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Published by Kavi Kumar

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Published by: Kavi Kumar on Jan 25, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • Square Knot
  • Fisherman's Knot
  • Dou !e Fisherman's Knot
  • (ater Knot
  • %o+!ine
  • ,oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches
  • C!o2e -itch
  • (ireman's Knot
  • Directiona! Figure-$ight
  • %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0
  • T+o-8oop Figure-$ight
  • 9rusik Knot
  • %achman Knot
  • Three-8oop %o+!ine
  • Frost Knot
  • <irth -itch
  • ,appe! Seat
  • <uar&e Knot
  • De#inition
  • Composition
  • ,ock 7n& S!ope Types
  • ,ock C!assi#ications
  • :ountain %ui!&ing
  • ,oute C!assi#ication
  • Cross-Country :o2ement
  • 6 ser2ation
  • Fie!&s o# Fire
  • Consi&erations #or 9!anning
  • :ountain 7ir
  • (in&
  • -umi&ity
  • C!ou& Formation
  • Types o# C!ou&s
  • Fronts
  • Temperature
  • (eather Forecasting
  • ,ecor&ing Data
  • Su >ecti2e -a@ar&s
  • (eather -a@ar&s
  • 72a!anche =ssues
  • Ta !e )-.. 72a!ance ha@ar& e2a!uation check!ist
  • (ater Supp!y
  • 3utrition
  • 9ersona! -ygiene an& Sanitation
  • Symptoms an& 7&>ustments
  • 9hysica! an& 9sycho!ogica! Con&itioning
  • =!!ness an& =n>ury
  • Treatment an& $2acuation
  • So!ar =n>uries
  • Co!&-(eather =n>uries
  • -eat =n>uries
  • 7cute :ountain Sickness
  • Chronic :ountain Sickness
  • En&erstan&ing -igh-7!titu&e =!!nesses
  • -igh-7!titu&e 9u!monary $&ema
  • -igh-7!titu&e Cere ra! $&ema
  • -y&ration in -79$ an& -7C$
  • Foot+ear
  • C!othing
  • C!im ing So#t+are
  • C!im ing -ar&+are
  • Sno+ an& =ce C!im ing -ar&+are
  • Sustaina i!ity $quipment
  • Choice o# $quipment
  • Tips on 9acking
  • Coi!ing an& Carrying the ,ope
  • Thro+ing the ,ope
  • Trees
  • %ou!&ers
  • Chockstones
  • ,ock 9ro>ections
  • Tunne!s an& 7rches
  • %rushes an& Shru s
  • S!inging Techniques
  • ,ope 7nchor
  • Tension!ess 7nchor
  • Dea&man
  • 9itons
  • Chocks
  • Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ice
  • $qua!i@ing 7nchors
  • ,oute Se!ection
  • Terrain Se!ection #or Training
  • 9reparation
  • Spotting
  • C!im ing Technique
  • :argin o# Sa#ety
  • Esing the -an&s
  • Com ination Techniques
  • Tying-=n to the C!im ing ,ope
  • 9rese+n -arnesses
  • =mpro2ise& -arnesses
  • 9roce&ure #or :anaging the ,ope
  • Choosing a %e!ay Technique
  • $sta !ishing a %e!ay
  • Setting Ep a %e!ay
  • Top-,ope %e!ay
  • Aer a! Comman&s
  • ,ope Tug Comman&s
  • Top-,ope& C!im ing
  • 8ea& C!im ing
  • 7i& C!im ing
  • Three-:an C!im ing Team
  • Eti!i@ation
  • ,etrie2a!
  • FiBe& ,ope (ith =nterme&iate 7nchors
  • =nsta!!ation o# the ,appe! 9oint
  • 6peration o# the ,appe! 9oint
  • Ta !e 7-). ,appe! comman&s
  • Types o# ,appe!s
  • Site Se!ection
  • =nsta!!ation Esing Transport Tightening System
  • =nsta!!ation Esing F-9u!!ey Tightening System
  • -au!ing 8ine
  • =nsta!!ation
  • F-9u!!ey System
  • E-9u!!ey System
  • %asic 9rincip!es
  • Techniques
  • Sa#ety Consi&erations
  • 3a2igation
  • ,oute 9!anning
  • 9reparation o# Troops an& $quipment
  • =n&i2i&ua! Crossings
  • Team Crossing
  • Sa#ety
  • S+imming
  • :o2ement 62er Sno+
  • :o2ement 62er =ce
  • Ese 6# =ce 7B 7n& Crampons
  • C7ET=63
  • <!issa&ing
  • Sno+ 7n& =ce 7nchors
  • ,ope& C!im ing 6n =ce 7n& Sno+
  • :o2ement 6n <!aciers
  • 3otes4
  • <!acier %i2ouac 9roce&ures
  • Consi&erations
  • 9!anning ,escue 6perations
  • :ass Casua!ties
  • 9reparations #or $2acuation
  • :anua! Carries
  • 8itters
  • ,escue Systems
  • 8o+-7ng!e $2acuation
  • -igh-7ng!e $2acuation
  • =mme&iate 7ction
  • $sta !ishing the Aictim's :ost 9ro a !e 8ocation
  • 9ro ing #or 72a!anche Aictims

/eat injuries, although associated $ith hot $eather, can occur in cold($eather
environments. Cost heat injuries can be avoided by planning, periodic inspections of
personnel clothing %ventilation* and e#uipment, a balance of $ater and food intake, and

a. -eat Cramps. /eat cramps are caused by an accumulation of lactic acid in the
muscles and a loss of salt through perspiration.

%.* Contributing +actor. +trenuous e"ertion causes the body to heat up
and to produce heavy perspiration.

%0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat cramps include pain and cramping in the
arms, legs, back, and stomach. he victim s$eats profusely and cannot
#uench his thirst.

%1* 'reatment. /ave the victim rest in a cool, shady area, breath deeply,
and stretch the cramped muscle as soon as possible to obtain relief.
Boosen the victim3s clothing and have him drink cool $ater. Conitor his
condition and seek medical attention if pain and cramps continue.

b. -eat $Bhaustion. /eat e"haustion may occur $hen a soldier e"erts himself in
any environment and he overheats. he blood vessels in the skin become so
dilated that the blood flo$ to the brain and other organs is reduced.

%.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat e"haustion are
strenuous activity in hot areas, unacclimatiAed troops, inappropriate diet,
and not enough $ater or rest.

%0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat e"haustion may be similar to fainting but
may also include $eakness@ diAAiness@ confusion@ headache@ cold, clammy
skin@ and nausea. he victim may also have a rapid but $eak pulse.

%1* 'reatment. Cove the victim to a cool, shady area and loosen his
clothes and boots. /ave the victim drink $ater and, if possible, immerse
him in $ater to aid in cooling. ,levate the victim3s legs to help restore
proper circulation. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if the
symptoms persist.

c. -eat Stroke. /eat stroke is a life(threatening situation caused by overe"posure
to the sun. he body is so depleted of li#uids that its internal cooling mechanisms
fail to function.

%.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat stroke are
prolonged e"posure to direct sunlight, overe"ertion, dehydration, and
depletion of electrolytes.

%0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat stroke include hot, dry skin@ diAAiness@
confusion and incoherency@ headache@ nausea@ seiAures@ breathing
difficulty@ a slo$ pulse@ and loss of consciousness.

%1* 'reatment. Cool the victim at once, and restore breathing and
circulation. If the victim is conscious, administer $ater. If possible,
submerge the victim in $ater to reduce his temperature, treat for shock,
and prepare for immediate evacuation.

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