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Presented By Kavita Mehta (034) Cyrus Carvalho(007) Kaustubh Joshi(118) Devanshi Desai(105) Jerry Tomy(161)
Water Andrew Shewhart
March 18, 1891 - March 11, 1967 American physicist, engineer and statistician sometimes known as the father of statistical quality control Born in New Canton, Illinois Attended the University of Illinois before being awarded his doctorate in physics from the University of California, Berkeley in 1917
Founder of the P-D-C-A cycle Introduced the schematic control chart for process quality control at the Western Electric Company in 1924 Shewhart's work pointed out the importance of reducing variation in a manufacturing process and continual processadjustment Interests diverged towards science and statistical inference Led him to formulate the statistical idea of tolerance levels and propose his data presentation rules which are;
o Data have no meaning apart from their context. o Data contain both signal and noise. To be able to extract information, one must separate the signal from the noise within the data.
Iowa Attended the University of Wyoming M. 1900 December 20. professor. from the University of Colorado Ph.D from Yale University . 1993 American statistician.S. lecturer.W. Edwards Deming October 14. author. and consultant Best known for his work in Japan Born in Sioux City.
so JUSE's board of directors established the Deming Prize to repay him for his friendship and kindness. the Deming Prize continues to exert considerable influence on the disciplines of quality control and quality management In the U.S.His Work Worked in Japan since 1947 Member of the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers Deming trained hundreds of engineers. and scholars in statistical process control (SPC) and concepts of quality Deming's message to Japan's chief executives: Improving quality will reduce expenses while increasing productivity and market share Deming declined to receive royalties. Within Japan. turned around the fortunes the Ford Motor Company in the early 1980 s . managers..
Deming was highly influenced by Shewhart s work on measurement error in science. Shewhart s work came to the attention of W. Deming developed some of Shewhart's methodological proposals around scientific inference and named his synthesis the Shewhart cycle. .Shewhart & Deming In 1938. Edwards Deming. The encounter began a long collaboration between Shewhart and Deming that involved work on productivity during World War II and Deming's championing of Shewhart's ideas in Japan.
1948) Physicist who became a business management guru Optimized Production Technology. DrumBuffer-Rope. the Thinking Processes. the Theory of Constraints (TOC). Goldratt Eliyahu Moshe Goldratt(born March 31. Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) and other TOC derived tools .Eliyahu M.
.From The Goal by Eli Goldratt What is a bottleneck? Simply a constriction in the flow that limits the output of a system.
The Goal Every system was built for a purpose Must define the system s goal Actions of and decision about subsystems must be judged on impact towards the goal From The Goal by Eli Goldratt .
Five Steps From The Goal by Eli Goldratt Identify the System s Constraints Decide how to exploit the system s constraints Subordinate everything else to the above decision Elevate the system s constraints If in the previous steps a constraint has been broken. go back to step 1 .
Identify the System s Constraints (The resource or policy that prevents the organization from obtaining more of the goal) When identifying constraints you need to focus on the major ones first. so you need to focus on the primary product flow first. in real systems there are often hundreds of different machines/workstations/processes. From The Goal by Eli Goldratt .
Decide how to exploit the system s constraints (Get the most capacity out of the constrained process) Find ways to maximize output of bottlenecks aka active constraints Find ways to offload and maximize effectiveness of this resource From The Goal by Eli Goldratt .
Subordinate everything else to the above decision (Align the whole system or organization to support the decision made above) Priorities for ± _________(Maintenance and repair) ± _________ (Setup and Material Delivery) ± _________(Lost production) From The Goal by Eli Goldratt .
Elevate the system s constraints (Make other major changes needed to break the constraint) Can you ± Increase the capacity of the bottleneck? Speed up? Add more available time? Reduce setup time and other downtime? ± Cut the constraint resource out of some processes? ± Use alternate resources? ± Improve the effectiveness Inspection prior to bottleneck? ± Can we break the constraint? From The Goal by Eli Goldratt .
go back to step 1 Once you break the critical / active constraint there will be a new one Find the new one and repeat the process From The Goal by Eli Goldratt .If in the previous steps a constraint has been broken.
May 28. Ohno's principles influenced areas outside of manufacturing.Taiichi Ohno Taiichi Ohno(February 29. 1912 . which became Lean Manufacturing in the U.S. and have been extended into the service arena . 1990) He is considered to be the father of the Toyota Production System.
which consists of the ability to use multiple machines to perform the same operation on a part. Two categories of flexibility ± Machine flexibility. capacity. 17 . whether predicted or unpredicted. and ability to change the order of operations executed on a part. as well as the system's ability to absorb large-scale changes. or capability. ± Routing flexibility. such as in volume. covers the system's ability to be changed to produce new product types.What is an FMS? A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a manufacturing system in which there is some amount of flexibility that allows the system to react in the case of changes.
) Principle 5: Build the culture of stopping to fix problems to get quality right the first time.14 TPS Principles Section I ± Long-term philosophy Principle 1: Base your management decisions on a long-term philosophy. Principle 3: Use ³pull´ system to avoid overproduction. Section II ± The Right processes will produce the right results Principle 2: Create continuous process flow to bring problem to the surface. 18 . (work like a tortoise not the hare. Principle 4: Level out the workload (heijunka). even at the expense of short-term financial goals.
19 . and teach it to others. Principle 8: Use only reliable.14 TPS Principles Principle 6: Standardize tasks are the foundation for continuous improvement and employee empowerment. Principle 7: Use visual control so no problems are hidden. thoroughly tested technology that serves your people and processes. live the philosophy. Section III ± Add value to the organization by developing your people and partners Principle 9: Grow leaders who thoroughly understand the work.
thoroughly considering all options. Principle 13: Make decisions slowly by consensus. Section IV ± Continuously solving root problem drives organizational learning Principle 12: Go and see for yourself to thoroughly understand the situation (genchi genbutsu). Principle 11: Respect your extended network of partners and suppliers by challenging them and helping them improve. implement decisions rapidly.14 TPS Principles Principle 10: Develop exceptional people and teams who follow your company¶s philosophy. 20 .
21 .14 TPS Principles Principle 14: Become a learning organization through relentless reflection (hensei) and continuous improvement (kaizen).
4P model of the Toyota way .
TPS House .
Crosby Crosby initiated the Zero Defects program at the Martin Company Orlando.Philip B. plant As the quality control manager of the Pershing missile program. Florida. Crosby was credited with a 25 percent reduction in the overall rejection rate and a 30 percent reduction in scrap costs .
Crosby The principle of "doing it right the first time" (DIRFT).Philip B. He would also include four major principles: ± ± ± ± the definition of quality is conformance to requirements the system of quality is prevention the performance standard is zero defects the measurement of quality is the price of nonconformance Crosby's prescription for quality improvement was a 14-step program His belief was that an organization that established a quality program will see savings returns that more than pay off the cost of the quality program: "quality is free" .
Everyone is happy to work there . Change is anticipated and used to advantage 3. Growth is consistent and profitable 4. People routinely do things right first time 2. The Eternally Successful Organization (1988) presented a broader approach to improvements In it Crosby identified five characteristics essential for an organization to be successful: 1. New products and services appear when needed 5.
V.A. . He devised the concept of Total Quality Control. Feigenbaum Armand Vallin Feigenbaum (born 1922) is an American quality control expert and businessman. later known as Total Quality Management (TQM).
Feigenbaum His contributions to the quality body of knowledge include: "Total quality control is an effective system for integrating the quality development. quality maintenance." The concept of a "hidden" plant the idea that so much extra work is performed in correcting mistakes that there is effectively a hidden plant within any factory Accountability for quality: Because quality is everybody's job.V. it may become nobody's job the idea that quality must be actively managed and have visibility at the highest levels of management The concept of quality costs .A. and quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization so as to enable production and service at the most economical levels which allow full customer satisfaction.
He stresses that quality does not mean best but best for the customer use and selling price The word control in quality control represents a management tool with 4 steps: ± Setting quality standards ± Appraising conformance to these standards ± Acting when standards are exceeded ± Planning for improvements in the standards .
Juran s Systematic Approach to Quality Management Establish policies and goals for quality Establish plans for meeting quality goals Provide resources to evaluate progress against goals and take appropriate actions Provide motivation to stimulate people to meet the goal .
Keep score 10. Communicate results 9. Give recognition 8. Provide Training 5. Report progress 7. Set goals for improvement 3. Organise to reach the goals 4. Build awareness of the need and opportunity for improvement 2. Maintain momentum by making annual improvement part of the regular systems and processes of the company . Carry out projects to solve problems 6.Juran s Ten Steps to Quality Improvement 1.
Ishikawa Started his career as an associate professor at the University of Tokyo In 1949. where he introduced the concept of quality circles 1982 he developed the Ishikawa diagram which is used to determine root causes The Fish bone(cause-effect) diagram show the causes of an event . Ishikawa joined the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) quality control research group.
computers. parts. temperature.Ishikawa. required to accomplish the job ± Materials: Raw materials. time. used to produce the final product ± Measurements: Data generated from the process that are used to evaluate its quality ± Environment: The conditions.Fish bone diagram The categories typically include: ± People: Anyone involved with the process ± Methods: How the process is performed and the specific requirements for doing it. such as location. such as policies. rules. regulations and laws ± Machines: Any equipment. etc. procedures. pens. tools etc. and culture in which the process operates . paper.
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