# RADIOGRAPHY TESTING LEVEL I

1) Although there may be other reasons for using calcium tungstate screens in industrial radiography, they are most usually used to: \C |A. Improve definition and resolution in radiographic images. |B. Improve contrast in radiographic images. |C. Decreases exposure time. |D. Make films respond to multimillion volt radiation. ^A. Resolution deteriorates with an improvement of the photo electric effect by calcium tungstate. ^B. An increase in the photo electric effect at the film plane by calcium does not improve contrast. ^C. YOU'RE RIGHT! An increase in the photo electric effect increases light action at the film plane and reduces exposure time. ^D. Intensifying screens such as calcium tungstate do not alter the multimillion volt response. 2) An excellent radiograph is obtained under given conditions of exposure with the film located at a distance of 36 inches from the target of the x-ray tube. If the film is now placed only 18 inches from the target, and all exposure conditions except time are held constant, the new exposure time will be: \D |A. unchanged. |B. longer by approximately 80 percent. |C. shorter by approximately 55 percent. |D. only about 25 percent as long as the original exposure time. ^A. The inverse square law states that at 1/2 the distance intensity increases by four. ^B. The inverse square law states that at 1/2 the distance intensity increases by four. ^C. The inverse square law states that at 1/2 the distance intensity increases by four. ^D. CORRECT! The inverse square law states that at 1/2 the distance intensity increases by four; thus, exposure time will be approximately 25% 3) An excellent radiograph is obtained under given exposure conditions with a tube current of 5 milliamperes and an exposure time of 12 minutes. If other conditions are not changed, what exposure time would be required if the x-ray tube current could be raised to 10 milliamperes? \C |A. 24 minutes. |B. 12 minutes. |C. 6 minutes. |D. 3 minutes. ^A. Remember, we have just doubled the possible energy action on the film. ^B. After doubling the number of X-rays you decrease exposure time by 50%. ^C. ALRIGHTY! Doubling the mA from 5 to 10 doubles the amount of X-rays produced and cuts exposure in half. ^D. This is one fourth the original exposure time and mA was only doubled not quadrupled.

4) In film radiography, penetrameters are usually placed: \B |A. between the intensifying screen and the film. |B. on the source side of the test object. |C. on the film side of the test object. |D. between the operator and the radiation source. ^A. Placing the penetrameter after the intensifying screen serves no useful purpose. ^B. YES SIRREEBOB! The penetrameter should be the first thing the X-rays penetrate. ^C. X-rays exiting the back side of the specimen are to weak to provide proper penetrameter resolution. ^D. Placing the penetrameter here does not create an image on the film. 5) When radiographing to the 2-2T quality level, and ASTM penetrameter for 1/2 -inch thick 2024 aluminum alloy has a thickness of: \D |A. 1/2 inch. |B. 2 mils. |C. 5 mils. |D. 10 mils. ^A. A 2-2T means two percent material thickness. ^B. Is .002 two percent of .500? ^C. Is .005 two percent of .500? ^D. AYE! .010 is two percent of .500. 6) The penetrating ability of an x-ray beam is governed by: \A |A. kilovoltage or wavelength. |B. time. |C. milliamperage. |D. source-to-film distance. ^A. RIGHT ON! An increase in the kV produces X-rays with shorter wavelengths and higher penetrating power. ^B. Exposure time has no effect on the penetrating power of Xrays. ^C. Although increasing the mA does increase the number of X-rays produced it does not increase their penetration. ^D. This does effect the penetration of X-rays, but not their initial ability to penetrate a material. 7) Cobalt-60 used in nondestructive testing emits: \C |A. alpha particles. |B. neutrons. |C. gamma rays. |D. x-rays. ^A. An alpha particle is a positively charged Helium nucleus composed of two protons and two neutrons. ^B. Neutrons carry no charge and are ejected during certain radioactive transformations. Can be used for radiography, but not with Cobalt-60. ^C. CORRECTO MUNDO! Gamma rays are emitted by the disintegrating Cobalt-60 atomic nuclei. ^D. X-rays are produced by electron bombardment of a target material. 8) A densitometer is: \B |A. a meter used to measure x-ray intensity.

|B. |C. |D. ^A. ^B.

an instrument for measuring the density of a material. a meter used to measure the density of a material. a meter used to measure tube current. This is a dosimeter or Geiger counter. YES INDEEDY! A densitometer is the instrument used to measure for proper film density prior to reading the radiograph. ^C. A densitometer measures image density not material density. ^D. This is an amp meter or voltage meter. 9) The two most common causes for excessively high-density radiographs are: \D |A. insufficient washing and overdevelopment. |B. contaminated fixer and insufficient washing. |C. overexposure and contaminated fixer. |D. overexposure and overdevelopment. ^A. Overdevelopment yes washing has nothing to do with it. ^B. Neither fixer nor washing has anything to do with high density. ^C. Contaminated fixer does not result in high-density. ^D. ABSOLUTELY! Both overexposure and overdevelopment can cause in excessively high-density radiographs which results from an excessive amount of silver bromide being converted to black silver. 10) The time required for one-half of the atoms in a particular sample of radioactive material to disintegrate is called: \C |A. the inverse square law. |B. a curie. |C. a half-life. |D. the exposure time. ^A. This is used in source to distance exposure calculations. ^B. This is a measure of emission intensity from a radioisotope. ^C. AFFIRMATIVE! The only logical choice. ^D. Exposure time is a function of film imaging not radioactive decay. 11) What does the term R/hr refer to when speaking of intensity? \B |A. Radiation limits for humans. |B. Roentgens per hour. |C. X-rays per hour. |D. Radiation in hydrogen. ^A. R/hr is R per hour not per human. ^B. ROGER! R/hr equals Roentgens per hour. It is used as a guide for human dosage limits. ^C. This terminology is meaningless. Measuring the number of individual X-rays is next to impossible anyway. ^D. This terminology is even more meaningless than answer C. You need to study more! 12) The ability to detect a small discontinuity or flaw is called: \B |A. radiographic contrast. |B. radiographic sensitivity. |C. radiographic density. |D. radiographic resolution. ^A. This is an indication of the difference between the least dense to the most dense areas of a radiograph.

^A. PRECISELY! The penumbra shadowing effects are increased by poor geometry. curie. Why? Once the power is off no more X-rays are being produced and they don't linger about. unsharpness. |B. geometry. . density. contrast. and screen contact are three factors that affect radiographic: \B |A. VERY GOOD! Radiographic sensitivity is a measure of the ability to detect small discontinuities. No such terminology. personnel should wait for a few minutes before entering the exposure area. |D. personnel should wear a lead-lined apron before entering the exposure area. radiographic contrast. reticulation.^B. try again. ^A. |C. ^D. but movement and geometry do not directly affect film density. ^C. Close. ^D. |B. |B. roentgen. 16) The most widely used unit of measurement for measuring the rate at which the output of a gamma-ray source decays is the: \A |A. |B. |D. |C. ^B. ^A. subject contrast. |C. personnel should take a reading with a survey meter before entering the exposure area. ^D. ^B. EXACTLY! It is the difference between the darkest and lightest area of a radiograph. Why? Once the power is off no more X-rays are being produced and they don't linger about. film contrast. 15) Upon completing an x-ray exposure and turning the equipment off: \C |A. OF COURSE! When the power to an X-ray tube is shut off it immediately ceases to produce X-rays and their is no further danger. try again. Contrast is not a function of movement or geometry. ^C. ^B. ^D. ^C. This is the measure of the black silver content of an area of an image on a radiograph. but resolution deals with the ability to distinguish both large and small interior details. Definition is an indicator of how well a detail is imaged does not necessarily depend on radiographic density. personnel should enter the exposure area without fear of radiation exposure. |D. and poor screen contact leads to flogging. ^C. 14) The difference between the densities of two areas of a radiograph is called: \A |A. The contrast of the subject or specimen has nothing to do with the resulting radiograph contrast. movement blurs normal photographs as well as radiographs. Why? Once the power is off no more X-rays are being produced and they don't linger about. 13) Movement. No. definition. Screen contact maybe.

^B. MeV. |D. will have no effect on human beings. ^B. Low intensity emitters can be handled directly when wear the proper protective clothing. No way! Humans cannot become immune to radiation only tan as in the case with sunlight. ^D. 19) When doing gamma-ray radiography with high-intensity emitters. ^D. ^B. |C. but their "effects" on the body build over a period of repeat exposures. |B. Could be harmful. Never directly handle a high emission source.7 x 1010 atomic disintegrations per second. if applied to the entire body in a short period of time? \C |A. ^B. ^A. Never directly handle a high emission source. the sources are best handled: \B |A. ^D. but this protection is not enough to handle high-intensity emitters. Sufficient radiation exposure can produce cancer or tumors which may not appear for many years. YOU'RE RIGHT! X-rays or gamma rays themselves don't build-up or stay in the body. Named for Madame Curie the discoverer of Radium one Curie equals 3. |C. Half-life is a function of the length of output time not intensity. Its effects range from mild to deadly.|C. |B. by remote handling equipment. 200 to 800 R |D. ^A. 1. ^C. ^A. 18) Which dose would be dangerous. but not life threatening. directly by personnel equipped with special protective clothing. |D. A roentgen is a measurement of output for both X-ray and gamma ray sources. ALRIGHTY! Never directly touch or handle high emission sources there is no safe practical protective clothing one can use when handling these sources. will have only a short-term effect on human tissues. ^C. |D. ^A.5 to 15 R |B. directly by personnel with special protective clothing except when radiographs are being made. ^C. 20) If a film is placed in a developer solution and allowed to . half-life. CORRECT! The exact fatal dosage depends on age and body size. will be beneficial since they build up an immunity to radiation poisoning. No there is only one correct answer. if not fatal. ^D. Exposure to x-rays or gamma rays: may have a cumulative effect which must be considered when monitoring for maximum permissible dose. All of the above doses would most likely be fatal. 25 to 70 R |C. MeV is a measurement of X-ray output. Can have long term effects on human tissues. ^C. Not enough to be dangerous. by the same methods used for low-intensity emitters. 17) \A |A. MAIS OUI! As the french would say.

^B. ^A. ^C. |C. but what else. Yes. 22) When radiographing a part which contains a large crack. creating a more intense photo reaction at the film. CORRECT! ^D. a light. a fogged area on the radiograph. the current passing through the filament. but what else. |D. the crack will appear on the radiograph as: \A |A. Not as a light line. |D. It is still possible to fix the radiograph permanently in this situation. |C. but what else. it will be impossible to fix the radiograph permanently. |B. 5. Maybe not necessarily the case especially in radiographs with little overall contrast. thus. and voltage intensity are all factors to be judged when selecting the proper film. ^C. ^A. Fogging is primarily due to scattered radiation reaching the film not from imaging cracks. . ^A. Much. the material of the specimen. Much longer. ^C. Yes. the distance from the cathode to the anode. ^C. intermittent or continuous line. the radiograph will not show proper contrast. much longer. |C. ^A. |B. Longer. CORRECT! The thickness. the thickness of the part. either a dark or light line. |B. 6 months. 24) X-ray tube current is controlled by: \A |A. Yes. RIGHT ON! A crack will appear as a dark linear image because it allows X-rays to pass easily. |D. Fogging is usually caused by scattered radiation not agitation. ^B.2 years. YES! Without agitation the developer will be depleted in areas of high film density weakening the development of imaging lying below it in the vertically oriented film rack. ^D.develop without any agitation: \D |A. there will be a tendency for each area of the film to affect the development of the areas immediately below it. a dark. 23) A cobalt-60 source has a half-life of: \C |A. |B. 75 days. |D. ^D.3 years. material. This shows only a slight change in material density. all three of the above factors. |C. there will be a general "fogging" condition over the entire radiograph. ^B. irregular line. the voltage range of the available x-ray machine. ^B. |B. 1. 21) The selection of the proper type of film to be used for the x-ray examination of a particular part depends on: \D |A. ^D.

The direction or spread of the beam is not a function of voltage or waveform. 26) Lead foil in direct contact with x-ray film: \C |A. O. |D. ^B. ^A. in the context of the minimum detectable flaw size. ROGER! Increasing the voltage produces X-rays of shorter wavelength and high penetrating ability. |C. Lead foil is used for both X. ^C. depends on: . PRECISELY! Cassettes hold fluorescent intensifying screens in direct contact with the film in a cassette. cassettes.|C. ^D. ^A. diaphragms. ^D. Quantity of radiation is not a function of voltage and waveform. The type of material at the anode target has no bearing on current. ^C. |B. ^A. |C. These are wetting agent used in developing. should not be used when gamma rays are emitted by the source of radiation. the voltage and waveform applied to the x-ray tube. 28) Radiographic sensitivity. ^A. decreases the contrast of the radiographic image. |D. |B. but it is controlled by an element of the cathode. ^D. quantity of radiation. x-ray beam divergence. ^D. This is not their primary function. ^B. |D. the type of material used in the target. These are used to hold film during developing.and gamma radiography. ^C. The distance between the cathode and anode has nothing to do with it. 25) The voltage and waveform applied to the x-ray tube be a high-voltage transformer primarily determines the: \C |A.! The voltage applied across the tube controls the type of X-rays produced. intensifies the primary radiation more than the scatter radiation. 27) Fluorescent intensifying screens are usually mounted in pairs in rigid holders called: \B |A. ^B. duration of exposure.K. ^C. VERY GOOD! Primary radiation (hard X-rays) are only slightly attenuated by lead foil whereas secondary (soft X-rays) or scattered radiation is absorbed almost completely by the foil. It increases contrast. penetrating ability. intensifies the scatter radiation more than the primary radiation. ^B. The voltage and waveform controls the velocity and wavelength of the X-rays produced. |D. |C. |B. Intensifying screens are rigid and do not vibrate as with the case of diaphragms. film racks. Visa-versa. emulsifiers.

|D. ^B. graininess of the film. |B. CORRECT! All radiation emitted from a point source for radiography should be as small as possible. ^A. ^B. |C. This reduces the number of X-rays produced. the tube current should be decreased. ^C. X-rays of longer wavelength and more penetrating power are produced. ^B. radiation should proceed from as small a focal spot as other considerations will allow. ^A. |C. the distance from the anode to the material examined should be as small as is practical. ^C. all three of the above. ^D. ^A. X-rays of shorter wavelength and more penetrating power are produced. ^A. |B. X-rays of shorter wavelength and less penetrating power are produced. the test specimen should be moved further from the film. a lower kilovoltage should be applied to the tube. thus. unsharpness of the image. |D. and contrast all determine the minimum detectable flaw size. What about contrast? What about unsharpness? What about film graininess? EXACTLY! Film graininess. 29) In order to decrease geometric unsharpness: \A |A. This increases the prenumbral shadow and thus decreases image sharpness. X-rays of longer wavelength and less penetrating power are produced. Longer wavelengths have less penetrating power. the film should be as far as possible from the object being radiographed. |D. the contrast of the flaw image on the film. ^B. 31) In order to increase the intensity of X-radiation: \A |A. but this alone will not decrease geometric unsharpness and to close a spacing will increase foggy due to scattering. ^D. increasing the number or intensity of X-rays. Shorter wavelengths have greater penetrating power. A large focal spot or point source increases scattering and will produce foggy radiographs. YOU'RE RIGHT! Increasing the voltage increases the speed of the bombarding electrons on the target to produce shorter wavelength X-rays with higher penetrative power. |B. |B. .\D |A. the tube current should be increased. ^D. |C. CORRECT! The tube current controls the amount of electrons released at the filament that will bombard the target. the unsharpness of the flaw image in the film. 30) As the kilovoltage applied to the x-ray tube is raised: \B |A. radiation should proceed from as large a focal spot as other considerations will allow. Just the opposite. |D. ^C. This is true since the target at the anode is the point source. |C.

Processing solutions will react with the zinc coating on galvanized containers. but not the exact name of the effect in question. |C. |C. ^B. 33) Scattered radiation caused by any material. 32) Primary radiation which strikes a film holder or cassette through a thin-portion of the specimen will cause scattering into the shadows of the adjacent thicker portions producing an effect called: \C |A. Galvanized iron. such as a wall of floor. This is a result. |D. 34) Which of the following materials is suitable for use in vessels or pails used to mix processing solutions? \A |A. all of the above. but this is not what it is called. lens of the eye. This does not increase X-ray intensity and will result in an increase in the prenumbral shadow on unsharpness. backscattered radiation. on the film side of the specimen is referred to as: \D |A. How about internal organs? ^B. ^A. Tin. |B. |C. ^A. ^D. 35) Any of the body tissues may be injured by excessive exposure to X or gamma rays but particularly sensitive are: \D |A. ^B. reflected scattering. This is radiography in general. Tin can react with some processing solution and pure tin containers are expensive. It can be reflected. ^A. Spotting is usually a result of improper developing. spotting. |D. ^C. ^C. |C. Aluminum. |B. ^D. radiation imaging. undercut. |D. ALRIGHTY! It undercuts or exposes adjacent film portions and results in a deterioration of image quality. ^D. How about blood? ^C. ^B. YES INDEEDY! Backscattered radiation is the scattering of radiation after it exits the back of the specimen and bounces off surrounding objects. |B. Stainless steel. This occurs at the film and is caused by slightly attenuated radiation striking the film cassette or holder. This does not effect intensity only lowers the penetrating power of the X-rays produced. undercut. Also most plastics are suitable container materials.^C. Primary scattering is caused by the specimen itself. unsharpness. internal organs. ^D. ^A. ^C. How about the lens of the eye? . |D. blood. primary scattering. |B. Processing solutions will react with aluminum. YES! Stainless steel will not react with processing solutions.

37) X-ray exposure may be due to: \C |A. it will reduce the dose rate at a given location by: \C |A. OF COURSE! X-rays cease the instant the voltage is cut off. ^D. 38) A general rule often employed for determining the kilovoltage to be used when X-raying a part is: \B |A. the kilovoltage is not an important variable and can be changed over a wide range without affecting the radiograph. ^C. There is no residual radiation once the voltage is cut off. |D. ^B. 39) If a piece of lead 1/2 inch thick is placed in the path of a beam of radiation emanating from cobalt-60. anything above 0. 36) A general rule used to define the amount of radiation exposure that is excessive is: \D |A.or gamma radiation is dangerous for any part of the human body. |B. scatter radiation arising from objects in the direct beam. both A and B above plus residual radiation that exists for the first few minutes after the x-ray machine has been returned to the "off" position. ^B. but what else? ^C. the kilovoltage should be as low as other factors will permit. Yes. ^A. EXACTLY! Any unnecessary exposure to radiation is not only excessive. |C. True. . |D. but not a general rule this excessive. |C.4 R per week or less) are beneficial since they build up an immunity to these rays. |B. Humans do not develop an immunity to X or gamma radiation. ^D. the kilovoltage is always a fixed value and cannot be changed. |B. the kilovoltage should be as high as other factors will permit. likely to produce a poorer quality radiograph. one-third. |C. the direct beam from the x-ray tube target. Yes. ^A. but what else? ^B. The kilovoltage (kV) is highly adjustable in industrial X-ray machines to meet a variety of testing requirements. Any dose which causes a mid-range reading on a Geiger counter is excessive. and creates a greater radiation exposure hazard. |D. there is not "residue". ^A. |B. both A and B above. ^D. The kilovoltage (kV) controls the penetrating power of the X-rays produced! This allows the machine to be adjusted to meet various situations.^D. Any unnecessary exposure to radiation is excessive. Although small amounts of radiation (0. AFFIRMATIVE! Excessive exposure to X. CORRECT! Why waste power to produce a lower quality radiograph at a risk to your and others health? ^C. one-quarter. This can vary greatly depending on the sensitivity range of the instrument from mild to deadly.4 R per week is excessive. This is a waste of power. Any dose over 5 R per week is excessive. but foolish as well.

warm or exhausted fixer. yellow stain. 40) Excessive exposure of film to light prior to development of the film will most likely result in: \A |A. Not healthy for the film. ^C. ^B. but does not result in white crescent-shaped marks. This usually results in a underdevelopment of the film not . crimping film after exposure. |C. This will ruin the film and it should not be used. ^D. YOU'RE RIGHT! The "fog" is due to a partial exposure of the film to excess light. 42) Reticulation resulting in a puckered or netlike film surface is probably caused by: \B |A. |D. streaks. a foggy film. ALRIGHTY! ^C. |C. ^B. low temperature of processing solutions. ^A. Not good for the film. water or developer on unprocessed film. warm or exhausted fixer solution. this does not result in white crescent-shaped marks. ^A. excessive object-to-film distance. |B. 41) White crescent-shaped marks on an exposed x-ray film are most likely caused by: \B |A.|C. ^A. ^A. sudden extreme temperature change while processing. water or developer on unprocessed film. |D. |B. three-quarters. This is a development chemical problem. YES! ^D. |D. crimping film after exposure. |D. but this is not the cause of reticulation. |B. This causes a different effect on the film not white crescent-shaped marks. This has nothing to do with the physical effect we are referring to here. More. ^B. 43) Frilling or loosening of the emulsion from the base of the film is most likely caused by: \D |A. developer solution contamination. ^B. |C. poor definition. sudden extreme temperature change while processing. Although detrimental. ^D. Double it. one-half. RIGHT ON! Sudden temperature changes result in reticulation of the film. ^B. |C. An indirect result. ^C. ^A. |D. Less. but will not result in a puckered or netlike film surface. Although film splashed or sprayed with water or developer before processing not be used this does not cause frilling or loosening of the emulsion. Maybe. |B. crimping film before exposure. ^C. ^D.

what time would be necessary if a 2-foot source-to-film distance is used and all other variables remain the same? \C |A. This usually results in over development. YES INDEED! Make sure all chemicals are fresh and at the correct temperature before processing. ^C. ^D. ^B. ^D. penetrameter. 46) As a check on the adequacy of the radiographic technique.! At half the distance exposure time is one fourth according to the inverse square law. 240 seconds. controlling the milliamperage. |D. The standard test piece is called a: \C |A. use inverse square law. This increases shadow formation. A lot less. etc. |B. |D. 45) One of the general rules concerning the application of geometric principles of shadow formation to radiography is: \C |A. This increases shadow formation. |D. all three of the above are correct. A whole lot less. the film should be as far as possible from the object being radiographed. the distance between the anode and the material examined should always be as great as possible. reference plate. |C. ^A. ^D. This is just one of many problems which will result. or staining of the radiograph. ^B. |C. not as a "standard". use inverse square law. ^A. ^B. controlling the source-to-film distance. . Less. film speed. ^C. Answers A and B are incorrect and actually increase shadow formation. source strength. 44) If an exposure time of 60 seconds was necessary using a 4-foot source-to-film distance for a particular exposure. |C. ^A. |C. TRUE! The optimum distance depends on specimen size. |B. a choke coil in the filament transformer. O. 15 seconds. |D. 47) The duration of an exposure is usually controlled by: \B |A.K. |B. use inverse square law. illuminator. 120 seconds. lead screen. ^C. it is customary to place a standard test piece on the source side of the specimen. 30 seconds. ROGER! The use of particular penetrameters are determined by the code procedure.frilling or loosening. This is a term describing the light board used when reading a radiograph by illuminating the radiograph form behind. ^D. the X-rays should proceed from as large a focal spot as other considerations will allow. ^C. In reference to what? This is not correct terminology. a timer. thickness. This is used to reduce scattering. |B. underdevelopment.

^D. and source-to-film distance are three . ^C. This depends on factors such as source (gamma or X-ray). exposure time. developing. ^A. ABSOLUTELY! Different code requirements state which penetrameter size to use in order to assure a minimum quality level is reached in radiographs. and fixation. transform x-ray energy into visible or ultraviolet light to which a photographic emulsion is sensitive. This is a processing temperature problem. ^D. |D. developing. Indirectly. 48) A penetrameter is used to indicate: \D |A. |B. At least one answer is correct. the amount of film contrast. ^C. exposure. source strength. reticulating. developing. fixation. 49) A fluorescent intensifying screen will: \A |A. ^D. |D. ^D. |D. |C. Has nothing to do with it. but what else? ^C. neither A nor B are reasons for using lead foil screens.^A. PRECISELY! ^C. Indirectly. Yes. VERY GOOD! Hard penetrating short wavelength X-rays convert only on percent of their total energy to image producing light and the use of intensifying screens is sometimes necessary to produce an acceptable image. |B. No frilling. They will increase the graininess. Exposure is not a part of processing. to reduce the exposure time. |B. etc. 52) Kilovoltage. This is a densitometer. ^B. Yes. the quality of the radiographic technique. Penetrameters are not used to directly measure contrast. YES! This is the direct control. |C. 51) Lead foil screens are used in radiography: \C |A. both A and B are reasons for using lead foil screens. film type. and fixation. developing. the density of the film. and washing. |D. ^A. 50) The three main steps in processing a radiograph are: \B |A. the size of discontinuities in a part. Not its purpose unlike photographs radiographs are life-size and measurements can be made directly on a finished radiograph. ^D. ^B. frilling. result in reticulation. decrease in graininess of the image when using gamma rays. ^B. ^C. No reticulation. |C. They will increase the graininess and lower definition. to improve the quality of the radiograph by preferentially reducing the effect of scatter radiation. EXACTLY! Lead screens can be used as intensifiers or to reduce the effects of scattered radiation. but what else? ^B. and fixation. ^A. ^B. |B. increase the definition in a radiograph. |C. ^A.

which are black tree-like or circular marks on a radiograph. place a filter in the x-ray or gamma ray beam near the source or x-ray tube. frilling. ^C. but not exposure time. the thickness needed depending on the radiation quality. ^A. air bells are caused by bubbles of air trapped on the film during processing. focal point size. |D. |C. ^D. back the exposure holder with a thick sheet of lead (at least 1/2 inch). These can appear as specks on the radiograph and can scratch the emulsion leaving white scratch marks. This results in white crescent-shaped marks on the film. Does not effect exposure time. ^D. This will not necessarily reduce backscatter. |D. Effects processing. 1/2" is too thick! ^D. |D. film being bent when inserted in a cassette or holder. . but not exposure time. CORRECT! Milliamperage controls the number of X-rays produced and therefore controls the exposure time. A mask at the front will not reduce "back" scatter. YES SIRREEBOB! Static electricity produced by improper film handling techniques exposed the emulsion producing black tree-like flaws on the resulting image. No. This usually will not effect the radiograph unless the screen is punctured or torn. ^A. TRUE! ^B. This is caused by a sudden temperature change in processing resulting in a puckered or netlike film. one should: \A |A. graininess. 53) When the minute silver grains on which the x-ray film image is formed group together in relatively large masses. improper film handling techniques. |D. are often caused by: \D |A. AFFIRMATIVE! Logical choice. ^C. ^B. back the cassette with a sheet of lead. ^C. |C. Minute silver grains when grouped together increase the graininess of the radiograph.of the most important x-ray exposure factors that can be controlled. place a mask between the specimen and the front surface of the film. Effects image quality. milliamperage. air bells. ^B. |B. temperature. |C. |B. 55) Static marks. |C. 54) To prevent excessive backscatter from reaching a radiograph film. A fourth such exposure factor is: \D |A. filament-to-focal spot distance. ^B. reticulation. ^C. scratches on leak foil screens. |B. ^A. foreign material or dirt imbedded in screens. |B. ^A. they produce a visual impression called: \B |A. ^D. Frilling is caused by warm or exhausted fixer.

|C. AYE MATE! Air bubbles will appear as bell shapes on the resulting radiographic image. Only one is correct. ^D. but what about leaving a permanent image? ^D.56) The purpose of agitating an x-ray film during development is to: \B |A. ^C. 65 and 75 degrees F. |B. ^B. |B. |C. Yes. . all of the above. 58) The activity of the developer solution is maintained stable by: \D |A. 59) The purpose of fixation is: \D |A. Yes. |D. ^D. avoiding contamination from the wash bath. |B. This is on of the purposes of the fixer. constant agitation. ^A. This controls only the short-term activity. |D. ABSOLUTELY! The purpose of fixation is to accomplish all three. 75 and 85 degrees F. Dilution by the bath water will only slightly reduce the short-term developer activity. |D. to remove all the undeveloped silver salts of the emulsion. dislodge any air bubbles clinging to emulsion. |D. ^B. |C. protect the film from excessive pressure. |B. |D. ^A. |C. disperse unexposed silver grains on the film surface. Yes. but what about hardening? ^B. ^C. prevent frilling. ^A. all of the above. solutions should be maintained within a temperature range of: \A |A. but not for the long-term. but what about removing the undeveloped silver salts? ^C. the purpose for sharply tapping hangers tow or three times after the films have been lowered into the developer is to: \C |A. To prevent frilling you must maintain the fixer strength and control its temperature. 57) When manually processing films. addition of replenisher. |B. renew the developer at the surface of the film. maintaining processing solutions within the recommended temperature range. 75 and 85 degrees C. disperse unexposed silver grains on the film surface. ^C. 60) For best results when manually processing film. Reticulation is caused by sudden temperature changes. ^B. |C. to leave the developed silver as a permanent image. Yes. to harden the gelatin. prevent reticulation. ^D. There should be no pressure on the film at all to reduce. This is the purpose of fixation. YES INDEEDY! Periodic replenishment of the developer is needed to replace the depleted chemical due to processing film. ^A. RIGHTO! Developer is constantly being depleted at the film's surface during processing and agitation is necessary to insure uniform results. 65 and 75 degrees C.

^A. ^C. |B. |C. is greater in iridium-192 than in cobalt-60. CORRECT! ^C. YES! This is considered the optimum range for processing X-ray films. by using a fresh fixer solution. TRUE! 64) The radiation quality of a gamma-ray source is: \B |A. a dark spot. Not a generalized area very specific area. |C. high density brick. but their overall quality must be considered almost equal. diaphragm. ^A. There is no focal spot in a gamma ray source. focal spot. 65) The most common material used to provide protection against X-rays is: \D |A. OF COURSE! Wetting agents allow the film to dry evenly and reduce water spotting. |D. |C. Maybe.^A. tungsten. ^D. |D. lead. a generalized gray area of varying contrast. either a dark or light spot or area depending on the relative absorption ratio of the part material and the inclusion material. ^A. focusing cup. determined by the size of the focal spot. ^B. |D. . ^D. This is used after the X-rays exit the tube. EXACTLY! ^C. Water spots are produced in drying and how the fresh water is used to wash the film has no effect. |C. |B. ^A. |B. ^D. ^B. Extremely hot 100 degrees C is boiling! 61) Water spots on films can be minimized by: \B |A. determined by the isotope involved. ^B. Way to hot this is Centigrade! ^C. Cooler. |C. immersing wet film for one or two minutes in a wetting agent solution. Cobalt-60 is more penetrating. by cascading water during the rinse cycle. 63) Unwanted inclusions in a part will appear on a radiograph as: \D |A. a light spot. ^D. The operator has no control over the quality of gamma-rays emitted by a radioisotope. ^D. 62) The small area in the x-ray tube from which the radiation emanates is called the: \B |A. ^C. |B. The small area is within the focusing cup. cathode. Maybe. This will not necessarily reduce water spots can even increase them. ^B. but is not the cup itself. |D. Has nothing to do with water spots. This is the filament end where the electrons flow. an alloy of 70 percent steel and 30 percent copper. |B. |D. rapid drying of wet film. can be varied by the operator. ^B.

radiation exposure survey meters. VERY GOOD! Lead is very effective. YOU'RE RIGHT! ^B. 24 milliamperes-minutes. film badges. Yes. |C. but how about exposure survey meters? ^B. It is desired to increase the sharpness of detail in the image by increasing the source-to-film distance to 40 inches. ^B. This is one billion curies. Yes. Not common. YES! One thousand milli-(one thousandth) curies equal one curie. all of the above. use the inverse square law. 69) The exposure of personnel to X. |C. |D. |D. ^C. dosimeters. RIGHT ON! Film badges. but how about dosimeters? ^D. ^C. gamma radiation. ^A. but is expensive and is commonly used as a target material in X-ray tubes.and gamma radiation can be measured or monitored by means of: \D |A. and radiation exposure .000 millicuries. PRECISELY! Doubling the distance increases the exposure requirement four fold according to the inverse square law. Beta radiation is the ejection of a particle and unlike electromagnetic energy has no wavelength only velocity. This is one thousandth of a curie. ^C. |B. One is correct. 1. use the inverse square law. ^A. 67) With a given exposure time and kilovoltage. |B. ^D. dosimeters. X-radiation.001 millicuries. Longer.7 milliamperes-minutes. ^D. 1. but how about film badges? ^C. 3 milliamperes-minutes. This is a short wavelength emitted from certain atomic nuclei and does not involve colliding electrons into matter. a properly exposed radiograph is obtained with a 6 milliamperes-minutes exposure at the distance of 20 inches. |B. |C. and compact. ^A. use the inverse square law. 12 milliamperes-minutes. ^D. A whole lot longer.^A. relatively inexpensive. ^D.000 megacuries. 68) Very short wavelength electromagnetic radiation produced when electrons travelling at high speeds collide with matter is called: \A |A. ^A. Yes. |D. 66) A curie is the equivalent of: \B |A. 1. 0. Not in this case. beta radiation. ^B. The correct milliamperage-minutes exposure to obtain the desire radiographic density at the increased distance is: \B |A. ^C. ^B. |C. none of the above. A lot longer. |D. Can be used. This is one hundred million curies. 100 megacuries. |B.

^A. 20 seconds. |D. it's a curve. YES! The plot of this function is a characteristic curve depending on film type and the radiation source. |D. |C. 72) A graph which expresses the relationship between the logarithm of the exposure applied to a photographic material and the resulting photographic density is called: \C |A. More. not a characteristic curve this is applied to film density. No. not a bar chart. an exposure chart. |B. ^B.and gamma rays. a bar chart. Too much. an characteristic curve. ^D. 10 seconds. X-radiation. YES! ^C. No. but not an H & D curve. ^A. 160 seconds.and gamma radiation. gamma radiation. CORRECT! Gamma and X. and exposure is called: \B |A. ^C. 74) A photographic image recorded by the passage of X or gamma rays through a specimen onto a film is called a: \B .survey meters are all used to measure or monitor the exposure of personnel to X. This can result form both X. No. ^D.and gamma radiation. backscatter radiation. an exposure chart or technique chart. this deals with material thickness and kilovoltage. not this relationship though. This can result form both X. ^A. ^D.radiation of the same wavelength are identical. kilovoltage. No. ^B. ^A. |C. This could be a chart of any logarithmic function. |B. No. |C. how much time will be necessary to obtain one equivalent radiograph if the milliamperage is change to 5 milliamperes (all other conditions remain constant)? \C |A. a bar chart. |D. |B. ^C. ^B. |C. This is produced by colliding electrons with matter. but are produced differently. 71) A graph showing the relation between material thickness. 73) Short wavelength electromagnetic radiation produced during the disintegration of nuclei of radioactive substances is called: \B |A. a logarithmic chart. |B. the characteristic curve. scatter radiation. TRUE! The inverse square does not apply here and cutting the amount of X-rays produced would double the exposure time. an H & D curve. not a bar chart. Much more. 70) Assuming that a good radiograph is obtained at a setting of 10 milliamperes in 40 seconds. ^D. 80 seconds. ^C. ^B. |D.

This is a special type of X. CORRECTO MUNDO! A radiograph is the general term applied to all X. the penetrameter thickness. |D. Too long and a little warm. ^A. ^A. Refers to thickness. 68 degrees F is considered the optimum developing temperature. ^B. the film should be placed in a dryer after being developed. This is a gamma ray source manufacturing process. not exposure. Isotopic reproduction. 75) is: \D |A. What about a spot and fixing bath? ^B. 76) In order to achieve uniformity of development over the area of X-ray film during manual processing: \C |A. |B. the time of exposure. YES! Just right.or gamma ray photograph. ^D. |C. ^C. |C. Radiograph. Not necessary for agitation to be mechanical in nature. Actual time will vary between 5 to 8 minutes depending on other factors. Too long. ^C. ^A. Refers to thickness. the film should be transformed directly from the developer to the fixer. The normal development time for manually processing X-ray film 12 to 18 minutes in processing solutions at 75 degrees F. . 5 to 8 minutes in processing solutions at 68 degrees F. 12 to 18 minutes in processing solution at 68 degrees F. |D. more general. ALRIGHTY! 2T equals 2% and 4T equals 4% of the material's thickness. ^B. ^D. the film should be agitated while in the developer. ^C. YOU'RE RIGHT! Agitation is necessary to replenish depleted developer at the film's surface. a backscatter absorber. |C. |B. ^D. What about the stop bath? 77) When referring to a "2T" or "4T" hole in the ASTM penetrameter. a filter. Fluoroscopic image. Such a device is called: \A |A. |D. the time for developing.|A. the T refers to: \B |A. not developing time. whether it's mechanical or manual is of no consequence.or gamma ray photographs. ^A. Too cool. |C. the developer should be agitated by means of mechanical stirrers or circulating pumps. |D. None of the above. 78) A sheet of lead with an opening cut in the shape of the part to be radiographed may be used to decrease the effect of scattered radiation which undercuts the specimens. This is completely wrong. There is one correct answer. ^B. |B. the part thickness. |C. |B. 3 to 8 minutes in processing solutions at 60 degrees F. ^C. ^D. |B. Wrong thickness. a mask.

may give not only different intensities but also different qualities of radiation. . ^C. Filters do not have holes. will produce the same intensities but may produce different qualities of radiation. O. Not as sensitive as film radiography. 81) An advantage of the pocket dosimeter type of ionization chamber used to monitor radiation received by personnel is: \B |A. ABSOLUTELY! It is not a permanent record. the X-ray image is observed visually on a fluorescent screen rather than recorded on a film. |C. ^B. |B. ^D. ^A. 80) Fluoroscopy differs from radiography in that: \C |A. a lead foil screen. ^D. What if their focal spot size differs? ^B. will produce the same qualities but may produce different intensities of radiation. 79) Two X-ray machines operating at the same nominal kilovoltage and milliamperage settings: \D |A. fluoroscopy used a much lower kilovoltage than radiography. ^A. radiation survey meters are often much more sensitive to detecting radiation. |D. AYE! Many other factors besides kilovoltage and milliamperage determine X-ray intensity and quality. The dosimeter is used to measure a short-term dose. Only one is correct. ^A. |D. ^B. it is the most sensitive detector available. |B. ^C. |D. all of the above are advantages. radiographic contrast. ^C. Does not show permanent accumulated dosage.! This is why it is called fluoroscopy. Not necessarily true. |B. it is just a lead foil screen. ^A. ^D. 82) The density difference between two selected portions of a radiograph is known as: \B |A. Yes. it provides an immediate indication of dosage.|D. will produce the same intensities and qualities of radiation. radiography permits examination of thicker parts if radiation source strength is equal. Not the most sensitive detector available. What if the distance between the anode target and cathode differ? ^D. Not always the case. fluoroscopy is much more sensitive than radiography. but it has a proper name. A backscatter absorber is placed behind the film the sheet referred to here is placed in front of the film.K. |C. specific activity. it provides a permanent record of accumulated dosage. |B. |C. ^B. unsharpness. |C. What if the target material differs? ^C. fluoroscopy permits examination of thicker parts than does radiography. YES INDEEDY! Because it "masks" out everything but the object being radiographed.

One fourth squared. The subject refers to the specimen being radiographed not the density of the resulting radiograph. |D. VERY GOOD! UV light depletes the screen of the available material used to intensify the X. be mounted in a rigid container at all times. . Not unless they get dirty. Less. 1/16th the exposure according to the inverse square law. roentgens. ^B.or gamma radiograph. Unsharpness can be caused by other factors besides film density. EXACTLY! Roentgens only refer to the ionization power of the radiation for one cubic-centimeter of air. No. ^C. |C. |D. |B. What is four squared divided into 1200. |D. ^C. the film contrast increases. ^B. ^D. H & D is the name used for the film characteristic curve. H & D units. ROGER! The selected portions should be from the lightest and darkest areas of the radiograph to measure the overall image contrast. This measurement involves mass and X. Cleanliness is a good habit. ^C. roentgens per unit of time. PRECISELY! According to the inverse square law increasing the distance by 4 results in 1/16th the exposure. the subject contrast increases. not be exposed to intense ultraviolet radiation. 84) In making an isotope exposure in an unshielded area. but affects the screen's function very little. 75 mR/hr. Not wise. and usually has no adverse effect on the screen's overall performance. This is not necessary and has no effect on the screens overall performance. |B. Less. 86) When producing radiographs. ^A. just energy. the film contrast decreases. not be exposed to caustic fumes. ^A. ^D. Partially correct.and gamma rays are considered to have no mass. ^B. |B. What would be the dose rate at 24 feet? \A |A.|D. Less. subject density. you find the dose rate 6 feet from the source is 1200 mR/hr. be cleaned with a lint-free cloth each time they are used. ^C. |C. the subject contrast decreases. What is one-fourth squared multiplied by 1200? ^D. ^A. 200 mR/hr. 100 mR/hr. Specific activity refers to the radiation emitted by an isotope and is measured in curies per gram. |C. ergs. 83) One requirement for keeping fluorescent screens in good condition is that they must: \B |A. ^D.or gamma radiation is measured in: \C |A. 85) The intensity of X. ^B. |C. if the kilovoltage is increased: \A |A. 300 mR/hr. |B. |D. ^A.

|C. ^B. |C. If the amount of X-rays produced is one-third the exposure time needed to be multiplied by 3. This is cause by scattered radiation or excessive exposure to light. fogged. The combination of the two results in an underdeveloped radiograph. Movement will have a blurring effect. |B. 89) A good radiograph is obtained using a milliamperage of 15 milliamperes and an exposure time of 1/2 minute. this is a six fold increase for one-third the amount of X-rays. increase the photographic action on the film largely by reason of the electron emission and partly by the secondary X-rays generated in the lead. overdeveloped. 1 1/2 minutes. produce a radiograph with poor contrast. This is caused by scattered radiation not movement. ^D. Contrast may be affected. YEA! 58 degrees F is too cool and five minutes is barely enough developing time for 68 degrees F. but movement will blur the image. |B. |C. Too long. ^A. 87) The accidental movement of the specimen or film during exposure or the use of a focus-film distance that is too small will: \C |A. GOOD! One-third the X-rays means the exposure time must be tripled. Not necessarily true depends on the amount of movement. 4 1/2 minutes. absorb the shorter wavelength scattered radiation more than the long wavelength primary radiation.^A. ^D. 3 minutes. OF COURSE! An increase in kilovoltage produces shorter wavelength X-rays which are less photo-reactive at the film. ^A. The overall contrast of a film is set during manufacture with the slower speed film offering the greatest contrast. Film contrast is determined mainly by film speed and type. ^D. |B. underdeveloped. ^C. 90) Lead screens in contact with the film during exposure: \A |A. ^B. The sorter wavelength X-rays produced are less photo-reactive at the film. 88) A properly exposed radiograph that is developed in a developer solution at a temperature of 58 degrees F for 5 minutes will probably be: \B |A. ^B. ^C. |D. This is caused by too warm or exhausted fixer solution. |D. results in a fogged radiograph. result in unsharpness of the radiograph. ^D. ^B. This is half the time for one-third the amount of X-rays and would result in a severely underexposed radiograph. Remember the optimum temperature is 68 degrees F and developing time of between 5 to 8 minutes. YOU BET! Just as in conventional photography movement blurs the image and reduces its sharpness. make it impossible to detect large discontinuities. ^A. What exposure time will be necessary to produce an equivalent radiograph if the milliamperage is change to 5 milliamperes and all other conditions remain the same? \B |A. |B. ^C. |D. . ^C. 1/6 minute. damaged by frilling.

radiographic contrast. ^B. What is 1/3 squared? ^B. |B. They increase the photographic effect of the primary radiation. ^C. Neutrons can be ejected from an atom's nucleus and be used for radiographic purposes. protons. Visible light. Way too much. radiographic definition. |C. 600 mR/hr. 94) Beta particles are: \C |A. SURE! Sharpness is a measure of how well an object is defined against its background. |C. TRUE! They also reduce fogging due to scattered radiation. Microwaves. but they are not Beta particles. Visible light is next to the shortest. ^A. |B. ^A. ALRIGHTY! Electrons ejected from an atom's nucleus are . ^D. |D. use the inverse square law. Microwaves are the longest. |D. ^C. Shorter wavelength X-rays are primary X-rays. Infrared radiation is next to the longest in this group. The sharpness of the outline in the image of the radiograph is a measure subject contrast. |C. YOU'RE RIGHT! According to the inverse square law the distance is 3 times as much and 3 squared is 9. positrons ^A. CORRECT! These are the shortest. Infrared radiation. 100 kilovolt peak X-rays |D. but are not Beta particles. intensify the photographic effect of the scatter radiation more than that of the primary radiation. |B. This is a factor dependent on the subject and not the film. electrons. ^B. what is 3 squared divided into 900. ^C. |C. Less. |B. Much less. none of the above. ^A.|C. This is a measure of the film density between two areas of the radiograph. |D. Protons are positively charged particles that lie in the nucleus of every element. ^C. ^A. the output is 1/9 of 900. ^B. How much is 3 squared divided into 900. Contrast is not a measurement of sharpness. 300 mR/hr. Would 400 kilovolt X-rays be shorter or longer than 100 kilovolt X-rays? ^D. ^B. ^D. use the inverse square law. What would the unshielded dosage rate be at 30 feet? \C |A. 92) An unshielded isotope source gives a dosage rate of 900 mR per hour at 10 feet. 2700 mR/hr. 91) of: \B |A. There is one correct answer. film contrast. 93) Which has the shortest wavelengths? \C |A. Therefore. ^C. 100 mR/hr. ^D. |D. neutrons.

in a pile. 1. flat. Of course not. tungsten. |D. YESIRREEBOB! This is a tremendous number of disintegrations. ^B. More. 18 (5+N) |C. but its chemical symbol is Ag. ^A. This is the particle formed when the incident X-ray photon has sufficient energy to be converted into the mass of and electron/position pair upon colliding with matter. 98) Unexposed boxes of x-ray film should be stored: \B |A. it doesn't matter.000. Not one part of your answer is correct.000. ^D. |C. CORRECT! ^D. tin. ^B. |C. on edge or end. ^C. |D.000 disintegrations per second taking place. It's shiny like tin. |C. |B. 1. ^D.000 disintegrations per second taking place. ^D. . Much much more. ^C. AYE! Silver bromide is a light sensitive compound that reduces to black metallic silver after it is exposed to radiation or light and then developed. 97) The metal that forms the image on an x-ray film is: \B |A. but part of your answer is correct. 5 (N-18) |D. radiographic contrast. whether excessive backscatter is present. What way would likely reduce the chance of pressure damage due to the weight of stacking? 99) The lead symbol "B" is attached to the back of the film holder to determine: \B |A. It's not iron. iron. 1. 12 (N-18) |B. CORRECTO MUNDO! Storing film in a vertical position greatly reduces the chances of pressure damage due to stacking. This could result in pressure damage to the film. X-ray film is to expensive and delicate to be treated this way. ^B. sensitivity. |B. ^A. |D. 96) The formula for determining permissible accumulated personnel dose is: \C * THIS IS MOST LIKELY THE OLD FORMULA USED |A.000. ^C. |B.000.000 disintegrations per second taking place.known as Beta particles. but it's not tin. 95) A radioactive source with an activity of one curie has: \D |A. No. Yes it does matter. silver. but remember the total number of atoms in a gram of Cobalt-60 equals approximately 1021 atoms. ^A. ^B. this is a common target material used in X-ray tubes. ^D. 370. 12 (N+18) ^A.000. No. Not one part of your answer is correct. ^C.000 disintegrations per second taking place. |C. Much more. |B.

|C. it's the metal made mainly of iron. Nickel. \C |A. screens and film not in close contact. film graininess. |C. AFFIRMATIVE! This is the logical choice because size and shielding are set. ^D. ^A. ^B. 102) Why is cobalt-60 used as a radiation source for medium-weight metals of thickness ranges form 1.17 and 1. Why would the size measurement be needed at any time? Radioisotopes don't grow smaller.K. |B. |B. Cobalt-60 emits a radiation dose equivalent to a 2 million volt X-ray machine which necessitates maximum shielding. and atomic decay is not recorded on a film log. all of the above. ^C. This is a film or exposure log. |C.|D. No. ^B. but what about too short a source-to-film distance? ^C. mark the date and length of time for each exposure. |B.3 years. ^C. |D. Because of its short half-life. |C. ^A. YES INDEEDY! ^D. but what about not having your screen and film in close contact? . There is one correct answer. ^A. 103) The cause for poor image definition could be: \D |A. Would you abbreviate the word density with a "B"? What does the "B" stand for? 100) Penetrameters for _____ are considered Group 1 Materials and need not have an identification notch. |D. Yes. calculate shielding requirements. No. What does the "B" stand for? ^D. |B. No. Because of its penetrating ability. too short source-to-film distance. it's the metal made mainly of iron. |D. Limited amount of shielding required. ^C. determine the source size at any time. determine the source strength (activity) at any time. Aluminum bronze. Its half-life is 5.33 MeV. Stainless steel. ^A.5 to 9 inches? \C |A. None of the above. ^D. ^B. Shielding requirements must exceed the amount needed for protection at full strength any decay after that is inconsequential. Yes. Inconel. hardly short. Sensitivity to what? RIGHT ON! The resolution of the lead B on the resulting radiograph indicates the amount of backscatter present during exposure. density. ^C. 101) The purpose of a dated decay curve is to: \C |A. Yes. ^B. O. |D.! Cobalt-60 emits highly penetrating X-rays of 1. it's the metal made mainly of iron. but what about film graininess? ^B. ^A.

^C. milliamperage settings. intensity the image. |C. |B. a filter. |C. PRECISELY! This is used to check and calibrate the radiographic equipment. etc. |D. ^B. change the exposed silver salts to black metallic silver. kilovolt peak output. ^C. Exposure time is determined by factors such as: material thickness. |C. This is an element of the X-ray tube. the geometric unsharpness value. ^D. Milliamperage and focal spot do not directly relate. variation is . copper. |D. a focusing cup. The penetrameter always receives the same exposure treatment as the rest of the material. ^D. ^A. this is what a wetting agent is used for. 106) The reason a "shim" is used in radiographic setup is to: \C |A. an electron inducer. source strength. an intensifying screen. eliminate most water spots and streaks. the purpose of the stop bath is to: \B |A. 104) During manual film processing.) placed at the source to reduce effects of softer radiation is known as: \B |A.^D. ^A. improve the penetrameter image. This usually is measured in hundredths or thousandths of an inch. neutralize the developer and stop the developing process. This is not a conventional radiographic term. ^D. ^C. ^D There is one correct answer. ^A. none of the above. ABSOLUTELY! All these factors will contribute to poor image definition. 108) A section with a significant increases in thickness. simulate weld reinforcement. ^B. |D. aluminum. |B. No. Remember that a small focal spot increases radiographic definition. ^B. |B. reduce diffraction. 105) A thin metallic sheet (brass. ^A. subject to source distance . 107) The focal spot size of an x-ray machine must be known in order to determine: \A |A. An intensifying screen is used to increase the radiations photographic effect. film speed. ROGER! The stop bath contains a weak acid that "stops" the developing action. The stop bath stops something. VERY GOOD! By reducing the effect of the soft X-rays the resulting radiograph will be less foggy. etc. |C. |D. This is the purpose of a screen. exposure time. ^B. ^C. |B. EXACTLY! The exact size must be known. Remember that a smaller focal spot gives a sharper image. The kilovoltage peak output is not determined by the focal spot. This is the purpose of a intensifying screen. This is the purpose of the developer.

^A. Density refers to compact dark areas of the radiographic image.required to be shown on a single radiograph within a desired film density range. neither A nor B are correct. ^B. ^D. This would probably increase the density range and decrease definition. TRUE! Even if the latitude of the radiograph is wide or . the degree of film blackening. What would you do to produce shorter higher penetrating X-rays? 109) The density of a radiograph image refers to: \D |A. both A and B are correct. |C. Density refers to compact dark areas of the radiographic image. YEA! The blackening is a result of clumps of black metallic silver. characteristic radiation. |D. Density refers to compact dark areas of the radiographic image. ^C. sensitivity. ^A. Micro what? Look at the other answers which one begins with a prefix meaning "one" for one wavelength? 111) The image of the required penetrameter and hole on the radiograph indicates that the radiograph has the required: \C |A. This may be accomplished by: \A |A. but the radiograph may still have sensed the penetrameter hole. |C. There ain't no such animal. Only one is correct. microscopic radiation. A higher speed film would probably change the density range. the weight of the film. |C. ^A. thus enabling a radiograph of equal contrast to be made of the thicker area. |B. |D. |B. ^D. the thickness of the specimen. ^B. fluoroscopic radiation. latitude. contrast. |C. ^D. The image of the hole although can be affected by contrast this is not the requirement here. the thickness of the film. Characteristic radiation can be made up of many different specific wavelengths. ^C. ^A. ^C. definition. Generally light and thus radiation are thought of as having a color (wavelength). Which answer begins with "one" for one wavelength? ^C. |D. One of them is correct. 110) A beam of radiation consisting of a single wavelength is known as: \C |A. |B. ^B. monochromatic radiation. Poor definition can make the image hard to discern. OF COURSE! By increasing the kilovoltage shorter more penetrating X-rays are produced. |B. increasing kilovoltage. GOOD! Monochromatic literally mans one (mono) color (chromatic). ^B. using a coarser grain film. |D.

This has nothing to do with how sensitive a radiograph is to the hole. electron. 112) The primary parts of an atom are: \D |A. neutron. or the contrast and definition shoddy the imaging of the penetrameter hole is a measure of radiographic sensitivity. YOU BET! These are the primary atomic parts there are many others which are very small. electron. ^C. electron. ^A. This is referring to the film latitude or exposure range. No neutrinos. |B. ^A. 115) Radiation arising directly from the target of an x-ray tube or an accelerator. increasing the source-to-specimen distance. Gamma rays are not a primary. none of the above.and gamma rays travel in independent energy packets known as photons. 113) X-rays and gamma rays always travel: \C |A. |B. If they traveled in circles or orbital spheres how can they go straight through an object to create an image on film? ^C. 114) A large source size can be compensated for by: \A |A. proton. YEP! By using the inverse square law doubling the distance decreases the radiation by 2 squared (2x2) or a factor of 4. backscatter. proton. ^C. straight lines. inherent radiation. electron. increasing the specimen-to-film distance. They travel in a direct line from their source until collisions or gravity alter their course. . neutrino. This will result in a radiograph with poor definition due to the increase geometric distortion. ^D. or from a radioactive source. |C. ^A. |D. |D. This will only eliminate the soft X-rays and not substantially reduce the hard short wavelength more penetrating X-ray. |C. ^D. These are packets of electromagnetic radiation. |D. |C. primary radiation. This is the same as answer C. proton. orbital spheres. gamma ray. |D. is usually referred to as: \B |A. No photons. in pairs. X. |B. secondary radiation. addition of lead screens. |C. ^A. but we'd all be irradiating ourselves with our bodies which are made up of atoms. |B. ^B. This is radiation that includes Compton scattering and is produced after the X-rays exit the tubes or accelerator. ^D. increasing penumbra. There is one straight and true blue answer. ^B. ^B. ^D. Increasing the penumbra shadow reduces definition and would be defeating your purpose of trying to obtain the sharpest image possible.narrow. neutron. photon. but do not concern us here. until a collision or gravity affects their course. SURE! According to Sir Isaac Newton they will continue traveling in a straight line forever.

transverse vibration of which item will cause the most image blurring? \C |A. a high hardness. Tungsten makes an excellent target material it is dense and very hard. Think of "first" X-rays. This body is called: \C |A. ^D. ALRIGHTY! elements with high atomic numbers are the heavier. but there are no inherent X-rays. CORRECT! A target material at the anode then emits a spectrum of X-rays whose minimum wavelength is controlled by the kilovoltage. ^A. Screen vibration. A generator generates electrons or electricity which is used in X-radiographs to create X-rays. The cathode is where the electrons travel from. ^C. Gas x-ray tube. Gold makes an excellent target material. a low atomic number. No. electrons are accelerated to a high velocity by an electrical field and then suddenly stopped by a collision with a solid body. |B. ^D. Elements with low atomic numbers are light and less dense making them poor X-ray emitters. generator. YOU'RE RIGHT! They are also known as Bremsstrahlung (German for braking. all X-ray tubes have a cathode. The filament is at the cathode and is the source of the accelerating electrons. 116) To produce X-rays. |D. .^B. the X-ray tube has nothing to do with the conversion of AC to DC. Radioisotopes inherently emit radiation. Rectifier. No. a low hardness. |C. 117) The best x-ray efficiency is produced when the target material has: \B |A. It is dense. but not hard. 118) What is sometimes used to change the alternating current from the high voltage transformer to direct current for the purpose of increasing the X-ray machine output? \A |A. |D. filament. ^C. 119) In a fluoroscopic inspection system using a 15 inch source-to-material distance and 2 inch material-to-screen distance. ^B. YES SIREEBOB! ^B. ^A. target. ^B. Cathode x-ray tubes. ^D. |B. |C. |B. cathode. |C. a high atomic number. |B. ^C. the X-ray tube has nothing to do with the conversion of AC to DC. Source vibration. more dense elements and make excellent X-ray emitters.) X-rays. Backscatter takes place after the X-rays have exited the tube and passed through the specimen. Hardness has nothing to do with it. No. ^C. Vacuum x-ray tube. ^D. ^A. |D. This is not a tube. Hardness has nothing to do with it.

^A. |C. ^B. ^B. Lead glass. Neither of the above. ^B. The equipment is normally not portable. ^D. This is true. 121) Which of the following is an advantage of a fluoroscopic system when compared to a radiographic system? \B |A. ^B. which of the following occurs? \C |A. Screen sensitivity and light level will be permanently reduced. The screen is essentially undamaged. ^C. ^D. This is totally the opposite of the truth. A screen support with lead foil screens to control scatter. |C. Screen blackens due to overexposure. The source should not vibrate and should be in a fixed position. Even so source vibration does not create the most image blurring. CORRECTO MUNDO! A "real-time" radiographic system has many advantages including eliminating on going film and development cost. The screen should not vibrate and should be in a fixed position. Lead foil screens are used in film radiography and do not offer much protection. |B. Material vibration. mirrors. |D. This is incorrect. ^D. Screen systems exhibit superior sensitivity and resolution to films. Screens do not absorb scattered radiation so the image density is enhanced. Live image presentation for immediate viewing. They do absorb scattered radiation and image density is a term referring to film. This is simply not true. ^A. ^C. They have less sensitivity and resolution. ^A. |D. |B. X-rays do not generate any significant amount of heat in the materials they strike. Intense heat generated in the screen will permanently destroy the screen crystals. |D.|C. YES INDEEDY! These are needed to shield and protect the operator from nonconverted X-rays passing through the . 120) If a fluorescent screen is accidentally exposed to unattenuated x-rays. 122) A fluoroscopic installation utilizing fluorescent screen requires: \B |A. You are thinking of the photographic effect on film which is used only once. ^C. however their vibrating does not create the most image blurring. AYE! The source and screen are in a fixed position and should not vibrate. Equal effects. RIGHT ON! If the screen were greatly effected by attenuated or unattenuated X-rays their repeated use would be severely limited and this is not the case. but is not an advantage. |C. |D. |B. One has a more pronounced effect on blurring. Fluorescent screens are used over and over and repeated exposures leave them virtually unchanged. ^A. This depends on the length of exposure which would have to be very long to cause a permanent change in the screen sensitivity. but lacks the sensitivity of film. or other means for transmitting the fluorescent image without subjecting the operator to x-radiation. Both of the above.

scatter radiation. ^D. The source to film distance is less important in X-ray penetrating ability than the subject to source distance. it is important to control: \D |A. |C. . 126) The term used to describe the loss of excess energy by the nucleus of radioactive atoms is called: \A |A. |B. |D. |C. ^A. ^B. Neutrons are not emitted by the atomic disintegration of Cobalt-60. Neutrons. ^A. AFFIRMATIVE! Kilovoltage determines the minimum wavelength of the spectrum of X-rays produced.screen. decay (disintegration). but are not used for NDT. ^D. bombarding not by the atomic decay of Cobalt-60. ionization. source-to-film distance. Do you need lead foil screens? One is correct and used to protect the operator from nonconverted X-rays that could pass through the screen. |D. ^B. kilovoltage. |D. |C. time.K. and are emitted by Cobalt-60. ^A. |B. ^C. kilovoltage. Milliamperage controls the number of X-rays produced. Alpha particles are composed of two protons and two neutrons or a Helium nucleus. 123) In performing fluoroscopic examination of a part. not their penetrating ability. What controls wavelength of the X-rays produced. X-rays. scintillation. |B. O. ^A. What about scatter radiation? ^B. What about kilovoltage and milliamperage? ^C. source kilovoltage and milliamperage. ABSOLUTELY! Gamma rays are the result of the atomic disintegrations occurring in Cobalt-60. 125) Which of the following types of radiation is emitted by cobalt-60 and used in nondestructive testing? \B |A. Exposure time is not a factor governing X-ray penetrating ability. ^D. ^C. geometry. Alpha particles. 124) In X-radiography. and milliamperage are all important control factors in fluoroscopy. ROGER! It is the atomic decay (disintegration) that creates gamma rays which is energy lost by the material in the form ^C. What about geometry. |C. |D. |B. activation. Increasing kilovoltage produces short wavelength more penetrating X-radiation. the ability to penetrate the test object is governed by: \C |A. Gamma rays. all of the above. scatter radiation. milliamperage. X-rays are produced by electrons onto a target material. ^D.! Geometry.

^D. ^C. ^A.of radiation. PRECISELY! The specific activity is the curies per gram or ounce of material. They are particles containing a Helium nucleus and have mass. |B. 128) The term used to express the number of curies of radioactivity per gram or ounce of source weight is: \C |A. ^D. |D. ^A. Decay refers to atomic disintegration activity which directly relates to the curie. |C. ^D. ^C. microwave radiations. source output. . photons. ^B. like X. Alpha particles are not electromagnet radiation. ions. This is caused by the energy absorbed by atoms from the Xor gamma rays outside the nucleus of a radioactive atom.and gamma rays. These create the photographic action on the film. A single compound molecule can carry a charge. X. EXACTLY! Compounds are composed of only molecules. ionizing radiations. are a class of electromagnetic radiation and have wavelengths much longer than X. Activation of what? This is not radiographic terminology.or gamma rays. Compounds are composed of many molecules. decay. |B. Close. molecules. |C. all electrons are negative. This is the phenomena that lights up the screen used in fluoroscopy. One curie equals 3. ^B. |D. particulate radiations. but this is the wrong answer.and gamma rays travel in energy packets known as photons which are not particles and are without mass. The loss of energy due to a breakdown of neutrons in the nucleus of radioactive elements. specific activity. electromagnetic radiations. Photons are subatomic particle. VERY GOOD! All three are capable of ionizing (creating negative or positive ions) elements or compounds.7 x 1010 atomic disintegrations per second. Microwaves. gamma rays. 127) X-rays. and various subatomic particles which carry either a positive or negative electrical charge are called: \C |A. and all protons are positive. ^D. but always carry a positive charge. |D. and alpha particles all have one thing in common-they are all: \D |A. |B. ^A. compounds. |C. ^C. but all electrons are negatively charged. ^B. Emissivity can also refer to a materials ability to radiate heat and is a general term not directly related to the curie. photoelectrons. 129) Atoms. Compounds are composed of several atoms and are not subatomic particles. ^C. ^B. but the correct term refers to the activity of the decaying atomic nuclei. emissivity.

No it does the opposite. 0. More. 33. is not affected as time elapses.56 percent. 186. 131) Approximately what percent of the original radioactivity is left after six half-lives? \D |A. radioisotopes decay with time. 1. decreases with time. ^A.3 |D.005 |B. |B. ^B. 1. ^B. . ^D. ^C. ^D. Gamma and X-radiation interact with matter and may be absorbed by: photoelectric absorption. YEA! This is an approximation it is actually one 64th or 1. 132) The velocity of all electromagnet radiation is: \A |A. Less. |B. ^C. |C. pair production. all of the above. |D. Compton scattering. 133) The radiation intensity of a radioisotope: \B |A.130) \D |A. none of the above. |D. ^A. What about positron-electron pair production? What about photoelectric absorption? What about Compton scattering? OF COURSE! These are the only three absorption phenomena known. |D.000 miles per second. ^C.000 miles per second. |C. ^D. 2 ^A. ^B. A lot less. 18. 10 |C.860 miles per second.860. increases with time. |B. Yes it is. Yes. GOOD! The half-life is a measure of this decrease. there is one correct answer.600 miles per second. |C.

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