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Kian Hoe, Chua

2rd year BSc. Chemical Engineering


University of New Brunswick
Fredericton, New Brunswick.
_______________________________________________________________________
_

Professor Cook, William


Fluids Lab supervisor
University of New Brunswick
Fredericton, New Brunswick

March 24th, 2007

Dear Dr. Cook:

Attached is the laboratory report for the flow meters experiment. This experiment was
conducted at the fluids lab on March 21st, 2007 under my leadership with my group
members Emily Porter and Sarah Dwyer. Each team member was assigned a particular
responsibility during the experiment and has also contributed to sections of this report.

We have determined the loss coefficient and the variation of the loss coefficient with
Reynolds number for the venturi and orifice meters. We were also able to compare the
three methods of flow measurement and could calibrate the rotameter, thus all the
objectives of this lab have been achieved.

All the sections that are required have been included in this report. If you have any
further questions, you can reach me at m63l8@unb.ca .

Yours sincerely,

Kian Hoe, Chua


Encl: Report

ChE 2412- Chemical Engineering Laboratory I

Fluid Mechanic Lab- Fluid Flowmeters

By
Chua, Kian Hoe
Porter, Emily
Dwyer, Sarah
Abstract

The goal of this experiment was to determine the loss coefficients for the venturi meter
and orifice meter and to be able to establish the variation of the loss coefficient with the
Reynolds number for both the venturi and orifice meter. The other objective was to
calibrate the rotameter and to compare the three methods of flow measurement

The flow rate through a pipe can be measured by using the orifice meter, venturi meter
and the rotameter. From the energy equation, it can be deduced that when pressure head
reduce, the velocity head will increase. In the orifice and venturi meters, the cross-
sectional area available for flow is restricted. Hence, an increase in velocity will result in
a decrease in pressure at a point from continuity or energy equation.

For rotameter, the same principle can be applied in this case. However, it should be noted
that the area available for the flow is variable while the pressure drop across the
restriction is keep constant. This can generally be achieved via a tapered tube and float
arrangement. As flow increases, the flow raises until the dynamic force of the fluid
balances the gravitational force acting on the float. The height of the float is directly
related to the flow.

From the results that we obtained, the venturi meter is closer to the value of the actual

flow rate as compared to the orifice meter. This could be due to the fact that the venturi

flow meter has a smaller head loss compared to the orifice meter by its design.
Test Method

1. The apparatus with the entire required dimension are sketched. The sketch is
included in the appendix.

2. The pump is started in order to initiate the flow through the flow meters.

3. All the air from the piezometers is removed.

4. The reading of rotameter of about 27cm is set. This is then to be considered as a


maximum flow.

5. The scale on the rotameter is read corresponding with the top of the rotameter
float.

6. The temperature of the water in the reservoir is measured by using thermometer.

7. The condition of steady flow is achieved after a few minutes. The reading on of
the head on point 1, 2, 5, and 6 is recorded. With this information, change in head
can be obtained. This is then used to calculate the volumetric flow rate of the both
the meters.

8. The time required in seconds for a certain amount of water to pass through the
system is determined by using the built in balance system. Hence, the actual flow
rate can be determined with this information.

9. The procedure above is the repeated by decreasing the reading on rotameter to


24cm, 18cm, 12cm, 8cm, 5cm, 3cm and 1cm to obtained a series of flow
conditions.
Results and Discussion

In order to determine the actual flow rate through the system a balance system was used.
The time needed for 15 lb of water at 21.0ºC to flow into the balance was measured three
times for each rotameter setting. This was accomplished using a 15 lb. weight and a stop
watch. The average flow rate was then calculated using the following formula,
m
Q=
1 Equation 1
ρ  ( t1 + t 2 + t 3 )
3

Where Q = volume flow rate (m s )


3

ρ = density 
 kg 
3
 m 
m = mass (kg)
ti = time (s)

The following results were obtained;

(m s )
Table 1. Rotameter scale reading versus Actual Flow measured as the average of three trials.
Rotameter Reading (cm) Average time for 15 lb. for water 3
to flow through the system (s) Actual Flow Rate
27 13.1633333 0.00051803
24 14.6033333 0.000466948
18 19.4266667 0.000351012
12 27.2166667 0.000250545
8 39.3333333 0.000173364
5 59.4633333 0.000114676
3 76.6166667 8.90015E-05
1 112.376667 6.06799E-05

These results are the actual flow rates that passed through each of the flow measuring
devices in the system; the venture meter, the orifice meter and the rotameter. They will
be used to find the calibration curve of the rotameter and to determine the correction
coefficients for the Venturi meter and the Orifice meter.
In order to find the correction coefficients of the Venturi and Orifice meters the ideal
flow through each must be calculated. The ideal flow equations omit flow losses caused
by friction. The equation for ideal flow through a venturi meter and an orifice meter are
equation 2 and equation 3 respectively.

2 g ( h1 − h2 )
Q = A2 2
Equation 2
1 −  2 
A
 A1 

2 g ( h1 − h2 )
Q = Ao 2
Equation 3
1 −  o 
A
 A1 

Where Q = the flow rate (m s )


3

Ao = the area of the circular Orifice meter (m2)


A1 = the area upstream of the Venturi/Orifice meter (m2)
A2 = the area at the throat of the Venturi meter (m2)
h1 = the pressure head upstream of the Venturi meter (Pa)
h2 = the pressure head at the throat of the Venturi meter (Pa)

g = acceleration due to gravity (m s )


2

The results of these calcuations give the following results;


Table 2. Ideal flow rates through Venturi and Orifice meters.

(m s ) (m s )
Rotameter Reading (cm) Ideal Flow through a Ideal Flow through an
3 3
Venturi meter Orifice meter
27 0.000526 0.000833
24 0.000465 0.000733
18 0.000359 0.000558
12 0.000263 0.000404
8 0.000186 0.000293
5 0.000127 0.000197
3 9.6E-05 0.000153
1 6.79E-05 8.82E-05
The Flow Coefficients for the actual flow of both the orifice meter and the venturi meter
were calculated using their respective experimental values and the following formula:

C= Q/ A2*(2g(h1-h2)/1-(A2/A1)²)^1/2

Where: C = flow coefficient

Q= Actual Flow Rate (m^3/s)

A2= The area of the approach pipe (m^2)

A1 = The area of the orifice/venture opening (m^2)

g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s^2)

h1,h2 = pressure heads upstream and downstream of the meter

The following results were observed;

Table 3: Flow Coefficients for the Orifice and Venturi Meter


Rotameter Flow Coefficient Flow Coefficient
Reading (cm) Orifice meter Venturi meter
27 0.62224 0.38480
24 0.63701 0.39190
18 0.62891 0.38168
12 0.61955 0.37221
8 0.59233 0.36424
5 0.58115 0.35269
3 0.58229 0.36211
1 0.68761 0.34914

In order to calculate Reynolds number, the following equation was being used;

Re= VDρ/μ

Where: Re = Reynolds Number


V = velocity in the approach pipe (m/s)

ρ = Density of water at 21 °C (kg/m^3)

μ = viscosity of water at 21 °C (Ns/m^2)

The result for the approach Reynolds number was obtained as following;

Table 4: Approach Reynolds Number for Orifice Meter (at 2in)


Rotameter Reading (cm) Velocity (m/s) Reynolds Number
27 1.33514 68946.33
24 1.20348 62147.69
18 0.90468 46717.41
12 0.64574 33345.87
8 0.44682 23073.65
5 0.29556 15262.57
3 0.22939 11845.51
1 0.15639 8076.08

Table 5: Approach Reynolds Number for Venturi Meter (at 1in)


Rotameter Reading (cm) Velocity (m/s) Reynolds Number
27 0.25555 6598.38
24 0.23035 5947.73
18 0.17316 4471.00
12 0.12360 3191.30
8 0.08552 2208.22
5 0.05657 1460.68
3 0.04391 1133.65
1 0.02993 772.91
From all the data obtained, the graphs of the meter against approach Reynolds number for

the Venturi meter and the Orifice meter, and the calibration curve for the rotameter were

being plotted as below;

Flow Coefficients vs. Reynolds Numbers for Orifice

0.70
0.68
Flow Coefficients

0.66
0.64
0.62
0.60
0.58
0.56
1000 10000 100000
Approach Reynolds Number

Figure 1: Flow Coefficients versus Reynolds Numbers Plot for the Orifice Meter.
Flow Coefficient vs Reynolds Number for Venturi

0.395
0.390
Flow Coefficient

0.385
0.380
0.375
0.370
0.365
0.360
0.355
0.350
0.345
0 2000 4000 6000 8000
Reynolds Number

Figure 2: Flow Coefficients versus Reynolds Number Plot for the Venturi Meter.

Rotameter Calibration

30
Rotameter Scale Reading

25

20
(cm)

15

10

0
0 0.0001 0.0002 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005 0.0006
Actual Flow (m³/s)

Figure 3. Scale reading versus actual flow rate for the rotameter.

The venturi tube is considered to be most accurate when the Reynolds number is in the
range of 105 or 106 according to the International Organization of standards. From the
results we obtained; it is evident that the venturi meter is not as accurate as it could be
based. However it is still determined to be the more accurate amongst the two meters on
which the experiment was performed. (LMNO, n.d)
High accuracy of orifice is resulted when the Reynolds number exceed 105. However, the
Reynolds number as low as 4x103 are still valid. Hence, the Reynolds number we
observed in the experiment for the orifice is in the acceptable range. (LMNO.n.d)

Theoretically, the coefficient is supposed to decrease with decreasing Reynolds number.


This is supposed to be due to the fact that at low Reynolds numbers, viscosity effects
become significant. However, the desired results were probably not achieved due to the
human error or faulty apparatus or even the combination of both.

The calibration under different flow conditions is needed because this will result in
different change in pressure and velocity. The velocity is significant in determining the
Reynolds number since it is directly proportional to the Reynolds number.

Conclusion

From the experiment, the venturi meter is determined to be more accurate amongst the
two due the fact that it gives a flow rate that is closer to the actual flow rate. The
Reynolds number of orifice meter was determined to be within the acceptable range.

References

1. ChE 2412 laboratory manual, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of

New Brunswick.

2. A supplementary text for Introductory Fluid mechanics by R.A Chaplin,

University of New Brunswick.


3. LMNO Engineering, (n.d). Large Diameter Orifice Flowmeter Calculation for

Liquid Flow. Retrieve on 27 March 2007 from

http://www.lmnoeng.com/orifice.htm

Appendix

Time (s)
to get 15
lb of H2O
Actual Flow
Reading (cm) 1 2 3 T ave (s) Rate (m³/s)
27 13 13.05 13.44 13.1633333 0.00051803
24 14.93 14.87 14.01 14.6033333 0.000466948
18 19.34 19.69 19.25 19.4266667 0.000351012
12 27.4 26.93 27.32 27.2166667 0.000250545
8 39.21 39.13 39.66 39.3333333 0.000173364
5 57.8 58.59 62 59.4633333 0.000114676
3 77.78 77.1 74.97 76.6166667 8.90015E-05
1 111.6 112.25 113.28 112.376667 6.06799E-05

ρH20 @ conversion
21ºC(kg/m³)= 997.8 factor (kg/lb) = 0.4536

Ideal Flow through the Venturi


Meter
Rotameter
reading h1 (in h2 (in
(cm) d1 (in) A1 (m²) d2 (in) A2 (m²) (A2/A1)² H2O) H2O) Δh (m) Q (m³/s)
27 1 0.000507 0.625 0.000198 0.152588 13 1 0.3048 0.000526
24 1 0.000507 0.625 0.000198 0.152588 11.7 2.3 0.23876 0.000465
18 1 0.000507 0.625 0.000198 0.152588 9.8 4.2 0.14224 0.000359
12 1 0.000507 0.625 0.000198 0.152588 8.5 5.5 0.0762 0.000263
8 1 0.000507 0.625 0.000198 0.152588 7.7 6.2 0.0381 0.000186
5 1 0.000507 0.625 0.000198 0.152588 7.3 6.6 0.01778 0.000127
3 1 0.000507 0.625 0.000198 0.152588 7.6 7.2 0.01016 9.6E-05
1 1 0.000507 0.625 0.000198 0.152588 7.6 7.4 0.00508 6.79E-05

Ideal Flow through the Orifice Meter


Rotameter
reading h1 (in h2 (in
(cm) d0 (in) A0 (m²) d1 (in) A1 (m²) (A0/A1)² H2O) H2O) Δh (m) Q (m³/s)
27 0.875 0.000388 2 0.002027 0.036636 12.1 3.2 0.22606 0.000833
24 0.875 0.000388 2 0.002027 0.036636 10.9 4 0.17526 0.000733
18 0.875 0.000388 2 0.002027 0.036636 9.2 5.2 0.1016 0.000558
12 0.875 0.000388 2 0.002027 0.036636 8.1 6 0.05334 0.000404
8 0.875 0.000388 2 0.002027 0.036636 7.5 6.4 0.02794 0.000293
5 0.875 0.000388 2 0.002027 0.036636 7.2 6.7 0.0127 0.000197
3 0.875 0.000388 2 0.002027 0.036636 7.5 7.2 0.00762 0.000153
1 0.875 0.000388 2 0.002027 0.036636 7.5 7.4 0.00254 8.82E-05

Approach Re for
Orifice Meter (at 2in)
Rotameter reading
(cm) V (m/s) Re
27 0.410698 21208.42
24 0.36162 18674.02
18 0.275332 14218.16
12 0.199497 10302.03
8 0.144386 7456.064
5 0.097345 5026.877
3 0.075403 3893.802
1 0.043534 2248.088

Approach Re for Venturi Meter at (1in)


Rotameter reading
(cm) V (m/s) Re
27 1.037695 26793.26
24 0.918424 23713.68
18 0.708881 18303.28
12 0.518847 13396.63
8 0.366881 9472.849
5 0.250627 6471.188
3 0.189456 4891.758
1 0.133966 3458.996

viscosity at 21ºC 0.000982

Sample Calculation:
Calculation of Actual flow rate for a rotameter reading of 27 cm:

m
(15 lb )  0.4536 kg lb 
Q= =   = 0.000 518 m
3

1 1 s
ρ  ( t1 + t 2 + t 3 )  997.8 kg 3  (13.00 s + 13.05 s + 13.44 s )
3  m  3 

Calculation of ideal flow through a Venturi meter for a rotameter reading of 24 cm:

2 g ( h1 − h2 )
Q = A2 2
1 −  A2 
 A1 

 3.142 
[( ) ]
( 2 9.81 m
s2
)(11.7 inH O − 2.3 inH O) (0.0254 m in)
 0.0254 m in ( 0.625 in )
2 2 2
= 2
 4   0.625 in 
1 −  
 1 in 
3
= 0.000 465 m
s

Calculation of ideal flow through an Orifice meter for a rotameter reading of 18 cm:

2 g ( h1 − h2 )
Q = Ao 2
1 −  o 
A
 A1 

 3.142 
[( ) ]
( 2 9.81 m
s2
)( 9.2 inH O − 5.2 inH O) (0.0254 m in)
 0.0254 m in ( 0.875 in )
2 2 2
= 2
 4   0.875 in 
1 −  
 2 .0 in 
3
= 0.000 558 m
s

Formula of Re for Orifice in excel


=((E20*0.0254)*C43*'Actual Flow'!D15)/(C63)

Formula of Re of Venturi in execel


=((C7*0.0254)*C54*'Actual Flow'!D15)/(C63)