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introduction to physics1

# introduction to physics1

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01/26/2011

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1 UNDERSTANDING PHYSICS

What is physics?
Physics is a branch of science which studies physical and natural phenomena around us. y Observe the following things :
y
x x x x Lightning Tsunami Mobile phones Emails

Fields of study in Physics
Heat y Sound y Electricity and magnetism y Light y Atomic y Nuclear physics
y

 Scientist Research Engineering  Mechanical  Electrical  Computer  Environmental engineers Professor astronaut Education  Lecturer CAREERS IN PHYSICS  Teacher  Education officer Industry  Geophysician  Quality control engineer Medicine  Radiologist  Forensic expert  technician  Medical physician .

1.2 Understanding Base Quantities and Derived Quantities .

Physical quantities A quantity that is measurable Non-physical quantities Quantities which cannot be measured Based quantities and derived quantities - Examples: Mass. time. feeling. Length. Examples: Beauty. temperature. l = 20 m Physical quantities unit Numerical value - .

Base Quantities Base quantities are physical quantities that cannot be defined in terms of other quantities. 4. y Five base quantities y 1. 3. 5. 2. Length Mass Time Electric current temperature .

Base quantities and SI units Base quantity Name Length Mass Time Electric current Temperature SI units Name Metre Kilogram Second Ampere Kelvin Symbol l m t I T Symbol m kg s A K .

Derived Quantities y physical quantities derived by combining base quantities through multiplication or division or both .

Derived quantities and units Derived quantity Area Volume Velocity Symbol Formula Derived units A V v Length x breadth m2 Length x breadth x height m3 Displacement Time Velocity Time Mass x Acceleration Mass Volume m s-1 Acceleration a m s-2 Force Density F V kg m s-2 kg m-3 .

1 x 10-7 m 2. 0.0 x 106 m s-1 .00000051m = 5. 3000000 m s-1 = 3.Scientific notation / standard form Is used for expressing very large and very small numbers y General form :A x 10 N y x Where 1 e A < 10 and N is a positive/negative integer y Example:1.

03m or 3x10-2 m . y Example: y x 2000m can be written as 2.Prefix Prefixes are used to represent physical quantities which are very big or very small in SI unit.0 km x 3cm can be written as 0.

Prefix Factor Symbol Tera Giga Mega Kilo Hecto Deca Deci Centi Milli Micro Nano Pico 1012 109 106 103 102 10 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 T G M k h da d c m Q n p .

Conversion of units X factor Prefix Base units ÷ factor .

CONVERSION OF UNITS .

Example 1 y convert 512 000 g to kilogram (kg) and write answer in standard form Solution: 1 kg = 1x103 g 1g = 1x10-3 kg 512 000 g = 512 000 x 10-3 kg = 512 kg Standard form 5.12 x 102 kg .

023 x 108Hz .Example 2 y convert 102.3 MHz to Hz and write answer in standard form Solution: 1MHz = 1x106 Hz 102.3 x 106 Hz Standard form = 1.023 x 102 x 106 Hz = 1.3 MHz = 102.

05 g cm-3 = __________ kg m-3 Solution: 1kg = 1x103 g 1g = 1x10-3 kg 1cm = 1x10-2 m 1cm-3 = 1x106 m-3 1.05 x 103 kg m-3 .05 g cm-3 =1.05 x 10-3 kg x 106 m-3 = 1.Example 3 y 1.

0056 x 103 m s-1 3600 s Standard form 5.6 m s-1 .Example 4 y 20 km h-1 = ___________m s-1 Solution: 1km = 1x103 m 1h = 3600s 20 km 20 km h-1 = h 20 v10 3 m = = 0.

2.86 Ms = ___________ ds 6. 3. 4.Exercise 1 y Express the following measurement in the unit specified 1. 15 m s-1 = _____________ km h-1 643 mg = ___________kg 3.37 km = ___________ Qm 40 cm2 = ____________ m2 . 5.

42 x 10 10 3 m 2.42 x 10 km 2.Exercise 2 y Identify the smallest and the largest measurements from the following -2 2.42 x 10 nm 8 .42 x 10 cm 2.

1.3 Understanding scalar and vector quantities .

time. speed.Scalar and vector quantities Scalar quantities Vector quantities a physical quantity which has a physical quantity which has only magnitude both magnitude and direction examples: length. velocity adding vector using graphical method . temperature adding scalar using simple addition examples: force. density. acceleration.

What is total distance and the displacement of the object? N E W S .Example 1 An object is displaced 8 m to the east followed by another displacement of 10 m northwest.

Example 2 y Which of the following is a scalar quantity? A Speed B Momentum C Acceleration D Force .

1. Explain types of experimental error 4. Measure physical quantities using appropriate instruments 2.4 Understanding measurements Learning outcomes: 1. Use appropriate techniques to reduce errors . Explain accuracy and consistency 3.

A measuring tape A metre rule A vernier callipers A micrometer screw gauge . 2. 3. 4.Measurements Physics is a science which involves measurements of various physical quantities y Measure physical quantities using appropriate instrument such as:y 1.

Measuring tape Measuring long distance such as length and width of classroom y Has an accuracy of 1 cm y .1.

1 cm ( 1mm) y Precaution:y 1.2. Avoid end errors . Avoid parallax errors 2. Metre Rule Measure length from a few cm up to 1 m y Has an accuracy of 0.

00 cm y Has an accuracy of 0.Vernier Callipers Measure an object with dimensions up to 12.3.01 cm y To measure the internal or external diameter y .

07 cm y Vernier scale reading = main scale + vernier scale = 5.3 cm y Vernier scale ² 0.3 cm + 0.07 cm = 5.Vernier Callipers Main scale ² 5.37 cm y .3.

10 mm and 25.00 mm y Measures the diameter and thickness y Has an accuracy of 0.4.01 mm y . Micrometer Screw Gauge Measure small length between 0.

59 mm y mm .50 mm y Thimble scale = 0.09 mm = 2.09 mm y MSG reading = main scale + thimble scale = 2. Micrometer Screw Gauge Main scale (sleeve) = 2.4.50 mm + 0.

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