofc); %charging


% envelope

t =0:fsofc/2:(length(v)-1)*fsofc/2; env=v;


Answer to Problem 2.60





-10~----------~~--~L-----L_----------~--~~~--~2----------__j 2.5

x 10-3

time (s)

Figure I: Message signal


1.5r---~_'~---'------ -r ~07 '- ,- __ ~_,~---,





-1.5L_----------~-- _L ~ L_ __

o 0.5 1.5 2 2.5

x 10-3

lime (s)

Figure 1. Amplitude modulated signal

2r------------. ~---------- __ _.---------- __ ._----------~




OL_-----------L------ L_ -L L- ~

o 0.5 1.5 2 2.5

x 10-3

time (s)

Figure 3: Demodulated signal


Problem 2.61

Matlab codes

% Problem 2.61 CS: Haykin

% phase lock loop and cycle slipping % M. Sellathurai

% time interval to=Ojtf=25j

% frequency step =0.125 Hz delf=0.125j

uO=[O -delf*2*pi] j

[t,u]=ode23('lin',[tO tf],uO)j plot(t,u(:,2)/2/pi+delf)j xlabel('Time (s)')

ylabel('Li (t), (Hz)')


% frequency step =0.51 Hz delf=0.5j

uO=[O -delf*pi*2] 'j

[t,u]=ode23('lin',[tO tf],uO)j plot(t,u(: ,2)/2/pi+delf)j xlabel('Time (s)')j

ylabel('Li (t), (Hz)')j


% frequency step =7/12 Hz delf=7/12j

uO=[O -delf*pi*2]'j

[t,u]=ode23('lin',[tO tf],uO)j plot(t,u(: ,2)/2/pi+delf)j xlabel('Time (s)');

ylabel('f_i (t), (Hz)')j


% frequency step =2/3 Hz delf=2/3j

uO=[O -delf*pi*2] 'j

[t,u]=ode23('lin' ,[to tf],uO)j plot(t,u(:,2)/2/pi+delf)j xlabel('Time (s)')j

ylabel('f_i (t), (Hz)')j


function uprim =lin(t,u)

% used in Problem 2.61, CS: Haykin % PLL

% Transfer function (l+as)/(l+bs), % gain K=50/2/pi,

% natural frequency 1/2/pi % damping 0.707

% Mathini Sellathurai

uprim(1)=u(2) ; uprim(2)=-(1/50+1.2883*cos(u(1)))*u(2)-sin(u(1)); uprim=uprim I ;


Answer to Problem 2.61








Time (s)

Figure t : Variation in the instantaneous frequency of the PLL's voltage controlled oscillator for varying frequency step ~ f. (a) ~ f = 0.125 Hz


0 5





Time (5)

Figufl,1: (b) ~ f= 0.5 Hz

0 5





Time (5)

Figure'!: (b) ~ f = 7/12 Hz






-;::;-0.5 ~





Time (5)

Figure 4: (b) ~ f = 2/3 Hz