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1 UNDERSTANDING PHYSICS

What is physics?

Physics is a branch of science which studies physical and natural phenomena around us. y Observe the following things :

y

x x x x Lightning Tsunami Mobile phones Emails

**Fields of study in Physics
**

Heat y Sound y Electricity and magnetism y Light y Atomic y Nuclear physics

y

Scientist Research Engineering Mechanical Electrical Computer Environmental engineers Professor astronaut Education Lecturer CAREERS IN PHYSICS Teacher Education officer Industry Geophysician Quality control engineer Medicine Radiologist Forensic expert technician Medical physician .

1.2 Understanding Base Quantities and Derived Quantities .

temperature. feeling. Length. Examples: Beauty. l = 20 m Physical quantities unit Numerical value - . time.Physical quantities A quantity that is measurable Non-physical quantities Quantities which cannot be measured Based quantities and derived quantities - Examples: Mass.

2. 3. y Five base quantities y 1.Base Quantities Base quantities are physical quantities that cannot be defined in terms of other quantities. 4. 5. Length Mass Time Electric current temperature .

Base quantities and SI units Base quantity Name Length Mass Time Electric current Temperature SI units Name Metre Kilogram Second Ampere Kelvin Symbol l m t I T Symbol m kg s A K .

Derived Quantities y physical quantities derived by combining base quantities through multiplication or division or both .

Derived quantities and units Derived quantity Area Volume Velocity Symbol Formula Derived units A V v Length x breadth m2 Length x breadth x height m3 Displacement Time Velocity Time Mass x Acceleration Mass Volume m s-1 Acceleration a m s-2 Force Density F V kg m s-2 kg m-3 .

00000051m = 5.Scientific notation / standard form Is used for expressing very large and very small numbers y General form :A x 10 N y x Where 1 e A < 10 and N is a positive/negative integer y Example:1. 0.0 x 106 m s-1 . 3000000 m s-1 = 3.1 x 10-7 m 2.

Prefix Prefixes are used to represent physical quantities which are very big or very small in SI unit. y Example: y x 2000m can be written as 2.0 km x 3cm can be written as 0.03m or 3x10-2 m .

Prefix Factor Symbol Tera Giga Mega Kilo Hecto Deca Deci Centi Milli Micro Nano Pico 1012 109 106 103 102 10 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 T G M k h da d c m Q n p .

Conversion of units X factor Prefix Base units ÷ factor .

CONVERSION OF UNITS .

Example 1 y convert 512 000 g to kilogram (kg) and write answer in standard form Solution: 1 kg = 1x103 g 1g = 1x10-3 kg 512 000 g = 512 000 x 10-3 kg = 512 kg Standard form 5.12 x 102 kg .

023 x 102 x 106 Hz = 1.Example 2 y convert 102.023 x 108Hz .3 MHz to Hz and write answer in standard form Solution: 1MHz = 1x106 Hz 102.3 x 106 Hz Standard form = 1.3 MHz = 102.

05 x 10-3 kg x 106 m-3 = 1.Example 3 y 1.05 g cm-3 = __________ kg m-3 Solution: 1kg = 1x103 g 1g = 1x10-3 kg 1cm = 1x10-2 m 1cm-3 = 1x106 m-3 1.05 g cm-3 =1.05 x 103 kg m-3 .

6 m s-1 .0056 x 103 m s-1 3600 s Standard form 5.Example 4 y 20 km h-1 = ___________m s-1 Solution: 1km = 1x103 m 1h = 3600s 20 km 20 km h-1 = h 20 v10 3 m = = 0.

Exercise 1 y Express the following measurement in the unit specified 1. 15 m s-1 = _____________ km h-1 643 mg = ___________kg 3.86 Ms = ___________ ds 6. 4. 3.37 km = ___________ Qm 40 cm2 = ____________ m2 . 5. 2.

42 x 10 nm 8 .42 x 10 cm 2.Exercise 2 y Identify the smallest and the largest measurements from the following -2 2.42 x 10 10 3 m 2.42 x 10 km 2.

1.3 Understanding scalar and vector quantities .

speed. time. density. acceleration. temperature adding scalar using simple addition examples: force.Scalar and vector quantities Scalar quantities Vector quantities a physical quantity which has a physical quantity which has only magnitude both magnitude and direction examples: length. velocity adding vector using graphical method .

What is total distance and the displacement of the object? N E W S .Example 1 An object is displaced 8 m to the east followed by another displacement of 10 m northwest.

Example 2 y Which of the following is a scalar quantity? A Speed B Momentum C Acceleration D Force .

Measure physical quantities using appropriate instruments 2. Explain accuracy and consistency 3. Explain types of experimental error 4.1. Use appropriate techniques to reduce errors .4 Understanding measurements Learning outcomes: 1.

A measuring tape A metre rule A vernier callipers A micrometer screw gauge . 3.Measurements Physics is a science which involves measurements of various physical quantities y Measure physical quantities using appropriate instrument such as:y 1. 4. 2.

1. Measuring tape Measuring long distance such as length and width of classroom y Has an accuracy of 1 cm y .

2.1 cm ( 1mm) y Precaution:y 1. Avoid parallax errors 2. Avoid end errors . Metre Rule Measure length from a few cm up to 1 m y Has an accuracy of 0.

00 cm y Has an accuracy of 0.Vernier Callipers Measure an object with dimensions up to 12.01 cm y To measure the internal or external diameter y .3.

Vernier Callipers Main scale ² 5.37 cm y .07 cm y Vernier scale reading = main scale + vernier scale = 5.07 cm = 5.3.3 cm + 0.3 cm y Vernier scale ² 0.

Micrometer Screw Gauge Measure small length between 0.10 mm and 25.01 mm y .00 mm y Measures the diameter and thickness y Has an accuracy of 0.4.

Micrometer Screw Gauge Main scale (sleeve) = 2.59 mm y mm .50 mm + 0.09 mm = 2.09 mm y MSG reading = main scale + thimble scale = 2.50 mm y Thimble scale = 0.4.

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Lesson 1 -Introduction to Physics

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