Gelung Kajian Tindakan (Kemmis & McTaggart, 1988

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Proses kajian tindakan melibatkan refleksi ke atas isu pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang hendak ditangani. Kemudian guru itu menyediakan satu pelan yang sesuai untuk mengatasi masalah yang dihadapinya. Seterusnya guru melaksanakan pelan yang dihasilkan dan dalam proses pelaksanaannya guru terpaksalah memerhati kemajuan tindakan yang dijalankan itu. Keseluruhan pelaksanaan itu disifatkan sebagai Gelungan Pertama dan jika masalah itu tidak dapat diatasi, maka guru bolehlah memulakan proses semula ke Gelungan Kedua sehinggalah masalah itu diselesaikan. Pada Gelungan Kedua guru mesti mereflek dan membuat adaptasi terhadap pelan tindakan beliau. Satu kritikan terhadap model ini ialah ia sentiasa berlanjutan dan tiada mutakhirnya . Oleh itu, seseorang guru yang menjalankan kajian tindakan hendaklah pragmatik dan perlu memastikan bahawa pelan tindakan beliau selaras dengan kurikulum yang hendak disampaikan.
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Reka Bentuk Kajian Tindakan Kurt Lewin telah dibina pada tahun 1940-an dan dikenali sebagai Kurt Lewin's Action Research Spiral yang mana menunjukkan penambahbaikan yang berterusan dalam pembelajaran mengenai apa yang telah dikaji. . Pendekatan spiral tersebut melibatkan beberapa langkah seperti.. Pencarian fakta 3). Perancangan pelan tindakan 4).Kurt Lewin Antara reka bentuk atau model yang perlu dilihat dalam Kajian Tindakan adalah yang reka bentuk kajian oleh pelopor Action Research itu sendiri iaitu Kurt Lewin. Penilaian tindakan yang diambil 6). Mengenal pasti idea 2). (Terma "Action Research" telah dikreditkan kepada Kurt Lewin seorang ahli teori sosial yang mempelopori kajian tindakan). Ulangkaji pelan tindakan berdasarkan apa yang dipelajari dari langkah 5 7). 1). Pelaksanaan tindakan 5). Mengambil langkah tindakan seterusnya dan begitu berikutnya melalui beberapa kitar..

html .blogspot.com/2009/05/models-of-action-research-nota-kuliah-2.Ebbut Elliot http://kajiantindakancikgulee.

1985) Action Research is a form of self-reflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social (including educational) situations in order to improve the rationality and justice of (a) their own social or educational practices. All participants were knowing. Some of the most widely accepted definitions of Action Research include following: [Action Research] . interpretive. 1995 Action Research (AR) represents a growing field of educational research whose chief identifying characteristic is the recognition of the pragmatic requirements of educational practitioners for organized reflective inquiry into classroom instruction. carry out an intervention. or effective teaching strategies. In short.. It is through joint research studies that science instruction in the schools will improve. 1993). Teachers already know much about teaching--more than many of us do. qualitative.. . 1985) [Action Research] .. 1993). .sometimes in cooperation with outsiders.Ebbutt (cited in Hopkins.aims to contribute both to the practical concerns of people in an immediate problematic situation and to the goals of social science by joint collaboration within a mutually acceptable ethical framework. instructors and other parties) with the means to improve the practices conducted within the educational experience (Hopkins. 1985) The action research framework is most appropriate for participants who recognize the existence of shortcomings in their educational activities and who would like to adopt some initial stance in regard to the problem. Action research has been described as an informal. and we need to make a great effort in this regard. subjective. It is most rationally empowering when undertaken by participants collaboratively. Dorothy Gabel Presidential Address National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST) San Francisco.. Action research has the primary intent of providing a framework for qualitative investigations by teachers and researchers in complex working classroom situations.Kemmis (cited in Hopkins. (b) their understanding of these practices.. evaluate the outcomes and develop further strategies in an iterative fashion (Hopkins. AR is an process designed to empower all participants in the educational process (students.An Introduction to Action Research I feel that we need to make a greater effort to involve teachers in Action Research. reflective and experiential model of inquiry in which all individuals involved in the study are knowing and contributing participants (Hopkins. formulate a plan. . and (c) the situations in which the practices are carried out. 1993).is the systematic study of attempts to improve educational practise by groups of participants by means of their own practical actions and by means of their own reflection upon the effects of those actions. formative. ..Rapoport (cited in Hopkins. But many are waiting to be invited to participate in research studies in which they examine students' preconceptions. April 24. active members of the research process.

and the cyclic process repeats. observation and reflection before revising the plan . The protocol is iterative or cyclical in nature and is intended to foster deeper understanding of a given situation. This may be thought of as similar . action. pertinent observations are collected in various forms. (Monitoring the implementation by Observation. (The Reconnaissance & General Plan . where an understanding of a problem is developed and plans are made for some form of interventionary strategy. Figure 1: Action Research Protocol after Kemmis (cited in Hopkins. A representation of an AR protocol by Kemmis is provided in Figure 1. 1985) Figure 1 clearly displays the iterative nature of AR along with the major steps of planning. 1993) as per the following characteristic cycle: y y y y Initially an exploratory stance is adopted. continuing until a sufficient understanding of (or implement able solution for) the problem is achieved (Reflection and Revision). ) The new interventional strategies are carried out. starting with conceptualizing and particularizing the problem and moving through several interventions and evaluations.action research is characterized by those constraints and strengths given a research methodology intended to be a workable technique for working classroom teachers. (The Action in Action Research) During and around the time of the intervention.) Then the intervention is carried out . Action Research Design The essentials of action research design are considered by Elliott (in Hopkins.

and seeks to ". Figure 2: Action Research after Elliott (cited in Hopkins. The reconnaissance necessarily includes some degree of analysis..in nature to the numerical computing technique known as successive approximation . Figure 2 reflects the evolution of the general idea or main topic of interest throughout the process. as described in Figure 3.the idea is to close in upon a final goal or outcome by repeated iterations. Ebbutt further illustrates the evolution of the overall plan through a spiral analogy. .recapture some of the 'messiness' which the Kemmis version tends to gloss [over] " (Hopkins. This design permits much greater flexibility. 1985) Elliott's model emphasizes constant evolution and redefinition of the original goal through a series of reconnaissances recurring every cycle.. Later protocols reflect changes in the goal as determined via experience during the reflections of earlier iterations of AR. For instance. 1985).

then experiments are performed to bring about outcomes which are subjected to further analysis. 1978). there must be free information flow between them. the teachers and the students negotiate meaning from the data and contribute to the selection of interventionary strategies. with no hidden controls or preemption of direction by the researcher.Since action research involves unconstrained dialogue between "researcher" (whether he be an outsider or teacher/researcher) and the participants. . These models are used to re-frame a problem. including the university researchers. 122) Perhaps the key component involved in action research is the notion of praxis. Involvement is of a knowing nature. Action research is intended to be the reflective counterpart of practical diagnosis (Elliott. Involvement is of a knowing nature. (p. little or no separation of knowing and doing. 1985) The Role of Communication Another distinguishing characteristic of Action Research is the degree of empowerment given to all participants. All participants negotiate meaning from the data and contribute to the selection of interventionary strategies. with no hidden controls or preemption of direction by the researcher. This model (called reflectionin-action) frames means and ends interdependently and recognizes that there is little or no separation of research from practice. The Role of Reflection Another distinguishing characteristic of action research is the degree of empowerment given to all participants. the teachers and the students. 1990b) considers the need for communication between all participants to be of paramount importance: Since action research looks at a problem from the point of view of those involved it can only be validated in unconstrained dialogue with them.Figure 3: Action Research Protocol after Ebbutt (cited in Hopkins. All participants including the university researchers.. Elliott (in Kemmis & McTaggart. Schon's .. Schon (1983) describes the use of reflection to generate models from a body of previous knowledge.

edu/~danmac) References: Gabel. Dan MacIsaac.. & McTaggart. (1995). A. D. (1983). The reflective practitioner : How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Boo http://physicsed. A teacher's guide to classroom research.model of reflection-in-action compliments the iterative and investigative natures of action research.). 1996 (http://www. NARST President's Speech. (Eds. Kemmis.html .edu/danowner/actionrsch.buffalostate. San Francisco. CA. Philadelphia: Open University Press. R. (1990b). Victoria: Deakin University. D.nau. Schon. D. Hopkins. The action research reader. (1985).physics. Presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching. S.