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Chap 1: Introduction
Project financing is an innovative and timely financing technique that has been used on many high-profile corporate projects, including Euro Disneyland and the Eurotunnel. Employing a carefully engineered financing mix, it has long been used to fund large-scale natural resource projects, from pipelines and refineries to electric-generating facilities and hydro-electric projects. Increasingly, project financing is emerging as the preferred alternative to conventional methods of financing infrastructure and other large-scale projects worldwide. Project Financing discipline includes understanding the rationale for project financing, how to prepare the financial plan, assess the risks, design the financing mix, and raise the funds. In addition, one must understand the cogent analyses of why some project financing plans have succeeded while others have failed. A knowledge-base is required regarding the design of contractual arrangements to support project financing; issues for the host government legislative provisions, public/private infrastructure partnerships, public/private financing structures; credit requirements of lenders, and how to determine the project's borrowing capacity; how to analyze cash flow projections and use them to measure expected rates of return; tax and accounting considerations; and analytical techniques to validate the project's feasibility Project finance is different from traditional forms of finance because the credit risk associated with the borrower is not as important as in an ordinary loan transaction; what is most important is the identification, analysis, allocation and management of every risk associated with the project. The purpose of this project is to explain, in a brief and general way, the manner in which risks are approached by financiers in a project finance transaction. Such risk minimization lies at the heart of project finance. In a no recourse or limited recourse project financing, the risks for a financier are great. Since the loan can only be repaid when the project is operational, if a major part of the
Downloaded from a2zmba.blogspot.com project fails, the financiers are likely to lose a substantial amount of money. The assets that remain are usually highly specialized and possibly in a remote location. If saleable, they may have little value outside the project. Therefore, it is not surprising that financiers, and their advisers, go to substantial efforts to ensure that the risks associated with the project are reduced or eliminated as far as possible. It is also not surprising that because of the risks involved, the cost of such finance is generally higher and it is more time consuming for such finance to be provided. Project finance is the financing of long-term infrastaructure and industrial projects based upon a complex financial structure where project debt and equity are used to finance the project. Usually, a project financing scheme involves a number of equity investors, known as sponsors, as well as a syndicate of banks which provide loans to the operation. The loans are most commonly non-recourse loans, which are secured by the project itself and paid entirely from its cash flow, rather than from the general assets or creditworthiness of the project sponsors. The financing is typically secured by all of the project assets, including the revenue-producing contracts. Project lenders are given a lien on all of these assets, and are able to assume control of a project if the project company has difficulties complying with the loan terms. Generally, a special purpose entity is created for each project, thereby shielding other assets owned by a project sponsor from the detrimental effects of a project failure. As a special purpose entity, the project company has no assets other than the project. Capital contribution commitments by the owners of the project company are sometimes necessary to ensure that the project is financially sound. Project finance is often more complicated than alternative financing methods. It is most commonly used in the mining, transportation, telecommunication and public utility industries. Risk identification and allocation is a key component of project finance. A project may be subject to a number of technical, environmental, economic and political risks, particularly in developing countries and emerging markets. Financial institutions and project sponsors may conclude that the risks inherent in project development and operation are unacceptable (unfinanceable). To cope with these risks, project sponsors in these
Downloaded from a2zmba.blogspot.com industries (such as power plants or railway lines) are generally completed by a number of specialist companies operating in a contractual network with each other that allocates risk in a way that allows financing to take place. The various patterns of implementation are sometimes referred to as "project delivery methods." The financing of these projects must also be distributed among multiple parties, so as to distribute the risk associated with the project while simultaneously ensuring profits for each party involved.
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Chap 2: AN OVERVIEW
2.1 Banking Sector There have been major structural changes in the financial sector since banking sector reforms were introduced in India in 1992. Since then Banks have been lending aggressively providing funds towards infrastructure sector. Major policy measures include phased reductions in statutory pre-emption like cash reserve and statutory liquidity requirements and deregulation of interest rates on deposits and lending, except for a select segment. The diversification of ownership of banking institutions is yet another feature which has enabled private shareholding in the public sector banks, through listing on the stock exchanges, arising from dilution of the Government ownership. Foreign direct investment in the private sector banks is now allowed up to 74 per cent. The co-existence of the public sector, private sector and the foreign banks has generated competition in the banking sector leading to a significant improvement in efficiency and customer service. The share of private and foreign banks in total assets increased to 31.5 per cent at end-March 2007 from 27.6 per cent at end-March 2006 and less than 10.0 per cent at the inception of reforms.
The nationalized banks have more branches than any other types of banks in India. Now there are about 33,627 Branches in India, as on March 2005. Investments of scheduled commercial banks (SCBs) also saw an increase from Rs 8,04,199 crore in March 2005 to Rs 8,43,081 crore in the same month of 2006. India's retail-banking assets are expected to grow at the rate of 18% a year over the next four years (2006-2010). Retail loan to drive the growth of retail banking in future. Housing loan account for major chunk of retail loan.
adoption of new technologies and value added services. Today.57 % of Share Capital is presently held by Institutions. As of September 2005. more than 719 branches/extension counters of Bank are networked under Core Banking Solution. Union Bank has offered vast and varied services to its entire valuable clientele taking care of their needs. Union Bank truly lives up to the image of. It is one of the pioneer public sector banks. which launched Core Banking Solution in 2002. The Bank came out with its Initial Public Offer (IPO) in August 20. Anticipative banking is an integral ingredient of value-based services. powered with the centralized technology platform. Union Bank has a dedicated family of about 26.Downloaded from a2zmba. This ability to gauge the customer's needs long before he realizes.blogspot.43% Share Capital held by the Government of India. 2002 and Follow on Public Offer in February 2006.com
2. Presently 44. The multi facility versatile Internet Banking Solution provides extensive information in addition to the on line transaction facility to both individuals and corporate
. consistent profitability & growth. “Good People to bank with”. with its efficient customer service.2 An Overview on Union Bank Of India
Union Bank of India was inaugurated by the father of the nation – Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Online Tele banking facility is available to all its Core Banking customers. The Bank has over the years earned the reputation of being a techno-savvy Bank and is one of the front runners amongst public sector bank in the field of technology.000 qualified / skilled employees who will and always will be delighted to extend their services to the customers with heartfelt efforts The Bank is a Public Sector Unit with 55. It commenced operations in the year 1920. the Bank has launched multiple Electronic Delivery Channels and has installed nearly 469 networked ATMs. Individuals and Others. best reduces the gap between expectance and deliverance Manpower is the key factor for the success of any organization.
After analyzing credit health. Companies that intend to seek credit facilities approach the bank. Today there are more than 26.2. at the Credit Department. On the basis of credit rating. today customer can also avail variety of value added services like cash management service.2. This study aims to analyze the credit health of organizations that approach Union Bank of India for foreign exchange credit facilities. In addition to regular banking facilities. determine the interest rate. Primarily.Downloaded from a2zmba. Overview on banks deposits and advances Items
2.com banking with the Core Banking branches of the Bank. Working capital finance 2.000 employees in Union Bank of India. UBI has been ranked at 5th position among the nationalized bank in India. Financial requirements for Project Finance and Working Capital purposes are taken care of at the Credit Department. the credit rating is determined. Term loan for mega projects 6
. its financial health must be analyzed. 2. Before offering credit to an organization. Credit should be disbursed only after ascertaining satisfactory financial performance. Demat from the bank.1
Rationale for the study
Offering credit is an operation fraught with risk. insurance.e. the interest rate guidelines circular is consulted to fix a price for the credit facilities i. mutual funds. credit is required for following purposes:1. Based on the financial health of an organization. These credit ratings are used to fix the interest rate and quantum of installment. banks assign credit ratings.2 Credit disbursement at Union Bank of India
This project was undertaken at the Industrial Finance Branch of Union Bank of India.blogspot.
Thus. Letter of Credit Companies present audited balance sheets of the current and previous years. These are used to determine the financial health. Then credit rating is done.Downloaded from a2zmba.3 Objectives of the project
To assess the financial health of organizations that approach Union Bank of India for credit for import export purposes. non fund based Limits Like Letter of Guarantee. market reputation and future benefits with clients.
2. a difference exists between theory and practice.2.com 3. in practice. banks consider other factors such as history with client.blogspot. turnover trends and rise and fall of profitability. This would involve the following actions: Use of credit rating charts Evaluation of management risk Evaluation of financial risk Evaluation of market-industry risk Evaluation of the facility Evaluation of compliance of sanction terms Calculation of credit rating
. However. The financial health and credit rating are theoretical methods for determining the right interest rate. This would entail undertaking of the following procedures: Analysis of past and present financial statements Analysis of Balance Sheet Analysis of Cash Flow Statements Examination of Profitability statements Examination of projected financial statements Examination of CMA data
To assess the suitability of the company for disbursement of credit.
Determination of interest rate: This would entail the following sequence of actions. Collect data regarding financial health evaluation Noting down of credit rating Referencing the banks’ interest rate guidelines circular Choosing the interest rate from the circular on the basis of financial health and credit rating
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Chap 3 : Term Loan Assesment
3.Downloaded from a2zmba.
Carrying out due diligence Preparing Credit Report
Determining Interest Rate
Preparing and submission of Term Sheet
If not approved
Preparation of proposal
Submission of Proposal to designated authority If No queries raised If queries raised
Sanction of proposal on various Terms & Condition
Solve the queries
Communication of Sanction Terms & Condition
Acknowledgement of Sanction Terms & Condition Application to comply with Sanction Terms & Condition & execution of Loan Documents Disbursement
.blogspot.1 Steps in term loan processing
Submission of Project Report along with the Request Letter.
1 CONDUCTING FEASIBILITY STUDY
The success of a feasibility study is based on the careful identification and assessment of all of the important issues for business success. Include the technical processes. Outline the general business model (ie. Relationship to the surrounding geographical area. size. market and/or market segment(s). It includes the technical aspects.
Identifies environmental impact on the surrounding area. how the business will make money). location. Project Details: Definition of the project and alternative scenarios and models.
Identifies economic and social impact on local communities. the Market Condition and Projected performance of the company. market and/or market segment(s).
MARKET FEASIBILITY Industry description.Downloaded from a2zmba. A detailed Project Report is submitted by an enterpreneur .
Describes the size and scope of the industry. prepared by a approved agency or a consultancy organisation. kind of inputs Specify the time horizon from the time the project is initiated until it is up and
running at capacity. Such report provides indepth details of the project requesting finance. It is neccessay for the appraising officer to cross check the information provided in the report for dtermining the worhiness of the project.blogspot.com
3. Estimates the future direction of the industry. Managerial Aspect.
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List the type and quality of product(s) or service(s) to be marketed.
Explores barriers/ease of entry of competitors into the market or industry. market and/or market segment(s)
Estimates sales or usage.
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Analyzes major competitors. services provided).com
Describes the nature of the industry. market and/or market segment(s) (stable or
going through rapid change and restructuring).blogspot.Downloaded from a2zmba. Determines concentration and competitiveness of input suppliers and
Will the product be sold into a commodity or differentiated product/service
Identifies the demand and usage trends of the market or market segment in which
the proposed product or service will participate. Sales Projection. 11
Investigates industry concentration (few large producers or many small
Projects sales under various assumptions (ie. niche or segmented market opportunities. Identifies and assess the accuracy of the underlying assumptions in the sales
projection. Explores the opportunity and potential for a "branded product". selling prices.
Identifies price competitiveness of product/service.
Identifies the life-cycle of the industry. mature) Industry Competitiveness. Assesses estimated market usage and potential share of the market or market
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Examines the potential for emerging.
industry experts. Such capacity of the personnel can be determined by having complete details on following key aspects: Market reputation on the promoter / management of the company Hands on experience of the management personnel in the industry / Business managed by qualified personnel
. Identify availability of consultants and service providers with the skills needed to
realize the project. Identify any potential joint venture partners. ORGANIZATIONAL/MANAGERIAL FEASIBILITY Business structure.
Managerial Personnel Managerial Personnel play a key role in directing the working of the company. It is important for an organisation to have a pool of eficient personnel who bear the capacity to bail the company out from crisis situation and work towards optimum utlisation of organisational resources. including legal. Investigates the product/service distribution system and the costs involved.
Identify availability of skilled and experienced business managers.
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Outline alternative business model(s) (how the business will make money). accounting. etc.
Outline the governance.Downloaded from a2zmba. lines of authority and decision making structure. alliances or other important
Access to Market Outlets. Identify the proposed legal structure of the business.
Identifies the potential buyers of the product/service and the associated marketing
Identifies limitations or constraints of technology.
state-of-the-art). Investing in the proper technology is the key to success it irrespective of size of business thus for achieving its projected performance. Investigates the need for related buildings.com Ability of the promoters / management to bail out the company in case of crisis (for example.
Availability and Suitability of Location. 13
Estimates the size and type of production facilities.
Investigates and compare technology providers. Access to transportation. Such technical competence of the project can be determined by having detailed study done on following key aspects: Determining Facility Needs. this could be derived from a strong group company) Decision making – Is it concentrated ? Organisation structure / Succession planning / Labour relations Is any group company in default / Any Directors on RBI’s negative list / Borrower’s track-record in honouring financial commitment Length of relationship with the bank
TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY Technology plays an important role in maintaining a competitive position in this highly competitive market conditions.blogspot.
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Access to markets.Downloaded from a2zmba. Access to raw materials. it is important for it to have sound technological background. Determines reliability and competitiveness of technology (proven or unproven. rolling-stock
Suitability of Production Technology.
etc. water.Downloaded from a2zmba. Investigate emissions potential.
Estimates working capital needs. Identifies regulatory requirements. Analyze environmental impact.
Raw materials. Determines replacement capital requirements and timing for facilities and
Assesses the capital needs of the business project and how these needs will be
FINANCIAL FEASIBILITY Estimate the total capital requirements. etc. natural gas.
Investigates the availability of labor including wage rates. Explores economic development incentives. Estimates start-up capital needs until revenues are realized at full capacity.blogspot. equipment and inventories. Access to production inputs (electricity.). skill level.
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Estimates the amount of raw materials needed. Investigates the current and future availability and access to raw materials.
. Assesses the potential to access and attract qualified management personnel. Explores community receptiveness to having the business located there. Assesses the quality and cost of raw materials and markets of easily substituted
inputs. Other inputs.
Estimates capital requirements for facilities.com
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Access to a qualified labor pool.
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Identifies limitations or constraints of the economic analysis. terms. direct
loans or loan guarantees). covenants.banks.
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Estimates expected costs and revenue. Identifies alternative equity sources and capital availability -. margin.
Identifies and assess alternative credit sources -. liens.
Budgets expected costs and returns of various alternatives. grants. etc. local
investors. Estimates the returns under various production.interest rates. angel investors. balance sheet.
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Estimates other capital needs.Downloaded from a2zmba. etc. government (ie.com
Creates a benchmark against industry averages and/or competitors (cost. Estimates the profit margin and expected net profit. "typical". etc. etc. when reaching
full operation. This may
involve identifying "best case". market penetration.
Assesses the reliability of the underlying assumptions of the financial analysis
profits. ROI. Estimates the sales or usage needed to break-even. and "worst case" scenarios or more sophisticated analysis like a Monte Carlo simulation.blogspot. venture capitalists. local and state economic development incentives.).
Assesses expected financing needs and alternative sources -. production.
conditions. Determines project expected cash flow during the start-up period. price and sales levels. etc.
Establishes debt-to-equity levels. Identifies project an expected income statement. market access delays. Estimated equity and credit needs.producers. efficiencies.
blogspot. you will be faced with deciding which course of action to pursue. Compare and contrast the alternatives based on their business viability.
. The major categories this section should include are:
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Identify and describe alternative business scenarios and models.com Study Conclusions The study conclusions contain the information you will use for deciding whether to proceed business.
Next Step After the feasibility study has been completed and presented. Next. a carefully study and analysis the conclusions and underlying assumptions. Deciding that a viable business opportunity is not available and moving to end the
business assessment process.Downloaded from a2zmba. for investment Identifying additional scenarios for further study. Compare and contrast the alternatives based on the goals of the producer group. Outline criteria for decision making among alternatives. Potential courses of action include:
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Choosing the most viable business model.
. The degree of interest that would be shown by investors in their company can also be gauged from the business credit reports as they can get an idea of the conception of their customers regarding themselves.blogspot. It is divided in Four Sections: 17
. preferred stock and insurance companies. Since these records are updated at regular intervals of time they enable people to identify the risk levels associated with a business as well as its future. These reports also allow businesses to get detailed information about the financial status of business partners and suppliers. This assists one to take crucial business related decisions.2 CREDIT REPORT AND CREDIT RATING
The credit report is an important determinant of an individual's financial credibility. Credit report is a document. There are various organization who perform credit rating for various business organization. which comprises detailed information about the credit payment history of an applicant.Downloaded from a2zmba. The business credit reports provide information on the background of a company. The credit rating model asses various aspects of the projects and assigns scores against them thereby determining the risk level involved with the project. The ratings therefore assess an entity's ability to pay debts. Long-term credit ratings tend to be more indicative of a country's investment surroundings and/or a company's ability to honor its debt responsibilities. They also help the person concerned to narrow down on the financial problem areas. Union Bank of India follows a finely defined Credit Rating Model for assessing the creditworthiness of the applicant. It is mostly used by the lenders to determine the credit worthiness of an applicant. loans.
What Is A Corporate Credit Rating?
Ratings can be assigned to short-term and long-term debt obligations as well as securities. People can also assess the amount of business risk associated with a company and then decide whether they would be comfortable in providing them with credit facilities.com
3. They are used by lenders to judge a person's creditworthiness.
inreasing the risk. The current ratio is an indication of a firm's market liquidity and ability to meet creditor's demands. Market Condition/ Demand Situation 3. Rating of the Facility 4. It is excess of current assets over current liability. Long term ratio include Debt Equity Ratio is a financial ratio indicating the relative proportion of equity and debt used to finance a company's assets. The financial ability of the firm is derived by calculating ratios that determine the short term and long term financial position of the firm Short term ratios include Current Ratio. Gearing or Leverage. A high debt equity ratio is not preferable by an investor as the company already has aquired high amount of funds from market thereby reducing the investor share over the securities available. This ratio is also known as Risk.33:1 however the acceptable level is at 1. determines the liquidity position of the company over a period of one year. However at times current ratio may not be a true indicator. Rating of the Borrower
Financial Risk Management Risk
2.17:1. According to the guidelines given to UBI the ideal level is at 1. the current ratio for road projects is very high but this does not indicate that the company is not using its assets well but the ratio is high because the activity involves more in dealing with current assets. If the current ratio is too high.com 1. then the company may not be efficiently using its current assets. Hence it is important for the evaluator to understand the nature of the industry. Business Consideration 5. then the company may have problems meeting its short-term obligations.Downloaded from a2zmba. If current liabilities exceed current assets (the current ratio is below 1). Cash Flow related parameters 1) Rating of the Borrower: This part of credit rating model deals with assessing the financial and managerial ability of the borrower.blogspot.
proven Technology. It is the management of the company that acts as guiding force for the firm. unfavourable ii) seasonality in demand : affected by short term seasonality.
.com It is aslo important for the lender bank to assess the firms debt paying capacity over a period. It is important to evaluate the Management Risk also while evaluating the risk relaing to borrower. vi)Capacity utilisation inputs. Inorder to remain competitive it is essential to take initiatives. thus for better performance it is required to have a team of well qualified and expirienced personnel. v)Technology ie. 2) Market potential / Demand Situation A Company does not operate in isolation there are various market forces that acts in either favourable or unfavraouble manner towards its performance. The demand supply situation / market Potential plays an important role in determining the growth level of the company like i) Level of competition : monolpoly . iii)Raw Material Availablity: iv)Locational Issues like proximity to market. long term seasonality or may not be affected by seasonality in demand. It also necessary for the lender to determine the ability of the firm to achieve the projected growth by evaluating the projected sales with actuals.not to be changed in immeditate future. technology undergo change. neutral. outdated technolgy. unfavourable.However such parameter remains non applicable if the business is new. favourable . The key managerial personnel should bear the capacity to bail out the company frm crisis situation. Such skills are developed over years of experience. infratstructure: Favourable. Finacial risk evaluation is oly one of the parameter and not thje only parameter for determining the risk level.Downloaded from a2zmba. Such capacity is derived by calculating ratio like Debt Serice Coverage Ratio minimum acceptable level is 1.blogspot. Thus the rating would not give true picture if does take market or demand situation in consideration.50.
High Risk CR. Perparation and Submission of Finacial Statements.Downloaded from a2zmba.
. Higher Risk CR. a business receiving Credit Rating above level 6 are not considered good from point of investment and thus are avoided.9 In UBI. Low Risk CR-2 3. acts in the favour of the applicant. Thus Credit Rating of the Business takes into consideration various aspects that directly or indiretly bears an effects the performance of the business. lowest Risk CR-1 2. Medium Risk CR. In UBI they are catagorised in 9 segements 1. Moderate/ Satisfatory Risk CR.3 4. Fair Risk CR. A good track record The income value to the bank also given due consideration. permits for ensuring smooth operations. Stock statements in the standard format within the given time schedule. highest risk CR.blogspot. Such statutary obligation involves obtaining licenses. however a under perfomance make the lender more vigiliant.6 7. After evaluating the risk level involved the lender bank decided on lending Interest Rate.7 8.4 5.com 3)Rating of the Facility: The company can start functioning only after completing statutary obligations laid down by the governing authority.5 6.8 9. 4)Business Consideration: The length of relationship with the bank enables the lender to assess the previous performance of the account holder. NPA CR.
Downloaded from a2zmba. In some cases like this. Nature of Facility 2. The rupee credit is based on BPLR and the foreign exchange loans are based on LIBOR. A Term Sheet is breif document that provides details on aspects like:
Account Details Financial highlights for immediate previous two audited years and projection for proceeding year Nature of Project Cost of Project Means of finace 1.com
3.4 TERM SHEET
Following a favrouable feasibility check. credit rating and its use in determining interest rate is a theoretical concept and the bank may allow a reduction in interest rate under the following conditions: Good Client
The organization is a long term client and brings good business to the bank. the lead bank might decide the interest rate and all the member banks of the consortium follow this interest rate.blogspot. Purpose 21
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. The organization’s actions show that it intends to become a long term customer of the bank Banking Consortium The organization is seeking credit from a consortium of banks.3 DETERMINATION OF INTEREST RATE
The interest rate is determined from the interest rate guidelines circular. However. The guidelines define how much interest rate is to be assigned for a particular credit rating and credit duration.
3. credit rating the next step is preparing term sheet . This circular is regularly updated to reflect the bank’s latest credit policies.
An approved term sheet leads to preparation proposal.Downloaded from a2zmba.
Line of Activity. Then. A proposal is prepared in standard format. if the borrower does not repay the loan as promised. Internal Credit Rating level. Asset Classification. Tennure of Term Loan 4.
* Securities:Lenders often feel more confident about a loan if they are given a security
interest in the assets of a business. Purpose of the Loan.it provides detailed information on nature of securities given in lieu of the Loan. Margin 6. o Repayment Terms o Prime Security o Collateral Security o Upfront fees ie the charges levied by the bank for processing the documents. A proposal contains information on following aspects:
* Details of Account: It includes name of the Account Holder. Collateral Secuties
. Interest Rate. Commission Door to Door Tenor ie.com 3.they are of two types Prime securities.the period within which the entire amount I sto be disbursed. Interest rate Reset 5. A proposal a full fledged document providing details on project submitted and requesting finance from bank. Date of incorporation.blogspot. Address of the Registered Office. Share Holding Pattern. this enables the bank to keep a proper track record and also facilitates proper comparision.
3. sell it and use the proceeds to repay (or partially repay) the borrowed amount. Name of Directors. the lender can take the property the borrower pledged.
. Collateral Securities: In lending agreements. the borrower is said to default on the loan. Non current Assets like guarantees . Value of Guarantee. When insolvent.Current Assets. in which case the lender becomes the owner of the collateral.blogspot. includes Name of the guarantor. Current Liabilities. Current Ratio. Fixed Assets. It includes details on Nature / Description of collateral security indicating area & location of property Value in Rupees. Intangible Asstes. collateral is a borrower's asset that is forfeited to the lender if the borrower is insolvent --. The interpretation of the financial data presented provides information on the perfomance trend of the company also of the Projections made. Debt Service Coverage Ratio and so. Reserves and Surplus. Net Profit. Investments. Net working Cpaital. Date of valuation along with name of Valuer Insurance Amount & Date of Expiry
Personal guarantee / Corporate Guarantee if any. unable to pay back the principal and interest on the loan. Net Sales. It also includes ratios like Debt Equity Ratio. Cash Accruals. It includes Details on Paid capital. Tangible Networth. Such financial highlight play an important role in assesing the financial strenghts and weakness of the business. Long Term Liailities. Capital employed.that is. * Financial Highlights: It povides details of important financial elements over a period of years.com Prime Securities: Pari Passu is a term used in banking transactions which means that the charge to be created is in continuation of an earlier charge which might be held by the same institution or by an other institution.Downloaded from a2zmba.
purpose of the project. type of project. If it is a on-goin project it also gives details on progress and status of progress
* Evaluation of Industry :
This Section gives brief details on the 1. commencement details. Scope of the industry 2.com * Status of the project: A brief of Project In this part of proposal a brief about the project is explained. Recent Developments and Trend Evaluation
* Conduct of the Account:
This section provides details on : Regularity in Submission of— Stock Statements / Book Debt Statement QPR Statements / Half Yearly Statement Financial Statements CMA Data
* Compliance to Terms of Sanction
It furnishes information on following aspect: Completion of Mortgage formalities Registration of Charges with RoC Whether documents valid and in force Compliance of RBI guidelines Whether consortium meetings held at prescribed periodic intervals where the Bank is the leader. the promoters and related details of the project. Growth level and overall performance of the industry 3.
. it includes information on nature.blogspot.Downloaded from a2zmba.
. or other instrument at a specified price within a specific time period.com
* Exposure details from banking system (existing) (Incl. A Call Option is an agreement that gives an investor the right (but not the obligation) to buy a stock.Downloaded from a2zmba. acting at the request of a customer. the insurer will pay a fixed sum of money to holders of the securities. bond.blogspot. Financial guarantees are similar to a Standby Letter of Credit. Our Bank) The sharing pattern of the banks is mentioned in this section of proposal. Standbys are issued by banks. undertakes to pay a third party by a given date. A Standby Letter of Credit is a form of insurance on an underlying agreement or obligation (contract). on documents being presented in compliance with the conditions laid down. Letter of gaurantee (L/g) Letter of Credit A ‘Letter of credit’ also known as documentary credit is the most commonly accepted instrument of settling international trade payments. but are issued by an insurance company. Letter of Guarantee A letter from a bank stating that a customer owns a particular security and that the bank will guarantee delivery of the security. A letter of guarantee is used by an investor who is writing call options when the underlying stock is not in his or her brokerage account. Financial Guarantee: A non-cancelable indemnity bond guaranteeing the timely payment of principal and interest due on securities by the maturity date. insuring all parties to the contract against failure to perform or pay on the part of one or another party to the contract.
Non Fund based credit are in form of gaurantees like Letter of Credit (L/c). It includes Name of the bank Percentage of share for the fund based and non Fund based Limits Amount in Rs. A letter of credit is an arrangement whereby a bank. commodity. If the issuer defaults.
lead period and minimum econmical quantity of supply of stocks 5. share holding pattern. 4.
* Terms and Condition:
It is important both for the bankand the applicant to safegaurd its interest. Any request for financial Guarantee to be critically examined before takin decision. 6. If new borrower full processing as applicable to Fund Based Limits to be carried. should be examined in details for any ambigious clauses.Downloaded from a2zmba. All loans are subject to regulations and conditions. 7.com
Assessment of Non Fund Based Limit
1.blogspot. While Assessing the L/g Limit contract or agreement which is the base for L/g. Non Fundabsed Limits are to be supported by necessary fund based limits. It is advisable for both the parties to read this information carefully before approval. 3. Past experience of payment of billsunder L/c to be verified before considering new request. Non Fund Based Limits are normally to be sanctioned for exixting customer only who already enjoy fund based limits 2.
* Details of Sister/ Allied Concerns:
This section provides information about the Sister/ Allied Concerns aspects like the performance. Borrower’s background and experience of meeting commitments to be examined in details.
. L/c limit to be considered as per terms of Purchase or contract. this could be achieved by settling at mutually acceptable terms and condition inorder to ensure that both the parties the lender and borrower perform their part of obligation thereby not putting other party at loss. The legal information relating to these regulations and conditions can be viewed in this section. 8. promoters. operation exposure and experience from various banks.
Such evualtion is done by obtaining Lender’s Engineer Report. if any relating to projects and thereby convey it to the processing officer the processing officer inturn addresses them to the borrower for necessary step to be taken.this helps the lender bank to understand and assess the utilisation of funds disbursed by the lender Bank. such querries are required to be solved to the earliest by the applicant for further proceesing of the proposal.6 DISBURSEMENT:
After submission Proposal to Designated/ Sanctioning Authortiy for sanctioning the Term Loan.blogspot. such amounts are disbursed in one installment. It is prepared on monthly basis.com
3.the Loan gets sanctioned and decided. it verifies the Finacial details furnished to bank for further disbursement.Downloaded from a2zmba. Since amount of credit required is usually high.this is known as renewal of account. it is report that provides complete details of the status of the project. the disbursement would be released in as per the terms
3. they are paid in installments. the authorities may raise querries.7 FOLLOW-UP:
This is most cruicial stage in process of term loan assesment. It also provides CA Report. If the authoritiees are satisfied and have no further querries with respect to proposal.
Established in 1952. ranks among the major manufacturers of ERW / HFIW and galvanized steel pipes and tubes in the country. The group is already engaged in the business of manufacturing Photographic goods. cold rolled strips & GP/GC sheets. Metallized films. Maharashtra is one of the world’s largest single location plant for the manufacture of BOPET and BOPP films. West Bengal for manufacture of pipe fittings. Cold rolled steel strips and Galvanized sheets. Orissa. however later the name was changed and the current name is effective from March 23.Steel pipes. BOPP film & Metallized film.000 TPA of GP/GC sheets and 350. JIL . At present.com
Chap 4: Analysis of Credit proposals
4.blogspot.1.1 Prposal of JKL Ltd. The company’s manufacturing plant at Nasik.Downloaded from a2zmba. 2006 with the objective of generation of power based on coal. bends and sockets. 2001.. BOPP films.000 TPA of CR coil / sheets. The proposed manufacturing facilities are located at Angul district.1 BACKGROUND:
The company was incorporated on January 5. the company has a manufacturing capacity of 160.
4. Promoter JPL JPFL Shareholding (%) 26 % 4%
.Polyester chips. 300. PVDC film. The company commenced business operations through establishment of a manufacturing facility in Howrah. JPFL .Photographic films & equipment. Polyester film. The details of associate concerns are as under :JPL . Polyester film.000 TPA of steel pipes & tubes.
bid evaluation.B. finalisation of MOUs. financial analysis. costing. Mr Umesh Chand Jain Mr.Downloaded from a2zmba. Punit Gupta. He is presently heading the Project team for setting up of the proposed power project and is involved in budgeting. He has work experience of about 18 years in the field of Project Management and Marketing with the group. Business management and implementation of new Projects. Ltd.com Group Investment Companies include: Consolidated Photo & Finvest Ltd Rishi Trading Co. Ltd. project planning. and M. and various types of studies required for Power Projects etc. aged about 41 years. JV Agreements. details of key management personnel of JKL Pvt. Umesh Chand Jain is a graduate with work experience of about 33 years in the areas of Trading. tendering. award of contracts.Sc. (BMPL) Edward Supply Pvt. Ltd. Ltd. sensitivity analysis.blogspot. Ltd. coordination with contractors. (ESPL) TOTAL 100% 25% 45%
EVALUATION OF MANAGEMENT
1) Market reputation on the promoter / management of the company: Satisfactory 2) Hands on experience of the management personnel in the industry / Business managed by qualified personnel: The qualified professionals & experienced persons are proposed to be appointed for managing the overall operation of the company. Soyuz Trading Co. Non-Group Companies Budhiya Marketing Pvt. is a B. Are as under: Mr Punit Gupta Mr.A. post award activities. Liaisoning. He
Yadav Mr. He is an Electrical engineer from Sibpur Engg College. budget preparation. Sehdev Mr AK Sehdev is an engineering graduate from Delhi College of Engineering. commissioning. erection. NCR region.blogspot. Jamshedpur and has work experience of over 35 years in the areas of project planning. Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd (PGCIL) and has work experience of about 35 years of experience in Power transmission.R. New Delhi. He is involved in preparation of action plan. Singrauli etc. Mr A. tariff calculations. financial analysis.Yadav is an ex-Executive Director. He will be heading the Engineering team in JKL Pvt. He was VP and country Manager with Kennedy & Donkin Ltd and Head Business Development with Merz & McLellan Ltd. Bokaro.com has been working with the Group for the last seven years. Prior to joining JITPL as Sr VP (Corporate affairs). project formulation. NTPC. He is on the Board of various group companies including Consolidated Finvest & Holdings Limited. He is a Mechanical engineer from RIT. Patnaik Mr Patnaik has many years of experience in IPP (Industrial Power Projects) He had also worked in two UK based company as an advisor. R. K. project engineering and finalization of technical specifications of various packages. He has over 36 years of experience of Navaratna Companies like IOC and NTPC. He has been involved in the establishment of the national transmission grid and has experience in the areas of
. Ltd. He is also a Director on the board for NTPC-SAIL Power Company (P) Ltd. Mr P. FRs and DPRs. cost estimation and cost control. Mr S.Downloaded from a2zmba. S. project scheduling. operation and maintenance. K. He worked in Lanco Kondapalli also. Mr A C Sarkar Mr Sarkar is Executive Director (Eastern Region-1). he was Head (Corporate Affairs) at Egateway. He has been involved in many green field projects of NTPC and was posted in Korba.
Mr. He is joining JITPL as Vice-President (Transmission). Ramesh Chandra Mr Chandra is Master in Applied physics & Instrumentation. Ltd as GM (Control and Instrumentation). Mr Ashok Kr Kucheria Mr Kucheria is M Com and Chartered Accountant and has work experience of over 24 years. Soni’s areas of expertise include project financing. turbine & generator) and BOP (balance of plant). design and commissioning. Taxation. Mr L. Soni has been earlier associated with various companies including Surya Roshni Ltd. Presently he is GM (Finance) for power project and he is involved in resource management and financial closure for the project.Downloaded from a2zmba.. fund raising. Girish Mr P Girish is Vice President. (Corporate affairs) in charge of govt liaisoning for Delhi. He has joined JKL Pvt. foreign exchange management. in senior positions prior to joining the group as VP (Finance). His strengths points are auditing. Maharaja Shree Umaid Mills Ltd. project engineering.blogspot. Company law matters. Mr. technical and commercial considerations. Soni Mr Soni is a Chartered Accountant and Company Secretary with over 25 years experience in various companies. project management. foreign exchange management etc. working capital management. He was head of Finance of Jamlal Drilling and Industries Ltd for around 14 years and rose to the post of CFO of the Company. coordination. He has work experience of around 33 years in various companies including Desein and BHEL. fund raising through capital market. working capital management. He has 21 years of experience in corporate affairs. P. He has been associated with the Malaxmi Infra Ventures Pvt
. project financing. Mr.com planning. Mr P. Mr J. Girish has started his career with Rolls Royce Industrial Power Ltd in the Commercial department. capital market. MIS. administration in various Companies. He has experience of instrumentation process for BTG (boiler.
He has over 38 years of experience on civil construction. Mr.com Ltd as General Manager with the major responsibilities of Navabharat Power Pvt Ltd.blogspot. He has also worked for Lanco Power Pvt Ltd as a Manager Administration.Downloaded from a2zmba. any threat of succession planning is not perceived. Orissa. Mr Naveen Goel Mr Naveen Goel is Head (State Liaisoning). He is B . 6)Is any group company in default / Any Directors on RBI’s negative list / Borrower’s track-record in honouring financial commitment?
. 5) Organisation structure / Succession planning / Labour relations The company will be a professionally managed company hence. this could be derived from a strong group company) The experienced directors bear the capacity to bail out the company in case of crisis. He has experience of construction engineering and has completed a Diploma in civil engineering. B L Dua Mr Dua is General Manager Project Development and Construction.Com from Delhi University and inter in CA and ICWA. Central Electricity Authority and NTPC etc. He has been associated with various public sector companies including Central Board of Water. especially power plants. 3) Ability of the promoters / management to bail out the company in case of crisis (for example. He started his career with Jindal Photo Limited since 1995. and Simhapuri Energy Pvt Ltd Nellore based on Imported Coal. 4) Decision making – Is it concentrated? A committee of directors comprising of qualified & experienced personnel will professionally manage the company.
EVALUATION OF INDUSTRY
Thermal power stations constituting over 66% of the aggregate installed generation capacity and despite being relatively less environment-friendly as compared to hydroelectric projects (HEPs). or any other company in which they are a Director.5% in 2006-07.com The company has confirmed that none of the Directors of JKL Pvt. Absence of seasonal variations in power generation. 7) Length of relationship with the bank The Group is new to us. Ltd.5 years as compared to 5-6 years for HEPs. thermal power plants offer certain advantages over HEPs as mentioned below: Lesser implementation time-frame: 2. Standardized generation technology: independent of project site. Ltd are on RBI’s defaulters’ list in respect of JKL Pvt.9% in 2006-07
Projected Power Requirement beyond 2011-12 till 2021-22
With rapid growth of the economy.5-3.5% in 2003-04 to 9. 33
.Downloaded from a2zmba. Ability to function as base load power plants as compared to HEPs which serve as peakload power plants. The energy deficit at the national level has increased from 7. Demand-Supply Scenario Power supply position in the country has worsened over the last few years with growth in power demand outstripping new capacity addition with peak power deficit being worst having peak deficit of 13. power requirement is projected to increase significantly over the next decade with per capita power consumption expected to increase from ~612 kWh at present to about 1000 kWh by 2012 (GoI’s target for 100% electrification).blogspot. Location flexibility: Can be located either close to load-centre or at fuel pit-head while HEPs are site-specific and often located in challenging geographical terrain.
Mar17 2818 0 784 2034 178 783 190 3186 Mar18 2818 0 931 1887 179 934 177 3176 Mar19 2818 0 1078 1740 180 1092 164 3176 Mar20 2818 0 1225 1593 181 1259 151 3184
201 0 201 139 9 0 0
201 0 201 608 41 0 0
444 0 444 1666 111 0 0
573 70 643 2148 143 140 0
573 276 849 1987 140 141 8
573 492 1065 1772 125 142 40
573 718 1291 1558 111 142 72
573 954 1526 1343 97 143 104
573 1132 1705 1128 82 134 137
573 1319 1892 913 68 135 169
573 1515 2088 698 54 135 201
573 1719 2291 483 39 136 233
. huge addition in generation capacity is required in the country over the coming decade.com
Given the prevalent demand supply deficit scenario and projected growth in power requirement.
Target States for Power Sale In view of the adverse power deficit scenario in western and northern region as mentioned in the previous sections.blogspot.
Projected Balance Sheet
As On Assets Gross Block CWP Less:Accum ulated Depreciation Closing Block Net Current Assets Cash & Bank Balances DSRA TOTAL ASSETS Liabilities Shareholders ' Equity Reserves & Surplus Net Worth Rupee Term Loan Sub-Debt Working Capital Loan Deferred AAD Mar-09 33 316 0 349 0 0 0 349 Mar10 33 816 0 849 0 0 0 849 Mar11 33 2188 0 2221 0 0 0 2221 Mar12 2818 0 49 2769 187 54 65 3075 Mar13 2818 0 196 2622 188 106 209 3125 Mar14 2818 0 343 2475 189 252 229 3145 Mar15 2818 0 490 2328 190 441 216 3174 Mar16 2818 0 637 2181 190 639 203 3213
Rs. especially in the northern & western regions of the country. Consequently.Downloaded from a2zmba. both these regions have been identified as target markets for ultimate sale of JKL Pvt. there exists an attractive business and market opportunity for establishment of power generation plants in the country. Ltd power.
38 1.29 1.6 %
.54 Min.49 1.56 1.34 1.blogspot. Secondary Fuel Exp.37 1.58 1.60 1.Downloaded from a2zmba.34 Project IRR* 15. Sub. Debt Int. in Crores
Mar18 195 683 32 845 90 208 30 18 345 500 147 353 115 10 17 211 24 187 Mar19 192 683 32 842 94 217 31 18 359 484 147 337 91 8 17 221 25 196 Mar20 189 683 32 839 97 225 32 18 372 467 147 320 66 6 17 230 26 204
Sensitivity Analysis Scenario Base Case Increase in Project Cost by 5% Decrease in Power Sale Tariff through PTC by 5% during Year 1-5 Increase in Primary Fuel price by 5% Decrease in PLF by 5% Increase in Interest rate by 1% for both Senior debt & Subordinated debt Interpretation 35 Avg.9 % 14.54 1.3 % 14. on RTL Int.33 1. Environment Cess Total Operating Exp. on WC Loan PBT Tax PAT Mar12 60 253 0 313 24 55 8 6 92 221 49 172 80 6 6 79 9 70 Mar13 188 758 8 938 74 171 24 18 287 651 147 504 235 19 18 233 26 206 Mar14 209 758 32 935 77 178 25 18 298 638 147 491 211 18 18 244 28 216 Mar15 206 758 32 932 80 185 26 18 309 623 147 476 187 16 18 255 29 226 Mar16 202 758 32 928 83 192 28 18 321 607 147 460 163 14 18 265 30 235 Mar17 198 683 32 849 86 200 29 18 333 516 147 369 139 12 17 201 23 178
As On TOTAL LIABILITI ES Mar10 849 Mar11 2221 Mar12 3075 Mar13 3125 Mar14 3145 Mar15 3174 Mar16 3213 Mar17 3186 Mar18 3176 Mar19 3176 Mar20 3184
Projected Profit and Loss Account
FY Ending` Revenues Primary energy sale to GoO Powe sale PTC Less AAD Gross Revenues Operating Expense O& M exp. PBDIT Depreciation PBIT Int.6 % 14. DSCR 1.9 % 15. DSCR 1. Travel and Fuel Exp.2 % 15.
58 and minimum DSCR of 1.54.e. Min DSCR: 1. It is observed that the Project is able to sustain the increased interest costs comfortably and its debt servicing capacity (Average DSCR: 1. The impact of any fuel price escalation on the projected financials is partly mitigated on account of the pass-through effect in the power sale tariff applicable to Gridco.33) is satisfactory. The Project is able to sustain the increased fuel cost and its debt servicing capacity remains satisfactory with an average DSCR of 1.29) is satisfactory. Decrease in Plant PLF by 5% Under the base case projections. It may however be noted that since most of the coal requirement for the Project will be met from the captive coal block allotted to the company. As can be seen above. Hence. Min DSCR: 1.blogspot. the debt serviceability of the project is comfortable adverse sensitivities considered. Sensitivity has been carried out for the scenario of the Project running at a lower PLF i. 75%. the situation of a PLF lower than 80% seems unlikely.5% for Senior debt and 13.49. the operations of the project have been projected at a PLF of 80%.34) remains satisfactory.com Project is able to withstand the operations at a lower tariff and its debt servicing capacity (Average DSCR: 1.56. Increase in RTL Interest Rate by 1% Sensitivity has also been carried out for increase in the RTL interest rate by 1% over the base case interest rate of 11.5% for Subordinated Debt. Min DSCR: 1. the company will be able to have a better control over the coal price thereby reducing it exposure to any escalations in coal price.37. Considering the better operational performance of existing IPPs in the country vis a vis state sector projects. It has been observed that the Project is able to withstand the operations at a lower PLF and its debt servicing capacity (Average DSCR: 1.Downloaded from a2zmba. Increase in Primary Fuel price by 5% Sensitivity has also been carried out for increase in the fuel prices by 5% over the base case numbers. it can be concluded that the proposed power project will
56.com be able to withstand adverse circumstances and the debt serviceability is satisfactory. Min DSCR: 1. Rs.47 per kWh. even under adverse circumstances. 2294 crore in the base case. In case of increase in RTL Interest Rate by 1% the Average DSCR: 1. As can be seen above. it can be concluded that the proposed power project will be able to withstand adverse circumstances.56. 2.34) remains satisfactory.60 per kWh for Year 1-5 and Rs 2.33) is satisfactory. Min DSCR: 1.33 .37 remains satisfactory.
KEY POINTS: 1.34. Min DSCR: 1. tariff for power sale to PTC has been maintained at Rs. This is above benchmark levels and is considered favourable. Min DSCR: 1.Downloaded from a2zmba. When project cost is increased by 5% Average DSCR: 1. Sensitivity analysis was done.54.
. 2.e.34) remains satisfactory When the primary fuel prices increase by 5% the Average DSCR of 1. Hence. Sensitivity has been carried out for the scenario of the power being sold at 5% lower than the base case tariff i. This is above the benchmark level.58 and Minimum DSCR of 1.54. Min DSCR: 1. Decrease in Power Sale Tariff through PTC by 5% during Year 1-5 Under the base case projections. the debt serviceability of the project is comfortable when adverse sensitivities considered.34 per kWh for subsequent years.54.blogspot. The Project is able to sustain a 5% escalation in capital cost comfortably and its debt servicing capacity (Average DSCR: 1. Increase in Project cost by 5% A sensitivity has been carried out for 5% increase in the works cost which have estimated at Rs. As seen above. The results of which are as follows: When the power sale tariff to “PTC” (PTC India Ltd) are decreased by 5% the Average DSCR: 1. the Project is able to withstand the operations at a lower tariff and its debt servicing capacity (Average DSCR: 1.
will enter into separate long-term Fuel Supply Agreements with the Mining JVC and MCL for supply of coal from the captive block and coal linkage respectively. The projected Debt Equity ratio and Current Ratio are at satisfactory level.
29. Company has also entered into HOA(Heads of Agreement) with PTC for sale of balance 75% power at reasonably attractive tariff. Both Gridco and PTC would open LC in favor of JKL Pvt.JKL Pvt. 5. Salient features of the proposed project. implementing a 600 MW pit-head coal-based power project in Angul district of Orissa. 8.Downloaded from a2zmba. offering any comments on financial indicators would not be relevant at this juncture as the same would go on changing. Recommendations
JKL Pvt. the company has been rated as CR-3. Ltd for timely payment of invoices. 3.com
2. The profitability estimates are sensitive to fluctuation in sales. Ltd. average & minimum DSCR are comfortable. The company has already into Power Purchase Agreements (PPA) with Gridco for sale of 25% of the power. is being promoted by BCJ Group. As the project implementation is yet to commence. Orissa . Primary fuel requirements for the Project will be met with from the Coal linkage from Mahanadi Coalfields Ltd (MCL) and Captive Mandakini coal block in Talcher coalfields. Even with an increase of 1% in the interest rate. Ltd.blogspot. 4. The project capacity is proposed to be enhanced to 1200 MW through implementation of a second unit of 600 MW at a later stage. are as under:
. taken together would be adequate for requirement of proposed 600 MW for its entire project life. 6. According to internal credit rating. 7.
4.Execution of PPA with Gridco for sale of 25% project capacity and execution of HOA for sale of balance power through PTC. The projected financials of the project are reasonably comfortable under different sensitivity scenarios as required to service the project debt over proposed tenor. Assured fuel at reasonable cost – fuel from allocated captive coal block adjacent to project site along with additional long-term coal linkage from MCL. Captive coal source will protect JKL Pvt. GoI. 2. progress achieved in project development and projected financial performance of the project. the proposal may be considered favorably for final sanction of RTL and Subordinated debt. Section (4) notification for acquisition of land issued.in running profitable business operations and adequate financial strength to meet the equity requirements for the project. based on the information pertaining to the project cost.com 1.Downloaded from a2zmba.Ltd from fuel price fluctuations and make the power cost competitive. financing plan. State support for land acquisition. Grant of various project clearances / approvals. including TOR for EIA study from MoEF. In-principle allocation of water sufficient to meet project requirements. Significant progress in project development activities as under.
.blogspot. the project appears to be bankable and accordingly. SBI Capital Markets has viewed the proposed project of JITPL. SBICAP has further stated that keeping in view the proven credentials of the project promoters. sensitivity analysis and risks factors. and prevalent market conditions while a sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to test the robustness of project financial in respect of key business and performance parameters. Based on the projected financials. 3. as financially viable. Proven track record of promoters [JPL along with other group / investment companies of BCJ group] . Power off-take arrangement. water allocation and other developmental aspects of the project secured through MoU. 5. Analysis of the project development structure and projected financial performance of the Project.
Downloaded from a2zmba.com In view of the above mentioned observations. in Crores) Nature of Limit Existing Nil Amount Proposed 300. floating for senior debt and 13.50% p.50% p.
.a. (Rs. recommended the following.blogspot.a for subordinate debt payable monthly.00 Margin 25%
Term loan Interest shall be 11.
1) Evaluation of Management: A detailed study about the promoters is carried out in order to ensure promoters are experienced in the line of business and are capable to implement and run the project 2) Technical Feasibility: A detailed study about the technical aspects is done to determine the technical soundness of the project 3) Financial Viability: A detailed study relating to financial viability of the project is done. In UBI the credit appraisal is done by thorough study of the project which involves Following. Credit rating.e general public are mobilized by means of such advance / investment. The funds of depositor’s i.com
Credit Appraisal is a process of appraising the credit worthiness of loan applicants. thereby ensuring that project will generate sufficient surplus to repay the lan installment and interest 4) Risk analysis: it determines the risk associated with the project this is done by performing a Sensitivity analysis and Credit Rating. market and so. Thus it extremely important for the lender bank to assess the risk associated with credit.blogspot. provides rating for various parameters like management. thereby ensure the security for the funds deposited by the depositors. With Sensitivity Analysis the projects capacity to service debts under worsened conditions is determined.
.Downloaded from a2zmba. financial. collateral securities to be given by the borrower are determined. This shows Union Bank of India has sound system for credit appraisal. thereby determine the credit worthiness of the borrower 5) It is on the basis of the credit risk level.
APPROVAL OF BROAD TERMS OF THE PROPOSAL IFB:ADV:: Name of the account Account with Group Existing connection or new connection Credit Rating Background of promoters
Annexure 1: Format of Term Sheet
Union Bank OF India Industrial Finance Branch.
. In Crores) Nature of Project Year (Aud.Downloaded from a2zmba.)
Cost of Project tal MEANS OF FINANCE Nature of Facility Amount % of
Rs.) Net Sales PAT(Loss) TNW* Current Ratio TOL/TNW RATIO (Rs. In Crores) Brief Financials Year (Aud.blogspot.) Year (Prov.
(in case of existing accounts) 1.com Margin Interest/Commission Interest reset Purpose Period of the facility Moratorium Door To Door Tenor Repayment terms Security – Prime Collateral security Upfront fees Prepayment terms Whether conforms to Loan Policy Customer profitability. Through third party
. 2.blogspot. Term deposits a. Credit balances in SB CD 5. Commission earned on bills purchased/discounted. Through own sources b. Processing charges 3. Commission on LC/LG 4.Downloaded from a2zmba.