This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

### Publishers

Editors' Picks Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

All the observed phenomena of ocean waves, that is, waves in deep water, fit in so well with the trochoidal wave theory that this theory is generally accepted. It is assumed that the waves traverse an ocean of unlimited extent and the depth of water in relation to the dimensions of the wave is sufficiently great for this also to be assumed unlimited. It will be seen later that the depth of water at which wave motion is practically negligible is comparatively small. Sometimes these ideal conditions are fulfilled in ocean waves, but generally several series of waves are superimposed on one another often in different directions, the result being a confused sea. It is necessary in considering the subject to assume a single series of waves. A trochoid is the curve traced out by a point inside a circle when the circle is rolled along a straight line, and if the circle is below the line it will be found that the resulting curve is sharper at the crest than at the trough (Fig).

If the radius of the rolling circle is R and the circle rolls along the line N0N, the velocity of the centre of the circle being V, and the radius of the point P within the circle being r, then P traces out a curve which is a trochoid. The length from crest to crest L=2irR, and the height from crest to trough H=2r. In Fig. 6.1 00P0 is the initial position, and 0 is the angle turned through when the centre of the circle arrives at 0, and the radius at OP. Then 000=R0, and if we take the origin at P0, the axis of x as horizontal, and the axis of y as vertical, then the co-ordinates of P are given by x=RΘ—r sinΘ = L /2Π Θ - H/2 sin Θ (1) y=r-rcosΘ = H/2 - H/2_cos Θ (2) As P moves along it revolves about the instantaneous centre N, so that PN is normal to the surface of the trochoid at P. If v=velocitY of P ω =angular velocity of OP

it can be shown that v = P N x dΘ / dt = nω For proof of this v² = (dx/dt)² + (dΘ/dt)² = {(R-rcsΘ)² + r² sin²Θ } (dΘ /dt)² = (TN² + PT² ) x (dΘ / dt)² = PN² ( dΘ / dt)² v = PN x dΘ / dt Sub_TrOCh0Ids. ). If v is the velocity at P and e the breadth of the stream. They are all of the same length and described by the same diameter of rolling circle. There fore ne=constant (4) . For the trochoids below the surface the crests and troughS must be in the same vertical line as at the surface. The variation will be in the position of the rolling line and in the length of the radius arm OP. and the lines of orbit centres through 0 and 0’. It can be shown that: r = r0 e –r/R Where r0 = radius of surface trochoid radius And R = L / 2Π Let the two adjacent trochoidS be those through P and P’ (Fig. y being measured from some datum line and δy being as shown. we have quantity of water passing=new. and for two consecutive trochoid surfaces the distance y between the lines of orbit centres will be the same as the distance between the rolling lines. The radius arm r will diminish as depth is increased. and this must be constant all along the stream and since ω is uniform. then the quantity of water passing will equal v x e. Since v = nω. Then for continuity it is necessary that the water shall continually fill the space between the two trochoids. the rolling lines being through N and N’.

.

Thus for successive values of y. formation. All such points as P revolving in circular orbits will give a wave a velocity V. the diameter of the orbit is negligible. ). and at a -depth of 600 ft. It will be found that at a depth of 400 ft. and it is found that r rapidly decreases with the depth Take a wave 600 ft. distances below the centres of the rolling circle of the surface trochoid. we can obtain successive values of r. We can turn the motion of the rolling circle into a wave formation by impressing on the whole a backward velocity V (see Fig. long and 40 ft. Wave Formation. high. i.e. .. the formation travelling with Then the point 0 is fixed and points as P revolve with aconstant angular velocity w. the diameter of the orbit is only about 7 in.

Let OO be the line of orbit centres.The particles in the crest will move in the same direction as the wave advance and particles in the trough in the opposite direction.e. Fig. and LL a line such that the area of the half trochoid P’P”’M equals the area LLP’M. If a piece of wood be observed floating on a wave it will be seen to oscillate about a mean position all the while the wave is rapidly moving on. while it is evident that the rope itself does not travel.. which will travel along the rope. it being the wave form which moves along. . which is a motion on which the wave formation will be superimposed. Line of Orbit Centres in Relation to Still Water Level. There may be of course a bodily drift of the whole mass of water due to tides. Waves may be created in a rope. A wave is the passage of motion and the actual movement of the water is small. LL will be the level of still water. i. The turning of the rolling circle movement into a wave formation by impressing on it a constant velocity does not afTcct any of the dynamical relations into which we shall have to inquire.

For the speed in knots we have: V12=1.4 4. f changes in magnitude and direction all along the wave.8 Variation of Pressure in a Wave.1sec 100 22. water.0 19. The wind moment causing heel is not affected. The increment of pressure from one trochoidal surface to the next is the same as the increment between the corresponding layers in still water.0 2000 101.This gives the speed of the wave in foot second units.5 3. is liable The virtual gravity will act at right angles to the wave slope.0 6. The apparent or virtual weight of a body of mass m floating on the surface of a wave therefore varies from mgx{(R-r)/R} at the crest to mgx{ (R+r)/r} in the trough. and consequently the righting moment at any angle of inclination is less on the crest than in still water.5 60. The virtual weight is less than the actual. because the particles are acted upon by f instead of the real gravity g. high the variation is from 084g in the crest to 115g in the trough. is liable to be blown over to a large angle and possibly capsize.8L or V1=l.. This s the explanation of the welt-known phenomenon of the tenderness of sailing boats on the crest of a wave.3 26. For a wave 600 ft.8 600 55.4 14. 32.4 200 32.7 13.9 12. .0 9. of sufficient stiffness in smooth water.0 19.34√L (10) f in (8) is termed the virtual gravity.5 1000 71. This normal at any particular instant is termed the virtual upright Length in speedin speed period(time the feet feetpersecond kts length is travelled 50 16. and a small raft will always tend to set itself normal to the wave surface. and thus on the crest of a wave a boat. being always perpendicular to the surface of the trochoid.8 10.2 400 45.8 800 641 37. long and 30 ft.8 8.6 42.

). For the fluid filaments between adjacent trochoids we not only have to satisfy the condition of continuity but also the condition of lateral equilibrium. For continuity. on each of the sub-surfaces the pressure is constant. ne =conStant.ne is constant along the stream the increment of pressure δ p is also constant. ): . since the pressure on the surface is constant.e. If the pressure on the upper face is p. i. the water must be a solid mass with no cavities. then: and since . and on the lower face p+δp.Therefore the pressure at any point in a trochoidal wave is the same as at the corresponding point in still water. Take a small cylinder between adjacent trochoidS (Fig. The area of a trochoidal strip corresponding to lines of rolling circles δy apart is obtained as follows (see Fig. That is to say. as already seen. of cross section∞ . and the trochoidal strip is capable of forming a stream of continuous flow.

for: 1. and the energy due to this motion is kinetic energy. The particles are also lifted above the level they occupied in still water. and for the ship WΠ ne (r²/ R) .Energy stored up in a Wave. It can be shown that the total energy per unit breadth of the wave is (1/8)wLH2. Kinetic energy of a particle s ½ (W/g) ne dΘ ω² r² . The particles of a wave are revolving in circular orbits each with a linear velocity ω r. which is potential energy. Kinetic energy. The centre of gravity of a trochoidal strip is in the line of orbit centres.

Since ω² = (g/ R) 2. Potential energy = W 2Π ne ( r² /2R) = WΠ ne (r²/ R) from (7) So that nergy of strip is half potential and half kinetic and equals = 2 WΠ ne (r²/ R) Substituting for ne = rδr + Rδy .

however. It can be shown that the motion in oscillatory waves in a perfect fluid cannot be generated from rest. without viscosity. so that the theory fails to represent the actual motion. Water. is not a perfect fluid. but the theory fits in so well with all the observed facts that it is generally accepted. offering no resistance whatever to change of shape. .e.The trochoidal wave theory as developed above assumes that the fluid is perfects i.

. distance between observing stations on the ship. then V in the above is changed to — V. Let V be the speed of the ship. then: L=(V cos Θ+V1)t’ =l x (t’/t) x cos Θ If the ship is steaming away from the wave advance.Observations on Waves to determine the velocity... and speed of ship relative to wave advance is V cos Θ+V1. length of wave (crest to crest). The height of the observer’s eye above the water-line is then the height of the wave. If t is the time interval of a wave crest as observed at the bow and stern positions perpendicular to wave advance. speed of the waves. To find the velocity and length (Fig. . A position is taken up amidships in the ship so that when the ship is in the trough and upright.. length. 6. The speed of ship in direction of wave advance is V cos Θ.. successive crests appear to form a chain reaching towards the horizon. . To find the height. . Such a method is inevitably liable to considerable inaccuracy. . then: t = (I cos Θ I(V cosΘ+V1) and V1={ (1—Vt)/t} cosΘ If t’ be the time interval between successive crests as observed at the bow or stern positions perpendicular to the wave advance. L . This is more difficult.5). V1 .. and height. Θ be the angle of ship with the wave advance. I .

It is seen that as the length of wave increases the ratio L÷H increases.8L r=r0e –Y/R log10 r=log10 r0 – (1 /2. For the the wave surface this distance= ΠH²/ 4L Virtual gravity at crest ={ (R-r) / R} x g Virtual gravity at trough = {(R+r)/R} x g Where L = length of wave in ft H = height of wave T = peridic time in seconds V1 = velocity of waves in knots R = radius of rolling circle in feet Ro = radius of tracing arm in at surface R = radius of tracing arm at depth y Y = depth of line of orbit centres from that line for the surface trochoid G = acceleration due to gravity in foot second units .44 √ L Height of centre of orbits of given particle above the level of that particle in still water= r²/2R’. Principal Formulae in Trochoidal Wave Theory. and that the standard ratio of L÷H =2O usually used for poising a ship on a wave for strength calculations cannot fairly be applied to ships longer than about 470 ft.3) (y/R) T = 0. The following are the principal formulae arising out of the trochoidal wave theory: L=2ΠR r0= H/2 V1² = 1.

CHPT19

Buildings With Containers

Buildings With Containers

FRB_700_Alu

Shipyard Layout

Ship Types and Classification Services

GlobalMET Magazine - October Issue (Optimized - 27.10.10)

When Does Shallow Water Become a Problem

When Does Shallow Water Become a Problem

Download

by jaishanakar

by Marville Cullen Provido Espago

by RAJESH GANESAN

by Dhawal Tandon

by Jai Frinz

by api-27176519

403

Bojean Curves

Wall Sided Formula

Maxsurf Tutorial

Anthony F Molland_ Stephen R Turnock_ Dominic a Hudson-Ship Resistance and Propulsion _ Practical Estimation of Ship Propulsive Power-Cambridge University Press (2011)

Bhattacharya Dynamics of Marine Vehicles

Ship Stability, Basic Stability Definitions

Significant Ships 2007

Class 2 Orals

Scantling Calculation

General Arrangement

1SHIP STABILITY IN PRACTICE_AD

Ship Resistance and Propulsion

Coc 1 Oral Questions and Answers

Basic Ship Propulsion Ghose and Gokarn

Mates Stability[1]

ship stability formulae

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

scribd