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University of New Brunswick

Fredericton, New Brunswick.

_______________________________________________________________________

_

Fluids Lab supervisor

University of New Brunswick

Fredericton, New Brunswick

Attached is the laboratory report for the flow meters experiment. This experiment was

conducted at the fluids lab on March 21st, 2007 under my leadership with my group

members Emily Porter and Sarah Dwyer. Each team member was assigned a particular

responsibility during the experiment and has also contributed to sections of this report.

We have determined the loss coefficient and the variation of the loss coefficient with

Reynolds number for the venturi and orifice meters. We were also able to compare the

three methods of flow measurement and could calibrate the rotameter, thus all the

objectives of this lab have been achieved.

All the sections that are required have been included in this report. If you have any

further questions, you can reach me at m63l8@unb.ca .

Yours sincerely,

Encl: Report

By

Chua, Kian Hoe

Porter, Emily

Dwyer, Sarah

Abstract

The goal of this experiment was to determine the loss coefficients for the venturi meter

and orifice meter and to be able to establish the variation of the loss coefficient with the

Reynolds number for both the venturi and orifice meter. The other objective was to

calibrate the rotameter and to compare the three methods of flow measurement

The flow rate through a pipe can be measured by using the orifice meter, venturi meter

and the rotameter. From the energy equation, it can be deduced that when pressure head

reduce, the velocity head will increase. In the orifice and venturi meters, the cross-

sectional area available for flow is restricted. Hence, an increase in velocity will result in

a decrease in pressure at a point from continuity or energy equation.

For rotameter, the same principle can be applied in this case. However, it should be noted

that the area available for the flow is variable while the pressure drop across the

restriction is keep constant. This can generally be achieved via a tapered tube and float

arrangement. As flow increases, the flow raises until the dynamic force of the fluid

balances the gravitational force acting on the float. The height of the float is directly

related to the flow.

From the results that we obtained, the venturi meter is closer to the value of the actual

flow rate as compared to the orifice meter. This could be due to the fact that the venturi

flow meter has a smaller head loss compared to the orifice meter by its design.

Test Method

1. The apparatus with the entire required dimension are sketched. The sketch is

included in the appendix.

2. The pump is started in order to initiate the flow through the flow meters.

maximum flow.

5. The scale on the rotameter is read corresponding with the top of the rotameter

float.

7. The condition of steady flow is achieved after a few minutes. The reading on of

the head on point 1, 2, 5, and 6 is recorded. With this information, change in head

can be obtained. This is then used to calculate the volumetric flow rate of the both

the meters.

8. The time required in seconds for a certain amount of water to pass through the

system is determined by using the built in balance system. Hence, the actual flow

rate can be determined with this information.

24cm, 18cm, 12cm, 8cm, 5cm, 3cm and 1cm to obtained a series of flow

conditions.

Results and Discussion

In order to determine the actual flow rate through the system a balance system was used.

The time needed for 15 lb of water at 21.0ºC to flow into the balance was measured three

times for each rotameter setting. This was accomplished using a 15 lb. weight and a stop

watch. The average flow rate was then calculated using the following formula,

m

Q=

1 Equation 1

ρ ( t1 + t 2 + t 3 )

3

3

ρ = density

kg

3

m

m = mass (kg)

ti = time (s)

(m s )

Table 1. Rotameter scale reading versus Actual Flow measured as the average of three trials.

Rotameter Reading (cm) Average time for 15 lb. for water 3

to flow through the system (s) Actual Flow Rate

27 13.1633333 0.00051803

24 14.6033333 0.000466948

18 19.4266667 0.000351012

12 27.2166667 0.000250545

8 39.3333333 0.000173364

5 59.4633333 0.000114676

3 76.6166667 8.90015E-05

1 112.376667 6.06799E-05

These results are the actual flow rates that passed through each of the flow measuring

devices in the system; the venture meter, the orifice meter and the rotameter. They will

be used to find the calibration curve of the rotameter and to determine the correction

coefficients for the Venturi meter and the Orifice meter.

In order to find the correction coefficients of the Venturi and Orifice meters the ideal

flow through each must be calculated. The ideal flow equations omit flow losses caused

by friction. The equation for ideal flow through a venturi meter and an orifice meter are

equation 2 and equation 3 respectively.

2 g ( h1 − h2 )

Q = A2 2

Equation 2

1 − 2

A

A1

2 g ( h1 − h2 )

Q = Ao 2

Equation 3

1 − o

A

A1

3

A1 = the area upstream of the Venturi/Orifice meter (m2)

A2 = the area at the throat of the Venturi meter (m2)

h1 = the pressure head upstream of the Venturi meter (Pa)

h2 = the pressure head at the throat of the Venturi meter (Pa)

2

Table 2. Ideal flow rates through Venturi and Orifice meters.

(m s ) (m s )

Rotameter Reading (cm) Ideal Flow through a Ideal Flow through an

3 3

Venturi meter Orifice meter

27 0.000526 0.000833

24 0.000465 0.000733

18 0.000359 0.000558

12 0.000263 0.000404

8 0.000186 0.000293

5 0.000127 0.000197

3 9.6E-05 0.000153

1 6.79E-05 8.82E-05

The Flow Coefficients for the actual flow of both the orifice meter and the venturi meter

were calculated using their respective experimental values and the following formula:

C= Q/ A2*(2g(h1-h2)/1-(A2/A1)²)^1/2

Rotameter Flow Coefficient Flow Coefficient

Reading (cm) Orifice meter Venturi meter

27 0.62224 0.38480

24 0.63701 0.39190

18 0.62891 0.38168

12 0.61955 0.37221

8 0.59233 0.36424

5 0.58115 0.35269

3 0.58229 0.36211

1 0.68761 0.34914

In order to calculate Reynolds number, the following equation was being used;

Re= VDρ/μ

V = velocity in the approach pipe (m/s)

The result for the approach Reynolds number was obtained as following;

Rotameter Reading (cm) Velocity (m/s) Reynolds Number

27 1.33514 68946.33

24 1.20348 62147.69

18 0.90468 46717.41

12 0.64574 33345.87

8 0.44682 23073.65

5 0.29556 15262.57

3 0.22939 11845.51

1 0.15639 8076.08

Rotameter Reading (cm) Velocity (m/s) Reynolds Number

27 0.25555 6598.38

24 0.23035 5947.73

18 0.17316 4471.00

12 0.12360 3191.30

8 0.08552 2208.22

5 0.05657 1460.68

3 0.04391 1133.65

1 0.02993 772.91

From all the data obtained, the graphs of the meter against approach Reynolds number for

the Venturi meter and the Orifice meter, and the calibration curve for the rotameter were

0.70

0.68

Flow Coefficients

0.66

0.64

0.62

0.60

0.58

0.56

1000 10000 100000

Approach Reynolds Number

Figure 1: Flow Coefficients versus Reynolds Numbers Plot for the Orifice Meter.

Flow Coefficient vs Reynolds Number for Venturi

0.395

0.390

Flow Coefficient

0.385

0.380

0.375

0.370

0.365

0.360

0.355

0.350

0.345

0 2000 4000 6000 8000

Reynolds Number

Figure 2: Flow Coefficients versus Reynolds Number Plot for the Venturi Meter.

Rotameter Calibration

30

Rotameter Scale Reading

25

20

(cm)

15

10

0

0 0.0001 0.0002 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005 0.0006

Actual Flow (m³/s)

Figure 3. Scale reading versus actual flow rate for the rotameter.

The venturi tube is considered to be most accurate when the Reynolds number is in the

range of 105 or 106 according to the International Organization of standards. From the

results we obtained; it is evident that the venturi meter is not as accurate as it could be

based. However it is still determined to be the more accurate amongst the two meters on

which the experiment was performed. (LMNO, n.d)

High accuracy of orifice is resulted when the Reynolds number exceed 105. However, the

Reynolds number as low as 4x103 are still valid. Hence, the Reynolds number we

observed in the experiment for the orifice is in the acceptable range. (LMNO.n.d)

This is supposed to be due to the fact that at low Reynolds numbers, viscosity effects

become significant. However, the desired results were probably not achieved due to the

human error or faulty apparatus or even the combination of both.

The calibration under different flow conditions is needed because this will result in

different change in pressure and velocity. The velocity is significant in determining the

Reynolds number since it is directly proportional to the Reynolds number.

Conclusion

From the experiment, the venturi meter is determined to be more accurate amongst the

two due the fact that it gives a flow rate that is closer to the actual flow rate. The

Reynolds number of orifice meter was determined to be within the acceptable range.

References

New Brunswick.

3. LMNO Engineering, (n.d). Large Diameter Orifice Flowmeter Calculation for

http://www.lmnoeng.com/orifice.htm

Appendix

Time (s)

to get 15

lb of H2O

Actual Flow

Reading (cm) 1 2 3 T ave (s) Rate (m³/s)

27 13 13.05 13.44 13.1633333 0.00051803

24 14.93 14.87 14.01 14.6033333 0.000466948

18 19.34 19.69 19.25 19.4266667 0.000351012

12 27.4 26.93 27.32 27.2166667 0.000250545

8 39.21 39.13 39.66 39.3333333 0.000173364

5 57.8 58.59 62 59.4633333 0.000114676

3 77.78 77.1 74.97 76.6166667 8.90015E-05

1 111.6 112.25 113.28 112.376667 6.06799E-05

ρH20 @ conversion

21ºC(kg/m³)= 997.8 factor (kg/lb) = 0.4536

Meter

Rotameter

reading h1 (in h2 (in

(cm) d1 (in) A1 (m²) d2 (in) A2 (m²) (A2/A1)² H2O) H2O) Δh (m) Q (m³/s)

27 1 0.000507 0.625 0.000198 0.152588 13 1 0.3048 0.000526

24 1 0.000507 0.625 0.000198 0.152588 11.7 2.3 0.23876 0.000465

18 1 0.000507 0.625 0.000198 0.152588 9.8 4.2 0.14224 0.000359

12 1 0.000507 0.625 0.000198 0.152588 8.5 5.5 0.0762 0.000263

8 1 0.000507 0.625 0.000198 0.152588 7.7 6.2 0.0381 0.000186

5 1 0.000507 0.625 0.000198 0.152588 7.3 6.6 0.01778 0.000127

3 1 0.000507 0.625 0.000198 0.152588 7.6 7.2 0.01016 9.6E-05

1 1 0.000507 0.625 0.000198 0.152588 7.6 7.4 0.00508 6.79E-05

Rotameter

reading h1 (in h2 (in

(cm) d0 (in) A0 (m²) d1 (in) A1 (m²) (A0/A1)² H2O) H2O) Δh (m) Q (m³/s)

27 0.875 0.000388 2 0.002027 0.036636 12.1 3.2 0.22606 0.000833

24 0.875 0.000388 2 0.002027 0.036636 10.9 4 0.17526 0.000733

18 0.875 0.000388 2 0.002027 0.036636 9.2 5.2 0.1016 0.000558

12 0.875 0.000388 2 0.002027 0.036636 8.1 6 0.05334 0.000404

8 0.875 0.000388 2 0.002027 0.036636 7.5 6.4 0.02794 0.000293

5 0.875 0.000388 2 0.002027 0.036636 7.2 6.7 0.0127 0.000197

3 0.875 0.000388 2 0.002027 0.036636 7.5 7.2 0.00762 0.000153

1 0.875 0.000388 2 0.002027 0.036636 7.5 7.4 0.00254 8.82E-05

Approach Re for

Orifice Meter (at 2in)

Rotameter reading

(cm) V (m/s) Re

27 0.410698 21208.42

24 0.36162 18674.02

18 0.275332 14218.16

12 0.199497 10302.03

8 0.144386 7456.064

5 0.097345 5026.877

3 0.075403 3893.802

1 0.043534 2248.088

Rotameter reading

(cm) V (m/s) Re

27 1.037695 26793.26

24 0.918424 23713.68

18 0.708881 18303.28

12 0.518847 13396.63

8 0.366881 9472.849

5 0.250627 6471.188

3 0.189456 4891.758

1 0.133966 3458.996

Sample Calculation:

Calculation of Actual flow rate for a rotameter reading of 27 cm:

m

(15 lb ) 0.4536 kg lb

Q= = = 0.000 518 m

3

1 1 s

ρ ( t1 + t 2 + t 3 ) 997.8 kg 3 (13.00 s + 13.05 s + 13.44 s )

3 m 3

Calculation of ideal flow through a Venturi meter for a rotameter reading of 24 cm:

2 g ( h1 − h2 )

Q = A2 2

1 − A2

A1

3.142

[( ) ]

( 2 9.81 m

s2

)(11.7 inH O − 2.3 inH O) (0.0254 m in)

0.0254 m in ( 0.625 in )

2 2 2

= 2

4 0.625 in

1 −

1 in

3

= 0.000 465 m

s

Calculation of ideal flow through an Orifice meter for a rotameter reading of 18 cm:

2 g ( h1 − h2 )

Q = Ao 2

1 − o

A

A1

3.142

[( ) ]

( 2 9.81 m

s2

)( 9.2 inH O − 5.2 inH O) (0.0254 m in)

0.0254 m in ( 0.875 in )

2 2 2

= 2

4 0.875 in

1 −

2 .0 in

3

= 0.000 558 m

s

=((E20*0.0254)*C43*'Actual Flow'!D15)/(C63)

=((C7*0.0254)*C54*'Actual Flow'!D15)/(C63)

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