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Published by: Kavi Kumar on Jan 25, 2011
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  • Square Knot
  • Fisherman's Knot
  • Dou !e Fisherman's Knot
  • (ater Knot
  • %o+!ine
  • ,oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches
  • C!o2e -itch
  • (ireman's Knot
  • Directiona! Figure-$ight
  • %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0
  • T+o-8oop Figure-$ight
  • 9rusik Knot
  • %achman Knot
  • Three-8oop %o+!ine
  • Frost Knot
  • <irth -itch
  • ,appe! Seat
  • <uar&e Knot
  • De#inition
  • Composition
  • ,ock 7n& S!ope Types
  • ,ock C!assi#ications
  • :ountain %ui!&ing
  • ,oute C!assi#ication
  • Cross-Country :o2ement
  • 6 ser2ation
  • Fie!&s o# Fire
  • Consi&erations #or 9!anning
  • :ountain 7ir
  • (in&
  • -umi&ity
  • C!ou& Formation
  • Types o# C!ou&s
  • Fronts
  • Temperature
  • (eather Forecasting
  • ,ecor&ing Data
  • Su >ecti2e -a@ar&s
  • (eather -a@ar&s
  • 72a!anche =ssues
  • Ta !e )-.. 72a!ance ha@ar& e2a!uation check!ist
  • (ater Supp!y
  • 3utrition
  • 9ersona! -ygiene an& Sanitation
  • Symptoms an& 7&>ustments
  • 9hysica! an& 9sycho!ogica! Con&itioning
  • =!!ness an& =n>ury
  • Treatment an& $2acuation
  • So!ar =n>uries
  • Co!&-(eather =n>uries
  • -eat =n>uries
  • 7cute :ountain Sickness
  • Chronic :ountain Sickness
  • En&erstan&ing -igh-7!titu&e =!!nesses
  • -igh-7!titu&e 9u!monary $&ema
  • -igh-7!titu&e Cere ra! $&ema
  • -y&ration in -79$ an& -7C$
  • Foot+ear
  • C!othing
  • C!im ing So#t+are
  • C!im ing -ar&+are
  • Sno+ an& =ce C!im ing -ar&+are
  • Sustaina i!ity $quipment
  • Choice o# $quipment
  • Tips on 9acking
  • Coi!ing an& Carrying the ,ope
  • Thro+ing the ,ope
  • Trees
  • %ou!&ers
  • Chockstones
  • ,ock 9ro>ections
  • Tunne!s an& 7rches
  • %rushes an& Shru s
  • S!inging Techniques
  • ,ope 7nchor
  • Tension!ess 7nchor
  • Dea&man
  • 9itons
  • Chocks
  • Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ice
  • $qua!i@ing 7nchors
  • ,oute Se!ection
  • Terrain Se!ection #or Training
  • 9reparation
  • Spotting
  • C!im ing Technique
  • :argin o# Sa#ety
  • Esing the -an&s
  • Com ination Techniques
  • Tying-=n to the C!im ing ,ope
  • 9rese+n -arnesses
  • =mpro2ise& -arnesses
  • 9roce&ure #or :anaging the ,ope
  • Choosing a %e!ay Technique
  • $sta !ishing a %e!ay
  • Setting Ep a %e!ay
  • Top-,ope %e!ay
  • Aer a! Comman&s
  • ,ope Tug Comman&s
  • Top-,ope& C!im ing
  • 8ea& C!im ing
  • 7i& C!im ing
  • Three-:an C!im ing Team
  • Eti!i@ation
  • ,etrie2a!
  • FiBe& ,ope (ith =nterme&iate 7nchors
  • =nsta!!ation o# the ,appe! 9oint
  • 6peration o# the ,appe! 9oint
  • Ta !e 7-). ,appe! comman&s
  • Types o# ,appe!s
  • Site Se!ection
  • =nsta!!ation Esing Transport Tightening System
  • =nsta!!ation Esing F-9u!!ey Tightening System
  • -au!ing 8ine
  • =nsta!!ation
  • F-9u!!ey System
  • E-9u!!ey System
  • %asic 9rincip!es
  • Techniques
  • Sa#ety Consi&erations
  • 3a2igation
  • ,oute 9!anning
  • 9reparation o# Troops an& $quipment
  • =n&i2i&ua! Crossings
  • Team Crossing
  • Sa#ety
  • S+imming
  • :o2ement 62er Sno+
  • :o2ement 62er =ce
  • Ese 6# =ce 7B 7n& Crampons
  • C7ET=63
  • <!issa&ing
  • Sno+ 7n& =ce 7nchors
  • ,ope& C!im ing 6n =ce 7n& Sno+
  • :o2ement 6n <!aciers
  • 3otes4
  • <!acier %i2ouac 9roce&ures
  • Consi&erations
  • 9!anning ,escue 6perations
  • :ass Casua!ties
  • 9reparations #or $2acuation
  • :anua! Carries
  • 8itters
  • ,escue Systems
  • 8o+-7ng!e $2acuation
  • -igh-7ng!e $2acuation
  • =mme&iate 7ction
  • $sta !ishing the Aictim's :ost 9ro a !e 8ocation
  • 9ro ing #or 72a!anche Aictims

Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots, Class II—anchor

knots, Class III—middle rope knots, and Class IV—special knots. he variety of knots, bends, bights, and hitches is almost endless. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. !ith e"perience and practice, knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. /olding one $orking end in each hand, place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. + ,- 0. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. + ,- 1. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + ,- 0. + ,- '. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot.

Figure 4-6. Square knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o interlocking bights. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. + ,- 0. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope.

+ ,- 1. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together.

Figure 4-7. Fisherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long, standing part of the opposing rope. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double ,nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. !ith the $orking end of one rope, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.

+ ,- 0. Insert the $orking end %+ ,- .* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight. + ,- 1. !ith the $orking end of the other rope, $hich contains the standing part %+ ,-+ . and 0*, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + ,- .*. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. + ,- '. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together.

Figure 4-". Dou !e #isherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns, four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Figure-$ight %en&

he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight. + ,- 0. !ith the other hand, grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. + ,- 1. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. + ,- '. ;oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. race the original knot to the standing end. + ,- 7. ;emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. 2ress the knot do$n.

Figure 4-'. Figure-eight en&. b. Checkpoints.

%.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(.:*. It is also called a ring bend, overhand retrace, or tape knot. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. + ,- 0. &eed the other end back through the knot, follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. + ,- 1. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions.

Figure 4-)*. (ater knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o overhand knots, one retracing the other. %0* here is no slack in the knot, and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(..*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor, from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. + ,- 0. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. + ,- 1. ;each through the loop and pull up a bight. + ,- '. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight, and bring it back onto itself. =o$ dress the knot do$n. + ,- 7. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.

Figure 4-)). %o+!ine knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety. ,oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor, and it must have constant tension %&igure '(.0*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ;oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor, and one in the front*. ;un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact, distributing the load over the anchor.

. leaving enough rope to $ork $ith.'.oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches. Figure 4-). Checkpoints... forming a half hitch %first half hitch*. + ... it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(.epeat + . b. %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining. Figure-$ight .. Tying the Knot. /o$ever. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part. . . 2ress the knot do$n.1.. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor.0..1*.* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses. + . It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot.etrace /. %.. by tying the knot in a retrace.0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*.eroute& Figure-$ight0 he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop. + .+ . a.

he finished knot is dressed loosely. + ... Figure 4-)1. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part.* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side. b. + .7.'. insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse. and route the $orking end through the loop. .+ . o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness.. Figure-eight retrace. leaving enough rope to go around the anchor. + . .. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope. Checkpoints %.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n. + .1. ake the $orking end around the anchor point. $rap the $orking end around the standing part..0.). !ith the $orking end.

0. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand. + . -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. + . + . a. + .* Middle of the Rope..0. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right. palms do$n $ith hands together. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop. !ith the right hand. . + . depending on ho$ it is tied. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping... and bring it in$ard.1.. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes. /old rope in both hands... It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot. reach under the horiAontal anchor.... assume that the anchor is horiAontal. -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions. /old the standing end in the left hand. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor. /old the loop in the left hand. + . %.%0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right. grasp the $orking end.'. %0* End of the Rope. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(.'*. he knot is tied. Tying the Knot. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters.. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop.

2ress do$n the knot. + .. %. a. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope.+ .. It is a middle rope knot. ..1.'. ake up the slack from the anchor. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(. reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor.. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other.. Checkpoints. (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. b. %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. !hen tying this knot. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to. Tying the Knot. + .7*. !ith the right hand. Figure 4-)4. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar. C!o2e hitch.

+ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger.. Figure 4-)5. .. palm. + . A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot... +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap. + .5.7. and fingertip.1.0. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends.'.. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop. Checkpoints. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. + . + .. (ireman’s knot. + . + . +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap. b..8.). and place it over the heel $rap..4. =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel.+ . + .

%. it lays in$ard.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point. Tying the Knot.0. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends.. the tail and the bight must be together.'.1. Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm. It is a middle rope knot. + . fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(. + . &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied... + .)*. a. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single. + . tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor... Cake one $rap around the palm. !hen dressing the knot do$n. . !ith the $rap thus formed..

%. Checkpoints. %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( . . It is a middle rope knot. %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side. b. Directiona! #igure-eight.Figure 4-)6. %0* he tail and bight must be together.4*.* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly.

. + . Tying the Knot. + . + .). + .. &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. &rom the end %ape"* of the bight. + . /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard.0... follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up.a.7. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip.. ie an overhand knot on a bight. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull.4...'. + . + . .1. -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n... forming t$o loops. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight.

%1* A double loop is held in place by a bight. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot.* It is a middle rope knot. >sing a doubled rope. %o+!ine-on-a. .* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip.. form an . a.5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. b. %. Checkpoints..Figure 4-)7. + .5.ight. T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(.. Tying the Knot.

Figure 4-)". is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(. Tying the Knot.7. /old the bight $ith the left hand. 2ress the knot do$n. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot. .0..8*. b..+ .* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot. T+o-!oop #igure-eight. form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand. + . also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight. + . Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop. + . !ith the $orking end.'. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction... %. Checkpoints.1. It is a middle of the rope knot. a. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar.

* he loop is the desired siAe. 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system. Tying the Knot. Checkpoints. 2ress the knot tightly. + . %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other.0. + . form a loop in rope %standing part*. .+ . a. !ith the bight as the $orking end. Figure-eight !oop. Figure 4-)'. It is a specialty knot.. %1* he knot is tightly dressed. %. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop.. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop..1... b. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik.

.. + . + .%.*: + . + . $ith the $orking ends even..0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart. Figure 4-.* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik.. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted. >sing an arm3s length of rope.1. .. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope. &orm a complete round turn in the rope...1.*..epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps.*. -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope. + . forming a bight. Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope. ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension. . + .0.. 2ouble the short rope. . :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:.each do$n through the .0. and place it over the long rope..0(inch bight. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is .

'. here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope. Checkpoints. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n.). parallel. %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension.. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik. Bay the $orking end under the long rope. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot.). %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed.nsure they are tight. Figure 4-. and not t$isted. b. the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.. + . %.4.+ . .* &our $raps $ith a locking bar.. + . %0* he locking bar faces the climber. It is a specialty knot. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot. .7. + ..

* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner.1. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! . Figure 4-.. %achman knot. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender. make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope.. Checkpoints. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. %..0.. + . + . Tying the Knot.a.... !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner. b. + . %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner.

$ith a bight held in place by a loop.. %.. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. + . !ith the running end.). + .0. Tying the Knot. Checkpoints. . + .. single coil. he standing portion is on the bottom. he running end is to the back of the body. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself.* A minimum of four $raps. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail.1. + . It is a specialty knot. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand. /olding the bight loosely. + .'.. . place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage...4.. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. tie an overhand around all coils.. b. hen. not crossed. bring a bight up through the loop. >sing the standing part. a. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body..7. + . + .

It is a specialty knot. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body. a. !ith the right hand.. Bay the loops to the right.1.. + .. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise. + .. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*. . reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope.'. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. + . Tying the Knot.1. + . %o+!ine-on-a-coi!...0.Figure 4-.

* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops. &orm a . + . Three-!oop o+!ine. Figure 4-..7.4.+ . a.. Tying the Knot. Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*. It is a specialty knot. b. %.0(inch bight in the end of the rope. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied. .. Checkpoints..

/old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about . Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot.7.. t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight. . !ith the center of the bight in the right hand. If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system. Figure 4-.1.:u!e Knot0 .0 inches up the rope.).each through the bight and grasp the long. standing end of the rope. Checkpoints.* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight.. -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight..0.. /old the center of the bight in the right hand.5.'. b. %. + . -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n.+ . Figure-eight s!ip knot. + . + .. take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot. + .

Transport knot.0. %. %1* he bight is a minimum of . Check 9oints.. It is simply an overhand slip knot. + . b. Tying the Knot. Figure 4-.* here is a single overhand slip knot. + . -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop..0 inches long. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight. &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope.6. + . a.1....he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight. K!eimhiest Knot .

!ith the remaining tails of the utility rope. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot. + .he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable.. Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope.'. It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip .0. pass them through the bight %see + . find the center of the rope and form a bight... high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*.1. easily adjustable. + . It is a special( purpose knot. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by . + . 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching... !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull.. !ith the ends offset. !rap at least four complete turns... a.. . Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot. + .0 inches. + .7. Tying the Knot.*.

0..: to . + . a. %.0 inches... Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about . K!eimhiest knot. + .. . b. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*. Tying the Knot. Checkpoints.7. %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly.* he bight is opposite the direction of pull.Figure 4-. It is a special(purpose knot. %0* All $raps are tight and touching.

:unter -itch . Figure 4-. %. b. + ..Figure 4-. It is a special(purpose knot.".* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot..* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions. %0* he knot is dressed tightly. Checkpoint. Frost knot.'. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot.: &orm a bight... + . <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*. Tying the Knot. + .0: <ring the runner back through the bight.1: Cinch the knot tightly. <irth hitch. b. a. %. Checkpoints.

. %. + .. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope. palms do$n about . !ith the right hand. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner.0 inches apart. + . place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop.... Bock the locking mechanism.0. . -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. Check 9oints.. + . is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*. /old the loop $ith the left hand.* A bight passes through the carabiner.he munter hitch. !ith the right hand.1. %0* he carabiner is locked. b. + . a. Tying the Knot. /old the rope in both hands.'.

.. + . a. . + .Figure 4-1*.0.appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1.. ensuring they do not cross. + . . <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope.' feet or longer. 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip.each around behind and grab a single strand of rope. + .. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs.'. thus creating a loop around the $aist. :unter hitch. . Tying the Knot. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight..*.. It usually re#uires a sling rope .1.

). . -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist. . tightening the seat. <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots. Check 9oints. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips. + . + . &rom rear to front.* here are t$o overhand knots in the front. %.4.appe! seat. uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot... bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers. Figure 4-1). b.. -ull up on the ropes.7.+ .

. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot.. he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load.. preferably ovals*. . + .0. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners. Tying the Knot. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied..%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. + . ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side. %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip. a.

Figure 4-1. several advancements in e#uipment and transportation have increased the soldiers3 capabilities. his pattern $ill not change@ therefore. he helicopter no$ allo$s access to terrain that $as once . rope can only be pulled in one direction.. Check 9oints. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. b. =ntro&uction Countains e"ist in almost every country in the $orld and almost every $ar has included some type of mountain operations.* !hen properly dressed. soldiers $ill fight in mountainous terrain in future conflicts. <uar&e knot. %. Although mountain operations have not changed.

=mproper use o# techniques an& proce&ures y untraine& personne! may resu!t in serious in>ury or &eath. $hich is used for planning operations in mountainous terrain.). <asic Countaineer@ Bevel II. Assault Climber@ or Bevel III. and actions. ice climbing. may place various restrictions on the capabilities of air assets available to a commander. he measurements in this manual are stated as they are used in training %either metric or standard*. A =: A +/(. movement on glaciers. ho$ever.). Inclement $eather. illness and injury. 9A 1. &ort <enning. hese techni#ues are the foundation upon $hich the mountaineer must build. and training. :ountain Terrain? (eather? an& -a@ar&s Commanders must consider the effects terrain and weather will have on their operations.army. he proponent of this publication is /F . e#uipment. his field manual is a training aid for use by #ualified personnel in conjunction $ith &C 1(84. Countain Dperations.+.8:7(7781. $henever the masculine gender is used. rock climbing.<D. his &C also discusses basic and advanced techni#ues to include acclimatiAation. glaciers. he unit must then possess the necessary mountaineering skills to overcome adverse terrain to reach an objective. sno$(covered mountains. >nless other$ise stated. tactics. and urban vertical environments. his field manual details techni#ues soldiers and leaders must kno$ to cope $ith mountainous terrain.ecommended Changes to -ublications and <lank &orms* and for$ard to the Commander. Weather and terrain combine to challenge .). both men and $omen are included. >. Army Infantry +chool.unreachable or could be reached only by slo$ methodical climbing. Appendi" < contains a measurement conversion chart for your convenience. for training %see Appendi" A*. -ersonnel using &C 1(84. he degree to $hich this training is applied must be varied to conform to kno$n enemy doctrine.A2DC.mil or on 2A &orm 0:05 %. anchors. hey must be applied to the various situations encountered to include river crossings. mainly on their troops and logistics efforts. +ubmit changes for improving this publication to doctrineGbenning. evacuation. should attend a recogniAed 2epartment of 2efense Countain !arfare +chool for proper training. -ersonnel should be certified as Bevel I. Countain Beader before using &C 1(84.

surprise. sno$fields. conditioning. Cliffs and precipices may be vertical or overhanging. Countains may consist of an isolated peak.::: kno$n minerals. Countains usually favor the defense@ ho$ever. Alternate methods must be planned due to the variability of weather. but commanders should not plan to use them as the only means of movement and resupply. -roblems arise in moving men and transporting loads up and do$n steep and varied terrain in order to accomplish the mission. De#inition Countains are land forms that rise more than 7:: meters above the surrounding plain and are characteriAed by steep slopes. single ridges. attacks can succeed by using detailed planning. Chances for success in this environment are greater $hen a leader has e"perience operating under the same conditions as his men. Helicopters are a valuable asset for use in moving men and supplies. glaciers. Units scheduled for deployment in mountainous terrain should become self sufficient and train under various conditions. AcclimatiAation. +lopes commonly range from ' to '7 degrees. compartments. or comple" ranges e"tending for long distances and obstructing movement. combined with unprepared vehicles create hazardous situations. Df the appro"imately 0. which may deposit a foot of snow on dry roads. H Mountain Terrain H Mountain Weather H Mountain Hazards :ountain Terrain Dperations in the mountains re#uire soldiers to be physically fit and leaders to be e"perienced in operations in this terrain. Commanders must be familiar with the restraints that the terrain can place on a unit. Composition All mountains are made up of rocks and all rocks of minerals %compounds that cannot be broken do$n e"cept by chemical action*. seven rock(forming minerals make up most of the earth3s crust: #uartA and feldspar make up granite and sandstone@ olivene and pyro"ene give basalt its dark color@ and amphibole . and $ell(led troops. Spring storms. rehearsals.efforts in moving supplies to forward areas. and training are important factors in successful military mountaineering.

ne$ sno$. &ace climbing can be found. +late and gneiss can be firm and or brittle in the same area %red coloring indicates brittle areas*. found in limestone. d. e. conglomerate type stones may be loose. and de$. . a. <rassy S!opes. and cracks. it cannot be protected. Cha!k an& 8imestone. San&stone. b. f. After long. -enetrating roots and increased frost cracking cause a continuous loosening process. S!ate an& <neiss. . but any out$ard pull $ill break off handholds and footholds. +andstone is usually soft causing handholds and footholds to break a$ay under pressure. &ace climbing is possible. Firm Spring Sno+ /Firn Sno+0. granite dries #uickly. they all contain silicon and are often referred to as silicates. ho$ever. 9ranite is abrasive and increases the danger of ropes or accessory cords being cut. but jagged edges make pulling rope and raising e#uipment more difficult. he follo$ing paragraphs discuss the characteristics and haAards of the different rocks and slopes. Bimestone has pockets. use flat hand push holds instead of finger pull holds. face climbing. and small rocks may break off $hen pulled or $hen pitons are emplaced. 9rassy slopes are slippery after rain. +andstone should be allo$ed to dry for a couple of days after a rain before climbing on it— $et sandstone is e"tremely soft. leftover sno$ patches in late spring can be difficult.ock 7n& S!ope Types 2ifferent types of rock and different slopes present different haAards. Climbers must be$are of large loose boulders. Bimestone is usually solid@ ho$ever. !eight should be distributed evenly@ for e"ample. . . <ranite. After a rain.outes should be planned to avoid these dangers. +elf(arrest should be practiced before encountering this situation. Cost climbs follo$ a crack."cept for calcite. +topping a slide on small. c. dry spells clumps of the slope tend to break a$ay. 9ranite produces fe$er rockfalls. Chalk and limestone are slippery $hen $et. and it is usually difficult to protect. Chocks placed in sandstone may or may not hold. .and biotite %mica* are the black crystalline specks in granitic rocks. Cost climbing holds are found in cracks.ockfall danger is high.

the minerals in the magma crystalliAe slo$ly and develop $ell. making coarse(grained plutonic rock. and over time. !hen the cooling occurs at depth. /o$ever. +lo$ crystalliAation from deeply buried magmas generally means good climbing.ocks. his results in an intrusive rock. if a talus rock slips a$ay it can produce more injury than scree because of its siAe.* 9!utonic or =ntrusi2e . Climbers can glissade do$n firn sno$ if necessary. g. &irn sno$ is easier to ascend than $alking up scree or talus. -ieces of foreign rock included in the plutonic body $hile it $as rising . %. If the melt erupts onto the surface it cools rapidly and the minerals form little or no crystal matri". $hich makes for either a rough(surfaced rock $ith e"cellent friction. Scree. but smaller than boulders. hey can be used as stepping(stones to ascend or descend a slope. 2eep $ithin the earth3s crust and mantle. since the minerals formed are relatively large and inter$oven into a solid matri". Dne can run at full stride $ithout $orry—the $hole scree field is moving $ith you. h. a surface $ith numerous knobby holds. alus is rocks that are larger than a dinner plate. creating a volcanic or e"trusive rock.unning do$n scree is an effective method of descending in a hurry.ocks. either melting and combining $ith the overlying layers or forcing them aside. . propelled by its o$n lo$er density. . or.ock is classified by origin and mineral composition. +cree is small rocks that are from pebble siAe to dinner plate siAe. friction and radioactive decay creates magmas %melts of silicate minerals* that solidify into igneous rocks upon cooling. avoid scree $hen ascending. if the resistant crystals are much larger than the surrounding matri". he scree does not provide a solid platform and $ill only slide under foot. !eathering develops protrusions of resistant minerals. a. If possible. internal heat. under pressure. Ta!us. Climbers must be$are of larger rocks that may be solidly planted under the scree.<eginning climbers should be secured $ith rope $hen climbing on this type surface. he magma may move up$ard. Ascending scree is a tedious task.ock C!assi#ications . =gneous .

Cany of these small intrusive bodies are #uickly cooled and thus may look like e"trusive rock. %b* +mall plutonic intrusions are stocks. forced bet$een sedimentary strata. herefore.6 %a* Intrusions are named according to location and siAe. the joint—and thus the ledge—may begin again around the corner. !hen molten rock e"trudes onto the surface as a lava flo$ or intrudes into a cold surrounding mass as a dike or sill. <asaltic rocks are fine(grained and often sharp(edged.6 Cost plutonic rock is in the granite family. Fuieter eruptions. . !hen this ash consolidates $hile molten or after cooling. produce basalt.and crystalliAing. differing only in the amounts of constituent minerals contained. %0* Ao!canic or $Btrusi2e .ocks. Barge %. may $eather differently than the main rock mass and form 6chicken heads. In the Alps. and dikes. or clusters of segregated minerals. In plutonic rocks. $here $idespread lava flo$s from large fissures.6 a $eak rock that breaks do$n #uickly and erodes easily. +ierras.ockies. it is called 6tuff.ocks.:: s#uare kilometers or larger* masses of plutonic rock are called 6batholiths6 and small ones 6stocks. joints or cracks are caused by internal stresses such as contraction during cooling or e"pansion $hen overlying rock erodes or e"foliates. =orth Cascades. Dccasionally. Adirondacks. this jointing is regular enough to create massed pillars $ith usable vertical cracks such as 2evil3s o$er in !yoming. %1* Cointing . A core of such batholiths is in every major mountain system in the $orld. . the contraction from rapid cooling usually causes so much jointing that climbing can be e"tremely haAardous."plosive eruptions eject molten rock so #uickly into the air that it hardens into loose aerated masses of fine crystals and uncrystalliAed glass %obsidian*. $hich cut across the strata. and most other ranges this core is at least partly e"posed. +ome joints tend to follo$ a consistent pattern throughout an entire mountain and their e"istence can often be predicted. $hen a ledge suddenly ends. .

+edimentary rocks are born high in the mountains. the bottom layers are solidified by pressure and by mineral cements precipitated from percolating ground$ater. +hale changes to slate or schist. lakes. !ith the e"ception of the 2olomites. After sediments are solidified. %. or oceans.ocks.b.* hough in general sedimentary rocks are much more friable than those cooled from molten magmas. Se&imentary . %. hese are igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been altered physically and or chemically by the tremendous heat and pressures $ithin the earth. hese changes may be minimal. high heat and pressure can cause their minerals to recrystalliAe. pressure and cementing often produce solid rocks. %0* /igher degrees of metamorphism or metamorphism of the right rocks provide a solid climbing surface. 9ravel and boulders are transformed into conglomerates@ sandy beaches into sandstone@ beds of mud into mudstone or shale@ and shell beds and coral reefs into limestone or dolomite. %0* Cost high mountain ranges have some sedimentary peaks. c. but cleavage or foliation. only slightly altering the sediments. or e"tensive enough to produce gneiss. by sealing up internal cracks cementing can result in fla$less surfaces. $hich offers . he bedding planes %strata* may also be distorted by folding and s#ueeAing. lo$er grades of metamorphic rocks may be completely unsuitable for climbing because the rock is too rotten for safe movement. As sediments accumulate. and limestone to marble.ocks. In fact. he Canadian . especially in limestone.* Cetamorphic rocks may have not only joints and bedding. :etamorphic . $hich is almost indistinguishable from igneous rock. sandstone and conglomerate into #uartAite.ockies are almost e"clusively limestone. in general sedimentary rocks do not offer high(angle climbing comparable to that of granite. a series of thinly spaced cracks caused by the pressures of folding. Ancient seafloor limestone can be found on the summits of the /imalayas and the Alps. he +ha$angunks of =e$ Iork are an e"cellent e"ample of high(grade conglomerate #uartAite. $here erosion grinds do$n debris and moves it do$n to rivers for transportation to its final deposition in valleys. <ecause of this cleavage.

=e$ Iork3s Adirondacks. $hich begin $ithin the earth as magma. b. basaltic oceanic crust attached to slabs of the rigid upper mantle. &aulting.rosion may strip a$ay the overlying layers. $hich results in fault(block mountains. forming fault(block mountain ranges. :ountain %ui!&ing he t$o primary mechanisms for mountain(building are volcanic and tectonic activity. and mountain ridge systems. ectonic activity causes plates to collide. he different horiAontal and vertical stresses that create mountains usually produce comple" patterns. e"posing the central igneous core. a. their movement relative to each other creates earth#uakes. . he massive slabs composing the outer layer are called tectonic plates.$orld class climbing. :ountain Structure. A simple up$ard bulge of the crust forms dome mountains such as the DAarks of Arkansas and Cissouri. 9!ate Tectonics. and to pull apart and crack. ocean trenches. hese plates are made up of portions of lighter. .ach type of stress produces a typical structure. the Dlympics of !ashington. heaving up fold mountains. he center of the 9reen Countain anticline contains heavily metamorphosed schist. often accompanies up$arp. granitic continental crust. $hich also provides solid climbing.* Dome :ountains. or cracking of the crust into large chunks. %. volcanoes. hey are usually the result of the up$ard movement of magma and the folding of the rock layers overhead. %a* he ranges of the desert country of California. and >tah provide the clearest display of faulting. and heavier. Cany forms are created by the motion of these chunks along these faults. &loating slo$ly over the more malleable asthenosphere. Volcanoes are constructed from lava and ash. %0* Fau!t-%!ock :ountains. and the /igh >intahs of >tah. =evada. he breakage e"tends . and most mountains can be described in terms of these structures.

%1* Fo!& :ountains. the oldest. %b* +ometimes a block is faulted on both sides and rises or falls as a unit. !hen the s#ueeAing of a range is intense the rocks of the mountain mass first fold but then may break.ainier and Count +aint /elens* . leaving a gentler slope from the base of the range to the crest. he Alps and the Appalachians are e"amples of fold mountains. $hile on the other side the block bends but does not break. 9eologists call folds geosynclines. central core is all that remains. continental crust melts and turns to magma $ithin the mantle. Core often. >p$ard folded strata are anticlines and do$n$ard folds are synclines. +ince it is less dense than the surrounding material it rises and erupts to form volcanoes.ing of &ire6 encircling the -acific Dcean from ?atmai in Alaska through the Cascades %Count . Almost every range of folded mountains in the $orld e"hibits an over thrust of one sort or another. %'* Ao!canic :ountains. As it is forced underneath an overriding neighbor. $hich is belo$ sea level and could not have been carved by erosion. and parts of the rocks are pushed side$ays and override neighboring formations. it is faulted on one side only. Isolated blocks of the over thrust mass may form $hen erosion strips a$ay links connecting them $ith their place of origin.to the surface and often during earth#uakes—caused by slippage bet$een the blocks—fresh scarps many feet high develop. in $hich continental plates collide or ride over each other. An e"ample of a dropped block is California3s 2eath Valley. !hen erosion strips do$n the overburden of rock from folded mountain ranges. Along convergent plate boundaries volcanic activity increases. he best kno$n is the 6. ectonic forces. have given rise to the most common mountain form—fold mountains. his e"plains $hy older rocks are often found perched on top of younger ones. he etons of !yoming and the +ierra =evada display this—along the single Aone of faults the range thro$s up impressive steep scarps. ho$ever. %a* hese volcanoes are found in belts. $hich correspond to continental margins around the $orld.

$hich has created Iceland and the AAores. but smaller faults that form ledges and gullies may also be present. south to the volcanoes of Eapan and the -hilippines. Asian arc. Cost ranges are comple" mountains $ith portions that have been subject to several processes. !ithout a solid understanding of the difficulty of a chosen route.oute C!assi#ication Cilitary mountaineers must be able to assess a vertical obstacle. the Caucasus region. Ignorance is the most dangerous haAard in the mountain environment. creating deep rifts and long ridges $here the crust has cracked apart and magma $ells up to create ne$ surface material. his belt then runs $est do$n the Aleutian chain to ?amchatka.do$n through Ce"ico3s -opocatepetl to the smokes of ierra del &uego. the mountain leader can place his life and the life of other soldiers in e"treme danger. Dne massive fold can make an entire mountain peak@ ho$ever. %7* Comp!eB :ountains. domed. and tiny folds found $ithin a handhold. A mountain front may be formed from a single fault."amples of this are the Cid(Atlantic . Assessment of a vertical obstacle re#uires e"perience in the classifications of routes and understanding the levels of difficulty they represent. A block may have been simply pushed up$ard $ithout tilting $ith other portions folded. %b* Volcanic activity also arises at boundaries $here t$o plates are moving a$ay from each other. and then east through =e$ 9uinea into the -acific. and the Cediterranean.ast Africa $ith ?ilimanjaro3s cone. .ift Valley of . . In =orth America the Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem %I2+* is used to rate the difficulty of routes in mountainous terrain. and have the skills to accomplish the plan. +maller volcanic belts are found along the Indonesian(+. and faulted. and the . develop a course of action to overcome the obstacle. often $ith a sprinkling of volcanoes. he I2+ classes are: . there are folds measured by a rope length.idge. a. these processes occur both at the macro and the micro level. In addition.

.8—. /igher levels of energy e"penditure $ill be e"perienced. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*.7—Coderate difficulty. %7* Class 7. and e"perience re#uired.* Class 7. . <esides acrobatic climbing techni#ue.* H Class 7—&ree climbing. H Class 0—Dff(trail scramble. %'* Class 7.."traordinary difficulty. Increasing amount of intermediate protection is the rule. -assages of the difficult sections can often be accomplished under good conditions.:—. %0* Class 7. %)* Class 7. Bonger stretches of climbing re#uiring several points of intermediate protection.e#uires $ell above average ability and e"cellent condition. %1* Class 7. hree points of contact are necessary.:(7. /ands are necessary to support balance. %4* Class 7. /igh physical conditioning.H Class ."posed positions. % his class re#uires climbers to be roped up. $hich may have some e"posure.* b. H Class '—<elayed climbing.'—Bittle difficulty. % his is moderate to difficult scrambling. climbing techni#ue."tremely great difficulty. H Class 1—Climbing.5—Very great difficulty.—/iking trail. Considerable climbing e"perience is necessary. his is sometimes referred to as advanced rock scrambling. belay and emplace intermediate protection. Class 7 is further subdivided into the follo$ing classifications: %. he climber can e"perience vertical position or overhangs $here good grips can re#uire moderate levels of energy e"penditure. use of ropes for beginners %moderate scrambling*.4—9reat difficulty. his is the simplest form of free climbing. often combined $ith small belay points.)—Cedium difficulty. . Climb only $ith improved e#uipment and intense training.

asy aid.. %&or e"ample. Aid climb difficulty classification includes: %. he placement of protection is straight for$ard and reliable.6 or 6L. Climbs are represented by a single 6star6 up to five 6stars@6 a five(star climb is a classic climb and is usually aesthetically pleasing.—. clipping a sling into a bolt or piece of protection and then pulling up on it or stepping up in the sling.* Classes are further divided into a. e"perience..'—9reater increases of difficulty. %0* Classes are also further divided from 7.. the 6.6 hese refer to the popularity of the climb to the local area. %0* A. here is usually no high risk of any piece of protection pulling out. %.8 and belo$ $ith JK( categories %for e"ample... %'* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6stars. and d categories starting from 7. his techni#ue re#uires etriers and is fast and simple. >sually only needed to get past one or t$o more difficult moves on advanced free climbs. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*. .. Additional classifications include the follo$ing. %5* Class 7.. c.: to 7.N his techni#ue involves using a piece of gear to make progress@ for e"ample.6 $hich indicates a run(out on a climb. 7.' %for e"ample.:d*. and energy e"penditure. %1* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6.* Al$ays check the local guidebook to find specific designation for your area. if a fall $as e"perienced. b.6 indicates periods of run(out $here.5. ground fall $ould occur.5J*.mastery of refined security techni#ue is indispensable. c. in a classification of 7.(7.* A:—M&rench(free. re#uiring more climbing ability. 7. d. Dnly talented and dedicated climbers reach this level. his means that placement of intermediate protection is not possible on portions of the route.

II — /alf of a day. Core like $alking on eggs so none of them break. VI — 9reater than 0 days. . his techni#ue re#uires lots of training and practice. hese falls.K0 days %usually not less than 7. the $hole rope team $ill probably e"perience ground fall. =o serious fall danger. III — About three(fourths of a day. It involves several a$k$ard and strenuous moves in a ro$. %)* A7—. %4* A)—. e. H H H H H H I — +everal hours. >sually no protection placed on the entire route can be trusted to stop a fall. 9rade ratings %commitment grades* inform the climber of the appro"imate time a climber trained to the level of the climb $ill take to complete the route."tremely severe aid. /o$ever. Continuous A7 climbing $ith A7 belay stations. %5* Aid climbing classes are also further divided into JK( categories. Beads $ill usually take e"tended amounts of time $hich cause the lead climber to doubt and $orry about each placement. are usually clean and $ith no serious bodily harm. %'* A1—/ard aid. his techni#ue re#uires testing your protection. V — .5*. 9enerally solid placements $hich $ill hold a fall and are found $ithin a full rope length. long fall potential does e"ist. All protection is sketchy at best.K0 to 0 . such as A1J or A1(. %7* A'—+erious aid. but placement can be a$k$ard and strenuous. $hich $ould simply refer to easy or hard.%1* A0—Coderate aid. >sually A0 involves one or t$o moves that are difficult $ith good protection placement belo$ and above the difficult moves. he placement of protection is generally straight for$ard. -rotection placed $ill usually only hold a climber3s $eight and falls can be as long as t$o(thirds the rope length. IV — Bong hard day %usually not less than 7.4*."treme aid. If the leader falls. ho$ever. $ith falls of ': to ): feet and intermediate protection on the a$k$ard placements failing. .

....'a 1b.) 7.7b 7..urope..* moderate %CD2* .c )a. sho$s a comparison of these systems.K..:d VIIJ ..c.7b 7.b 0a.c 7b. H >IAA %>nion des International Alpine Association*—>sed in .b 0c.1 IIIsup .0 7.c.. H I2+ %Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem*—>sed in the >nited +tates.:. hard severe.: 7. 'a severe.a.c )a.0.b.0.1..* easy %.7b 7.:a VII( . H &rench— he &rench use numbers and letters to designate the difficulty of climbs.c 7a.a..1 7..(..5 VI( severe.c . hard severe.4 E=77 %ritish I II III III( III IIIJ IV( IV IVJ V( V VJ easy %.8 0: 0.8 VI 7a 7.f.c 0a. able . H <raAilian—<raAil uses .b.' 7.7b(7c 7.7 .1a 1b.. 7.b.b. H Australian—Australia uses only numbers to designate difficulty.c ' 7 ) 4 II 5.'a 'a.. III .* easy %.oman =umerals and adjectives to designate difficulty.c 7b. 00 01 0' French %ra@i! 7ustra!ia moderate %CD2* difficult %2I&&* hard difficult very difficult hard very difficult mild severe severe.c )a. 'b hard severe. Class 0 Class 1 Class ' 7.'...)a 7.:b VII .'a 1b. 'c 7.8 IIsup ..b.)b .b 7b.c 7b. H <ritish— he <ritish use adjectives and numbers to designate the difficulty of climbs... DDS Class .c 7b.7 7.a VIII( . hard very 7.)a 7.c VIII .).b. his system can be confusing if the climber is not familiar $ith it.'..' IV IVsup V Vsup VI VIsup VII VII VIIsup .:c VII ..1K.b VIII . Climbing difficulties are rated by different systems.c.b.5 .c 'a.4 .

. and more of it. or C %mi"ed rock and ice*. $ith objective haAards ever(present. 2ifficult physically and mentally.0a 7.)K4. his route has sustained e"posure to avalanche or other objective haAards. all in a remote area.* Commitment .0c 7. H VII — .)K4. H I — A short.)K4. re#uiring all day to complete the climb itself.e#uires many rappels off anchors for the descent.7.. H V — A long climb in a remote setting. $ith sustained technical climbing.)c 4a VIII 0) . his route is subject to objective haAards. easy climb near the road. .7. $ith little objective haAard. he numerical ratings are often prefaced $ith !I %$aterfall ice*. Dnly elite climbers $ill complete it in a day.)K4.)c 4a 05 . possibly $ith a haAardous descent.4a 4a 08 Ta !e )-).7. or a one(pitch climb $ith an approach that takes about an hour.atings.. and the route might be prone to avalanche. H VI — A long ice climb in an alpine setting.0d IL( IL IL ILJ .0b 7. H III — A multipitch route at lo$ elevation.. %. H IV — A multipitch route at higher elevations@ may re#uire several hours of approach on skis or foot. he descent may re#uire building rappel anchors. . A difficult and involved approach and descent.. and objective haAards rendering survival as #uestionable.. he route re#uires any$here from a fe$ hours to a long day to complete.. $ith no avalanche haAard and a straightfor$ard descent.7.)c 4a VIIIsup 04 .ating systems. g. -ossibly days to approach the climb. Commitment ratings are e"pressed in . Ice climbing ratings can have commitment ratings and technical ratings. AI %alpine ice*. H II — A route of one or t$o pitches $ithin a short distance of rescue assistance. .verything a grade VI has.oman numerals.

H 4 — A full rope length of thin vertical or overhanging ice of dubious adhesion. echnical ratings are e"pressed as Arabic numerals. erratic $eather. H 7 — A long. Cross-Country :o2ement +oldiers must kno$ the terrain to determine the feasible routes for cross(country movement $hen no roads or trails are available. H 0 — A pitch $ith short sections of ice up to 5: degrees@ lots of opportunity for protection and good anchors. — A froAen lake or stream bed. additional information may be needed about siAe. possibly 7: meters of 57( to 8:( degree ice $ith fe$ if any rests bet$een anchors. strenuous pitch. An e"tremely tough pitch. re#uiring agility and creativity. H 1 — +ustained ice up to 5: degrees@ the ice is usually good. H . he pitch may be shorter. but on featureless ice. . Control must be decentraliAed to lo$er levels because of varied terrain. H ' — A sustained pitch that is vertical or slightly less than vertical@ may have special features such as chandeliers and run( outs bet$een protection.atings. a.%0* Technica! . possibly of poor #uality@ re#uires efficiency of movement and ability to place protection $hile in a$k$ard stances. $ith places to rest. H ) — A full 7:(meter pitch of dead vertical ice. and communication problems inherent to mountainous regions. !hen planning mountain operations. A pre(operations intelligence effort should include topographic and photographic map coverage as $ell as detailed $eather data for the area of operations. H 5 — +imply the hardest ice climbing ever done@ e"tremely bold and gymnastic. and characteristics of landforms@ drainage@ types of rock and soil@ and the density and distribution of vegetation. 9ood skills at placing protection are re#uired. location. physically and mentally. but it re#uires skill at placing protection and setting anchors.

Caintain energy and body heat by eating and drinking often@ carry food that can be eaten #uickly and $hile on the move. and calm. but do not overdress. Although climbers should get off the high ground and seek shelter and $armth. /asty movement during storms leads to breaks in contact and accidents. H ?eep $arm.* Covement above the timberline reduces the amount of protective cover available at lo$er elevations.b. H If lost. H ?eep dry. H 2o not use ravines as routes of approach during a storm as they often fill $ith $ater and are prone to flash floods. As soon as the objective is reached and shelter secured. put on dry clothing. he logistical problem is important@ therefore. $hich can cause e"cessive perspiration and dampen clothing. %. dry. and amounts of precipitation. if possible. types. !ear $et($eather clothing $hen appropriate. H Avoid areas of potential avalanche or rock(fall danger. capable commanders may use reduced visibility to achieve tactical surprise. c. the dampness of rain and sno$ and the penetration of $ind cause soldiers to chill #uickly. Covement is often restricted due to terrain and $eather. H Avoid high pinnacles and ridgelines during electrical storms. %0* Covement during a storm is difficult due to poor visibility and bad footing on steep terrain. H 2o not rush. each man must be self(sufficient to cope $ith normal $eather changes using materials from his rucksack. Although the temperature is often higher during a storm than during clear $eather. the follo$ing precautions should be observed: H Caintain visual contact. !hen the tactical situation re#uires continued movement during a storm. Co2er an& Concea!ment . during severe mountain storms. stay $arm. he erratic $eather re#uires that soldiers be prepared for $ide variations in temperature.

a. are easily e"cavated. boulders. he selection of dug(in positions re#uires detailed planning. . sno$ and ice blocks may be cut and stacked to supplement dug(in positions. Fie!&s o# Fire &ields of fire. and intermediate terrain can provide cover and concealment. he contrast from lighted to shaded areas causes visual acuity in the shaded regions to be considerably reduced. /igh $ind speeds and sound often mask the noises of troop movement. +everal D-s may need to be established laterally. b. sno$. and fog can limit visibility. he rugged nature of the terrain often produces dead space at midranges. and at varying altitudes to provide visual coverage of the battle area. In other areas. are e"cellent at long ranges. sleet. Conversely. In alpine environments. outcroppings. 2igging fighting positions and temporary fortifications is difficult because soil is often thin or stony. . rain. !hen forces cannot be positioned to cover dead space $ith direct fires. /o$ever. /o$ever. rapidly changing $eather $ith fre#uent periods of high $inds. such as volcanic tuff. his concealment can be obtained in the dead space. mines and obstacles or indirect fire must be used. Bo$ cloud cover at higher elevations may neutraliAe the effectiveness of D-s established on peaks or mountaintops. heavy vegetation. in depth. hese shado$ed areas can provide increased concealment $hen combined $ith other camouflage and should be considered in maneuver plans. +oldiers must routinely train in range estimation in mountainous regions to maintain their proficiency. dead space is a problem at short ranges. boulders and other loose rocks can be used for building hasty fortifications.ange determination is deceptive in mountainous terrain. he dominating height of mountainous terrain permits e"cellent long(range observation. +ome rock types. As in all operations. hail. like observation. positions and routes must be camouflaged to blend in $ith the surrounding terrain to prevent aerial detection. 6 ser2ation Dbservation in mountains varies because of $eather and ground cover. Countainous regions are subject to intense shado$ing effects $hen the sun is lo$ in relatively clear skies.!hen moving in the mountains. the nature of the terrain can be used to provide concealment from observation.

depends upon a change of a fe$ degrees of temperature above or belo$ the freeAing point. A conscious effort to follo$ $eather changes $ill ultimately lead to a more accurate forecast. . b. he $eather must be anticipated to allo$ enough time for planning so that the leaders of subordinate units can use their initiative in turning an important $eather factor in their favor. It varies from stormy $inds to calm. he severity and variance of the $eather causes it to have a major impact on military operations. rainfall. Consi&erations #or 9!anning Countain $eather can be either a dangerous obstacle to operations or a valuable aid. he safety or danger of almost all high mountain regions.ase and speed of travel depend mainly on the $eather.:ountain (eather Cost people subconsciously 6forecast6 the $eather. he reverse can happen just as #uickly. . Countain $eather can be e"tremely erratic. sno$ conditions. especially in planning airmobile and airborne operations. !eather often determines the success or failure of a mission since it is highly changeable. he clouds that often cover the tops of mountains and the fogs that cover valleys are an e"cellent means of concealing movements that normally are made during darkness or in smoke. Bimited visibility can be used as a combat multiplier. Conditions greatly change $ith altitude. but patterns are less obvious in mountainous terrain than in other areas. a. and $eather factors. latitude. If they look outside and see dark clouds they may decide to take rain gear. and from e"treme cold to $armth $ithin a short time or $ith a minor shift in locality. If an une"pected $ind strikes. people glance to the sky for other bad signs. he prevalence of avalanches depends on terrain. An analysis of mountain $eather and ho$ it is affected by mountain terrain sho$s that such $eather is prone to patterns and is usually severe. especially in $inter. errain that can be crossed s$iftly and safely one day may become impassable or highly dangerous the ne"t due to sno$fall. and e"posure to atmospheric $inds and air masses. or a rise in temperature. depending on ho$ $ell it is understood and to $hat e"tent advantage is taken of its peculiar characteristics. Cilitary operations plans must be fle"ible.

he intensity of both visible and ultraviolet rays is greater $ith increased altitude. lush jungles $ith heavy seasonal rains and little temperature variation often cover mountains.ays are absorbed or reflected in part by the molecular content of the atmosphere. +evere $eather may decrease morale and increase basic survival problems. Countain soldiers properly e#uipped and trained can use the $eather to their advantage in combat operations. drier air has a reduced molecular content and. he altitude has a natural filtering effect on the sun3s rays. 2ue to the cold. :ountain 7ir /igh mountain air is dry and may be drier in the $inter. e#uipment does not rust as #uickly and organic material decomposes slo$ly. /igh rocky crags $ith glaciated peaks can be found in mountain ranges at most latitudes along the $estern portion of the Americas and Asia. d. he air at higher altitudes is thinner as atmospheric pressure drops $ith the increasing altitude. Cold air has a reduced capacity to hold $ater vapor. his effect is greater at lo$er altitudes. hese conditions increase the chance of sunburn. a reduced filtering effect on the sun3s rays. such as those found in desert regions. hese problems can be minimiAed $hen men have been trained to accept the $eather by being self(sufficient. (eather Characteristics . he dry air also re#uires soldiers to increase consumption of $ater. especially $hen combined $ith a sno$ cover that reflects the rays up$ard. most soldiers do not naturally consume the #uantity of fluids they $ould at higher temperatures and must be encouraged to consciously increase their fluid intake. a. At higher altitudes. b. the thinner. he barometer usually drops 0. conse#uently. are dry and barren $ith temperatures ranging from e"treme heat in the summer to e"treme cold in the $inter. he reduced $ater vapor in the air causes an increase in evaporation of moisture from the skin and in loss of $ater through transpiration in the respiratory system. +ome mountains. . <ecause of this increased dryness.7 centimeters for every 1:: meters gained in elevation %1 percent*.c. -ressure is lo$ in mountainous areas due to the altitude. In tropical regions.

Areas $ith a high level of this 6li#uid6 e"ert more pressure on an area and are called high(pressure areas. %. %0* 8o+ 9ressure. he higher in altitude. he higher the pressure. on the other . a. the $eather $ill more than likely be $orse. 2epicted as a blue 6/6 on $eather maps. the better the $eather $ill be. Dther$ise kno$n as an 6anticyclone6. !eather is a result of an atmosphere. Associated $ith clear skies.80 inches of mercury %hg* or .* -igh 9ressure. Air pressure is the 6$eight6 of the atmosphere at any given place. he average air pressure at sea level is 08. he $eather found in any one place depends on many things such as the air temperature. land masses. !ith lo$er air pressure.. and the earth3s rotation.1 millibars %mb*. une#ual heating and cooling from the sun. Areas $ith a lo$er level are called lo$(pressure areas.he earth is surrounded by an atmosphere that is divided into several layers. Air from a high(pressure area is basically trying to flo$ out and e#ualiAe its pressure $ith the surrounding air. he $orld3s $eather systems are in the lo$er of these layers kno$n as the 6troposphere.6 his layer reaches as high as ':. ho$ it is being moved. 9enerally the $inds $ill be mild. imagine that the air in the atmosphere acts like a li#uid. humidity %moisture content*. Dther$ise kno$n as a 6cyclone6. b.:. air pressure %barometric pressure*. Associated $ith bad $eather.::: feet. he characteristics of a high(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • • he airflo$ is clock$ise and out. Bo$ pressure. he characteristics of a lo$(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • he airflo$ is counterclock$ise and in. 2epicted as a red 6B6 on $eather maps. the lo$er the pressure. oceans. and if it is being lifted or not. In order to understand this.

b. Dn a $eather map. is building up vertically by pulling air in from outside itself. he force e"erted by $ind #uadruples each time the $ind speed doubles@ that is. =ormally. the $ind may blast $ith great force on an e"posed mountainside or summit. and sinks to the earth3s surface. he areas of high pressure are called 6ridges6 and lo$s are called 6troughs. c. !inds are accelerated $hen they converge through mountain passes and canyons. Above hot surfaces.hand. Cuch of the $orld3s $eather depends on a system of $inds that blo$ in a set direction. he results are a circulation of air from the poles along the surface of the earth to the e#uator. $hich causes atmospheric instability resulting in bad $eather. $ind blo$ing at ': knots pushes four times harder than a $ind blo$ing at 0: knots. he rocky debris or chunks of sno$ crust are hurled near the surface. Isobars resemble contour lines and are measured in either millibars or inches of mercury. 2uring the $inter season. dense clouds fill the air. >sually. gusts become more important and may be 7: percent higher than the average $ind speed. strong $inds in protected valleys are rare. !ith increasing $ind strength. the local $ind direction is controlled by topography. $here it rises and moves to the poles again. his effect is intensified by mountainous terrain. If a hurricane( force $ind blo$s $here there is sand or sno$. the ridges and passes are seldom calm@ ho$ever. . air e"pands and moves to colder areas $here it cools and becomes denser. commanders must be constantly a$are of the $ind(chill factor and associated cold($eather injuries %see Chapter 0 ( Countain Biving*. or at high altitudes.6 (in& In high mountains. c. a. these differences in pressure are depicted as isobars. !hen $ind strength increases to a hurricane force of )' knots or more. <ecause of these funneling effects. $ind speed increases $ith altitude since the earth3s frictional drag is strongest near the ground. soldiers should lay on the ground during gusts and continue moving during lulls. !inds are formed due to the uneven heating of the air by the sun and rotation of the earth.

Continental — over land -olar — north of ):O north latitude. $et air mass.* 9o!ar $aster!ies.6 hese air masses can vary from the siAe of a small to$n to as large as a country. hese $inds blo$ from a generally $esterly direction dipping do$n and picking up air masses from the tropical regions and going north and bringing do$n air masses from the polar regions. he patterns of $ind mentioned above move air. $o types of $inds are peculiar to mountain environments. but do not necessarily affect the $eather.d. f. Combining these parcels of air provides the names and description of the four types of air masses: • • • • Continental -olar — cold. due to the earth3s rotation. e. hese air masses are named from $here they originate: • • • • Caritime — over $ater. . hese are $inds from the polar region moving from the east. %0* 9re2ai!ing (ester!ies. dry air mass. dry air mass. hese $inds originate from appro"imately 1: degrees north latitude from the $est. there are three prevailing $inds: %. In the =orthern /emisphere. g. hese are $inds that originate from appro"imately 1:o north from the northeast. has settled to the surface. /eating and cooling together $ith the rotation of the earth causes surface $inds. $et air mass. Continental ropical — $arm. Caritime -olar — cold. his is an area $here prematurely cooled air. he jet stream is a long meandering current of high(speed $inds often e"ceeding 07: miles per hour near the transition Aone bet$een the troposphere and the stratosphere kno$n as the tropopause. %1* 3ortheast Tra&e+in&s. ropical — south of ):O north latitude. his is air that has cooled and settled at the poles. Caritime ropical — $arm. his air comes in parcels called 6air masses.

fog. -umi&ity /umidity is the amount of moisture in the air. he adiabatic lapse rate is the rate at $hich air cools as it rises or $arms as it descends. C!ou& Formation Clouds are indicators of $eather conditions. condensation may not form until the temperature drops to 10 degrees &ahrenheit or even belo$ freeAing.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. rain. hese $inds blo$ up mountain valleys to replace $arm rising air and are usually light $inds. de$. he four $ays air gets lifted and cooled beyond its saturation point are as follo$s. a. If air is cooled beyond its saturation point. If the air contains a great deal of $ater. . clouds are formed. condensation can occur at a temperature of )5 degrees &ahrenheit. but if the air is dry and does not hold much moisture.7 degrees &ahrenheit per .0 degrees &ahrenheit per .%.* 7na atic (in& /Aa!!ey (in&s0. !hen air can hold all that it can the air is 6saturated6 or has . the more moisture it can hold.:: percent relative humidity. the air $ill release its moisture in one form or another %clouds. and so on*. observers can forecast $eather $ith little need for additional e#uipment such as a barometer.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. he temperature at $hich this happens is called the 6condensation point6. $ind meter. sno$. +aturated %moist* air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 1. and thermometer. his rate varies depending on the moisture content of the air. <y reading cloud shapes and patterns. All air holds $ater vapor even if it cannot be seen. b. he condensation point varies depending on the amount of $ater vapor contained in the air and the temperature of the air. 2ry air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 7.. Air can hold only so much $ater vapor@ ho$ever.. hese $inds blo$ do$n mountain valley slopes caused by the cooling of air and are occasionally strong $inds.:: percent relative humidity*. Any time air is lifted or cooled beyond its saturation point %. %0* Kata atic (in& /:ountain (in&0. the $armer the air.

Con2ecti2e 8i#ting. Clouds are classified into five categories: lo$(. it has no$here to go but up. hey can be classified by height or appearance. and high(level clouds@ vertically(developed clouds@ and less common clouds.a. Clouds can be described in many $ays. Air continues to lift until it reaches the saturation point. An area of lo$ pressure pulls air into its center from all over in a counterclock$ise direction. Dnce this air reaches the center of the lo$ pressure. Cyc!onic 8i#ting. !hen temperatures are cold enough. b.7:: feet* are either cumulus or stratus %&igures . &rom there it is cooled and then reaches its saturation point. Types o# C!ou&s Clouds are one of the signposts to $hat is happening $ith the $eather. and .(0*.(. A front is formed $hen t$o air masses of different moisture content and temperature collide. or even by the amount of area covered vertically or horiAontally.7:: feet. his effect happens due to the sun3s heat radiating off the . +ince air masses $ill not mi". c. . Fronta! 8i#ting. mid(. these clouds may also contain ice particles and sno$. Bo$(level clouds %: to ).arth3s surface causing air currents %thermals* to rise straight up and lift air to a point of saturation. his happens $hen an air mass is pushed up and over a mass of higher ground such as a mountain. a. d. Bo$(level clouds are mostly composed of $ater droplets since their bases lie belo$ ). $armer air is forced aloft over the colder air mass. &rontal lifting creates the majority of precipitation. Air is cooled due to the adiabatic lapse rate until the air3s saturation point is reached. 8o+-8e2e! C!ou&s. 6rographic 8i#ting.

Figure )-.(1 and . %. .* he t$o types of precipitating lo$(level clouds are nimbostratus and stratocumulus %&igures .('*. Stratus C!ou&s. 3im ostratus C!ou&s..Figure )-). Figure )-1. Cumu!us C!ou&s.

::: feet . the cloud base is typically e"tremely diffuse and difficult to accurately determine. lumpy layer of clouds that is sometimes accompanied by $eak precipitation. Cost precipitation originates from lo$(level clouds because rain or sno$ usually evaporate before reaching the ground from higher clouds. deciphering bet$een the t$o cloud types is easier. altocumulus elements are about the siAe of a thumbnail $hile stratocumulus are about the siAe of a fist. $hich distinguishes them from mid(level altostratus clouds. <ecause of the fog and falling precipitation commonly found beneath and around nimbostratus clouds. +tratocumulus vary in color from dark gray to light gray and may appear as rounded masses $ith breaks of clear sky in bet$een. !ith your arm e"tended to$ard the sky. Stratocumu!us C!ou&s. especially if the cloud is more than 1. <ecause the individual elements of stratocumulus are larger than those of altocumulus.Figure )-4. %0* Bo$(level clouds may be identified by their height above nearby surrounding relief of kno$n elevation. he sun or moon is not visible through nimbostratus clouds. Bo$(level clouds usually indicate impending precipitation. %b* +tratocumulus clouds generally appear as a lo$. lo$(level clouds accompanied by light to moderately falling precipitation. %a* =imbostratus clouds are dark.

7!tostratus. Cid(level clouds %bet$een ). Figure )-6. :i&-8e2e! C!ou&s.thick. especially if they are rising over time.* b. have distinct edges that grade gradually into the surrounding sky.(7 and . here are t$o types of mid(level clouds. Alto clouds $ith sharp edges are $armer because they are composed mainly of $ater droplets. Bo$ering middle clouds indicate potential storms. Figure )-5. though usually hours a$ay.::: feet thick. 7!tocumu!us. Ciddle clouds usually indicate fair $eather.7:: to 0:.()*. altocumulus and altostratus clouds %&igures . %Clouds that appear dark at their bases are more than 1. composed mainly of ice crystals and usually colder than (1: degrees &. Ciddle clouds appear less distinct than lo$ clouds because of their height. .::: feet* have a prefi" of alto. Cold clouds.

%0* Altostratus clouds are often confused $ith cirrostratus. . -igh-8e2e! C!ou&s. the cirrus thickens and lo$ers. humidity rises.::: feet above ground level* are usually froAen clouds.(4 and &igure . becoming altostratus and eventually stratus. emperatures are $arm. in a blue sky. Figure )-7. As the storm approaches. he presence of altocumulus clouds on a $arm humid summer morning is commonly follo$ed by thunderstorms later in the day. he arrival of cirrus indicates moisture aloft and the approach of a traveling storm system. ypically a portion of an altocumulus cloud is shaded. Altocumulus clouds usually form in advance of a cold front. $ith a fibrous structure and blurred outlines. a characteristic $hich makes them distinguishable from high(level cirrocumulus.%. at night. are called 6fair $eather6 cumulus and suggest arrival of high pressure and clear skies. the sun or moon is only vaguely visible and appears as if it $ere shining through frosted glass. !ith altostratus.* Altocumulus clouds can appear as parallel bands or rounded masses. produces a ring of light around the moon. -recipitation is often 0' to 1) hours a$ay. /igh(level clouds %more than 0:. Altocumulus clouds that are scattered rather than even. indicating air temperatures at that elevation belo$ (1: degrees &ahrenheit. he t$o types of high(level clouds are cirrus and cirrostratus %&igure . he one distinguishing feature is that a halo is not observed around the sun or moon. c. he sky is often covered $ith a thin veil of cirrus that partly obscures the sun or. Cirrus. and $inds become southerly or south easterly.(5*.

Cirrostratus. or seemingly all tangled together. hey are relatively transparent and can cover the entire sky and be up to several thousand feet thick."tensive cirrus clouds are associated $ith an approaching $arm front. Aertica!-De2e!opment C!ou&s.::: feet. he t$o types of clouds $ith vertical development are fair $eather cumulus and cumulonimbus. signifying an increased production of ice crystals. %.::: feet. Cirrostratus clouds tend to thicken as a $arm front approaches. shaped like a comma. high(level clouds composed of ice crystals. +ometimes the only indication of cirrostratus clouds is a halo around the sun or moon. %. Cirrus clouds generally occur in fair $eather and point in the direction of air movement at their elevation. As a result. he sun or moon can be seen through cirrostratus. cirrus are composed of ice crystals that form $hen super(cooled $ater droplets freeAe. . hey can be nearly straight. the halo gradually disappears and the sun or moon becomes less visible. ?no$n for their flat bases and . Clouds $ith vertical development can gro$ to heights in e"cess of 18. d. Cirrus can be observed in a variety of shapes and siAes.* &air $eather cumulus clouds have the appearance of floating cotton balls and have a lifetime of 7 to ': minutes.Figure )-". releasing incredible amounts of energy.* Cirrus clouds are the most common of the high(level clouds. ypically found at altitudes greater than 0:. %0* Cirrostratus clouds are sheet(like.

the cloud begins to erode and eventually disappears. fair $eather cumulus e"hibit only slight vertical gro$th. ice crystals dominate the composition. 9iven suitable conditions. >nder favorable conditions. large hail. $hich is $hy fair $eather cumulus typically have e"panses of clear sky bet$een them. &air $eather cumulus clouds are fueled by buoyant bubbles of air kno$n as thermals that rise up from the earth3s surface. . his do$n$ard motion inhibits further convection and gro$th of additional thermals from do$n belo$. $ith the cloud tops designating the limit of the rising air. the $ater vapor cools and condenses forming $ater droplets. As the air rises. hey can e"ist as individual to$ers or form a line of to$ers called a s#uall line. and tornadoes. making it heavier and producing sinking motion outside the cloud. !ithout a continued supply of rising air. the tops of cumulonimbus clouds can reach 18. Ioung fair $eather cumulus clouds have sharply defined edges and bases $hile the edges of older clouds appear more ragged.vaporation along the cloud edges cools the surrounding air. +uper(cells produce fre#uent lightning.distinct outlines. an artifact of erosion. Bo$er levels of cumulonimbus clouds consist mostly of $ater droplets $hile at higher elevations. these clouds can later develop into to$ering cumulonimbus clouds associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms. harmless fair $eather cumulus clouds can #uickly develop into large cumulonimbus associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms kno$n as super(cells. damaging $inds. &ueled by vigorous convective updrafts. %0* Cumulonimbus clouds are much larger and more vertically developed than fair $eather cumulus %&igure . hese storms tend to develop during the afternoon and early evening $hen the effects of heating from the sun are the strongest. +uper(cells are large thunderstorms $ith deep rotating updrafts and can have a lifetime of several hours. . ho$ever. $here the temperatures are $ell belo$ freeAing.::: feet or higher.(8*.

Cumu!onim us. hese clouds are a collection of miscellaneous types that do not fit into the previous four groups. %.(. it has the same buoyancy as the surrounding air. Dnce the air returns to its original height. and cools. hey are orographic clouds. $arming as it descends. the $ater vapor condenses and becomes visible as a cloud. /o$ever. lenticulars. the air becomes $armer then the surrounding air and accelerates back up$ards to$ards its original height. the air is heavier than the environment and $ill sink do$n the other side. the air does not stop immediately because it still has momentum carrying it do$n$ard. Another name for this type of cloud is the lenticular cloud. . If they gro$ and descend. bad $eather can be e"pected. similar to a 6flying saucer. 6ther C!ou& Types. and usually indicate higher $inds aloft %&igure . and contrails. Initially. If the air cools to its saturation temperature during this process.Figure )-'. >pon reaching the mountain top. e. Benticulars should al$ays be $atched for changes. Cloud caps $ith a lens shape.6 indicate e"tremely high $inds %over ': knots*.* Drographic clouds develop in response to the forced lifting of air by the earth3s topography. !ith continued descent.:*. Air passing over a mountain oscillates up and do$n as it moves do$nstream. %0* Benticular clouds are cloud caps that often form above pinnacles and peaks. stable air encounters a mountain. is lifted up$ard.

Figure )-)*. +erious errors can occur in interpreting the e"tent of cloud cover. especially if the sky is . f. Figure )-)). C!ou& =nterpretation. Cloud cover al$ays appears greater on or near the horiAon. Contrai!s. If it takes longer than t$o hours for contrails to evaporate. 8inticu!ar. %1* Contrails are clouds that are made by $ater vapor being inserted into the upper atmosphere by the e"haust of jet engines %&igure .(. then there is impending bad $eather %usually about 0' hours prior to a front*.. especially $hen cloud cover must be reported to another location.*. Contrails evaporate rapidly in fair $eather.

Cold air. !hen crossing from one side of a stationary front to another. and then cumulonimbus producing a short period of sho$ers. being more dense than $arm air. Cloud cover estimates should be restricted to sky areas more than ': degrees above the horiAon—that is.covered $ith cumulus clouds. occluded. d. Stationary Front. and nimbostratus. it $ill rise up and over the cooler air. Dccasionally. Dne of the indicators that a front is approaching is the progression of the clouds. he four types of fronts are $arm. A cold front occurs $hen a cold air mass overtakes a slo$er or stationary $arm air mass. cumulus. altostratus. since the observer is looking more at the sides of the clouds rather than bet$een them. Clouds observed $ill be cirrus. he Aone of division bet$een cold air ahead and cold air behind is called a 6cold occlusion. A $arm front occurs $hen $arm air moves into and over a slo$er or stationary cold air mass. it is a $arm occlusion. (arm Front. $ill force the $arm air up. Fronts &ronts occur $hen t$o air masses of different moisture and temperature contents meet. cumulonimbus clouds $ill be seen during the summer months. he cloud progression observed $ill be cirrus. there . <ecause $arm air is less dense. A stationary front is a Aone $ith no significant air movement.6 If the air behind the front is $armer than the air ahead. he cold fronts eventually overtake $arm fronts and the $arm air becomes progressively lifted from the surface. cirrostratus. -recipitation can be from light to heavy. Cold fronts generally move faster than $arm fronts. and stationary. Co!& Front. nimbostratus %producing rain*. Cost land areas e"perience more occlusions than other types of fronts. a. Dnce this boundary begins for$ard motion. c. he cloud types seen $hen a $arm front approaches are cirrus. it becomes a stationary front. Assess the sky by dividing the 1): degrees of sky around you into eighths. and fog. it once again becomes a $arm or cold front. to the local sky.ecord the coverage in eighths and the types of clouds observed. . !hen a $arm or cold front stops moving. b. 6cc!u&e& Front. cirrostratus. cold.

$here solar radiation is absorbed and reflected by dust and $ater vapor. due to convection currents.. &or air moving up a mountain $ith condensation occurring %clouds. clear. higher temperatures may often be encountered as altitude is gained.. emperature inversions are caused $hen mountain air is cooled by ice. 2uring a troop movement or climb started in a valley. the temperature of the air drops 1. Core sunshine and solar heat are received above the clouds than belo$. b. emperature inversions are common in the mountainous regions of the arctic. 2ifferences of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit may occur bet$een surface temperatures in the shade and surface temperatures in the sun.::: feet of elevation gain. the temperature of the air drops 7. he important effect of altitude is that the sun3s rays pass through less of the atmosphere and more direct heat is received than at lo$er levels. subarctic. he difference in temperature felt on the skin bet$een the sun and shade is normally 4 degrees &ahrenheit. Conse#uently. <esides permitting rapid heating.::: feet of elevation gain.0 degrees &ahrenheit $ith every . his is particularly true for dark metallic objects. . and mid(latitudes.7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . fog. and precipitation*. the temperature rises fast after sunrise and drops #uickly after sunset. and heat loss through thermal radiation. a temperature drop of 1 to 7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . Cuch of the chilled air drains do$n$ard. An e"pedient to this often occurs on cold. so that the differences bet$een day and night temperatures are greater in valleys than on slopes. the clear air at high altitudes also favors rapid cooling at night. his cooler.. a. &or air moving up a mountain $ith no clouds forming. his reversal of the normal cooling $ith elevation is called temperature inversion. +pecial care must be taken to avoid sunburn and sno$ blindness. calm mornings.is typically a noticeable temperature change and shift in $ind direction.::: feet gain in altitude is encountered in motionless air. solar heating is responsible for the greatest temperature contrasts. Temperature =ormally. sno$. he inversion continues until the sun $arms the surface of the earth or a moderate $ind causes a mi"ing of the $arm and cold layers. denser air settles into the valleys and lo$ areas. At high altitudes. he $eather is usually clear to partly cloudy along the stationary front.

. including >+A&. Bocal $eather patterns force air currents up and over mountaintops. b. the amount of data available. and barometric pressure $ill all be different. but more slo$ly %1. $ith mountains rising above the lo$ overcast into $armer clear $eather. Air is cooled on the $ind$ard side of the mountain as it gains altitude. !eather reports should be used in conjunction $ith the locally observed current $eather situation to forecast future $eather patterns. +everal different methods can be used to create a forecast.c. a forecast must reach the small(unit leaders $ho are e"pected to utiliAe $eather conditions for assigned missions. the persistence method predicts that tomorro$ $ill be the same.eports from other localities and from any $eather service. thermometer.* 9ersistence :etho&. . temperature. and hygrometer help in making local $eather forecasts.0 degrees &ahrenheit per . !eather at various elevations may be #uite different because cloud height. a. o be effective. 6 oday e#uals tomorro$6 is the simplest $ay of producing a forecast. if today $as hot and dry. he five $ays to forecast $eather are: %. $ind meter. this heat gained from the condensation on the $ind$ard side is added to the normal heating that occurs as the air descends and air pressure increases. and the degree of accuracy needed to make the forecast. Dn the lee$ard side of the mountain. herefore. air and $inds on the lee$ard slope are considerably $armer than on the $ind$ard slope. (eather Forecasting he use of a portable aneroid barometer. here may be overcast and rain in a lo$er area. $hich is referred to as Chinook $inds. are also helpful.. >+=. he heating and cooling of the air affects planning considerations primarily $ith regard to the clothing and e#uipment needed for an operation. his method assumes that the conditions at the time of the forecast $ill not change@ for e"ample.::: feet* if clouds are forming due to heat release $hen $ater vapor becomes li#uid. he method a forecaster chooses depends upon the forecaster3s e"perience. the level of difficulty that the forecast situation presents. or the =ational !eather <ureau.

Ideally. Assess $ind direction as a magnetic direction from $hich the $ind is blo$ing. b. . c. Eudge the $ind speed by the $ay objects. %'* 7na!og :etho&. A minor shift in the $inds may signal an approaching storm. his only $orks $ell $hen the pattern is similar to the follo$ing years. if a cold front moves 1:: miles during a 0'( hour period. his method averages $eather statistics accumulated over many years. %. and so forth. Aisi i!ity in :eters. $e can predict that it $ill travel 1:: miles in another 0'( hours. trends $ill be noted in some $eather parameters. and clouds and precipitation. (in& Spee&. %1* C!imato!ogy :etho&. this may not al$ays be the case. such as trees. bushes. . 6=o$casting6 involves determining the speed and direction of fronts. his method uses computers to analyAe all $eather conditions and is the most accurate of the five methods. tents. his method e"amines a day3s forecast and recalls a day in the past $hen the $eather looked similar %an analogy*. Assess $ind speed in knots. a. under changing conditions. Dbserve the farthest visible major terrain or man(made feature and determine the distance using any available map. (in& Direction. assess speed to the nearest knot. are blo$ing.ecor&ing Data An accurate observation is essential in noting trends in $eather patterns.* If an anemometer is available. %7* 3umerica! (eather 9re&iction. his method is difficult to use because finding a perfect analogy is difficult. %0* If no anemometer is available. /o$ever.%0* Tren&s :etho&. &or e"ample. high( and lo$(pressure centers. estimate the speed in knots.

. &og. then estimate to the best of your ability. haAe — obstructs visibility of ground objects. degrees & Q 10 " . o convert Celsius to &ahrenheit: & P . 2ivide the sky into eight different sections measuring from horiAon to horiAon.* f. . hunderstorms $ill produce lightning.. If clouds are not touching terrain. Count the sections $ith cloud cover.* !ith a thermometer. Assess temperature $ith or $ithout a thermometer. he follo$ing are e"amples of present $eather: • • • • • • . e.. hail. Tota! C!ou& Co2er. assess temperature in degrees Celsius %use &ahrenheit only if Celsius conversion is not available*. degrees &. %&or e"ample. hunderstorms — a potentially dangerous storm. !inds commonly e"ceed 17 knots.77 P 7 degrees C. and strong gusty $inds at the surface and aloft.ain — continuous and steady li#uid precipitation that $ill last at least one hour.5 J 10 P '. Cei!ing -eight. total cloud cover is 'K5.ain sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. =ote if bases are above all terrain. g. 9resent (eather. if half of the sections are covered $ith clouds. tornadoes %not too fre#uently*. o convert &ahrenheit to Celsius: C P & minus 10 times . colder temperatures. $Bamp!e4 '. $hich gives the total cloud cover in eighths. heavy do$npours.77.stimate $here the cloud base intersects elevated terrain. 7 degrees C " .5 times C plus 10. Assess total cloud cover in eighths. Temperature. Include any precipitation or obscuring $eather. +no$ — continuous and steady froAen precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. +no$ sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy froAen do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. %.d. .

2ecreasing barometric pressure. estimate temperature as above or belo$ freeAing %:OC*. Increasing cloud coverage. $hich indicates no change in $eather systems in the area. %. h. =ote changes or trends in observed $eather conditions. %0* A lo$ pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate higher elevation. he closer the isometric lines are. Carked cooler temperature changes. $hich could indicate that a cold front is passing through. Bo$ering cloud ceilings.* 2eteriorating trends include: • Carked $ind direction shifts. i. Clearing of obstructions to visibility. 9ressure Tren&. A steady driAAle is usually a long( lasting rain. assess the pressure trend. the greater the differential of pressure %greater $ind speeds*. Carked $ind speed increases. • • • • • • • • %0* Improving trends include: • • • +teady $ind direction. $hich indicates a lo$er pressure system is moving through the area.* A high pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate lo$er elevation. !ith a barometer or altimeter. A lo$ pressure system $ind flo$s counterclock$ise. 6 ser2e& (eather. . Carked increase in humidity. Changes in obstructions to visibility. Increase in precipitation. A high pressure system $ind flo$s clock$ise. as $ell as an estimated temperature. %. 2ecreasing $ind speeds.%0* !ithout a thermometer.

If the possibility of falling e"ists. &alling can be caused by carelessness. Fa!!ing. tour. bad $eather. man(made %caused by an individual. 2ecreasing cloud coverage. e#uipment misuse*. j. overestimating ability. over(fatigue. overe"ertion. or as a combination %human trigger*. emperature changes slo$ly $armer. such as lack of preparation. dehydration. and flooding %especially in gullies*. $quipment. rope in. or other reasons. Ep&ate. Continue to evaluate observed conditions and update the forecast. a. :ountain -a@ar&s /aAards can be termed natural %caused by natural occurrence*. carelessness. a hold breaking a$ay. %i2ouac Site. companions. $hich indicates that a higher pressure system is moving through the area. Su >ecti2e -a@ar&s Sub!ective haAards are created by humans@ for e"ample. the tent and all e#uipment may have to be tied do$n. choice of route. b. /umidity decreases. here are t$o kinds of haAards $hile in the mountains —subjective and objective. improper diet. Increasing height of cloud ceilings. heavy e#uipment. Combinations of objective and subjective haAards are referred to as cumulative haAards.• • • • • • 2ecreasing or ending precipitation. <ivouac sites must be protected from rockfall. Iou should al$ays pack emergency and bivouac e#uipment even if the $eather situation. climbing above one3s ability. 6 >ecti2e -a@ar&s . avalanche run(out Aones.opes are not total security@ they can be cut on a sharp edge or break due to poor maintenance. lightning. or a short climb is seemingly lo$ of dangers. c. Increasing barometric pressure. and poor judgment. or e"cessive use. . $ind. age.

lightning.::: pounds*. Cre2asses. Avalanches are caused by the $eight of the sno$ overloading the slope. Crevasses are formed $hen a glacier flo$s over a slope and makes a bend. Cold combined $ith fog can cause a thin sheet of ice to form on rocks %verglas*. ake note of your e"act position and plan your route to safety before visibility decreases. stay hydrated. a. If the tactical situation does not re#uire it. Aisi i!ity. hey $ill fall $ithout $arning regardless of the time of day or time of year. and debris are channeled do$n gullies.ock. . b. rockfalls. <locks and scree at the base of a climb can indicate recurring rockfall. As this slope increases . d. 7!titu&e. +leep $ell. Cut do$n on smoking and alcohol. >se a route sketch and march table."b!ective haAards are caused by the mountain and $eather and cannot be influenced by man@ for e"ample. or $hen a glacier separates from the rock $alls that enclose it. g. icefalls. it is best to rope up. If you must move under these conditions. If ice is in the gully. do so #uickly and keep an interval bet$een each person. c. and be a$are of signs and symptoms of high( altitude illnesses. At high altitudes %especially over ). and or blo$ing sno$ can lead to disorientation. plan route so as not to get caught by darkness. <u!!ies. &og. . A slope of only t$o to three degrees is enough to form a crevasse. sno$. -anging <!aciers an& Seracs. climbing at night may be better because the $arming of the sun $ill loosen stones and cause rockfalls. rain. +torms can form #uickly and lightning can be severe. +pring melt or $arming by the sun of the rockKiceKsno$ causes rockfall.7:: feet*. If you must cross these danger areas. he second man $ill use the first man as an aiming point $ith the compass. endurance and concentration is reduced.* f. %. Avoid. hanging glaciers and seracs. Dne cubic meter of glacier ice $eighs 8. /ave the point man move to the end of the rope. Bight colored spots on the $all may indicate impact chips of falling rock.ock#a!!.: kilograms %about 0.(07 for more detailed information on avalanches. !hiteout conditions can be e"tremely dangerous. storms. acclimatiAe slo$ly. if at all possible. e. darkness. and so on. 72a!anches.efer to paragraph .

!inds are stronger and more variable in the mountains@ as $ind doubles in speed.* Avoid peaks.from 07 to 1: degrees. (eather -a@ar&s !eather conditions in the mountains may vary from one location to another as little as . -recipitation occurs more on the $ind$ard side than the lee$ard side of ranges. Bightning is fre#uent.lmo3s fire* on especially prominent metal objects %summit crosses and radio to$ers*. ?eep at least half a body3s length a$ay from a cave $all and opening. hair standing on end. A clear. humming of metal objects. the force #uadruples. shallo$ overhangs. isolated trees. b.::: feet. so e#uipment does not rust as #uickly. Al$ays pack some sort of emergency gear."treme care must be taken $hen moving off of or onto the glacier because of the moat that is most likely to be present. but dehydration is of greater concern. and normally attracted to high points and prominent features in mountain storms. clean rock $ithout cracks@ in scree fields@ or in deep indentations %depressions.: kilometers apart. +eek shelter around dry. rock $alls. . herefore. cracks filled $ith earth. crackling. and rock needles. his causes more fre#uent and denser fog on the $ind$ard slope. as a glacier makes a bend. sunny day in Euly could turn into a sno$storm in less than an hour. and a bluish light %+t. violent. caves*. the safest route on a glacier $ould be to the inside of bends. %. Air is dryer at higher altitudes. . sno$ can be e"pected any time of year in the temperate climates. Above appro"imately 5. and a$ay from steep slopes and icefalls. fi"ed $ire installations. . Approaching storms may be hard to spot if masked by local peaks. +igns indicative of thunderstorms are tingling of the skin. shallo$ depressions. c. e. cracks that guide $ater. Bike$ise. it is likely that crevasses $ill form at the outside of the bend. a. ridges. haAardous icefalls can be formed. d.

"pect flash floods in gullies or chimneys. 2uring and after rain. -ull your knees to your chest and keep both feet together. f. Al$ays $ear or pack appropriate clothing. g. Cool $inds at higher altitudes may mislead one into underestimating the sun3s intensity. the temperature drops appro"imately one degree &ahrenheit. 2angers from impending high $inds include frostbite %from increased $ind( chill factor*. /igher altitudes provide less filtering effects. i. rain. $hich may bury the trail. touch the $all $ith both feet together and hurry to the ne"t anchor. 2rink plenty of fluids. $hich can lead to sunburns and other heat injuries. % able . 72a!anche =ssues Avalanches occur $hen the $eight of accumulated sno$ on a slope e"ceeds the cohesive forces that hold the sno$ in place. +#uat on your haunches or sit on a rucksack or rope. h. >ne"pected sno$storms may occur in the summer $ith accumulations of . <e especially alert for falling objects that the rain has loosened. the sno$ #uickly melts. &or each . his can cause hypothermia and frostbite even in summer.(0 sho$s an avalanche haAard evaluation checklist. +no$shoes or skis may be needed in autumn or even late spring. $indburn. gullies may contain avalanches or sno$ sloughs.%0* Assume a one(point(of(contact body position. especially $hen combined $ith $ind. If already rappelling. If half $ay up the rock face. j. !ear protective clothing and plan the route to be finished before bad $eather arrives.0 to . .5 inches@ ho$ever. >se sunscreen and $ear hat and sunglasses. secure yourself $ith more than one point—lightning can burn through rope. A climber can be $ashed a$ay or even dro$ned if caught in a gully during a rainstorm.::(meter rise in altitude. e"pect slippery rock and terrain in general and adjust movement accordingly. If it is sno$ing. $hich leads to greater ultraviolet %>V* radiation intensity.* . and sno$. being blo$n about %especially $hile rappelling*. even if overcast. and debris being blo$n about.

7 degrees have avalanched. +no$ on north facing slopes is more likely to slide in mid$inter. 2angerous slab avalanches are more likely to occur on conve" slopes. +lopes as gentle as . but may occur on concave slopes. Cost avalanches occur on slopes bet$een 1: and '7 degrees. %.. +outh facing slopes are most dangerous in the spring and on . 72a!ance ha@ar& e2a!uation check!ist. %1* S!ope 7spect. +lopes above ): degrees often do not build up significant #uantities of sno$ because they are too steep. %0* S!ope 9ro#i!e.* S!ope 7ng!e. S!ope Sta i!ity.Ta !e )-. a. +lope stability is the key factor in determining the avalanche danger.

heavy e#uipment. Dn grassy slopes or scree. %'* (eight. +ustained $inds of . are usually responsible for major periods of avalanche activity. $arm days. +no$ pits can be used to determine slope stability. 2ig a 0(meter by 0(meter .ain falling on sno$ $ill increase its $eight and $eakens the sno$pack. %7* Ai ration. %0* 9recipitation. e"plosions. he rate at $hich sno$ falls is important. Cost avalanches occur during the $armer midday. Sno+ 9its. %1* (in&. settlement and adhesion occur slo$ly. Avalanches that occur during e"treme cold $eather usually occur during or immediately follo$ing a storm. About 8: percent of avalanches occur during or $ithin t$enty(four hours after a sno$storm. +no$ deposits may vary greatly $ithin a fe$ meters due to $ind and sun variations. -assing helicopters.sunny. +torms $ith a rise in temperature can deposit dry sno$ early.7 centimeters per hour or greater*. a sno$ pit dug across the fall line triggered the suspect slope*. %. Triggers. At temperatures above freeAing. At a temperature just belo$ freeAing. the sno$pack stabiliAes #uickly.7 miles per hour and over transport sno$ and form $ind slabs on the lee side of slopes. Various factors trigger avalanches. +lopes on the $ind$ard side are generally more stable than lee$ard slopes. $hich bonds poorly $ith the heavier sno$ deposited later.* Temperature. !hen the temperature is e"tremely lo$. . and earth tremors have triggered avalanches. especially $hen accompanied by $ind. /igh rates of sno$fall %0. %Dn at least one occasion. the potential for avalanche is high. b. . %. especially if temperatures rise #uickly. %'* <roun& Co2er. Cost victims trigger the avalanches that kill them.* 2ig the sno$ pit on the suspect slope or a slope $ith the same sun and $ind conditions.ough terrain is more stable than smooth terrain. c. the sno$ pack has little to anchor to.

then t$ice. %0* Conduct a shovel shear test. here are t$o types of sno$ avalanches: loose sno$ %point* and slab.utschblock test. s#uat once. Dnce above. he ne"t stage is adding $eight to the first leg. isolate a column slightly longer than the length of your sno$shoes or skis %same method as for the shovel shear test*. %a* A shovel shear test puts pressure on a representative sample of the sno$pack.6 Although they happen most fre#uently . his test provides a better understanding of the sno$pack strength.pit across the fall line. the person carefully places one sho$shoe or ski onto the block $ith no body $eight for the first stage of the test. place the other foot on the block. Types o# Sno+ 72a!anches. %. If the block is still holding up. he surface that eventually slides $ill be the layer to look at closer.* Boose sno$ avalanches start at one point on the sno$ cover and gro$ in the shape of an inverted 6V. he column should be of similar siAe to the blade of the shovel. ap $ith varying degrees of strength on the shovel to see $hat force it takes to create movement on the bed of the column. through all the sno$. =e"t. &or greater results you $ill need to do this test in many areas and formulate a scale for the varying methods of tapping the shovel. place the shovel face do$n on the top of the column. smooth the face $ith a shovel. o conduct the test. Dne person moves on their skis or sno$shoes above the block $ithout disturbing the block. use a rope or string to sa$ from side to side to the base of the column. o isolate the rear of the column. Dnce the pit is complete. he remaining stage is to jump up and land on the block. %1* Conduct a . he core of this test is to isolate a column of the sno$pack from three sides. and so on. %b* If the column remained standing $hile cutting the rear. 2ig out the sides of the column $ithout pressing against the column $ith the shovel %this affects the strength*. d. to the ground.

d. he fracture line $here the moving sno$ breaks a$ay from the sno$pack makes this type of avalanche easy to identify. a drop in temperature of .5 degrees &ahrenheit* $ould cause a sno$ slope 1:: meters $ide to contract 0 centimeters. %a* Cost slab avalanches occur during or shortly after a storm $hen slopes are loaded $ith ne$ sno$ at a critical rate. &or normal density. Barge avalanches of this type. hey often fall as many small sluffs during or shortly after a storm. their behavior becomes more unpredictable@ they may allo$ several people to ski across before releasing.during the $inter sno$ season. %1* +lab avalanches occur $hen cohesive sno$ begins to slide on a $eak layer. he old rule of never travel in avalanche terrain for a fe$ days after a storm still holds true. %b* As slabs become harder. -acked sno$ e"pands and contracts $ith temperature changes. Dther measures include: . 9rotecti2e :easures.: degrees Celsius %. they can occur at any time of the year in the mountains. +lab release is rapid. lubricated and $eighed do$n by melt$ater or rain can travel long distances and have tremendous destructive po$er. slab avalanches are generally considered more dangerous than loose sno$ avalanches. Avoiding kno$n or suspected avalanche areas is the easiest method of protection. %0* !et loose sno$ avalanches occur in spring and summer in all mountain ranges. Cany e"perts believe they are susceptible to rapid temperature changes.arly ski mountaineers in the Alps noticed that avalanches sometimes occurred $hen shado$s struck a previously sun( $armed slope. Although any avalanche can kill you. . Coastal ranges that have high temperatures and fre#uent rain are the most common areas for this type of avalanche. his process removes sno$ from steep upper slopes and either stabiliAes lo$er slopes or loads them $ith additional sno$. settled sno$.

as $ell as protect your spine. either climb to the top of the slope or descend to the bottom—$ell out of the $ay of the run(out Aone.%.oute Se!ection. ridges. +hould you encounter a dangerous slope. !hen you must ascend a dangerous slope. +end one person across the suspect slope at a time $ith the rest of the group $atching. Close up your clothing to prepare for hypothermia. climb to the side of the avalanche path. Iour pack can act as a flotation device. +electing the correct route $ill help avoid avalanche prone areas.* he safest routes are on ridge tops. or rocky outcrops as islands of safety. >se them for lunch and rest stops. Cake avalanche probes and shovels accessible. If you must traverse. pick a line $here you can traverse do$nhill as #uickly as possible.emove your hands from ski pole $rist straps. slightly on the $ind$ard side@ the ne"t safest route is out in the valley. .* $2i&ence o# 72a!anching. avoid moving during these periods. +pend as little time as possible on open slopes. Book for nature3s billboards on slopes similar to the one you are on. . %. f. Sta i!ity 7na!ysis. -ut your hood on. far from the bottom of slopes. Coving at night is tactically sound and may be safer. All members of the group should move in the same track from safe Aone to safe Aone. -repare to discard e#uipment. Book for recent avalanches and for signs of $ind(loading and $ind(slabs. %0* <roup Sa#ety. Al$ays allo$ a $ide margin of safety $hen making your decision. %'* +ince most avalanches occur $ithin t$enty(four hours of a storm and or at midday. $hich is al$ays the best choice. %0* Avoid cornices from above or belo$. ?eep your pack on at all times—do not discard. 2eploy avalanche cord.* 9ersona! Sa#ety. e. 2etach ski runa$ay cords. %1* ake advantage of dense timber. and not directly up the center. . %.

do not fight it. BI&. all of $hich reduce the amount of o"ygen needed. <e$are of hollo$ sounds—a 6$humping6 noise.#uipment can injure or burden you@ discarded e#uipment $ill indicate your position to rescuers. %1* Soun&s. no one can hear you scream. %1* If your head goes under the sno$. %+ee Appendi" C for information on search and rescue techni#ues.* 2iscard e#uipment. it may be impossible to dig yourself out. %)* ry to rela". shut your mouth. 2on3t struggle to free yourself—you $ill only $aste energy and o"ygen. Avoid any slopes sho$ing cracks. ID>. If you feel yourself about to pass out. and position your hands and arms to form an air pocket in front of your face. . %7* !hen the sno$ comes to rest it sets up like cement and even if you are only partially buried. %'* !hen you sense the slo$ing of the avalanche. %0* +$im or roll to stay on tope of the sno$. 2on3t shout unless you hear rescuers immediately above you@ in sno$. he respiration of an unconscious person is more shallo$. +everal victims have been found #uickly because a hand or foot $as sticking above the surface. hey may suggest a radical settling of the sno$pack. hold your breath. %.%0* Fracture 8ines. and the body temperature is lo$ered. g. Cany avalanche victims suffocate by having their mouths and noses plugged $ith sno$. &I9/ &D. their pulse rate declines. he follo$ing steps should be follo$ed if caught in an avalanche. -eople trigger avalanches that bury people. If you feel your feet touch the ground. Sur2i2a!. they $ould avoid the avalanche. !ork to$ard the edge of the avalanche. give a hard push and try to 6pop out6 onto the surface..* :ountain 8i2ing . you must try your hardest to reach the surface. If these people recogniAed the haAard and chose a different route.

communications. Caintaining fluid balance is a major problem in mountain operations. he sense of thirst may be dulled by high elevations despite the greater threat of dehydration. locating $ater. a. 'raining should reflect the harsh mountain environment and should consider the following* H H H H H H H emperature and altitude e"tremes /ygiene and sanitation Bimited living space %difficulty of bivouac* Clothing re#uirements Survival Acclimatization and Conditioning Medical Considerations Sur2i2a! he soldier trained to fight and survive in a mountain environment $ill have increased confidence in himself. health haAards. he soldier must make an effort to drink li#uids even $hen he does not feel thirsty. or the . 'raining should be conducted as realistically as possible. &luids lost through respiration. perspiration. ()tended training e)ercises test support facilities and e)pose the soldier to the isolation common to mountain operations. raining in $ater discipline should be emphasiAed to ensure soldiers drink $ater only from approved sources. raining should include: psychological preparation. /ard $ork and overheating increase the perspiration rate. and urination must be replaced if the soldier is to operate efficiently. preferably under severe conditions so the soldier gains confidence. (ater Supp!y Countain $ater should never be assumed safe for consumption. /yperventilation and the cool.(4)*. and movement% re&uire specialized techni&ues. fire building. dry atmosphere bring about a three( to four(fold increase in $ater loss by evaporation through the lungs. Dne #uart of $ater. #ormal activities $navigation.Units deploying to high elevations must receive advanced training to survive in the harsh mountain environment. shelter considerations. and techni#ues for obtaining food %see &C 0.

0 #uarts %. should be drunk every four hours@ more should be drunk if the unit is conducting rigorous physical activity. About 47 percent of the human body is li#uid.7 percent of body $eight* is usually fatal. If the $ater supply is insufficient. and po$dered beverages may supplement and encourage $ater intake %do not add these until the $ater has been treated since the purification tablets may not $ork*. =onpotable $ater must not be mistaken for . Consuming the usual military rations %three meals a day* provides sufficient sodium replacement. +alt lost by s$eating should be replaced in meals to avoid a deficiency and subse#uent cramping. Conserve $ater for drinking. +no$. and a loss of . springs. severe cramping may result. A loss of t$o #uarts of body fluid %0. All chemical activities in the body occur in $ater solution. . All $ater that is to be consumed must be potable. $hich assists in removing to"ic $astes and in maintaining an even body temperature. . -otable $ater in the mountains may be in short supply.e#uivalent. If he is hot and the $ater is cold. +alt tablets are not necessary and may contribute to dehydration. c. Any temporary deficiency should be replaced to maintain ma"imum performance. -urification must be accomplished. 2o not contaminate or pollute $ater sources. no matter ho$ clear the sno$ or $ater appears. Fuickly drinking a large volume of $ater may actually slo$ the soldier. mountain streams. Celting sno$ into $ater re#uires an increased amount of fuel and should be planned accordingly. juices. thirst should be satisfied in increments. physical activity must be reduced. 2rinking $ater must be taken only from approved sources or purified to avoid disease or the possible use of polluted $ater. &ruits. and lakes provide good sources of $ater supply. -ure $ater should al$ays be kept in reserve for first aid use. A basic rule is to drink small amounts often. hree to si" #uarts of $ater each day should be consumed. d. ho$ever.ven $hen $ater is plentiful. rain.7 percent of body $eight* decreases physical efficiency by 07 percent. +oldiers cannot adjust permanently to a decreased $ater intake. b. e.mphasis must be placed on the three rules of $ater discipline: • • • 2rink only treated $ater.

2ecreased consumption may result in malnutrition because of the unpleasant taste . Boss of $eight usually stops $ith acclimatiAation. <ecause higher altitudes affect eating habits. !ater is scarce above the timberline.::: feet*. If possible. may be used for other purposes such as bathing. high mountain areas freeAe. !ater should be protected from freeAing by storing it ne"t to a soldier or by placing it in a sleeping bag at night. 3utrition +uccess in mountain operations depends on proper nutrition. !ater should be collected at midday $hen the sun tha$ available. precautions must be taken. $hich may re#uire personnel to heat their individual rations. b. !ater should be treated $ith purification tablets %iodine tablets or calcium hypochlorite*. A high carbohydrate diet may lessen the symptoms of acute mountain sickness and is digested better than fat at high altitudes. After sundo$n.'. or by boiling at least one to t$o minutes. +olar stills may be erected if time and sunlight conditions permit %see &C 0. at least one hot meal each day should be eaten. . defense*. a $atering party should be employed. f. At progressively higher elevations %greater than . the tolerance of fattyKhigh(protein foods rapidly decreases. he follo$ing elements are characteristic of nutritional acclimatiAation in mountain operations: • • • • !eight loss during the first t$o to three days at high elevation."ternal cooling %pouring $ater over the head and chest* is a $aste of $ater and an inefficient means of cooling. but other$ise not dangerous. +oldiers must be trained to avoid $asting $ater. 2rinking $ater often is the best $ay to maintain a cool and functioning body.(4)*. and sno$ and ice may be available for melting to provide $ater. In areas $here $ater trickles off rocks. Increased fatigue may cause soldiers to become disinterested in eating properly.drinking $ater. A loss of appetite $ith symptoms of mountain sickness. a shallo$ reservoir may be dug to collect $ater %after the sediment settles*. &iltering $ith commercial $ater purification pumps can also be conducted. After setting up a perimeter %patrol base. assembly area. !ater that is unfit to drink. a.

fish. Beaders should ensure that fuel tablets and s#uad stoves are available. eggs. it does increase morale and a sense of $ell being. . or milk proteins. eggs. Cain sources of fats are meats. Although there is no physiological need for hot food. &ats provide the body around 8 kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire less energy for the body to digest than protein but more than carbohydrates. and minerals. metabolic changes. or that natural flammable materials are used if possible. cheese. poultry. are absorbed through the intestine into the blood. energy. is 5 ounces for a . &ats are the body3s natural stored source of energy. Boss of $eight in the first fe$ days occurs because of dehydration. fats. &ats are the most concentrated form of food energy. c. hree major food components are re#uired to maintain a $ell(functioning body: proteins. Df the total daily caloric intake. are an effective means of increasing carbohydrates. milk. hese food components provide energy. Carbohydrate(containing beverages.of cold rations.7'(pound man. %. he minimum daily protein re#uirement. vitamins. and are harder to digest at higher altitudes. milk. +ince amino acids are either o"idiAed for energy or stored as fats. he amino acids. All three components must be provided in the correct proportions to maintain a healthy body. -roteins consist of a large number of amino acid units that are linked together to form the protein. nuts. and carbohydrates. resulting from digestion of protein. hese proteins are not as balanced in essential amino acid composition as meat. and loss of appetite.* 9rotein. 07 to 1: percent may be supplied as fats. fiber. and cheese. -rotein re#uires $ater for digestion and may facilitate dehydration. %0* Fats. and legumes also provide amino acids. consuming e"cess protein is inefficient and may increase the $ater intake needed for urea nitrogen e"cretion. such as fruit juices and sports drinks. -roteins provide the body about four kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire the most energy for the body to digest. Dther foods such as cereals. and li#uid intake $hen the normal appetite response is blunted at altitude. +ources of readily useable animal proteins include eggs. and meats. regardless of physical activity. and are used to make or replace body proteins %muscle and body tissue*. butter. &ats re#uire more $ater and o"ygen. amino acids. vegetables.

+ince most $ater(soluble vitamins are not stored.* he efficiency of the body to $ork above the basal metabolism varies from 0: to ': percent. fruits. carbohydrates are found in the most important energy(producing cycles in the body3s cells. Carbohydrates should compose up to 7: percent of the total daily caloric intake. Cineral elements can be divided into t$o groups: those needed in the diet in amounts of . If carbohydrate intake e"ceeds energy needs. vegetables. . A $ell(balanced diet provides all of the re#uired vitamins. and Ainc. Dver 7: percent of caloric intake is released as heat and is not available $hen the soldier . A balanced diet containing ade#uate amounts of vitamins and minerals ensures an efficient metabolism.ating a balanced diet provides the energy needed to conduct daily activities and to maintain the internal body processes. and meats. he $ater(soluble vitamins include the < vitamins and vitamin C. a proper diet is necessary to ensure ade#uate levels of these vitamins. Carbohydrates are an important source of calories. Carbohydrates provide the body around four kilocalories of energy per gram and are the easiest to digest. %'* Aitamins. especially if this period is to e"ceed . he fat(soluble vitamins include vitamins A. =utritionally.%1* Car ohy&rates. and magnesium@ and trace elements needed in amounts of only a fe$ milligrams a day such as iodine.:: milligrams or more a day such as calcium. . d. vegetables. Barger amounts are converted into fats and stored in that form. phosphorous.e#uired minerals are contained in a balanced diet %meats. vegetables. and fruit. 2. depending on the soldier. %. In the form of glucose. moderate amounts are stored in the muscles and liver. Vitamins are classified into t$o groups on the basis of their ability to dissolve in fat or $ater.. $hich are found in cereals. a balanced diet is a necessity. %7* Cinerals. the most useful sources of carbohydrates are foods such as unrefined grains. +ince climbing is a strenuous activity and demands high(energy use. iron. fruits*.: days. vitamin supplements should be considered. and ?. . If an improper and unbalanced diet is likely to occur during a deployment.

"tra food should be carried in case resupply operations fail. +ince fats and protein are harder to digest. shortness of breath. %About '. 2uring inactivity in cold $eather. +hivering also re#uires energy and burns up to 00: calories per hour %estimated for a . and illness. and fuel tablets should be protected from the $ind. the metabolism may not provide enough heat. %'* !arm meals should be provided $hen possible. the heat source must be kept a$ay from e#uipment and ammunition. the soldier e"periences physiological acclimatiAation.::(pound man*... marked. At higher elevations. herefore. . %0* !ith an abrupt ascent to high altitudes. relatively light meals that are high in carbohydrates are best $hile acclimatiAing at higher elevations. and cider should also be considered. . tea. <ouillon cubes can replace $ater and salt as $ell as $arming cold bodies and stimulating the appetite.7:: calories are e"pended for strenuous $ork and 1. fruits. and hot chocolate are diuretics."ertion causes e"cessive bodily heat loss through perspiration and increased radiation. Barge meals may be accompanied by indigestion. metal containers. o conserve fuel. -ersonnel should eat moderately and rest before strenuous physical activity. juices. Ceals( ready(to(eat %C. fires. cramps. >se stoves and heat . he 6internal thermostat6 initiates and causes the muscles to shiver. the consumption of these beverages should not be relied upon for hydration. beginning in the morning and continuing through mid(afternoon. are important in maintaining energy levels. the cooking time may be doubled. &ood should be light$eight and easy to digest. cereal bars. stoves.s* meet these criteria and provide all of the basic food groups. %1* . juices. !hen cooking. A diet high in carbohydrates is not as dense in energy and may re#uire eating more often.7:: calories for garrison activity.* /eat is a by(product of e"ertion. /ot beverages of soup. candies.s $ith breakfast bars. he circulatory system labors to provide the needed o"ygen to the body. and chocolate. Barge meals re#uire the digestive system to $ork harder than usual to assimilate food."tra fuel should be stored in tightly sealed. Commanders may consider supplementing C. Carbohydrates. thus releasing heat. less digestive disturbances may occur if meals are eaten before resting. and be eaten hot or cold. po$dered milk. +ince coffee.$orks.

!ater(based creams and lotions should be avoided in cold environments since this $ill further dehydrate tissues and induce frostbite by freeAing. nose. they should be avoided $hen operating in e"tremely cold conditions or at high altitudes.* +no$ may be used instead of toilet paper. As all missions are tactical. a. !hen operating in areas . In freeAing $eather. he teeth must also be cleaned to avoid diseases of the teeth and gums. and burial sites. garbage should be burned or deep buried. Commanders must conduct fre#uent inspections to ensure that personal habits of hygiene are not neglected. All food items and garbage are carried $ith the unit. no trace of a unit should be detected. but this should not be considered a substitute for bathing. %. mainly during periods of cold $eather. his is especially important in the high mountains. herefore. medications. and eyelids. +no$ baths in lieu of a $ater bath are recommended. %7* Certain drugs. 9ersona! -ygiene. hydration. +tandards must be maintained as a deterrent to disease. +unscreens and chap sticks should be used on lips. If possible. Canteen cups and utensils should be cleaned after use. and smoking have adverse effects on the circulation. the soldier should e"amine his skin and clean it often. and judgment of soldiers. 9ersona! -ygiene an& Sanitation he principles of personal hygiene and sanitation that govern operations on lo$ terrain also apply in the mountains. and as reinforcement to discipline and morale. the soldier may neglect $ashing due to the cold temperatures and scarcity of $ater. his helps reduce skin infections and aids the comfort of the soldier.tabs for $arming food and boiling $ater. Caution must be taken to prevent animals from foraging through rucksacks. perspiration. +oldiers should shave at rest periods in the shelter so that oils stripped in shaving $ill be replenished. alcohol. A beard may mask the presence of frostbite or lice. If bathing is difficult for any e"tended period. >nder$ear should be changed $hen possible. he non$ater(based creams can be used for shaving in lieu of soap. ahkios. his can result in skin infections and vermin infestation. opical steroid ointments should be carried for rashes.

In tactical situations. but must be #uickly dried. Cedical attention should be sought for any possible problems. they should be located do$n$ind from the position and buried after use. high roughage diet can be helpful in preventing constipation. and kept as dry and clean as possible. !henever changing socks. soldiers should closely e"amine their feet for $rinkles. his process stops about 4: percent of the s$eating in the feet. &eet should be $ashed daily. $hich may cause blisters. do$n$ind location a$ay from $ater sources may dig 6cat holes. Ade#uate $ater intake plus a lo$ protein. each soldier should carry a complete change of clothing.$here resupply is not possible. +leeping bags must be regularly cleaned and aired. If laundering of clothing is difficult. b. %'* 2uring periods of e"treme cold. clothes should be shaken and air(dried. &eet can be cleaned $ith sno$. he causes of such injuries are present throughout the year in high mountains. If regular foot $ashing is impossible. %1* &eet should be sprayed t$o or three times a day $ith an aluminum chlorohydrate antiperspirant for a $eek and then once a day for the rest of the $inter. alc or antifungal po$der should be used $hen massaging@ e"cess po$der is brushed off to avoid clumping. Sanitation. digging latrines is usually difficult. cracks.6 +ince $aste freeAes. If fissures or cracks occur in the feet. Bong nails $ear out socks@ short nails do not provide proper support for the ends of the toes. his condition is brought about by the desire to avoid the inconvenience and discomfort of defecating. <oots should be laced tightly $hen climbing to provide needed support but not so tight as to constrict circulation. it can . it is best to discontinue spraying until they are healed or to spray less often to control s$eating. %0* he principles of foot hygiene must be follo$ed to protect the feet from cold injuries. blisters. there is a tendency for the soldier to become constipated. If latrines are constructed. and discoloration. the soldier in a designated. =ails should be trimmed but not too short. dried. In rocky or froAen ground. +ocks should be $orn $ith no $rinkles since this causes blisters on the feet. socks should be changed often %at halts and rest periods or at least once a day* and feet massaged. and sprinkled $ith foot po$der.

::: feet results in a degradation of the body greater than the benefits gained.'. most unacclimatiAed soldiers may display some altitude effects. Very high altitude is the region from . some soldiers $ill have some impairment of operating efficiency at these lo$ altitudes. $here altitude illness is the rule. 2isappearance of the symptoms of acute mountain .::: feet are considered e"treme altitudes. Coderate altitude is from 7. or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC. +oldiers deployed to high mountainous elevations re#uire a period of acclimatiAation before undertaking e"tensive military operations. At these altitudes. /igh altitude e"tends from 5.::: feet.*. some soldiers can suffer from acute mountain sickness %AC+*. In rocky areas above the timberline.::: to 5. he indigenous populations can out(perform even the most acclimatiAed and physically fit soldier $ho is brought to this altitude@ therefore.::: feet. $here arterial blood o"ygen saturation ranges from 80 percent do$n to 5: percent.::: feet and ending at . conditioning.5. and effects of altitude are mild and temporary. Above 5.::: feet. ime must be allocated for acclimatiAation. raining in mountains of lo$ or medium elevation %7.::: feet* does not re#uire special conditioning and acclimatiAation procedures. raining should be conducted at progressively higher altitudes.::: feet. starting at about 5. /ere. Bo$ altitude is sea level to 7. he acclimatiAation process begins immediately upon arrival at the higher elevation.5.be covered $ith sno$ and ice or pushed do$n a crevasse. he e"pectation that freshly deployed. unacclimatiAed troops can go immediately into action is unrealistic. Areas above .'.::: to .::: feet %high elevation*.::: feet.::: to 5.*. and could be disastrous if the opposing force is acclimatiAed.'. high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-. 7cc!imati@ation errestrial altitude can be classified into five categories. arterial blood is 8) percent saturated $ith o"ygen in most people. If the change in elevation is large and abrupt. Attempts to acclimatiAe beyond . employment of the local population may be advantageous. Symptoms an& 7&>ustments A person is said to be acclimatiAed to high elevations $hen he can effectively perform physically and mentally. /o$ever. Altitude illness is common here. arterial blood is greater than 80 percent saturated $ith o"ygen.::: to . .ven the physically fit soldier e"periences physiological and psychological degradation $hen thrust into high elevations. and training of soldiers.4. $aste may be covered $ith stones.

apid ascent to elevations of . 2ecreased ability for sustained concentration. . en to t$enty percent of soldiers $ho ascend rapidly %in less than 0' hours* to altitudes up to ). nutrition and physical activity it is about . only minimal physical $ork can be performed because of physiological changes. and the level of e"ertion and individual susceptibility.5 percent may have severe symptoms.'. .0 to .:. +ome of the behavioral effects that $ill be encountered in unacclimatiAed personnel include: • • • • • • • • • • • Increased errors in performing simple mental tasks. 2ecreased vigilance or lethargy. a. leaders have e"treme difficulty in maintaining a coordinated.::: feet $ill result in moderate symptoms in over 7: percent of the soldiers and . Immediately upon arrival at high elevations. he incidence and severity of AC+ symptoms vary $ith initial altitude.apid ascent to . . +leep disturbances.7:: feet causes severe. 2uring the first fe$ days at a high altitude. he altitude at $hich complete acclimatiAation is possible is not a set point but for most soldiers $ith proper ascent. Impairment of night vision and some constriction in peripheral vision %up to 1: percent at ).apid ascent to . he roughness of the terrain and the harshness and variability of the $eather add to the problems of .0. incapacitating symptoms in almost all individuals.sickness %from four to seven days* does not indicate complete acclimatiAation.::: feet e"perience some mild symptoms. /eadache.4.'. b.::: feet*. 2eterioration of memory.::: feet causes mild symptoms in 47 percent of personnel. Increased irritability in some individuals. Vigorous activity during ascent or $ithin the first 0' hours after ascent $ill increase both the incidence and severity of symptoms.::: to . +lurred speech. Eudgment and self(evaluation are impaired the same as a person $ho is into"icated. he process of adjustment continues for $eeks or months. Boss of appetite. operational unit. Irregular breathing.::: feet. the rate of ascent.

>nits must be physically and psychologically conditioned and adjusted before undertaking rigorous mountain operations. Although strong motivation may succeed in overcoming some of the physical handicaps imposed by the environment.+. a. !hen a soldier cannot $alk a straight line and has a loss of balance.::: feet for at least 0' hours*. training is a major influence on the success of mountain operations. >. Certain factors must be considered: • • • !hat are the climatic and terrain conditions of the area of operationsR /o$ much time is available for conditioning and trainingR !ill the unit conduct operations $ith other >.+. 9hysica! an& 9sycho!ogica! Con&itioning he commander must develop a conditioningKtraining program to bring his unit to a level $here it can operate successfully in mountain conditions. the total impact still results in errors of judgment. environment. or he suffers from an incapacitating headache. As $ith all military operations. he should be evacuated to a lo$er altitude %a descent of at least .unacclimatiAed personnel.. e"tensive preparations are needed to ensure individual and unit effectiveness. most closely resemble the area of operationsR • • • • • • .+. and enemy situation. or Allied forcesR Are there language barriersR !hat assistance $ill be re#uiredR !ill training and conditioning be re#uired for attached personnelR !hat additional personnel $ill accompany the unitR !ill they be available for training and conditioningR !hat is the current level of physical fitness of the unitR !hat is the current level of individual e"pertise in mountaineeringR !hat type of operations can be e"pectedR !hat is the composition of the advance partyR !ill they be available to assist in training and acclimatiAationR !hat areas in the >. herefore. forces do not routinely train in mountainous terrain. -riorities of training must be established. >nits must be conditioned and trained as a team to cope $ith the terrain.

. mission. $hich results in higher hydration levels %at least 07 percent increase per man per day*. hese drugs have side effects that mimic the signs and symptoms of AC+. a unit should ascend at a rate of .::: feet per day. ensuring sufficient amounts $hile individual metabolisms and bodies become accustomed to functioning at higher elevations. and rest must be considered as priorities. and the absence of acclimatiAation hampers the successful e"ecution of operations. these drugs are diuretics. deployment to higher elevations must consider the follo$ing: %. and. !hen the unit arrives in the area of operations.::: to 0. food.• • • • Are predeployment areas and ranges availableR 2oes the unit have instructors #ualified in mountain $arfareR !hat type e#uipment $ill be re#uired %to fit the season. >nits can leapfrog. +ince the acclimatiAation process cannot be shortened. he rigors of establishing an assembly area e"haust most unacclimatiAed personnel. terrain*R 2oes the unit have enough of the re#uired e#uipmentR 2o personnel kno$ ho$ to use the e#uipmentR !ill the e#uipment go $ith the advance party.::: feet. Additionally. or follo$ after the unit3s arrivalR 2oes e#uipment re#uire modificationR 2o $eapons and e#uipment re#uire special maintenanceR • • b. Ine"perienced medics may have difficulty recogniAing the differences bet$een the side effects of the drug and a condition that could possibly be life threatening.. !ater.* Above 5. he time schedule should allo$ for longer and more fre#uent periods of rest. if in a $inter environment. $ater purification supplies. %0* >nits should not resort to the use of pharmaceutical pretreatment $ith carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide %2iamo"*. time to ac#uire $ater. c. hese higher hydration levels create a larger logistical demand on the unit by re#uiring more $ater. $ith the unit. fuels for melting sno$ and ice for $ater. all personnel re#uire a period of conditioning and acclimatiAation. taking an e"tended rest period.

the better the chance of avoiding e"haustion. the metabolism becomes more efficient. hey overcome their fear of heights by becoming familiar $ith the problem. his increases the soldier3s endurance. and special e#uipment loads.%1* Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide are effective in the treatment of mild and severe AC+. +oldiers $ho have lived on flat terrain may have difficulty $hen learning to negotiate steep slopes or cliffs. and blood and o"ygen flo$ #uickly and effectively. hey must be taught the many climbing techni#ues and principles of mountain movement.egardless of previous training and the amount of flat cross(country movement practice. . the soldier3s . the men ac#uire confidence and ability to safely negotiate the terrain. e. hey must be slo$ly introduced to the ne$ terrain and encouraged to develop the confidence re#uired to negotiate obstacles $ith assurance and ease. d. his conditions the back and legs. A physical fitness training program that gradually increases in difficulty should include marches. $hile carrying D. he body improves its capacity for e"ercise. A different group of muscles are used. and calisthenics. developing a sense of insecurity and fear. . the untrained soldier finds mountain movement hard and tiring. hrough a sustained high level of muscular e"ertion. he better the physical condition of the soldier. f. he soldier cannot be forced to disregard this fear. climbing. $hich results in increased ability and endurance. the incidence of altitude sickness is more likely than $ith a gradual ascent. At the same time.ven if inactivity follo$s deployment. raining on high(altitude effects can prevent psychological preconceptions. Coving troops directly to high altitude can increase the probability of altitude sickness. -roper physical conditioning ensures the soldier is an asset and not a liability. hese drugs should accompany attached medical personnel because they can treat the soldier suffering the symptoms of AC+ and. $hich must be developed and hardened. A ne$ techni#ue of rhythmic movement must be learned. %'* 2o not move troops directly to high altitudes even if allo$ances can be made for inactivity for the first three to five days before mission commitment. although rest may be re#uired evacuation may not be needed. +uch conditioning is attained through fre#uent marches and climbs.

Countain sickness and other illnesses may also occur. here are no #uick and easy methods to becoming acclimatiAed and conditioned. >pon deploying to high elevations. to the point of instinctive reaction. personnel can still become injured %sprains. =!!ness an& =n>ury >nits operating in mountainous regions are e"posed to varied types of injuries and illnesses not associated $ith other areas. It is e#ually important to instill the $ill to climb. Cedical considerations are like those for other environments@ ho$ever. Confidence goes hand in hand $ith physical conditioning and skill development. Cost injuries in the mountain environment are soft tissue injuries. there are some uni#ue aspects of mountain operations to be considered if effective support is to be provided.capacity for e"ertion is increased. and circulatory support. g. -hysical conditioning should include long( distance running for aerobic conditioning@ calisthenics and $eight training to strengthen the heart.vacuation of the sick and $ounded is compounded by the terrain and $eather. the most life threatening are treated first $ith the emphasis on air$ay control.epetitive practice. frostbite. contusions and fractures. caution must be e"ercised by units that are in superior physical condition. legs. After acclimatiAation. &acilities and supplies may be inade#uate to treat all victims. back. fractures. :e&ica! Consi&erations Improper acclimatiAation poses many problems for medical personnel. is key to learning and maintaining climbing proficiency and technical skills. Conditioning should begin $ith basic climbing. and trench foot*. . and mountaineering skills are realiAed. he heart rate. abdomen. arms. conditioning. metabolism. strains. A conditioning program must be set up on site and integrated in gradual stages $here acclimatiAation. . raining should gradually challenge the soldier over an e"tended period and reinforce learning skills. and hands@ a s$imming program to increase lung efficiency@ and road marches over mountainous terrain $ith all combat e#uipment. lungs. As $ith any other injuries. breathing management. and lungs must become accustomed to the elevation and thinner air. abrasions. +kills in basic first aid are essential to the mountain leader and should be reinforced $ith regular sustainment training. hese include sprains. . hypothermia. strains.

In severe cases chills. and seek medical attention.:: and . +unburn is the burning of e"posed skin surfaces by ultraviolet radiation. 2ue to the long $avelengths of ultraviolet light. hese types of injuries can be just as incapacitating as most other injuries but usually are not fatal. Immediate first aid is given on site. Dn cloudy days the soldier tends not to $ear sunglasses or sunscreen. he . he skin may be $arm to the touch. %. and e"posure to intense ultraviolet rays for e"tended periods.endeAvous points are coordinated $ith medical units as far for$ard as possible. burning.7::.. he peak hours of ultraviolet %>V* radiation are bet$een the hours of . Sun urn.Treatment an& $2acuation In harsh mountain $eather. 2o not pop blisters. If blisters do break. A solution of vinegar %acetic* and $ater can be lightly applied $ith sterile gauAe to alleviate burning. %1* o treat sunburn. $ash thoroughly. the most important course of action is to provide injured soldiers $ith medical aid as soon as possible.* Contributing factors include fair skin. red or blistered skin $ith a slight s$elling. bandage. raining must be accomplished $ith all litter bearers on evacuation techni#ues and first aid. So!ar =n>uries +olar injuries can happen in $arm $eather or in cold $eather. a. Dn sunny days the soldier takes more care due to the bright conditions. apply cool saline dressings to alleviate pain and s$elling. medical units can seldom reach unit aid stations by vehicle to evacuate casualties. cloudy days can be more dangerous than sunny days. fever. . improper use of para(amino benAoic acid %-A<A*(based sunscreens. and headaches may occur. Bitter bearers are re#uired to move casualties to the rear $here they can be evacuated by ground or air to clearing stations. he victim is protected from the $eather and shock during transportation. Bightly $ounded personnel may need assistance to move over rough terrain. %0* +ymptoms of sunburn are painful. 2ue to rough terrain.

improvise slit glasses from materials such as cardboard or birch bark.tannic acid in used tea bags can also be applied to alleviate burning. %Currently. b. red.* In an emergency. Victims are rarely in need of evacuation unless the case is unusually severe.7 means that skin can be e"posed to >V rays . patch both eyes $ith cold compresses for 0' hours. . use #uality sunglasses even on cloudy days in sno$(covered terrain. opical anesthetics such as etracaine Dphthalmic can be used to relieve pain. hey are less filtered at high altitudes than at lo$ altitudes. Administer pain medication if needed. the sunscreen should be regularly reapplied to maintain the +-&. keep the victim3s eyes patched and administer oral pain medication. -roper sunglasses should provide . %'* o prevent sno$ blindness. Sno+ !in&ness.* A contributing factor is the reflection of sunlight from all directions off the sno$. an +-& of .+. he +-& means that you can stay e"posed to the suns >V rays that many times longer than $ithout it. skin should be covered $ith clothing or -A<A( based sunscreens %at least sun protection factor S+-&T . $atery eyes@ a gritty feeling@ blurred vision@ and a headache. %1* o treat sno$blindness. +no$blindness is sunburn of the cornea of the eye caused by e"posure to ultraviolet radiation.7* should be applied liberally to e"posed skin during the peak hours of >V e"posure.:: percent >VA and >V< protection and have hoods on the sides to prevent reflected light from entering the eye. ice. >ltraviolet rays can cause vision problems even on cloudy days. Avoid rubbing the eyes. %. Army does not have these types of 6glacier6 sunglasses in their inventory and they must be ac#uired from nonmilitary sources.* 2uring sustained activity.7 times longer than $ithout sunscreen. %&or e"ample. the >. +no$blindness $ill usually resolve in about 0' hours for mild to moderate cases. and $ater. %'* o prevent sunburn. If still painful. %0* +ymptoms of sno$blindness are painful.

dehydration. most of these accidents can be prevented by proper planning to include: timely re#uisition and receipt of supplies and proper clothing@ thorough training of personnel $ith respect to the haAards of cold $eather@ effective methods for the receipt. !ind speed can accelerate body heat loss under both $et and cold conditions.: degrees Celsius %7: degrees &ahrenheit*. emperature alone is not a reliable guide as to $hether a cold injury can occur. and e#uipment@ and personnel receiving a balance of $ater. move.Co!&-(eather =n>uries Cold($eather injuries can occur during any season of the year. . and nutrition. Cold injuries result from impaired circulation and the action of ice formation and cold upon the tissues of the body.0. he most important measure in the prevention of cold($eather injuries is the education of personnel and their leaders. he freeAing type is kno$n as frostbite. !armth and comfort become the top priorities. personnel. Intense cold affects the mind as $ell as the body. a. he nonfreeAing type includes hypothermia. but freeAing temperatures are not. +imple tasks take longer to perform. !hen $eather conditions become e"treme the problems of survival become more significant.*. Bo$ temperatures are needed for cold injuries to occur. Cold injuries may be divided into t$o types: freeAing and nonfreeAing. All commanders and subordinate leadersKinstructors must be familiar $ith and carry 9 A 7(5(. $hich includes a $ind chill e#uivalent temperature chart %&igure 0(. and use of cold($eather data@ periodic inspections of clothing. rest. /o$ever. 2eath has resulted in temperatures as high as . dissemination. and they take more effort than in a temperate climate. and fight in $inter conditions. +oldiers must be prepared to survive. A loss of body heat combined $ith shock produces devastating results. and immersion foot. b. he effects of e"treme cold and the probability of injury are magnified due to the lack of proper diet and sleep.

* 9re2ious Co!& =n>uries. he temperature of the air %or $ater* surrounding the body is critical to heat regulation. -ersonnel from $armer climates are more susceptible to cold injury than those from colder climates. Cany other factors in various combinations determine if cold injuries $ill occur. &or e"ample.-). (in& chi!! chart. c.Figure . %7* (in& Chi!! Factor. %0* . If a soldier has had a cold injury before. %1* <eographic 6rigin. %.ace. the body uses more heat to maintain the temperature of the skin $hen the temperature of the surrounding air is 14 degrees &ahrenheit than $hen it is 7: degrees &ahrenheit. !hen the forecast gives a figure that falls $ithin the increased . <lacks are more susceptible to cold($eather injuries than Caucasians. he is at higher risk for subse#uent cold injuries. he commander should kno$ the $ind chill factor. %'* 7m ient Temperature.

8—Boose and in layers %to trap air and to conserve body heat*. %4* Terrain. %5* C!othing. he e#uivalent $ind chill temperature is especially important $hen the ambient temperature is : degrees Celsius %10 degrees &ahrenheit* or less. D—2ry. he uniform should be $orn completely and correctly to avoid injury to e"posed body surfaces. he lo$er the $ind chill.D. !ind chill is the rate of cooling.8. !et clothing loses insulation value.6. %)* Type o# :ission. he ambient temperature alone determines freeAing or nonfreeAing injuries. accumulation of perspiration. caution must be taken to minimiAe cold injury. &rostbite !ind chill may cause faster cooling due to increased convection. but not belo$ the ambient temperature. Clothing for cold $eather should be $orn $ith the acronym C. therefore. 6—Dverheating. Appropriate measures should be taken $hen a change in $eather or activity alters the amount of clothing needed to prevent overheating and. ?eep dry. issue can freeAe if e"posed for a prolonged period and if fre#uent $arming is not practiced. !ind does not lo$er the ambient temperature. or not having an opportunity to $arm up increases the possibility of cold injuries. • C—Clothing should be clean since prolonged $ear reduces its air(trapping abilities and clogs air spaces $ith dirt and body oils. Combat action re#uiring prolonged immobility and long hours of e"posure to lo$ temperatures. he cold($eather uniform is complete $hen $orn $ith gloves and inserts. in mind. the faster tissue freeAing can occur.danger Aone or beyond. Cinimal cover and $et conditions increase the potential for cold injury. • • • . Avoid overheating.

$hich in turn can accelerate shock. and the consumption of $ater is important to retain proper hydration.7* 3utrition. !ithin the usual age range of combat personnel. !ell(trained and disciplined soldiers suffer less than others from the cold. Commanders should ensure that the follo$ing measures are taken.a&ica! Changes in the (eather.0* Fatigue."cess activity %overheating* results in loss of large amounts of body heat by perspiration. %. he most overlooked factor causing cold injuries is dehydration. 9ood nutrition is essential for providing the body $ith fuel to produce heat in cold $eather. !ater conducts heat more rapidly than air %07 percent*.* 7ge. %. !hen the skin or clothing becomes damp or $et. !eather can #uickly change to e"tremely cold and $et conditions.)* $Bcess 7cti2ity. Injuries resulting in shock or blood loss reduce blood flo$ to e"tremities and may cause the injured individual to be susceptible to cold injury. the risk of cold injury is greatly increased. Cental $eariness may cause apathy leading to neglect of duties vital to survival. his loss of body heat combined $ith the loss of insulation value provided by the clothing %due to perspiration dampening the clothing* can subject a soldier to cold injuries. d. age is not a significant factor.4* .:* Dehy&ration. . he number of calories consumed normally increases as the temperature becomes colder. %. !eather conditions in mountainous terrain are kno$n to change considerably throughout the day. %. %. .1* Concomitant =n>ury. Individuals must retain their body fluids.. In cold $eather the human body needs special care. %. %.%8* :oisture.'* Discip!ine? Training? an& $Bperience. especially in higher elevations. %.

Cedical procedures are needed $hen sickness and injuries occur. he direct heat loss from the body to its surrounding atmosphere is called radiation heat loss. -erform emergency first aid.a&iation. Beaders should— • • • • • • • Assess the situation %tactical and environmental*. personnel must keep all e"tremities covered to retain heat.* .%. <ody heat may be lost through radiation. . e."ecute the plan and monitor the victim3s condition. he head can radiate up to 5: percent of the total body heat output. %0* Con&uction. +oldiers should not move out at a force march pace and then be stationary after they have perspired heavily. f. convection. and careful. Approach the victim safely %avoid rock or sno$ slide*. his accounts for the largest amount of heat lost from the body. Check for other injuriesKcold injuries.* +oldiers3 uniforms are kept as dry as possible and are protected from the elements. Conduction is the direct transfer of heat from one object in contact $ith another %being rained on or sitting in sno$*. %7* he rate of movement should be slo$. deliberate. %. +oldiers should not $ear e"cessive cold( $eather clothing $hile moving. . Dn cold days. reat for shock %al$ays assume that shock is present*. %'* All soldiers $aterproof their e#uipment. %0* +oldiers are educated on proper use of clothing systems to avoid the effects of overheating and perspiration %layer dressing and ventilate*. conduction. 2evelop a course of action %decide on a means of evacuation*. %1* he buddy system is used to $atch for early signs of cold($eather injuries. or evaporation.

2ressing in layers allo$s soldiers to remove or add clothing as needed. !et clothing can cause heat loss by conduction and evaporation. and possibly death. $hich increases the instance and severity of a cold($eather injury. and loss of blood. Convection is the loss of heat due to moving air or $ater in contact $ith the skin.%1* Con2ection. %'* $2aporation. pain. o treat shock. s$eating. or feet. restore breathing and heart rate through artificial respiration or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. %b* 'reatment. Any illness or injury can produce shock. +ome of the most common cold($eather injuries are described in the follo$ing paragraphs. Cake the victim as comfortable as possible and try to relieve the pain. %. If the victim is not given ade#uate first aid immediately. !ind chill is convection cooling. fear. . he evaporation of perspiration causes heat loss. he victim should receive proper medical attention as soon as possible. %0* Dehy&ration.levate the back and head. reat the injury and control hemorrhaging. cold skin. %a* Symptoms.* Shock. g. +hock is the depressed state of vital organs due to the cardiovascular %heart* system not providing enough blood. If the victim is conscious and has no abdominal injuries. rapid and faint pulse. his condition may digress into incoherence. +hock should be assumed in all injuries and treated accordingly. 2ehydration is the loss of body fluids to the point that normal body functions are prevented or slo$ed. . administer $ater. Clothing that ventilates. Although shock is not a cold($eather injury. and protects must control the layer of $arm air ne"t to the skin. slo$er heart beat. shortness of breath. unconsciousness. ?eep the victim $arm but do not overheat him. and e"cessive thirst. his is usually caused by . Initial symptoms of shock include apprehension. it is a symptom or a result of other injuries. insulates.ven minor injuries can produce shock due to cold.

the victim is probably hypothermic@ if it is $arm. decreased amounts of urine being produced. hey may. dry mouth. higher temperature. lack of appetite. Coffee and tea are diuretics and cause e"cessive urination and should be avoided. 2ark amber colored urine instead of light yello$ or the absence of a need to urinate upon a$akening from a night3s sleep are indicators of dehydration. he symptoms of dehydration are similar to those of hypothermia. If the stomach is cold. fainting. +ymptoms of dehydration include darkening urine. he is probably dehydrated.overe"ertion and improper $ater intake. /o$ever. in fact. A soldier needs about three to si" #uarts of $ater each day to prevent dehydration $hen living and performing physical labor in a cold or mountainous environment. It contributes to poor performance in all physical activities—even more so than lack of food. as much as t$o liters of li#uid may be lost each day through respiration. this test is not conclusive since cold($eather . Cold causes fre#uent urination. he air in cold climates and at high altitudes lacks moisture. Combined $ith a rapid rate of breathing. 2ehydration precedes all cold( $eather injuries and is a major symptom in acute mountain sickness. open the victim3s clothes and feel the stomach. &actors that contribute to dehydration in cold $eather are: • • • • he thirst mechanism does not function properly in cold $eather. %b* Symptoms. headache. upset stomach. diAAiness. mental sluggishness. At high altitudes. o distinguish bet$een them. tiredness. and unconsciousness. the air is dry. rapid heartbeat. he ade#uacy of li#uid intake can best be judged by the urine color and volume. Cold $eather re#uirements for $ater are no different than in the desert. hirst is not a good indicator of hydration. %a* Contributing +actors. e"ceed desert re#uirements because of the increased difficulty in moving $ith e"tra clothing and through the sno$. !ater is often inconvenient to obtain and purify.

%a* Contributing +actors. Change in $eather. he cold environment may act as a diuretic and impair the body3s ability to conserve fluid %cold(induced diuresis and increased rate of urination*. /ypothermia is classified as mild %core temperature above 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius* or severe %core temperature belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius*. ?eep the victim $arm and treat for shock. Allo$ the victim to rest. evacuate him to a medical facility immediately. In advanced cases. 2iarrhea. -oor nutrition. administer fluids by mouth if the victim is conscious.dehydrating can also lead to total body cooling. . %1* -ypothermia. /ypothermia can occur even on moderate days $ith temperatures of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit $ith little precipitation if heat loss e"ceeds heat gain and the condition of the soldier is allo$ed to deteriorate. /ypothermia is the lo$ering of the body core temperature at a rate faster than the body can produce heat. -revent dehydration by consuming three to si" #uarts of fluids each day %forced drinking in the absence of thirst is mandatory* and avoid caffeine and alcohol. /igh $inds. An individual is considered to be 6clinically hypothermic6 $hen the core temperature is less than or e#ual to 87 degrees &ahrenheit. /ypothermia may be caused by e"posure or by sudden $etting of the body such as falling into a lake or being sprayed $ith fuel or other li#uid. 2ecreased physical activity. %c* 'reatment. If he fails to improve $ithin one hour or is unconscious. 2o not let him eat sno$@ eating sno$ uses body heat. $hich may chemically contribute to dehydration. Accidental immersion in $ater. &actors that contribute to hypothermia are: • • • • • • • 2ehydration.

Inade#uate types or amounts of clothing.

%b* Symptoms. he first symptom of hypothermia is $hen the body core %rectal* temperature falls to about 8) degrees &ahrenheit. Dther symptoms include:

+hivering, $hich may progress to an uncontrollable point making it hard for an individual to care for himself. +hivering begins after a drop in body temperature of one to t$o degrees. his is follo$ed by clumsiness %stumbling or falling*, slo$ reactions, mental confusion, and difficulty in speaking. <ody temperature drop from 87 degrees &ahrenheit to 8: degrees &ahrenheit, $hich can cause sluggish thinking, irrational thought, apathy, and a false sense of $armth. he victim becomes cold and pale@ cannot perform simple tasks@ e"periences amnesia and hallucinations@ develops blueness of skin and decreased heart and respiratory rate $ith a $eak pulse@ pupils of the eyes dilate@ speech becomes slurred@ and visual disturbance occurs. <ody temperature drop from 8: degrees &ahrenheit to 57 degrees &ahrenheit, $hich causes irrationality, incoherence, loss of contact $ith the environment, muscular rigidity, disorientation, and e"haustion. he soldier might stop shivering after his core temperature drops belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit. <ody temperature drop from 57 degrees &ahrenheit and belo$, $hich causes muscle rigidity, unconsciousness, comatose state, and faint vital signs. he pulse may be faint or impalpable, and breathing is too shallo$ to observe.

%c* ,revention. -revent hypothermia by using the buddy system to $atch each other for symptoms@ consume ade#uate amounts of li#uids daily@ rest@ and eat properly.

%d* Avoidance. /ypothermia can be avoided by dressing in layers, $hich permits easy additions or deletions to prevent overheating, becoming too cold, or getting $et or $indblo$n. If the soldier is in a situation that precludes staying $arm and dry, he should seek shelter. +$eets and physical activity help to produce body heat. %e* 'reatment. reatment methods vary based on the severity of the hypothermia.

Cild cases: If a soldier sho$s symptoms of hypothermia, prevent additional heat loss by getting the victim into a shelter@ removing $et clothing and replacing it $ith dry, insulated clothing@ insulating the victim from the ground@ and sharing a sleeping bag %cover head* to transfer body heat. Cake a diagnosis %rectal temperature*. ;ehydrate the victim $ith $arm li#uids, s$eets, and food. If the tactical situation allo$s, build a fire. Above all else, keep the victim conscious until his vital signs are normal, and seek medical assistance. If possible, keep the victim physically active to produce body heat. +evere cases: If the victim is unconscious or appears dead $ithout any obvious injury, prevent further heat loss. ;apid re$arming of an unconscious victim may create problems and should not be attempted. It is best to evacuate as soon as possible. At all times, the victim should be handled gently so as not to cause the cold blood from the e"tremities to rush to the heart. 2o not allo$ the victim to perform A=I physical activity. Immediately transport the victim to the nearest medical facility. &ield reheating is not effective and may be haAardous. -rovide artificial respiration if breathing stops. If no pulse is detectable, be a$are that in hypothermia there is often effective circulation for the victim3s hypothermic state. In

such a case, cardiac compression %such as C-;* may be fatal. he e"ception is acute hypothermia $ith near dro$ning. <reathing $arm, moist air is the fastest $ay to $arm the inside of the body. If breathing steam is not possible, place tubing under the rescuer3s shirt so the victim $ill still breathe $arm, moist air. his process can be done $hile on the move. In addition to breathing moist, $arm air the victim must be gradually re$armed using e"ternal heat sources. -added hot $ater bottles or heated stones should be placed in the armpits. If conscious, the victim can be given $arm, s$eet drinks. he /ibler -ack is an improvised method of re$arming hypothermic victims in the field. his is used to heat the body core first so the vital organs are $armed and not the e"tremities. As the body $arms up the $arm blood $ill eventually $arm all parts of the body. &irst lay out a blanket or sleeping bag and place a poncho or space blanket inside of it. he poncho or space blanket should go from the base of the skull to the base of the butt. his keeps the sleeping bagKblanket dry and acts like a vapor barrier. Bay the hypothermic patient inside the sleeping bagKblanket. >sing a stove, $arm $ater until it is hot to the touch %but not hot enough to burn the patient* and completely dampen any absorbable materials %such as (shirt, to$el, <2> top, and so on*. -lace the $arm, $et items inside a plastic bag or directly in the armpits and chest of the patient. After the $arm, $et item has been placed on the patient, $rap the patient tightly inside the ponchoKspace blanket and the blanketKsleeping bag. Continually check the temperature of the $et material and keep it $arm.

• •

All bodily systems in hypothermia are brittle so treat the victim gently. As these attempts are being made, try to evacuate the victim. +evere complications may arise as the body temperature rises, $hich may result in cardiac arrest even though the victim seems to be doing $ell.

%'* =mmersion or Trench Foot. his is damage to the circulatory and nervous systems of the feet that occurs from prolonged e"posure to cold and $et at above freeAing temperatures. his can happen $earing boots or not. A soldier may not feel uncomfortable until the injury has already begun. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to immersion or trench foot are:
• • • •

+tepping into $ater over the boot tops. =ot changing socks often enough. Improper hygiene. -rolonged e"posure %three to five days*.

%b* Symptoms. +ymptoms of immersion or trench foot include the sensation of tingling, numbness, and then pain. he toes are pale, and feel cold and stiff. he skin is $et and soggy $ith the color turning from red to bright red, progressing to pale and mottled, and then grayish blue. As symptoms progress and damage appears, the skin becomes red and then bluish or black. +$elling may occur. <ecause the early stages of trench foot are not painful, soldiers must be constantly a$are to prevent it. %c* 'reatment. o prevent this condition, keep the feet dry and clean. Change socks often, drying the insides of boots, massaging the feet, and using foot po$der. 2rying the feet for 0' hours usually heals mild cases. Coderate cases usually heal $ithin three to five days. he feet should be handled gently—=D rubbed or massaged. hey should be cleaned $ith soap and $ater, dried, elevated, and e"posed to room temperature. he victim must stay

off his feet and seek medical attention. +evere cases, $hen feet are not allo$ed to dry, are evacuated as a litter casualty. %7* %!isters. !hen first noticed and before the formation of a blister, cover a hotspot $ith moleskin %over the area and beyond it*. >se tincture benAoin to help the moleskin adhere to and toughen the skin. Dnce a blister has formed, cover it $ith a dressing large enough to fit over the blister, and then tape it. =ever drain blisters unless they are surrounded by redness, or draining pus indicates infection. If this occurs, drain the blister from the side $ith a clean sterile needle. After cleaning $ith soap and $ater, gently press out the fluid leaving the skin intact. Cake a doughnut of moleskin to go around the blister and apply to the skin. &or toe blisters, $rap the entire toe $ith adhesive tape over the moleskin. % oenails should be trimmed straight across the top, leaving a 8:(degree angle on the sides. his provides an arch so that the corners do not irritate the skin.* %)* Frost ite. &rostbite is the freeAing or crystalliAation of living tissues due to heat being lost faster than it can be replaced by blood circulation, or from direct e"posure to e"treme cold or high $inds. ,"posure time can be minutes or instantaneous. he e"tremities are usually the first to be affected. 2amp hands and feet may freeAe #uickly since moisture conducts heat a$ay from the body and destroys the insulating value of clothing. /eat loss is compounded $ith intense cold and inactivity. !ith proper clothing and e#uipment, properly maintained and used, frostbite can be prevented. he e"tent of frostbite depends on temperature and duration of e"posure. &rostbite is one of the major nonfatal cold($eather injuries encountered in military operations, but does not occur above an ambient temperature of 10 degrees &ahrenheit. %a* Categories of +rostbite. +uperficial %mild* frostbite involves only the skin %&igure 0(0*. he layer immediately belo$ usually appears $hite to grayish $ith the surface feeling hard, but the underlying tissue is soft. 2eep %severe* frostbite e"tends beyond the first layer of skin and may include the bone %&igure 0(1*. 2iscoloration continues from gray to black, and the te"ture becomes hard as the tissue freeAes deeper. his condition re#uires immediate evacuation to a medical facility.

Figure .-.. Super#icia! #rost ite.

Figure .-1. Deep #rost ite. %b* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to frostbite are:
• • • • •

2ehydration. <elo$(freeAing temperatures. +kin contact $ith super cooled metals or li#uids. >se of caffeine, tobacco, or alcohol. =eglect.

%c* Symptoms. +ymptoms of frostbite vary and may include a cold feeling, pain, burning, numbness, and, in the final stages, a false

sense of $armth. he skin first turns red, then pale. It may be bluish in color and then may appear frosty or $a"y $hite. he skin may feel hard, may not be movable over the joints and bony prominences, or may be froAen. Identification of deep versus superficial frostbite is difficult to determine and often re#uires three to seven days after re$arming for medical personnel to diagnose. <listers, s$elling, and pain may occur after tha$ing. %d* 'reatment. >sing the buddy system is one of the primary $ays to prevent frostbite. <uddies must $atch each other for symptoms of frostbite and provide mutual aid if frostbite occurs. &rostbite should be identified early $ith prompt first(aid care applied to prevent further damage.

reat early signs of frostbite by re$arming $ith skin(to(skin contact or by sheltering the body part under the clothing ne"t to the body. -o this immediately. If tissues have froAen, evacuate the victim before they tha$. If the feet are involved, evacuate the victim as a litter patient. ha$ing of a frostbitten victim is a hospital procedure. If the victim has frostbite $ith froAen e"tremities, protect the froAen parts and evacuate as a litter patient. If frostbite is not recogniAed before it tha$s, do not let the area refreeAe since this causes more damage. he most often(affected body parts are the hands, fingers, toes, feet, ears, chin, and nose. If evacuation of the victim as a litter case is not possible and the body part has not yet tha$ed, have the victim $alk out on his o$n. !alking out on froAen feet is better than having them tha$ and refreeAe. +elf( evacuation may be tactically necessary. !alking on froAen feet does less harm than $alking on tha$ed feet.

If reheating is inevitable, do not overheat the affected body parts near flame@ the $arming temperature should not be greater than normal body temperature. 2o not rub the parts—the crystalliAed tissues may break internally and cause more damage. 2o not pop blisters@ cover them $ith a dry, sterile dressing. ?eep the victim $arm %apply loose, bulky bandages to separate toes and fingers.* Dnce a part is re$armed it $ill become painful. -ain may be managed $ith narcotic analgesics. Dnce the foot is re$armed it $ill s$ell and putting the boot back on $ill not be possible.

• •

%4* Constipation. Constipation is the infre#uent or difficult passage of stools. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to constipation are a lack of fluids, improper nutrition, and not defecating $hen needed. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms include headache, cramping, lack of bo$el movement, painful bo$el movement, and loss of appetite. %c* 'reatment. Constipation is prevented by consuming ade#uate amounts and varieties of food, drinking from four to si" liters of li#uid each day, and defecating regularly. If allo$ed to progress beyond self(care stages, victims $ill need medical aid. %5* Car on :onoBi&e 9oisoning. his is the replacement of o"ygen in the blood $ith carbon mono"ide. %a* Contributing +actor. A contributing factor is inhaling fumes from burning fuel, such as fires, stoves, heaters, and running engines, $ithout proper ventilation. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms are similar to other common illnesses and include headaches, fatigue, e"cessive ya$ning, nausea,

diAAiness, dro$siness, confusion, and unconsciousness. 2eath may occur. he one visible symptom is bright red lips, mouth, and inside of the eyelids. %c* 'reatment. ;emove the victim from the source of contamination@ administer o"ygen, if available@ and evacuate to a medical facility. +evere complications may develop even in casualties $ho appear to have recovered. If the victim is unconscious, administer rescue breathing and C-; as needed. -eat =n>uries /eat injuries, although associated $ith hot $eather, can occur in cold($eather environments. Cost heat injuries can be avoided by planning, periodic inspections of personnel clothing %ventilation* and e#uipment, a balance of $ater and food intake, and rest. a. -eat Cramps. /eat cramps are caused by an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles and a loss of salt through perspiration. %.* Contributing +actor. +trenuous e"ertion causes the body to heat up and to produce heavy perspiration. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat cramps include pain and cramping in the arms, legs, back, and stomach. he victim s$eats profusely and cannot #uench his thirst. %1* 'reatment. /ave the victim rest in a cool, shady area, breath deeply, and stretch the cramped muscle as soon as possible to obtain relief. Boosen the victim3s clothing and have him drink cool $ater. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if pain and cramps continue. b. -eat $Bhaustion. /eat e"haustion may occur $hen a soldier e"erts himself in any environment and he overheats. he blood vessels in the skin become so dilated that the blood flo$ to the brain and other organs is reduced.

%.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat e"haustion are strenuous activity in hot areas, unacclimatiAed troops, inappropriate diet, and not enough $ater or rest. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat e"haustion may be similar to fainting but may also include $eakness@ diAAiness@ confusion@ headache@ cold, clammy skin@ and nausea. he victim may also have a rapid but $eak pulse. %1* 'reatment. Cove the victim to a cool, shady area and loosen his clothes and boots. /ave the victim drink $ater and, if possible, immerse him in $ater to aid in cooling. ,levate the victim3s legs to help restore proper circulation. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if the symptoms persist. c. -eat Stroke. /eat stroke is a life(threatening situation caused by overe"posure to the sun. he body is so depleted of li#uids that its internal cooling mechanisms fail to function. %.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat stroke are prolonged e"posure to direct sunlight, overe"ertion, dehydration, and depletion of electrolytes. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat stroke include hot, dry skin@ diAAiness@ confusion and incoherency@ headache@ nausea@ seiAures@ breathing difficulty@ a slo$ pulse@ and loss of consciousness. %1* 'reatment. Cool the victim at once, and restore breathing and circulation. If the victim is conscious, administer $ater. If possible, submerge the victim in $ater to reduce his temperature, treat for shock, and prepare for immediate evacuation. 7cute :ountain Sickness Acute mountain sickness is a temporary illness that may affect both the beginner and e"perienced climber. +oldiers are subject to this sickness in altitudes as lo$ as 7,::: feet. Incidence and severity increases $ith altitude, and $hen #uickly transported to high altitudes. 2isability and ineffectiveness can occur in 7: to 5: percent of the troops $ho are rapidly brought to altitudes above .:,::: feet. At lo$er altitudes, or $here ascent to

altitudes is gradual, most personnel can complete assignments $ith moderate effectiveness and little discomfort. a. -ersonnel arriving at moderate elevations %7,::: to 5,::: feet* usually feel $ell for the first fe$ hours@ a feeling of e"hilaration or $ell(being is not unusual. here may be an initial a$areness of breathlessness upon e"ertion and a need for fre#uent pauses to rest. Irregular breathing can occur, mainly during sleep@ these changes may cause apprehension. +evere symptoms may begin ' to .0 hours after arrival at higher altitudes $ith symptoms of nausea, sluggishness, fatigue, headache, diAAiness, insomnia, depression, uncaring attitude, rapid and labored breathing, $eakness, and loss of appetite. b. A headache is the most noticeable symptom and may be severe. ,ven $hen a headache is not present, some loss of appetite and a decrease in tolerance for food occurs. =ausea, even $ithout food intake, occurs and leads to less food intake. Vomiting may occur and contribute to dehydration. 2espite fatigue, personnel are unable to sleep. he symptoms usually develop and increase to a peak by the second day. hey gradually subside over the ne"t several days so that the total course of AC+ may e"tend from five to seven days. In some instances, the headache may become incapacitating and the soldier should be evacuated to a lo$er elevation. c. reatment for AC+ includes the follo$ing:
• • • • • • •

Dral pain medications such as ibuprofen or aspirin. ;est. &re#uent consumption of li#uids and light foods in small amounts. Covement to lo$er altitudes %at least .,::: feet* to alleviate symptoms, $hich provides for a more gradual acclimatiAation. ;ealiAation of physical limitations and slo$ progression. -ractice of deep(breathing e"ercises. >se of acetaAolamide in the first 0' hours for mild to moderate cases.

d. AC+ is nonfatal, although if left untreated or further ascent is attempted, development of high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-,* and or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC,* can be seen. A severe persistence of symptoms may

identify soldiers $ho acclimatiAe poorly and, thus, are more prone to other types of mountain sickness. Chronic :ountain Sickness Although not commonly seen in mountaineers, chronic mountain sickness %CC+* %or Conge3s disease* can been seen in people $ho live at sufficiently high altitudes %usually at or above .:,::: feet* over a period of several years. CC+ is a right(sided heart failure characteriAed by chronic pulmonary edema that is caused by years of strain on the right ventricle. En&erstan&ing -igh-7!titu&e =!!nesses As altitude increases, the overall atmospheric pressure decreases. 2ecreased pressure is the underlying source of altitude illnesses. !hether at sea level or 0:,::: feet the surrounding atmosphere has the same percentage of o"ygen. As pressure decreases the body has a much more difficult time passing o"ygen from the lungs to the red blood cells and thus to the tissues of the body. his lo$er pressure means lo$er o"ygen levels in the blood and increased carbon dio"ide levels. Increased carbon dio"ide levels in the blood cause a systemic vasodilatation, or e"pansion of blood vessels. his increased vascular siAe stretches the vessel $alls causing leakage of the fluid portions of the blood into the interstitial spaces, $hich leads to cerebral edema or /AC,. >nless treated, /AC, $ill continue to progress due to the decreased atmospheric pressure of o"ygen. &urther ascent $ill hasten the progression of /AC, and could possibly cause death. !hile the body has an overall systemic vasodilatation, the lungs initially e"perience pulmonary vasoconstriction. his constricting of the vessels in the lungs causes increased $orkload on the right ventricle, the chamber of the heart that receives de(o"ygenated blood from the right atrium and pushes it to the lungs to be re(o"ygenated. As the right ventricle $orks harder to force blood to the lungs, its overall output is decreased thus decreasing the overall pulmonary perfusion. 2ecreased pulmonary perfusion causes decreased cellular respiration—the transfer of o"ygen from the alveoli to the red blood cells. he body is no$ e"periencing increased carbon dio"ide levels due to the decreased o"ygen levels, $hich no$ causes pulmonary vasodilatation. Eust as in /AC,, this e"panding of the vascular structure causes leakage into interstitial space resulting in pulmonary edema or /A-,. As the edema or fluid in the lungs increases, the capability

to pass o"ygen to the red blood cells decreases thus creating a vicious cycle, $hich can #uickly become fatal if left untreated. -igh-7!titu&e 9u!monary $&ema /A-, is a s$elling and filling of the lungs $ith fluid, caused by rapid ascent. It occurs at high altitudes and limits the o"ygen supply to the body. a. /A-, occurs under conditions of lo$ o"ygen pressure, is encountered at high elevations %over 5,::: feet*, and can occur in healthy soldiers. /A-, may be considered a form of, or manifestation of, AC+ since it occurs during the period of susceptibility to this disorder. b. /A-, can cause death. Incidence and severity increase $ith altitude. ,"cept for acclimatiAation to altitude, no kno$n factors indicate resistance or immunity. &e$ cases have been reported after .: days at high altitudes. !hen remaining at the same altitude, the incidence of /A-, is less fre#uent than that of AC+. =o common indicator dictates ho$ a soldier $ill react from one e"posure to another. Contributing factors are:
• • • • •

A history of /A-,. A rapid or abrupt transition to high altitudes. +trenuous physical e"ertion. ,"posure to cold. An"iety.

c. +ymptoms of AC+ can mask early pulmonary difficulties. +ymptoms of /A-, include:
• • • •

-rogressive dry coughing $ith frothy $hite or pink sputum %this is usually a later sign* and then coughing up of blood. Cyanosis—a blue color to the face, hands, and feet. An increased ill feeling, labored breathing, diAAiness, fainting, repeated clearing of the throat, and development of a cough. ;espiratory difficulty, $hich may be sudden, accompanied by choking and rapid deterioration.

and o"ygen. /A-. are prone to second attacks. If untreated. • • • .0: to . and coughing %out of contrast to others $ho arrived at the same time to that altitude*.::: to 1. A descent of 1:: meters may help@ manual descent is not delayed to a$ait air evacuation. >nconsciousness. A rest day. his should be carefully considered due to the respiratory depressive properties of the drug. If a soldier develops symptoms despite precautions. is planned for every 1. =ifidipine %-rocardia*. decreasing contractility and o"ygen demand. he use of mannitol should not be considered due to the fact that it crystalliAes at lo$ temperatures. +oldiers $ho have had previous attacks of /A-. and death results. may become irreversible and cause death.::: to 0. $ith no gain in altitude or heavy physical e"ertion. rest. rapid heartbeat %pulse . immediate descent is mandatory $here he receives prompt treatment. then treatment in a monoplace hyperbaric chamber. cellophane(like noises %rales* in the lungs caused by fluid buildup %a stethoscope is usually needed to hear them*. given orally can also be effective. is prevented by good nutrition.::: feet per day to an area of sleep*. if left untreated. $hich is a diuretic. /e is #uickly evacuated to lo$er altitudes as a litter patient. /A-. <ubbles form in the nose and mouth.. reatment of /A-. $armth. e. &urosemide %Basi"*.::: feet of altitude gained. hydration. +ince almost all high(altitude environments are cold. Crackling. using mannitol could be fatal. includes: • • • • Immediate descent %0. • • d.est %litter evacuation* +upplemental o"ygen if available.::: feet minimum* if possible@ if not. and gradual ascent to altitude %no more than . . It may also dilate coronary arteries and arterioles. Corphine for the systemic vasodilatation and reduction of preload. Cases that are recogniAed early and treated promptly may e"pect to recover $ith no aftereffects. $hich inhibits calcium ion flu" across cardiac and smooth muscle cells.• -rogressive shortness of breath.):*.

::: feet and aggravation by overe"ertion. $armth. /eadaches may be accompanied by a loss of coordination. hey can be fatal@ $hen the first symptoms occur. -reventive measures include good eating habits. It is caused by a rapid ascent to altitude $ithout progressive acclimatiAation. a.. headaches. convulsions. b. hallucinations. maintaining hydration. he symptoms may rapidly progress to death. can cause death. immediate descent is mandatory. -igh-7!titu&e Cere ra! $&ema /AC. he victim is often mistakenly left alone since others may think he is only irritable or temperamental@ no one should ever be ignored. Beft untreated. /AC.apid descent and medical attention.. A headache combined $ith any other physical or psychological disturbances should be assumed to be manifestations of /AC. +upplemental o"ygen. +ymptoms of /AC. decrease in urination. includes: • • • • 2e"amethasone injection immediately follo$ed by oral de"amethasone. is a severe headache. is the same as for /A-.est. $hich can help alleviate the histamine response that increases mucosal secretions. he main symptom of /AC. and o"ygen at lo$er elevations enhance recovery. may occur in e"perienced. >se of a hyberbaric chamber if descent is delayed.. is the accumulation of fluid in the brain. . coma. $hich results in s$elling and a depression of brain function that may result in death. and /AC. stupor. and lack of coordination. and unconsciousness.• 2iphenhydramine %<enadryl*. vomiting. include mild personality changes. inability to concentrate. /A-. . Contributing factors include rapid ascent to heights over 5. c. d. -revention of /AC. $ell(acclimated mountaineers $ithout $arning or obvious predisposing conditions. . paralysis. confusion. and using a gradual ascent to altitude. hese may be combined $ith symptoms of /A-. -rompt descent to a lo$er altitude is vital. reatment for /AC.

9reat care in performing preventative maintenance checks and services and proper training in the use of the e#uipment is paramount to ensuring safe operations. which re&uires soldiers to dress up and dress down at different intervals. and /AC. he $eak link in the safety chain is the user. 'he properly trained mountain soldier of today can live better. he e#uipment described in this chapter is produced by many different manufacturers@ ho$ever. . . 'he e)treme cold weather clothing system $(CWCS% is specifically designed to allow for rapid moisture transfer and optimum heat retention while protecting the individual from the elements. Vascular leakage caused by stretching of the vessel $alls is made $orse because of this increased vascular pressure. H Equipment Description and Maintenance H Equipment Packing $quipment Description an& :aintenance !ith mountainous terrain encompassing a large portion of the $orldUs land mass. (very leader is responsible for ensuring that the (CWCS is worn in accordance with the manufacturers/ recommendations. :ountaineering $quipment Commanders at every level must understand the comple)ity of operations in a mountainous environment where every aspect of combat operations becomes more difficult. both cerebral and pulmonary. occurs. cause increased proteins in the plasma.rovided all tactical concerns are met. cools down and heats up differently. Increased viscosity increases vascular pressure. the proper use of mountaineering e#uipment $ill enhance a unitUs combat capability and provide a combat multiplier. /ydration simply decreases viscosity. the concept of uniformity is outdated and only reduces the unit/s ability to fight and function at an optimum level. therefore. Commanders at all levels must also understand that s0ills learned at an Army mountaineering school are perishable and soldiers need constant practice to remain proficient. edema. or the fluid portion of the blood.-y&ration in -79$ an& -7C$ /A-. $hich in turn increases blood viscosity. move faster. each item is produced and tested to e"tremely high standards to ensure safety $hen being used correctly. . and fight harder in an environment that is every bit as hostile as the enemy. &rom this.eaders must understand that each individual has a different metabolism and.

%. In temperate climates a combination of foot$ear is most appropriate to accomplish all tasks.* Climbing shoes are made specifically for climbing vertical or near vertical rock faces. as $ell as insulation against the cold. he smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole is the key to the climbing shoe. hese t$o types of boots issued together $ill provide the unit $ith the foot$ear necessary to accomplish the majority of basic mountain missions. Bevel 0 and level 1 mountaineers $ill need mission(specific foot$ear that is not currently available in the military supply system.*. hese shoes are made $ith a soft leather upper. hese boots provide a more versatile platform for any condition that $ould be encountered in the mountains. and a smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole %&igure 1(. he t$o types of foot$ear they $ill need are climbing shoes and plastic mountaineering boots. /o$ever. a. allo$ing the climber access to more difficult terrain. b. providing greater friction on the surface of the rock. and the e"treme cold $eather boot %$ith vapor barrier* provides an ade#uate platform for many basic mountain missions. $hile keeping the foot dryer and $armer. c. he hot $eather boot provides an e"cellent all(round platform for movement and climbing techni#ues and should be the boot of choice $hen the $eather permits. Foot+ear Currently. he inner boot may or may not come $ith a breathable membrane. a lace( up configuration. It is imperative to follo$ these instructions e"plicitly. he outer . Countain operations are encumbered by e"treme cold.*. C A 7:(8:: provides ade#uate foot$ear for most operations in mountainous terrain. he intermediate cold $eather boot provides an acceptable platform for operations $hen the $eather is less than ideal. he inner boot provides support.he manufacturers of each and every piece of e#uipment provide recommendations on ho$ to use and care for its product. plastic mountaineering boots should be incorporated into training as soon as possible. %0* he plastic mountaineering boot is a double boot system %&igure 1(.

!hen $orn improperly. at $orst. uncomfortable and. a. . socks provide cushioning for the foot. C!othing Clothing is perhaps the most underestimated and misunderstood e#uipment in the military inventory. 3ote4 Caintenance of all types of foot$ear must closely follo$ the manufacturersU recommendations. he $elt of the boot is molded in such a $ay that crampons. and provide insulation from cold temperatures. Figure 1-). the insulation layers. As a system.egardless of climatic conditions. at best. and the outer most garments. +ocks are e"tremely valuable in many respects. develops hypothermia or frostbite. +ocks are one of the most under(appreciated part of the entire clothing system. %. Improper $ear and e"cess moisture are the biggest causes of hot spots and blisters. he is. he clothing system refers to every piece of clothing placed against the skin. remove e"cess moisture. if $orn correctly. !hen clothing is $orn properly. Socks. and sno$shoes are easily attached and detached. socks should al$ays be $orn in layers. C!im ing shoes an& p!astic mountaineering oots. the soldier is better able to accomplish his tasks.* he first layer should be a hydrophobic material that moves moisture from the foot surface to the outer sock. ski bindings.boot is a molded plastic %usually $ith a lace(up configuration* $ith a lug sole. . $hich protect the soldier from the elements.

his layer $ould be $orn over the first t$o layers if conditions $ere e"tremely $et. If the user is $earing V< boots. %a* In severe $et conditions.%0* he outer sock should also be made of hydrophobic materials. Cany civilian companies manufacture this type of under$ear. >nder$ear should also be made of materials that move moisture from the body. /o$ever. . %b* In e"tremely cold conditions a vapor barrier sock can be $orn either over both of the original pairs of socks or bet$een the hydrophobic layer and the insulating layer. he primary material in this product is polyester. In colder environments. Insulating layers are those layers that are $orn over the under$ear and under the outer layers of clothing. several pairs of long under$ear of different thickness should be made available. todayUs insulating layers $ill provide for easy moisture movement as $ell as trap air to increase the insulating factor. A light$eight set coupled $ith a heavy$eight set $ill provide a multitude of layering combinations. he . En&er+ear. b. Insulating layers provide additional $armth $hen the $eather turns bad. =nsu!ating 8ayers. but should be complimented $ith materials that provide cushioning and abrasion resistance. he insulating layers that are presently available are referred to as pile or fleece.C!C+ %&igure 1(0* also incorporates the field jacket and field pants liner as additional insulating layers. c. a $aterproof type sock can be added to reduce the amount of $ater that $ould saturate the foot. the vapor barrier sock is not recommended. these t$o components do not move moisture as effectively as the pile or fleece. &or the most part. $hich moves moisture from the body to the outer layers keeping the user drier and more comfortable in all climatic conditions. %1* A third layer can be added depending upon the climatic conditions.

C!C+ correctly.C!C+ provides a jacket and pants made of a durable $aterproof fabric. d. 3ote4 Cotton layers must not be included in any layer during operations in a cold environment. t$igs. and stones. his membrane allo$s the garment to release moisture to the environment $hile the nylon shell provides a degree of $ater resistance during rain and sno$. <aiters. as $ell as mud. e. 9aiters are used to protect the lo$er leg from sno$ and ice. $hich helps the garment retain the $arm air trapped by the insulating layers.Figure 1-. he nylon also acts as a barrier to $ind. Beaders at all levels must understand the importance of $earing the . <oth are constructed $ith a nylon shell $ith a laminated breathable membrane attached. he use of $aterproof fabrics or other breathable materials laminated to the nylon makes the gaiter an integral component of the cold $eather clothing system. he . 9aiters are not presently fielded in the standard .. $Btreme co!& +eather c!othing system. 6uter 8ayers.

It is $orn completely over the boot and must be $orn $ith crampons because it has no traction sole.C!C+ and. %0* he second type of gaiter is referred to as a full or randed gaiter. . hook(pile tape.ven during the best climatic conditions. temperatures in the mountains $ill dip belo$ the freeAing point. in most cases. It can be laminated $ith a breathable material and can also be insulated if necessary. he length should reach to just belo$ the knee and $ill be kept snug $ith a dra$string and cord lock. %. Three types o# gaiters. and snaps. 2uring operations in mountainous terrain the use of hand $ear is e"tremely important. -an& (ear. Figure 1-1. his gaiter completely covers the boot do$n to the $elt. the finger de"terity needed to do most tasks makes gloves the primary cold $eather hand $ear %&igure 1('*. f. !hile mittens are al$ays $armer than gloves. It $ill have an adjustable neoprene strap that goes under the boot to keep it snug to the boot. $hich is a nylon shell that may or may not have a breathable material laminated to it. . 9aiters are available in three styles %&igure 1(1*. $ill need to be locally purchased.. his gaiter is used $ith plastic mountaineering boots and should be glued in place and not removed.* he most common style of gaiter is the open(toed variety. %1* he third type of gaiter is specific to high(altitude mountaineering or e"tremely cold temperatures and is referred to as an overboot. he open front allo$s the boot to slip easily into it and is closed $ith a combination of Aipper.

gloves and mittens $ork best using the same principle. he best hat available to the individual soldier through the military supply system is the black $atch cap. hey should provide moisture transfer from the skin to the outer layers— the insulating layer must insulate the hand from the cold and move moisture to the outer layer. As $ith clothes and hand $ear. his $ill provide enough fle"ibility to accomplish all tasks and keep the usersU hands $arm and dry. -an& +ear. he outer layer must be $eather resistant and breathable.* he principals that apply to clothing also apply to gloves and mittens. =atural fibers. predominately $ool. man( made fibers are preferred.etention cords that loop over the $rist $ork e"tremely $ell $hen the $earer needs to remove the outer layer to accomplish a task that re#uires fine finger de"terity. Beaving the glove or mitten dangling from the $rist ensures the $earer kno$s $here it is at all times. -ea&+ear. %. . A large majority of heat loss %07 percent* occurs through the head and neck area. <oth gloves and mittens should be re#uired for all soldiers during mountain operations.Figure 1-4. he most effective $ay to counter heat loss is to $ear a hat. are acceptable but can be bulky and difficult to fit under a helmet. &or colder climates a neck gaiter can be added. as $ell as replacement liners for both. he neck gaiter is a tube of man(made material that fits around the neck and can reach . g. %0* Eust as the clothing system is $orn in layers.

3eck gaiter an& a!ac!a2a. $ye+ear. Figure 1-5. -e!mets. -e!mets. It must be fitted $ith parachute retention straps and the foam impact pad %&igure 1()*. Cany operations in the mountains occur above the tree line or on ice and sno$ surfaces $here the harmful >V rays of the sun can bombard the . +everal civilian manufacturers produce an effective helmet. a balaclava can be added. . !orn together the combination is $arm and provides for moisture movement. !hichever helmet is selected. neck. he level 0 and 1 mountaineer $ill need a lighter $eight helmet for specific climbing scenerios.ye$ear is divided into t$o catagories: glacier glasses and goggles %&igure 1(4*. keeping the $earer drier and $armer. 9lacier glasses are sunglasses that cover the entire eye socket. &or e"treme cold. it should be designed specifically for mountaineering and adjustable so the user can add a hat under it $hen needed.up over the ears and nose %&igure 1(7*. he ?evlar ballistic helmet can be used for most basic mountaineering tasks. Figure 1-6. and face leaving only a slot for the eyes %&igure 1(7*. i. he military supply system does not currently provide ade#uate eye$ear for mountaineering. his covers the head. h.

Figure 1-7. have been combined to make combined . !hile the >nited +tates has no specific standards. to include hard$are %see paragraph 1('*. &rance. :aintenance o# C!othing.=* and C. and comprises several commissions.urope %C. he safety commission has established standards for mountaineering and climbing e#uipment that have become $ell recogniAed throughout the $orld. Clothing and e#uipment manufacturers provide specific instructions for proper care. and harnesses. j. It is based in -aris.urope. $ebbing. cord.* recogniAes >IAA testing standards and. >V rays penetrate clouds so the goggles should be >V protected.uropean economy. >IAA is the organiAation that oversees the testing of mountaineering e#uipment. C!im ing So#t+are Climbing soft$are refers to rope. &ollo$ing these instructions is necessary to ensure the e#uipment $orks as intended.=*. <!acier g!asses an& gogg!es. he lack of either one can lead to severe eye injury or blindness. . heir $ork continues as ne$ e#uipment develops and is brought into common use. meets or e"ceeds the >IAA standards for all climbing and mountaineering e#uipment produced in .uropean norm %. 9oggles for mountain operations should be antifogging.eyes from every angle increasing the likelihood of sno$blindness. should only be used if it has the >IAA certificate of safety. Community . 2ouble or triple lenses $ork best. as the broader(based testing facility for the combined . . <oth glacier glasses and goggles are re#uired e#uipment in the mountains. American manufacturers have their e#uipment tested by >IAA to ensure safe operating tolerances. All mountaineering specific e#uipment.uropean norm %C.

opes come in t$o types: static and dynamic.. All cord is static and constructed in the same manner as larger rope.(millimeter by 7:(meter dynamic rope and . %0* !hen choosing dynamic rope. b. he construction techni#ue is referred to as ?ernmantle.. factors affecting rope selection include intended use. A static rope has very little stretch. called slings or runners. similar to parachute or 77: cord %&igure 1(5*. impact force.(millimeter by '7(meter static rope $ill be sufficient. &or most military applications. his refers to their ability to stretch under tension.K1 of its overall length makes it the right choice any time the user might take a fall. Kernmant!e construction.a. the cordUs diameter should be 7 to 4 millimeters $hen used on an . All ropes and cord used in mountaineering and climbing today are constructed $ith the same basic configuration. and elongation. Boops of tubular $ebbing or cord. $hich is. so selecting the right type and siAe is of the utmost importance.opes and cords are the most important pieces of mountaineering e#uipment and proper selection deserves careful thought.:. Its ability to stretch up to . abrasion resistance.* . (e ing an& S!ings. A dynamic rope is most useful for climbing and general mountaineering. . he . perhaps as little as one to t$o percent. it should be >IAA certified. %. a core of nylon fibers protected by a $oven sheath. Figure 1-".egardless of the rope chosen.(mm rope.. %1* Cord or small diameter rope is indispensable to the mountaineer. If used for -rusik knots. a standard . are the simplest pieces of e#uipment and some of the most useful. . hese items are your lifeline in the mountains.opes an& Cor&. . and is best used in rope installations. Its many uses make it a valuable piece of e#uipment. essentially. 2ynamic and static ropes come in various diameters and lengths.7( or .

0 inches. .uses for these simple pieces are endless. a combination of different lengths of runners is ade#uate. are usually lighter. Iears ago climbers secured themselves to the rope by $rapping the rope around their bodies and tying a bo$line(on(a(coil. and have less bulk than the tied version. and they are a critical link bet$een the climber.) inch.) inch. !hile this techni#ue is still a viable $ay of attaching to a rope. %. . hey also come in three standard $idths: 8K. c. +e$n runners come in four standard lengths: 0 inches. and can be untied and retied to other pieces of $ebbing to create e"tra long runners.(inch tubular $ebbing and are either tied or se$n by a manufacturer %&igure 1(8*. Figure 1-'. and less susceptible to ultraviolet deterioration. .unners are predominately made from either 8K. the rope. -arnesses.* ied runners have certain advantages over se$n runners—they are ine"pensive to make. can be untied and threaded around natural anchors. hey also eliminate a major concern $ith the homemade knotted runner—the possibility of the knot untying.unners should be retired regularly follo$ing the same considerations used to retire a rope. ' inches. . %0* +e$n runners have their o$n advantages—they tend to be stronger. carabiners. inch. . and anchors. &or most military applications. and 0' inches. he bo$line(on(a(coil is best left for lo$(angle climbing or an emergency situation $here harness material . Tie& or se+n runners. more durable. and .K.unners can also be made from a high(performance fiber kno$n as spectra. the practice is no longer encouraged because of the increased possibility of injury from a fall.)(inch or .. $hich is stronger.

%'* A field(e"pedient version of the seat harness can be constructed by using 00 feet of either . !hile these harnesses are safer. the harness should ride high on the hips and have snug leg loops to better distribute the force of a fall to the entire pelvis. his type of harness. Climbers today can select from a $ide range of manufactured harnesses. referred to as a seat harness.* Any harness selected should have one very important feature—a double(passed buckle. %7* he full body harness incorporates a chest harness $ith a seat harness %&igure 1(. his type of harness has a higher tie(in point and greatly reduces the chance of flipping back$ard during a fall. provides a comfortable seat for rappelling %&igure 1(. !rap the remaining $ebbing around the $aist ensuring the first $rap is routed through the )( to .#uipment loops are desirable for carrying pieces of climbing e#uipment.(inch or 0(inch %preferred* tubular $ebbing %&igure 1(.:*. and increase the difficulty of adding or removing clothing. tie a s#uare knot $ithout safeties over the $ater knot ensuring a minimum of ' inches remains from each strand of $ebbing. %1* . %0* Another desirable feature on a harness is adjustable leg loops.:*. &inish the $aist $rap $ith a $ater knot tied as tightly as possible. &itted properly.is unavailable. Adjustable leg loops allo$ the soldier to make a latrine call $ithout removing the harness or untying the rope. $hich allo$s a snug fit regardless of the number of layers of clothing $orn. $o double(overhand knots form the leg loops. are more restrictive. %. they do present several disadvantages—they are more e"pensive. leaving ' to 7 feet of $ebbing coming from one of the leg loops. . his is the only type of harness that is approved by the >IAA. At least 0 inches of the strap should remain after double(passing the buckle. &or safety purposes al$ays follo$ the manufacturerUs directions for tying(in.:(inch long strap bet$een the double(overhand knots. his is a saety standard that re#uires the $aist belt to be passed over and back through the main buckle a second time.:*. !ith the remaining $ebbing. he leg loops should just fit over the clothing.

. and the protection attaching him to the mountain. %)* A separate chest harness can be purchased from a manufacturer. a. Carabiners must be strong enough to hold hard falls. and the pear(shaped carabiner are just some of the types currently available. <asic carabiner construction affords the user several different shapes. the 2(shaped. but is not preferred for general mountaineering. he importance of this gear to the mountaineer is no less than that of the rifle to the infantryman. his simple piece of gear is the critical connection bet$een the climber. or a field(e"pedient version can be made from either t$o runners or a long piece of $ebbing. he oval. C!im ing -ar&+are Climbing hard$are refers to all the parts and pieces that allo$ the trained mountain soldier to accomplish many tasks in the mountains. +teel is still $idely used.*. Dne of the most versatile pieces of e#uipment available to the mountaineer is the carabiner. Figure 1-)*. given other options.Cost mountaineers prefer to incorporate a separate chest harness $ith their seat harness $hen $arranted. odayUs high tech metal alloys allo$ carabiners to meet both of these re#uirements. great care should be . Cost models can be made $ith or $ithout a locking mechanism for the gate opening %&igure 1(. it is usually referred to as a locking carabiner. Seat harness? #ie!&-eBpe&ient harness? an& #u!! o&y harness. yet light enough for the climber to easily carry a #uantity of them. !hen using a carabiner. If the carabiner does have a locking mechanism. . his rope.ither chest harness is then attached to the seat harness $ith a carabiner and a length of $ebbing or cord. Cara iners.

<ecause of the design of the 2(shaped carabiner. :a>or an& minor aBes an& three-+ay !oa&ing.* he major difference bet$een the oval and the 2(shaped carabiner is strength. 3ote4 9reat care should be used to ensure all carabiner gates are closed and locked during use. Figure 1-).taken to avoid loading the carabiner on its minor a"is and to avoid three($ay loading %&igure 1(. %. Figure 1-)). 3on!ocking an& !ocking cara iners..0*. the load is .

1*. 9itons.egardless of the type chosen. specifically the locking version.* 1ertical . hey are described by their thickness. and $ith the gate open. he strength of the piton is determined by its placement rather than its rated tensile strength. and angles.itons. is e"cellent for clipping a descender or belay device to the harness. hey are made of malleable steel. design. the blade and eye are aligned. he do$n side is that racking any gear or protection on the 2(shaped carabiner is difficult because the angle of the carabiner forces all the gear together making it impossible to separate #uickly. hardened steel. Aarious pitons. $afer. he many different kinds of pitons include: vertical. %. and angle. horiAontal. vertical cracks. and length %&igure 1(. %1* . b. -itons provide a secure anchor for a rope attached by a carabiner. his testing is e"tensive and tests the carabiner in three $ays—along its major a"is. he t$o most common types of pitons are: blades. all carabiners should be >IAA tested. A piton is a metal pin that is hammered into a crack in the rock. $hich hold blade compression $hen $edged into a crack. hey $ork $ell $ith the munter hitch belaying knot.angled onto the spine of the carabiner thus keeping it off the gate. Dn vertical pitons. . Figure 1-)1. %0* he pear(shaped carabiner. hese pitons are used in flush. along its minor a"is. $hich hold $hen $edged into tight(fitting cracks. or other alloys.

itons. hey are recommended for use in vertical cracks instead of vertical pitons because the tor#ue on the eye tends to $edge the piton into place. the eye of the piton is at right angles to the blade. or flakes. his provides more holding po$er than the vertical piton under the same circumstances. hey are small and fit into thin. $ebbing. hese pitons are used in flush. hese are small hooks that cling to tiny rock protrusions. %'* 2nife 3lade .itons.itons. 9iton -ammers. hey are designed to bite into thin. Ca"imum strength is attained only $hen the legs of the piton are in contact $ith the opposite sides of the crack. c. or leather is used to . %4* 3ong . Dn horiAontal pitons. he base is designed to prevent rotation and aid stability.-s* are hatchet(shaped pitons about .itons. hese are used in direct(aid climbing.itons.'*.5 centimeters $ide. flush cracks. hey have a tapered blade that is optimum for both strength and holding po$er. hese are used in $ide cracks that are flush or offset. A piton hammer has a flat metal head@ a handle made of $ood. ledges.itons.ealiAed ultimate reality pitons %. metal. horiAontal cracks and in offset or open(book type vertical or horiAontal cracks. hey have little holding po$er and their $eakest points are in the rings provided for the carabiner. %7* 4ealized Ultimate 4eality . . +kyhooks re#uire constant tension and are used in a do$n$ard pull direction. he curved end $ill not straighten under body $eight. shallo$ cracks. hese pitons are used in shallo$. or fiberglass@ and a blunt pick on the opposite side of the hammer %&igure 1(. %5* S0yhoo0 $Cliffhangers%. shallo$ cracks. %1* Wafer . A safety lanyard of nylon cord. hese are angle pitons that are more than 1.>. hey have a high holding po$er and re#uire less hammering than other pitons. <ongs are commonly made of steel or aluminum alloy and usually contain holes to reduce $eight and accommodate carabiners. %)* Angle .%0* Horizontal .(inch s#uare.

Cost chocks come $ith a $ired loop that is stronger than cord and allo$s for easier placement. and in cleaning cracks and rock surfaces to prepare for inserting the piton. +ome chocks are manufactured to perform either in the $edging mode or the camming mode.7*. he type selected should suit individual preference and the intended use. his type of chock is versatile and comes $ith either a cable loop or is tied $ith cord or $ebbing. 9iton hammer. Chocks. d. A cam holds by slightly rotating in a crack. creating a camming action that lodges the chock in the crack or pocket. Chocks are essentially a tapered metal $edge constructed in various siAes to fit different siAed openings in the rock %&igure 1(. into the rock. he advantage of using a chock rather than a piton is that a climber can carry many different siAes and use them repeatedly. he design of a chock $ill determine $hether it fits into one of t$o categories—$edges or cams.attach it to the climber he lanyard should be long enough to allo$ for full range of motion. Figure 1-)4.7 centimeters long and $eigh . Dne of the chocks that falls into the category of both a $edge and cam is the he"agonal(shaped or 6he"6 chock. he piton hammer can also be used to assist in removing pitons. he primary use for a piton hammer is to drive pitons. . he cord used $ith chocks is designed to be stiffer and stronger than regular cord and is typically made of ?evlar. Care should be taken to place tubing in the chock before threading the cord. All chocks come in different siAes to fit varying $idths of cracks. to be used as anchors. 6Chocks6 is a generic term used to describe the various types of artificial protection other than bolts or pitons. <igger chocks can be threaded $ith cord or $ebbing if the user ties the chock himself. A $edge holds by $edging into a constricting crack in the rock. Cost hammers are appro"imately 07.0 to 07 ounces.

Figure 1-)5. Three-point camming &e2ice. reliable placement in cracks $here standard chocks are not practical %parallel or flaring cracks or cracks under roofs*. $hen used in the camming mode. +pring(loaded camming devices %+BC2s* %&igure 1(. Three-9oint Camming De2ice. +BC2s have three or four cams rotating around a single or double a"is $ith a rigid or . $ill fit a $ide range of cracks. he three(point camming device comes in several different siAes $ith the smaller siAes $orking in pockets that no other piece of gear $ould fit in. e. <ecause of this design it is e"tremely versatile and. he three(point camming deviceUs uni#ue design allo$s it to be used both as a camming piece and a $edging piece %&igure 1(. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ices. f. Chocks.)*.4* provide convenient. Figure 1-)6.

hey are also handy to clean cracks $ith. Spring-!oa&e& camming &e2ices. Cade from thin metal. . he fle"ible cable reduces the risk of stem breakage over an edge in horiAontal placements.semi(rigid point of attachment. Figure 1-)7. !hen using a chock pick to e"tract a chock be sure no force is applied directly to the cable juncture. Chock 9icks. hese are placed #uickly and easily. . he shafts may be rigid metal or semi(rigid cable loops. saving time and effort.5*. they can be purchased or homemade. +BC2s are available in many siAes to accommodate different siAe cracks. g. Chock picks are primarily used to e"tract chocks from rock $hen the they become severely $edged %&igure 1(. Dne end of the chock pick should have a hook to use on jammed +BC2s.ach fits a $ide range of crack $idths due to the rotating cam heads.

and rough spots should be filed smooth and $ire(brushed or rubbed clean $ith steel $ool. . and $eights. and drilling anchor. Items that are cracked or $arped indicate e"cessive $ear and should be discarded. <olts are scre$(like shafts made from metal that are drilled into rock to provide protection %&igure 1(. A hand drill should have a lanyard to prevent loss. dirt. chips.8*. <ecause of this re#uirement. bolts are the most secure protection for a multidirectional pull. <urrs. . he t$o types are contraction bolts and e"pansion bolts.Figure 1-)". Dnce emplaced. A bolt is hammered only $hen it is the nail or self(driving type. All metal surfaces should be smooth and free of rust. brands. $hich is time(consuming. %0* +elf(driving bolts are #uicker and easier to emplace. hese re#uire a hammer. Chock picks."pansion bolts press around a surrounding sleeve to form a snug fit into a rock. /and drills %also called star drills* are available in different siAes. Contraction bolts are s#ueeAed together $hen driven into a rock. a hand drill must be carried in addition to a piton hammer. %o!ts.* A hanger %for carabiner attachment* and nut are placed on the bolt. and moisture. h. $hich is driven into the rock. he bolt is then inserted and driven into the hole. bolt driver. e"hausting. %. and e"tremely noisy. <olts re#uire drilling a hole into a rock. <olts should be used only $hen chocks and pitons cannot be emplaced. A bolt and carrier are then secured to the emplaced drilling anchor. corrosion.

%1* he mechanical camming device is a manufactured piece of e#uipment that attaches to the harness $ith a locking carabiner.Figure 1-)'. the tuber. he rope is routed through this device so that $hen force is applied the rope is cammed into a highly frictioned position. the basic principal remains the same—friction around or through the belay device controls the ropesU movement. %o!ts an& hangers.egardless of the belay device choosen. <elay devices are divided into three categories: the slot. %0* he tuber is used e"actly like the slot but its shape is more like a cone or tube. . %e!ay De2ices.* he slot is a piece of e#uipment that attaches to a locking carabiner in the harness@ a bight of rope slides through the slot and into the carabiner for the belay. <elay devices range from the least e#uipment intensive %the body belay* to high(tech metal alloy pieces of e#uipment. and the mechanical camming device %&igure 1(0:*. . he most common slot type belay device is the +ticht plate. %. i.

Figure-eights. k. Ascenders may be used in other applications such as a personal safety or hauling line cam. 7scen&ers. &or difficult vertical terrain. &or lo$er angle movement. S!ot? tu er? mechanica! camming &e2ice.).Figure 1-. Figure 1-. j. . Dne piece of e#uipment used for generations as a descender is the carabiner. 3ote4 All belay devices can also be used as descending devices. All modern ascenders $ork on the principle of using a cam(like device to allo$ movement in one direction. Descen&ers.*. Ascenders are primarily made of metal alloys and come in a variety of siAes %&igure 1(00*. Cost manufacturers make ascenders as a right and left( handed pair.*. t$o ascenders $ork best. A figure(eight is another useful piece of e#uipment and can be used in conjunction $ith the carabiner for descending %&igure 1(0. one ascender is sufficient.

glaciers.. and metal alloy sideplates %&igure 1(01*. +pecific training on this type of e#uipment is essential for safe use.1. 9u!!eys.Figure 1-. he sideplate should rotate on the pulley a"le to allo$ the pulley to be attached at any point along the rope. froAen $aterfalls(can . Figure 1-. -ulleys are made $ith several bearings. errain that $ould other$ise be inaccessible(sno$fields. 9u!!ey. Sno+ an& =ce C!im ing -ar&+are +no$ and ice climbing hard$are is the e#uipment that is particular to operations in some mountainous terrain. light$eight. the sheave diameter must be at least four times larger than the ropeUs diameter to maintain high rope strength. l. -ulleys are used to change direction in rope systems and to create mechanical advantage in hauling systems. different(siAed sheaves %$heel*. -lastic pulleys should al$ays be avoided. and strong. A pulley should be small. hey should accommodate the largest diameter of rope being used. 7scen&ers.. &or best results.

he ice a" is one of the most important tools for the mountaineer operating on sno$ or ice. probing. a shorter a" is much more appropriate. he adAe. and spike %&igure 1(0'*. used for chopping. head %pick and adAe*. belays. he shorter a" has all the attributes of the longer a". can have different configurations. %b* he head of the a". self(arrest. and ascending and descending sno$ and ice covered routes. . but it is any$here from ': to 77 centimeters long and can have a straight or bent shaft depending on the preference of the user. and adding a second tool is a must $hen the terrain becomes vertical. It can be flat or curved along its length and straight or rounded from side to side. he climber must become proficient in its use and handling.no$ be considered avenues of approach using the sno$ and ice climbing gear listed in this paragraph. or $ood@ the first t$o are stronger. he versatility of the a" lends itself to balance. therefore safer for mountaineering. anchors. =ce 7B. %a* he shaft %handle* of the a" comes in varying lengths %the primary length of the standard mountaineering a" is 4: centimeters*. $hich combines the pick and the adAe. hollo$ aluminum. %c* he spike at the bottom of the a" is made of the same material as the head and comes in a variety of shapes. is perpendicular to the shaft. he pick should be curved slightly and have teeth at least one(fourth of its length. direct(aid climbing. he head should have a hole directly above the shaft to allo$ for a leash to be attached. step cutting.* +everal specific parts comprise an ice a": the shaft. %. It can be made of fiberglass. he head can be of one(piece construction or have replaceable picks and adAes. %0* As climbing becomes more technical. a.

=ce -ammer.4. Figure 1-. loose ends should be trimmed. Crampons. $hich provides a more secure purchase in the ice. . hey have multiple spikes on the bottom and spikes protruding from the front %&igure 1(07*. inch of front point protruding. and any tools needed for adjustment $ill be provided by the manufacturer. It is used for pounding protection into the ice or pitons into the rock. <oth fle"ible and rigid crampons come in pairs. =ce aB an& ice hammers. Crampons are used $hen the footing becomes treacherous.b.egardless of the type of crampon chosen. . c. he only difference bet$een the ice a" and the ice hammer is the ice hammer has a hammerhead instead of an adAe. he crampon should fit snugly on the boot $ith a minimum of . he ice hammer is as short or shorter than the technical a" %&igure 1(0'*. Cost of the shorter ice tools have a hole in the shaft to $hich a leash is secured. +traps should fit snugly around the foot and any long. $o types of crampons are available: fle"ible and rigid. fit is the most important factor associated $ith crampon $ear.

but can be used on less vertical terrain. his type of crampon is designed for technical ice climbing.Figure 1-. Cost fle"ible crampons $ill attach to the boot by means of a strap system.5. All fle"ible crampons are adjustable for length $hile some allo$ for $idth adjustment. as its name implies. he fle"ible crampon can be $orn $ith a variety of boot types. Crampons. but can be attached to plastic mountaineering boots. is rigid and does not fle". he fle"ible crampon gets its name from the fle"ible hinge on the crampon itself. It is designed to be used $ith soft. %0* he rigid crampon. fle"ible boots. %. he rigid crampon can only be $orn $ith plastic .* he hinged or fle"ible crampon is best used $hen no technical ice climbing $ill be done.

hey are scre$ed into ice formations. =ce scre+s.6. %.* !hen selecting ice scre$s. choose a scre$ $ith a large thread count and large hollo$ opening. Figure 1-. he large hollo$ opening $ill allo$ sno$ and ice to slide through $hen turning.4 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube.. =ce Scre+s. • • • ype I is .mountaineering boots. ype II is 00 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. he tip consists of milled or hand(ground teeth. Ice scre$s provide artificial protection for climbers and e#uipment for operations in icy terrain. $hich are driven into ice and removed by rotation. centimeters to ': centimeters %&igure 1(0)*. he ice scre$ has right(hand threads to penetrate the ice $hen turned clock$ise. Dther variations are hollo$ alloy scre$s that have a tapered shank $ith e"ternal threads. Ice scre$s are made of chrome(molybdenum steel and vary in lengths from . . . he eye is permanently affi"ed to the top of the ice scre$. $hich create sharp points to grab the ice $hen being emplaced. d.igid crampons $ill have a toe and heel bail attachment $ith a strap that $raps around the ankle. he close threads $ill allo$ for ease in turning and better strength.

the scre$ should be turned in. hey can. flanged sides. &luke anchors are available in various siAes—their holding ability generally increases $ith siAe. . +teel $ool should be rubbed on rusted surfaces and a thin coat of oil applied $hen storing steel ice scre$s. Ice pitons are e"tremely strong $hen placed properly in hard ice. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is ):: kilograms. f. hey are tubular $ith a hollo$ core and are hammered into ice $ith an ice hammer. he tip may be beveled to help grab the ice to facilitate insertion. pull out easily on $arm days and re#uire a considerable amount of effort to e"tract in cold temperatures. e. ho$ever. If any cracks or bends are noticed. bends. A file may be used to sharpen the ice scre$ points. and other deformities that may impair strength or function. he $ired sno$ anchor %or fluke* provides security for climbers and e#uipment in operations involving steep ascents by burying the sno$ anchor into deep sno$ %&igure 1(05*. and fi"ed cables. and are available in various lengths and diameters %&igure 1(04*. he threads and teeth should be protected and kept sharp for ease of application.7. =ce 9itons. Ice pitons are used to establish anchor points for climbers and e#uipment $hen conducting operations on ice. he fluted anchor portion of the sno$ anchor is made of aluminum.%0* Ice scre$s should be inspected for cracks. 3ote4 Ice scre$s should al$ays be kept clean and dry. (ire& Sno+ 7nchors. hey are available $ith bent faces. Common types are: • ype I is 00 by . Figure 1-. he eye is permanently fi"ed to the top of the ice piton. hey are made of steel or steel alloys %chrome(molybdenum*.' centimeters. =ce piton. he $ired portion is made of either galvaniAed steel or stainless steel.

g. Sno+ Sa+. Figure 1-. he $ired sno$ anchor should be inspected for cracks. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is . he sno$ picket is used in constructing anchors in sno$ and ice %&igure 1(05*.• ype II is 07 by 0: centimeters. and slippage of the $ire through the s$age. broken $ire strands.::: kilograms. he sno$ picket is made of a strong aluminum alloy 1 millimeters thick by ' centimeters $ide. he sno$ sa$ is used to cut into ice and sno$. cracks. or slippage is noticed. hey can be angled or (section stakes. If bent or cracked. !hile not all of it $ill need to be carried on all missions. for removing froAen obstacles. Sustaina i!ity $quipment his paragraph describes all additional e#uipment not directly involved $ith climbing. his e#uipment is used for safety %avalanche e#uipment. movement. having the e#uipment available and kno$ing ho$ to use it correctly $ill enhance the unitUs capability in mountainous terrain. broken $ire strands. he picket should be inspected for bends. bivouacs. the sno$ anchor should be turned in. Sno+ anchors? #!ukes? an& pickets. and for cutting .". chips.. Sno+ 9icket. in shelter construction. If any cracks. mushrooming ends. he ends should be filed smooth. and other deformities. It can be used in step cutting. and '7 to 8: centimeters long. the picket should be turned in for replacement. and carrying gear. a. $ands*.

!ands are . and steel $ool can be rubbed on rusted areas. shelter construction. burrs. 72a!anche rescue equipment. step cutting. he shafts should be inspected for cracks. it should be turned in. If any defects are discovered. crevasses. it should not be used. d. !ands are used to identify routes. to . or removable to be compact $hen not in use. $eather conditions %and visibility*. $arping. +pacing of $ands depends on the number of turns. he blade should be inspected for rust. caches. and number of teams in the climbing party. number of haAards identified. A file can repair most defects.sno$ stability test pits. and missing or dull teeth. If the sa$ is beyond repair. rust. he handle should be inspected for cracks.. security to the shaft. he blade is a rigid aluminum alloy of high strength about 1 millimeters thick and 15 centimeters long $ith a pointed end to facilitate entry on the for$ard stroke. (an&s. he handle should be telescopic. and stability. It can be used for avalanche rescue. A file and steel $ool can remove rust and put an edge on the blade of the shovel. bends. the hinge and nuts should be secure. If the shovel is beyond repair.07 meters long and made of light$eight bamboo or plastic shafts pointed on one end $ith a plastic or nylon flag %bright enough in color to see at a distance* attached to the other end. the $ands should be replaced. folding. bends. light$eight aluminum alloy. he handle should be inspected for cracks. he shovel should be inspected for cracks. and removing obstacles. Dn folding models. fading. bends. cracks. and burrs. Sno+ Sho2e!. he sno$ shovel is made of a special. Avalanche rescue e#uipment %&igure 1(08* includes the follo$ing: . and turns on sno$ and glaciers. he shovel should have a flat or rounded bottom and be of strong construction. c. frays. and discoloration. and deformities. and stability. he sno$ shovel is used to cut and remove ice and sno$. he flag should be inspected for tears. Carry too many $ands is better than not having enough if they become lost. sno$(bridges. b. bends. he special tooth design of the sno$ sa$ easily cuts into froAen sno$ and ice. he handle is either $ooden or plastic and is riveted to the blade for a length of about 7: centimeters.

* Avalanche ."ternal framed packs suspend the load a$ay from the back $ith a ladder(like frame. +ome manufacturers of ski poles design poles that are telescopic and mate $ith other poles to create an avalanche probe. e.Figure 1-. . commercially manufactured probes are better for a thorough search. he body(hugging nature of this type pack also makes it uncomfortable in $arm $eather. 72a!anche rescue equipment. hese are small. but can be cumbersome $hen balance is needed for climbing and skiing. %0* Avalanche 'ransceivers. he shafts must be strong enough to probe through avalanche debris.'. compact radios used to identify avalanche burial sites. he t$o most common types are internal and e"ternal framed packs. %0* . hey transmit electromagnetic signals that are picked up by another transceiver on the receive mode. he frame helps transfer the $eight to the hips and shoulders easier. %. $hich can be joined to probe up to 1): centimeters. hey are 8( millimeter thick shafts made of an aluminum alloy.robe. Cany types and brands of packs are used for mountaineering. Although ski poles may be used as an emergency probe $hen searching for a victim in an avalanche.* Internal framed packs have a rigid frame $ithin the pack that help it maintain its shape and hug the back. 9acks. his assists the climber in keeping their balance as they climb or ski. he $eight in an internal framed pack is carried lo$ on the body assisting $ith balance. %.

* here are many choices in stove design and in fuel types. and butane are the common fuels used. hey should be easy to clean and repair during an operation. +toves for smaller elements might just be used for cooking and making $ater. -acks often come $ith many unneeded features. !hite gas.%1* -acks come in many siAes and should be siAed appropriately for the individual according to manufacturerUs specifications. kerosene. %0* +toves should be tested and maintained prior to a mountaineering mission. he reliability of the stove has a huge impact on the success of the mission and the morale of personnel. his can be accomplished by burning a small amount of fuel in the burner cup assembly. +toves are a necessity in mountaineering for cooking and making $ater from sno$ and ice. !hen selecting a stove one must define its purpose—$ill the stove be used for heating. more harsh environment. g. the better it $ill be. A single($all tent allo$s for moisture inside the tent to escape through the tentUs material. and materials. and its reliability. A double($all tent has a second layer of material %referred to as a fly* that covers the tent. f. and are simple and light$eight. A good rule of thumb is: he simpler the pack. A tent used for $armer temperatures $ill greatly differ from tents used in a colder. factors that should be considered are $eight. he climate the tents $ill be used in is also of concern. %. !hen choosing a stove. $eights. altitude and temperature $here it $ill be used. %.* Countaineering tents are made out of a breathable or $eatherproof material. +toves that burn $hite gas or kerosene have a hand pump to generate the pressuriAation and butane stoves have pressuriAed cartridges. Canufacturers of tents offer many designs of different siAes. !hen selecting a tent. the mission must be defined to determine the number of people the tent $ill accommodate. cooking or bothR +toves or heaters for large elements can be large and cumbersome. Tents. All stoves need to vaporiAe the li#uid fuel before it is burned. All stoves re#uire a means of pressuriAation to force the fuel to the burner. $hich $ill vaporiAe the fuel in the fuel line. fuel availability. he fly protects against . Sto2es.

hey can take some of the $eight off of the lo$er body $hen carrying a heavy pack. hey have become an important tool in mountaineering for aid in balance $hile hiking. !hen carrying heavy packs. +kis can decrease the time needed to reach an objective depending on the ability of the user. h. hey have a binding that pivots at the toe and allo$s for the heel to be free for uphill travel or locked for do$nhill. +ki techni#ues can be complicated and re#uire thorough training for ade#uate proficiency. especially if personnel are not e"perienced $ith the art of skiing. +ome ski poles are . Countaineering skis are $ide and short. and they can become a makeshift stretcher for casualties. he skins aid in traveling uphill and slo$ do$n the rate of descents. %1* ents are rated by a 6relative strength factor. +no$shoes are slo$er than skis.rain and sno$ and the space bet$een the fly and tent helps moisture to escape from inside. !a" can be applied to the ski to aid in ascents instead of skins. +ynthetic skins $ith fibers on the bottom can be attached to the bottom of the ski and allo$ the ski to travel for$ard and prevent slipping back$ard. and carrying heavy packs.6 the speed of $ind a tent can $ithstand before the frame deforms. +no$shoes offer a large displacement area on top of soft sno$ preventing tiresome post(holing. j. Sno+shoes. +ki poles $ere traditionally designed to assist in balance during skiing. %0* he frame of a tent is usually made of an aluminum or carbon fiber pole. i. <efore using a ne$ tent. Skis. Ski po!es. sno$shoes can be easier to use than skis. he poles are connected $ith an elastic cord that allo$s them to e"tend. +ome sno$shoes come e#uipped $ith a crampon like binding that helps in ascending steep sno$ and ice. light$eight designs that are more efficient than older models. emperature and e"pected $eather for the mission should be determined before choosing the tent. sno$shoeing. +kis can make crossing crevasses easier because of the load distribution. the seams should be treated $ith seam sealer to prevent moisture from entering through the stitching. connect. they create the shape of the tent. but are better suited for mi"ed terrain. and become long and rigid. +no$shoes are the traditional aid to sno$ travel that attach to most foot$ear and have been updated into small. !hen the tent poles are secured into the tent body.

:(man arctic tent system. can be detached so the pole becomes an avalanche or crevasse probe.collapsible for ease of packing $hen not needed %&igure 1(1:*. %. a component of the .egardless of the siAe. it must be attachable to the person or people that $ill be pulling it. A flashlight can provide light. +leds vary greatly in siAe. It is common to need a light source and the use of both hands during limited light conditions in mountaineering operations. !hichever sled is chosen.* !hen choosing a headlamp. especially $hen hauling fuel. sleds are an invaluable asset during mountainous operations $hen sno$ and ice is the primary surface on $hich to travel. All components should be reliable in e"treme $eather . a cover is essential for keeping the components in the sled dry. . A headlamp is a small item that is not appreciated until it is needed. +ome ski poles come $ith a self(arrest grip. but should not be the only means of protection on technical terrain. /eavier items should be carried to$ards the rear of the sled and lighter items to$ards the front. Cost headlamps attach to helmets by means of elastic bands. Co!!apsi !e ski po!es. from the s#uad(siAe Ahkio. 9reat care should be taken $hen packing the sled. ensure it is $aterproof and the battery apparatus is small. . Figure 1-1*.unners $ill aid the sleds ability to maintain a true track in the sno$. on some models. S!e&s. but can be cumbersome $hen both hands are needed. he basket at the bottom prevents the pole from plunging deep into the sno$ and. to the one(person sko$. k. -ea&!amps. he sled should also come $ith a cover of some sort—$hether nylon or canvas. l. Cost sleds are constructed using fiberglass bottoms $ith or $ithout e"terior runners.

. $ater. b. compass and or altimeter. 9ersona! <ear. first aid kits. pressure bandage. fire starting material. ropes. map. a.$ill influence the choice of gear carried but the follo$ing lists provide a sample of $hat should be considered during mission planning. %0* he battery source should compliment the resupply available. desert. and e"tra ammunition and demolition materials. hey $ould be used for major bivouac gear.#uipment brought on a mission is carried in the pack. !hen the light is being packed. $orn on the body. nickel(cadmium. Choice o# $quipment Cission re#uirements and unit +D. or fleece top@ helmet@ poncho@ and sleeping bag. $histle. magaAine pouches. notebook $ith pen or pencil. polypropylene top. food procurement material. $quipment 9acking . Cotton clothing should be replaced $ith synthetic fabric clothing. the rucksack and sled %or Ahkio* can hold much more than a climber can carry. nickel(cadmium batteries last longer in cold but re#uire a recharging unit. foul $eather shells. Cost lights $ill accept alkaline. or jungle mountain environments. or lithium batteries. -ersonal gear includes emergency survival kit containing signaling material. and $ater procurement material. if needed. Stan&ar& <ear. stoves. climbing e#uipment. the e"ception being hot. -ocket items should include a knife. $ith canteens. +tandard gear that can be individually $orn or carried includes cushion sole socks@ combat boots or mountain boots. is virtually useless in most mountain climates. care should be taken that the s$itch doesnUt accidentally activate and use precious battery life. if available@ <2> and cap@ BC. sunglasses. food. fuel. or hauled in a sled %in $inter*. and lithium batteries have t$ice the voltage so modifications are re#uired.conditions. s$eater. Alkaline battery life diminishes #uickly in cold temperatures. due to its poor insulating and moisture($icking characteristics. and first aid kit@ individual $eapon@ a large rucksack containing $aterproof coat and trousers. Caution4 Cotton clothing. sunblock and lip protection. Dbviously.

ations for the time period a$ay from the base camp. +ling rope or climbing harness. one per climbing team. e. or s$eater. Squa& or Team Sa#ety 9ack. one per climbing team. >tility cord%s*. .appelKbelay device. d. Carabiners. 9loves. Canteen. !hen the soldier plans to be a$ay from the bivouac site for the day on a patrol or mountaineering mission. one per climbing team. +urvival kit. Crampons. Day 9ack.appelling gloves. . =onlocking carabiners. or unplanned bivouac. or poncho. Ice a". his can either be loaded into one rucksack or cross(loaded among the s#uad members. Bocking carabiner%s*. &lashlight or headlamp. !hen a s#uad(siAed element leaves the bivouac site. his gear includes: • • • • • • • • • • +ling rope or climbing harness. he carries a light day pack. rain suit. . Climbing rack. In the event of an injury. casualty evacuation."tra insulating layer: polypropylene. -rotective layer: $aterproof jacket and pants. &irst aid kit. . Climbing rope. these items may make the difference bet$een success and failure of the mission. :ountaineering $quipment an& Specia!i@e& <ear. Cold $eather hat or scarf. Climbing rack.c. one per climbing team. s#uad safety gear should be carried in addition to individual day packs. Climbing rope. pile top. his pack should contain the follo$ing items: • • • • • • • • • • • • • .

injury. breathable outer$ear or $aterproof rain suit*. +ide shields.7 or higher. %7* ()tra Clothing. &or lip protection. . gloves or mittens.• • • • +leeping bag. f.egardless of $hat e#uipment is carried. %b* +unscreens should have an +-& factor of . under$ear. $ashing. sunglasses are a vital piece of e#uipment for preventing sno$ blindness. %'* ()tra +ood. and or 6. &uel bottle. and foul $eather gear %$aterproof. +leeping mat. . pants. $hich minimiAe the light entering from the side. he clothing used during the active part of a climb. +#uad stove. %. The Ten $ssentia!s.:: percent of ultraviolet light. At least one e"tra pair of sunglasses should be carried by each independent climbing team. or navigational error. the individual military mountaineer should al$ays carry the 6ten essentials6 $hen moving through the mountains. %a* In alpine or sno$(covered sub(alpine terrain. should permit ventilation to help prevent lens fogging. Altimeter. and considered to be the basic climbing outfit. s$eater or fleece jacket. includes socks. %1* Sunglasses and Sunscreen. hat. hey should filter 87 to . his lip protection should be carried in the chest pocket or around the neck to allo$ fre#uent reapplication. Dne dayUs $orth e"tra of food should be carried in case of delay caused by bad $eather.* 5ap. a total >V blocking lip balm that resists s$eating.S. and licking is best. blouse. boots. %0* Compass.

e"tra insulation for the upper body and the legs. slick terrain and loose rock combined $ith heavy packs. • • • • • . herefore."tra hats or balaclavas. a broken bone. . bring a poncho or e"tra(large plastic trash bag. -ressure dressings. a bivouac sack can help by protecting insulating layers from the $eather. $orking around the camp. +pare batteries and spare bulbs should also be carried. $hich is important $hile climbing. In $inter or severe mountain conditions. inactive hours of an unplanned bivouac. sharp tools. ?eep in mind the season $hen selecting this gear. cleanser. .%a* . small adhesive bandages. A reflective emergency space blanket can be used for hypothermia first aid and emergency shelter."tra under$ear to s$itch out $ith s$eat(soaked under$ear."tra pair of heavy socks. scissors. . ."tra clothing includes additional layers needed to make it through the long. elastic compression $rap. 2ecentraliAed operations.ed lens covers can be fabricated for tactical conditions."tra pair of insulated mittens or gloves. but commercially available headlamps are best. the mountain environment— steep. %b* o back up foul $eather gear. and fatigue—re#uires each climber to carry his o$n first(aid kit. &inally. /eadlamps provide the climber a hands( free capability. Ciniature flashlights can be used. %4* +irst aid 2it. butterfly bandages. adhesive tape. gauAe pads. cutting the $ind. moleskin. . Common mountaineering injuries that can be e"pected are punctures and abrasions $ith severe bleeding. late" gloves and splint material %if above tree line* should all be part of the kit. %)* Headlamp and or +lashlight. the kit should contain at least enough material to stabiliAe these conditions. serious sprain. and trapping essential body heat inside the sack. and employing $eapons systems. and blisters. Insulated foam pads prevent heat loss $hile sitting or lying on sno$.

-atches. In alpine Aones above tree line $ith no available fire$ood. &ire starting material is key to igniting $et $ood for emergency campfires.%5* +ire Starter. Bighters are handy for starting fires. or pack. 6ther $ssentia! <ear. It helps for movement on steep scree and on brush and heather covered slopes. Dther essential gear may be carried depending on mission and environmental considerations. a stove $orks as an emergency heat source. g.ighter. as $ell as for stream crossings. he ice a" is essential for travel on sno$fields and glaciers as $ell as sno$(covered terrain in spring and early summer. /eavy(duty thread. Cord and or $ire. %. and canned heat all $ork. harness. +mall pliers %if not carrying a multipurpose tool*. heat tabs. but they should be backed up by matches stored in a $aterproof container $ith a strip of sandpaper. +afety pins. Candles. %. hese can also be used for #uick $arming of $ater or soup in a canteen cup.:* 2nife. A multipurpose pocket tool should be secured $ith cord to the belt. hese include $ide(mouth $ater bottles for $ater collection@ camel(back type $ater holders for hands(free hydration@ and a small length of plastic tubing for $ater procurement at sno$(melt seeps and rain$ater puddles on bare rock. %8* 5atches and . %0* 7ce A).* Water and Water Containers. %1* 4epair 2it. 2uct tape. A repair kit should include: • • • • • • • • • +tove tools and spare parts. A$l and or needles. Dther repair items as needed. .

he pack and its contents should be soundly $aterproofed. food. more compressible items %sleeping bag. thus placing the most $eight on the hips. d. climbing hard$are. this placement should be standardiAed across the team so that necessary items can be #uickly reached $ithout unnecessary unpacking of the pack in emergencies. As much as possible. speed and endurance are enhanced if the load is carried more by the hips %using the $aist belt* and less by the shoulders and back. if not carried in hand. $hich are then organiAed into color(coded stuffsacks. <y packing the lighter. /eavy articles of gear are placed lo$er in the pack and close to the back. placing more $eight on the shoulders and back. a. A fe$ e"tra(large plastic garbage bags should be carried for a variety of uses—spare $aterproofing.%'* =nsect . Tips on 9acking !hen loading the internal frame pack the follo$ing points should be considered. and be securely . %7* Signa!ing De2ices. his is preferred for movement over trails or less difficult terrain. he ice a". his lo$ers the climberUs center of gravity and helps him to better keep his balance. should be sto$ed on the outside of the pack $ith the spike up and the adAe facing for$ard or to the outside. the load is held high and close to the back. among others. In most cases. clothing* in the bottom of the rucksack and the heavier gear %stove. rope. and $ater procurement. Vip(lock plastic bags can be used for small items. In rougher terrain it pays to modify the pack plan. .epe!!ent. nearer the shoulder blades. Clothing and sleeping bag are separately sealed and then placed in the larger $et $eather bag that lines the rucksack. emergency bivouac shelter. %)* Sno+ Sho2e!. e. $ater.#uipment that may be needed during movement should be arranged for #uick access using either e"ternal pockets or placing immediately underneath the top flap of the pack. c. e"tra ammunition* on top. b.

ope :anagement an& Knots 'he rope is a vital piece of e&uipment to the mountaineer. the mountaineer must 0now how to properly utilize and maintain this piece of e&uipment. management techni&ues.ach is easy to accomplish and results in a minimum amount of kinks. . he rope may be given a . care and maintenance procedures. 9rasping the rope firmly. rappelling. . o start a mountain coil. bring the hands together forming a loop. :ountain Coi!. Coi!ing an& Carrying the . 7f the rope is not managed or maintained properly. or building various installations. H Preparation Care and Maintenance !nspection Terminolog" H Coiling Carr"ing and Thro#ing H $nots . until the rope is completely coiled. and then tied in place. and knots later during deployment. grasp the rope appro"imately . . a. his is repeated. Crampons should be secured to the outside rear of the pack $ith the points covered. meter from the end $ith one hand.K' t$ist as each loop is formed to overcome any tendency for the rope to t$ist or form figure(eights.ope Coi!ing? Carrying? Thro+ing he ease and speed of rope deployment and recovery greatly depends upon techni#ue and practice. and 0nots. When climbing. t$ists. serious in!ury may occur. the ice a" is placed behind one of the side pockets. Countaineering packs have ice a" loops and buckle fastening systems for this. f. . If not.un the other hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. $hich is laid in the hand closest to the end of the rope.fastened. 'his chapter discusses common rope terminology. forming uniform loops that run in a clock$ise direction. as stated above.ope >se the butterfly or mountain coil to coil and carry the rope.

%0* he mountain coil may be carried either in the pack %by forming a figure eight*. securing the coil. and then route the end of the rope through the closed end of the bight. using this length of the rope. Cake si" to eight $raps to ade#uately secure the coil.%. slung across the chest.* Figure 4-1. %&igure '( 1 sho$s ho$ to coil a mountain coil. begin making $raps around the coil and the bight. >ncoil the last loop and. -ull the running end of the bight tight. . doubling it and placing it under the flap. $rapping to$ard the closed end of the bight and making the first $rap bind across itself so as to lock it into place. :ountain coi!. he butterfly coil is the #uickest and easiest techni#ue for coiling %&igure '('*. b. %utter#!y Coi!.* In finishing the mountain coil. or by placing it over the shoulder and under the opposite arm. form a bight appro"imately 1: centimeters long $ith the starting end of the rope and lay it along the top of the coil.

!ith the bight in the left hand. dressing it do$n to the ape" of the bight securing coils. ensuring that the first $rap locks back on itself. Coil alternating from side to side %left to right. !ith the rest of the doubled rope in front of you. -lace an overhand knot in the loose ends. grasp both ends of the rope and begin back feeding. right to left* $hile maintaining e#ual(length bights.emove the coils from the neck and shoulders carefully. In this configuration . o start the double butterfly. grasp both ropes and slide the right hand out until there is appro"imately one arms length of rope. -lace the doubled rope over the head. . ake a doubled bight from the loose ends of rope and pass it through the ape" of the coils. Continue coiling until appro"imately t$o arm(lengths of rope remain. make doubled bights placing them over the head in the same manner as the first bight. %0* Tie-off and Carrying. -ull the loose ends through the doubled bight and dress it do$n.nsure that it hangs no lo$er than the $aist. .Figure 4-4. .* Coiling. %utter#!y coi!. draping it around the neck and on top of the shoulders. &ind the center of the rope forming a bight.nsure that the loose ends do not e"ceed the length of the coils. !rap the t$o ends around the coils a minimum of three doubled $raps. %. and hold the center in one hand.

%utter#!y coi! tie-o##. ensuring that the first $rap locks on itself. Coil the doubled rope in a clock$ise direction forming )( to 5(inch coils %coils may be larger depending on the length of rope* until an appro"imate . <ring the t$o ends of the rope together. =o$ the piece of rope may be hung from a carabiner on the harness. !rap that bight around the coil.the coiled rope is secure enough for hand carrying or carrying in a rucksack. c. . -ieces 07 feet and shorter %also kno$n as cordage.opes of smaller diameters may be coiled using the butterfly or mountain coil depending on the length of the rope. ensuring no kinks are in the rope. -lace the ends of the rope in the left hand $ith the t$o ends facing the body. %&igure '(7 sho$s a butterfly coil tie(off. Cake three or more $raps. Coi!ing Sma!!er Diameter . &eed the bight up through the bights formed at the top of the coil.* Figure 4-5.ope. sling rope. utility cord* may be coiled so that they can be hung from the harness. 2ress it do$n tightly. . or for storage.0(inch bight is left.

Cake a fe$ preliminary s$ings to ensure a smooth thro$. he rope should first be anchored to prevent complete loss of the rope over the edge $hen it is thro$n. his techni#ue can also be started using the right hand. the thro$er should sound off $ith a $arning of 6.* ake one end of the rope in the left hand and run the right hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. As soon as the rope leaves the hand. he rope may be thro$n underhanded or overhanded depending on obstacles around the edge of the site. <ack feed and neatly stack the rope into coils beginning $ith the anchored end of the rope $orking to$ard the running end. his $ill prevent the ends of the rope from becoming entangled $ith the rest of the coils as they deploy.e. make si" to eight smaller coils in the left hand. allo$s the coils to separate easily $ithout tangling. Thro+ing the . hro$ the large coils in the right hand first. lay the end of the rope in the left hand on the ground.6 to alert anyone belo$ the site. Dnce stacked. Encoi!ing? %ack-#ee&ing? an& Stacking. %0* he rope should be laid or stacked in a neat pile on the ground to prevent it from becoming tangled and knotted $hen thro$ing the rope. A slight t$ist of the $rist. it must be properly managed to prevent it from tangling during deployment. and so on. !hen a slight tug on the left hand is felt. feeding it to a lead climber. A smooth follo$ through is essential.* >ntie the tie(off and lay the coil on the ground. a. % his is also useful $hen the rope is to be moved a short distance and coiling is not desired. !hen the rope is needed for use. re(grasp the rope ne"t to the right hand and continue laying the rope on the ground. <ack(feed the rope to minimiAe kinks and snarls.ope <efore thro$ing the rope. he arm should be generally straight $hen thro$ing. %. -ick up the rest of the larger coils in the right hand. . +everal techni#ues can be used $hen thro$ing a rope. toss the si" to eight smaller coils out. so that the palm of the hand faces up as the rope is thro$n.D-. =e"t. it must be uncoiled and stacked on the ground properly to avoid kinks and snarls. -ersonal preference and situational and environmental conditions should be taken into consideration $hen determining $hich techni#ue is best. !ith the left hand. hro$ up and out.

Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots. he rope must be stacked properly to ensure smooth deployment. + .1. c. Class III—middle rope knots. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. bends. up and out to$ard the horiAon. bights. the harder the rope must be thro$n to compensate. Class II—anchor knots. the rope should be thro$n angled into the $ind so that it $ill land on the desired target. Anchor. he variety of knots. a. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*.b. and stack the rope properly as described above. and hitches is almost endless. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. !hen $indy $eather conditions prevail. ake the end of the rope and make si" to eight helmet(siAe coils in the right hand %more may be needed depending on the length of the rope*. .0. adjustments must be made... and Class IV—special knots.. /olding one $orking end in each hand.0.. It is a joining knot. Assume a 6#uarterback6 simulated stance.. + . !ith e"perience and practice. In a strong cross $ind.. Tying the Knot. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. back feed. place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. Another techni#ue may also be used $hen thro$ing rope. + . Aiming just above the horiAon. vigorously thro$ the rope overhanded. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + . he stronger the $ind.

. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied.. a. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot. + .* here are t$o interlocking bights.+ . . Figure 4-6.. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. b.. Checkpoints. %. It is a joining knot. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. Tying the Knot.'. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. Square knot.

Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double . ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope.+ . %1* . It is a joining knot.. + . b. Fisherman’s knot.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long. %.nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*.0. . Figure 4-7.1.. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together. standing part of the opposing rope. a. Checkpoints.nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Tying the Knot.

*.. Figure 4-". tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + ... + . + . Dou !e #isherman’s knot. $hich contains the standing part %+ ..nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. b..+ ..-+ . four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel. !ith the $orking end of one rope. %.1. tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.. !ith the $orking end of the other rope. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns.* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. Insert the $orking end %+ ..'. and 0*. %1* .* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight... -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. Checkpoints.0. + . .

.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. race the original knot to the standing end..oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end... . grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. + .Figure-$ight %en& he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. + . Tying the Knot.. + . .7.1. 2ress the knot do$n. Figure 4-'. + . 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight.. !ith the other hand. + . Figure-eight en&. a. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. .'..0.

follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse.:*. Tying the Knot. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. a. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions. %.. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail.. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. .* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. overhand retrace. + . (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(. It is also called a ring bend.. + . It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot.. + .1. Checkpoints.0. &eed the other end back through the knot.b.. or tape knot. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot.

<ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor.. (ater knot. a. %0* here is no slack in the knot. %. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail.*. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor.. and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. + .. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(. b. Checkpoints.* here are t$o overhand knots. It is an anchor knot.. one retracing the other. Tying the Knot. . from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*.Figure 4-)*.

b.'.* he bight is locked into place by a loop.+ .1. =o$ dress the knot do$n. Figure 4-)). and bring it back onto itself.oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches . %o+!ine knot. .each through the loop and pull up a bight... + . . %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. + . %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.0. Checkpoints.. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor.. %. + .7. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight.

.. + .. b. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part.. + .'. ..0.his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor. It is an anchor knot.oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches. %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*..0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*. distributing the load over the anchor. Tying the Knot.eroute& Figure-$ight0 .oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor.etrace /. 2ress the knot do$n. %. + . and it must have constant tension %&igure '(..1.epeat + . Figure-$ight .* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses. .. . + .0*. and one in the front*.un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact. Checkpoints. . Figure 4-). a.

o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope.he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop.).1.1*. + . ..7. leaving enough rope to go around the anchor. + . It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot. leaving enough rope to $ork $ith. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope.'.. /o$ever. !ith the $orking end.. + . he finished knot is dressed loosely. + . insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse. $rap the $orking end around the standing part. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part.. ake the $orking end around the anchor point.. + . a. Tying the Knot.. + . by tying the knot in a retrace.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. .0... and route the $orking end through the loop.

. Figure-eight retrace. a.* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot.Figure 4-)1. palms do$n $ith hands together. %.'*. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(.. b.* Middle of the Rope. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters. Tying the Knot. Checkpoints %. /old rope in both hands.. . + . %0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. depending on ho$ it is tied. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping. forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness.

!ith the right hand.. + .. -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions. -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*.1. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right. and bring it in$ard. assume that the anchor is horiAontal.. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop. %0* End of the Rope.+ . 3ote4 &or instructional purposes. grasp the $orking end. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor.1.'. . +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop.0. + .'. reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor. !ith the right hand. /old the loop in the left hand. 2ress do$n the knot. + .... + . reach under the horiAontal anchor... &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand.. + . he knot is tied. /old the standing end in the left hand.0. + .

!hen tying this knot..4. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger..7.Figure 4-)4.. Tying the Knot.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar.. %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop. +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap.. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. + . a. + . +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap.. palm.7*. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot. C!o2e hitch. Checkpoints.1. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(. %. + . . (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single.. + . + . + . and place it over the heel $rap. It is a middle rope knot.. and fingertip. + .. b.). ake up the slack from the anchor.'.0. =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull.

-ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. Checkpoints. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single. (ireman’s knot. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends. %.)*. b.8. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(..+ .* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point.. Figure 4-)5.5. + . It is a middle rope knot. . Tying the Knot. a.

+ . it lays in$ard.0.. tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor. + . Directiona! #igure-eight. !hen dressing the knot do$n. !ith the $rap thus formed. %. Checkpoints. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied.. Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm.. . the tail and the bight must be together..* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop. b. + . Figure 4-)6. + ..1.. Cake one $rap around the palm.'.

4*..). -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n.7... It is a middle rope knot.4. + .'. + . Tying the Knot. follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot.%0* he tail and bight must be together.... 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight. + . &rom the end %ape"* of the bight.. . /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard. %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( .. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip.0. &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. + . + . A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull. a. + . %1* he figure eight is tied tightly.. forming t$o loops. + .1. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up. ie an overhand knot on a bight. %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side.

b.* It is a middle rope knot. T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(.ight. >sing a doubled rope. ..5. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot..* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip.5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. Tying the Knot. form an . a. %o+!ine-on-a. + . Checkpoints.. %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight.Figure 4-)7. %.

7. Tying the Knot. . Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop. Checkpoints. Figure 4-)".. T+o-!oop #igure-eight. + . !ith the $orking end. 2ress the knot do$n.8*. b. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot. /old the bight $ith the left hand.+ . %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot.1. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar..0. form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand. + .'..* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar. + .. %. a. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(. It is a middle of the rope knot.

. %1* he knot is tightly dressed.. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop. !ith the bight as the $orking end. %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other. + . 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system.0.+ . form a loop in rope %standing part*. Figure-eight !oop.1. Figure 4-)'. Tying the Knot..* he loop is the desired siAe.. + . It is a specialty knot. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik. .. Checkpoints. %. a. 2ress the knot tightly. b. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop.

$ith the $orking ends even. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart.epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps.each do$n through the . -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope.0. >sing an arm3s length of rope. 2ouble the short rope.0(inch bight. forming a bight.. + .*.*: + . ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension..*. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik. Figure 4-. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted. . + . + .1.. Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope. and place it over the long rope. .%.* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik.. + . ...0. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:.. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0... Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is . + . =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope..1.

%0* he locking bar faces the climber.. It is a specialty knot. b. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot.nsure they are tight. Figure 4-. . + .7.'.4. .. parallel. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik.+ . %. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension. and not t$isted. Checkpoints. Bay the $orking end under the long rope.). here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope. + .* &our $raps $ith a locking bar.). the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping.. %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*. + .. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.

. Checkpoints. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope.. %achman knot.. !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner. %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing. make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner.. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner. + . + ..0. + .1.a. b.. Figure 4-. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.. %. Tying the Knot. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! .

+ .. bring a bight up through the loop. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body.. not crossed. b. single coil. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body. Tying the Knot.0. a.7. + .4. hen. + . $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. + . Checkpoints.'.. he running end is to the back of the body. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body. >sing the standing part.. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself..). . !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand.. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail. place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder.1. It is a specialty knot.. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end. . %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. /olding the bight loosely. + . + .* A minimum of four $raps. $ith a bight held in place by a loop. he standing portion is on the bottom. tie an overhand around all coils. %. !ith the running end.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand... + . +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top.

+ .. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope. + . + . Tying the Knot. !ith the right hand. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise. a. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system..'.. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!.. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*.. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body.1. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts. + . . It is a specialty knot..Figure 4-.1.0. Bay the loops to the right.

%. Figure 4-..* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops.. . b.. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops.7. Three-!oop o+!ine. + .0(inch bight in the end of the rope. Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*. Checkpoints. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied.+ . a.. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot. It is a specialty knot. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. &orm a .4. Tying the Knot.

.). t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise.. + .. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope.5. Figure 4-.+ .each through the bight and grasp the long. /old the center of the bight in the right hand. + . -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n..0 inches up the rope.* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about . standing end of the rope. %. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand. Checkpoints.:u!e Knot0 . + ..0.'. . Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot. + .7. -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight.1. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight. take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot. If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system. b. Figure-eight s!ip knot.

&orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope. %. a. + . K!eimhiest Knot .. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop.0. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point. + .. b. Figure 4-. Check 9oints. Tying the Knot.he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight. It is simply an overhand slip knot. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight.0 inches long...6. + . %1* he bight is a minimum of .* here is a single overhand slip knot. Transport knot..1.

!ith the remaining tails of the utility rope. pass them through the bight %see + . + .0 inches. !ith the ends offset. It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip . Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot.... It is a special( purpose knot. + . high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*. !rap at least four complete turns. !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull. + . + . find the center of the rope and form a bight.1....'. Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope. Tying the Knot.*..he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot.7.. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by . + . easily adjustable. . a.0.. 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching.

0 inches. It is a special(purpose knot. + ..: to . Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*.7.* he bight is opposite the direction of pull. Checkpoints. %. Tying the Knot. %0* All $raps are tight and touching.Figure 4-. a. %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot. + . b. K!eimhiest knot. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier. .. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly..0.. Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about .

. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot..". It is a special(purpose knot. + .: &orm a bight.Figure 4-. Tying the Knot. <irth hitch. Figure 4-. %.* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps.1: Cinch the knot tightly.0: <ring the runner back through the bight. Checkpoint..'. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot. + . + . <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*.* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions. :unter -itch . %.. b. Frost knot. b. Checkpoints. a. %0* he knot is dressed tightly.

is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner.. /old the rope in both hands.. .0.'. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope. + ..1. b. + . place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop.he munter hitch. Tying the Knot... %. /old the loop $ith the left hand. + . -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. palms do$n about .0 inches apart.. %0* he carabiner is locked. !ith the right hand. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. !ith the right hand. + . Check 9oints. Bock the locking mechanism. a.* A bight passes through the carabiner.

+ . thus creating a loop around the $aist. + .'. + . Tying the Knot.*.Figure 4-1*. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs.. a.appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight. .' feet or longer.. . :unter hitch.. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope. + . 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip. ..1..each around behind and grab a single strand of rope. It usually re#uires a sling rope .0. ensuring they do not cross..

pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips.7. . Figure 4-1).+ .4. &rom rear to front.. + . + .* here are t$o overhand knots in the front. uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot.appe! seat. -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist. b. -ull up on the ropes. <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots.). Check 9oints. tightening the seat. . %.. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers..

<uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners. he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side.0.%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners... + .. a. %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip. . %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied. preferably ovals*. + . Tying the Knot..

7nchors 'his chapter discusses different types of anchors and their application in rope systems and climbing.. b. +ailure of any system is most li0ely to occur at the anchor point. . rope can only be pulled in one direction. +ailure is usually the result of poor terrain features selected for the anchor point. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. or the e&uipment . %. Check 9oints.* !hen properly dressed. 7f the anchor is not strong enough to support the intended load. it will fail.Figure 4-1. <uar&e knot.roper selection and placement of anchors is a critical s0ill that re&uires a great deal of practice.

%+ee paragraph 7(4 for slinging techni#ues. /o$ever. always try to ma0e sure the anchor is 8bombproof. but under most circumstances a sling is attached to the anchor and then the climbing rope is attached to the sling $ith a carabiner%s*. An anchor that has more strength than the climbing rope is considered bombproof. trees must be carefully checked for suitability. boulders. natural anchors should be carefully studied and evaluated for stability and strength before use. and other terrain irregularities are already in place and simply re#uire a method of attaching the rope. /o$ever. hey are usually strong and often simple to construct $ith minimal use of e#uipment. +ometimes the climbing rope is tied directly to the anchor. H %atural Anchors H Anchoring With the &ope H Arti'icial Anchors 3atura! 7nchors =atural anchors should be considered for use first. When selecting or constructing anchors. rees. .*.used in rigging the anchor was placed improperly or in insufficient amounts.8 A bombproof anchor is stronger than any possible load that could be placed on it.* Trees rees are probably the most $idely used of all natural anchors depending on the terrain and geographical region %&igure 7(.

Trees use& as anchors. a. Figure 5-.. >se padding on soft. alus and scree fields are an indicator that the rock in the area is not solid. %ou!&ers <oulders and rock nubbins make ideal anchors %&igure 7(0*. Anchoring as lo$ as possible to prevent e"cess leverage on the tree may be necessary. All chockstones must be solid and strong enough to support the load. Chockstones A chockstone is a rock that is $edged in a crack because the crack narro$s do$n$ard %&igure 7(1*. b. and crumbling and should al$ays be tested before use.Figure 5-). Chockstones should be checked for strength. security. . In rocky terrain. sap producing trees to keep sap off ropes and slings. treesusually have a shallo$ root system. his can be checked by pushing or tugging on the tree to see ho$ $ell it i rooted. All areas around the rock formation that could cut the rope or sling should be padded. he rock can be firmly tapped $ith a piton hammer to ensure it is solid. hey must have ma"imum surface contact and be $ell tapered $ith the surrounding rock to remain in position. +edimentary and other loose rock formations are not stable. %ou!&ers use& as anchors.

and clipping on a carabiner. their firmness is important. +lings should not be $edged bet$een the chockstone and the rock $all since a fall could cut the $ebbing runner. the projection should be avoided. horns. hese include blocks. If rock projections are used.Figure 5-1. . Chockstones are often directional—they are secure $hen pulled in one direction but may pop out if pulled in another direction. b. and spikes.ock 9ro>ections . c. A creative climber can often make his o$n chockstone by $edging a rock into position.ock projections %sometimes called nubbins* often provide suitable protection %&igure 7( '*. Chockstones. . If any of these signs e"ist. flakes. a. tying a rope to it. hey should be checked for cracks or $eathering that may impair their firmness.

the roots of bushes can be used by routing a rope around the bases of several bushes %&igure 7(7*. %rushes an& Shru s If no other suitable anchor is available. he load(bearing hole must be strong and free of sharp edges %pad if necessary*. . As $ith trees.ock pro>ections. the anchoring rope is placed as lo$ as possible to reduce leverage on the anchor. A sling is threaded through the opening hole and secured $ith a joining knot or girth hitch. Tunne!s an& 7rches unnels and arches are holes formed in solid rock and provide one of the more secure anchor points because they can be pulled in any direction.Figure 5-4. . All vegetation should be healthy and $ell rooted to the ground.

$rap. !hen a locking carabiner cannot be used. and girth. the knot is set off to the side $here it $ill not interfere $ith normal carabiner movement. Correct!y oppose& cara iners. >ntying the sling and routing it around the anchor and then retying is still considered a drape. he carabiner gate should face a$ay from the ground and open a$ay from the anchor for easy insertion of the rope.Figure 5-5. . Figure 5-6. !hichever method is used. Correctly opposed gates should open on opposite sides and form an 6L6 $hen opened %&igure 7()*. 2rape the sling over the anchor %&igure 7(4*. Drape. a. t$o carabiners are used $ith gates opposed. %ushes an& shru s. S!inging Techniques hree methods are used to attach a sling to a natural anchor—drape.

Figure 5-7. (rap. Figure 5-". !rap the sling around the anchor and connect the t$o ends together $ith a carabiner%s* or knot %&igure 7(5*. (rap. Drape. b. .

7nchoring (ith . it allo$s the sling to remain in position and not slide on the anchor. <irth. . <irth. A tensionless anchor can be used in high(load installations $here tension on the attachment point and knot is undesirable.ound turns can be used to help keep the rope in position on the anchor.ope 7nchor !hen tying the climbing or installation rope around an anchor.:*. but also sacrifices some rope length to tie the anchor. his re#uires less e#uipment. Although a girth hitch reduces the strength of the sling. he rope can be tied to the anchor using an appropriate anchor knot such as a bo$line or a rerouted figure eight. .ope he climbing or installation rope can be tied directly to the anchor using several different techni#ues.c. the knot should be placed appro"imately the same distance a$ay from the anchor as the diameter of the anchor %&igure 7(. he knot shouldnUt be placed up against the anchor because this can stress and distort the knot under tension. ie the sling around the anchor $ith a girth hitch %&igure 7(8*. . Figure 5-'.

he rope is $rapped from top to bottom.Figure 5-)*.. . A fi"ed loop is placed into the end of the rope and attached loosely back onto the rope $ith a carabiner. more if necessary. 7rti#icia! 7nchors . $hereas a rough barked tree might only re#uire a fe$. he anchor is usually tied $ith a minimum of four $raps. A smooth anchor may re#uire several $raps.ope tie& to anchor +ith anchor knot. to absorb the tension. Tension!ess anchor. Tension!ess 7nchor he tensionless anchor is used to anchor the rope on high(load installations such as bridging and traversing %&igure 7(.*. Figure 5-)). he $raps of the rope around the anchor absorb the tension of the installation and keep the tension off the knot and carabiner.

ice a"es. ensure timbers and tree limbs are not dead or rotting and that boulders are solid. +BC2s and other artificial anchors rather than pitons because they do not scar the rock and are easier to remove. <oulders are then stacked on top of it until the anchor is strong enough for the load. &or training planning. Artificial anchors are available in many different types such as pitons. $hich is set into the ground as deeply as possible. b. An object that has a large surface area and some length to it $orks best. can also be used if necessary. such as a railroad tie. he art of choosing and placing good anchors re#uires a great deal of practice and e"perience. pitons are not used as often as other types of artificial anchors due primarily to their impact on the environment. 3ote4 Artificial anchors. . $ould be ideal.* Barge boulders can be used. as $ell as a bundle of smaller tree limbs or poles. he"centrics. chocks. a. Anchor strength varies greatly@ the type used depends on the terrain. Although still available. such as skis. In e"tremely hard. are not $idely accepted for use in all areas because of the scars they leave on the rock and the environment. Dea&man A 6deadman6 anchor is any solid object buried in the ground and used as an anchor. and +BC2s. and the load to be placed on it. rocky terrain %$here digging a trench $ould be impractical. and ruck sacks. hough normally not as strong as $hen buried. this method can $ork $ell for light(load installations as in anchoring a hand line for a stream crossing.:: years. .ye protection should al$ays be $orn $hen driving a piton into rock. if not impossible* a variation of the deadman anchor can be constructed by building above the ground. he sling is attached to the anchor. As $ith natural anchors.#uipment. unsightly fi"tures in the natural environment. sno$shoes. Cost climbers prefer to use chocks. such as pitons and bolts. 9itons -itons have been in use for over .>sing artificial anchors becomes necessary $hen natural anchors are unavailable. local la$s and courtesies should be taken into consideration for each area of operation. . e#uipment. %A hefty timber. Dften they are left in place and become unnatural.

!hen this type of rock must be used. clear the loose rock. 9iton 9!acement. -itons are easily dropped if not tied off $hen being used. 2riving pitons in soft or rotten rock is not recommended. and tested $hile both feet are firmly on the ground and there is no danger of a fall.* >sually a properly siAed piton for a rock crack $ill fit one half to t$o thirds into the crack before being driven $ith the piton hammer. as $ith any artificial anchor. +ome disadvantages in using pitons are: • • • • • 2uring military operations. 7&2antages. and debris from the crack before driving the piton completely in.* est the rock for soundness by tapping $ith the hammer. the rock could spread apart or break causing an unsafe condition. Disa&2antages. becoming higher pitched as the piton is driven in. b. %0* !hile it is being driven.3ote4 he proper use and placement of pitons. As pitons are driven into the rock the pitch or sound that is made $ill change $ith each hammer blo$. %. 2ue to the e"pansion force of emplacing a piton. he proper positioning or placement of pitons is critical. his helps ensure the depth of the crack is ade#uate for the siAe piton selected. -itons $ork $ell in thin cracks $here other types of artificial anchors do not. the distinct sound created $hen hammering pitons is a tactical disadvantage. pitons can support multiple directions of pull.0 sho$s e"amples of piton placement. -itons leave noticeable scars on the rock. %&igure 7(. if available* so that if the piton is knocked . practiced. a. should be studied. c. +ome advantages in using pitons are: • • • 2epending on type and placement. attach the piton to a sling $ith a carabiner %an old carabiner should be used. -itons are less comple" than other types of artificial anchors. -itons are more difficult to remove than other types of artificial anchors. dirt.

1*. $Bamp!es o# piton p!acements. it should be tied off using a hero( loop %an endless piece of $ebbing* %&igure 7(.out of the crack. he piton should not spread the rock. Clip a carabiner into the loop. %1* Cilitary mountaineers should practice emplacing pitons using either hand. +ometimes a piton cannot be driven completely into a crack.. . thereby loosening the emplacement. herefore. the firmer the anchor $ill be. Attach this loop to the piton using a girth hitch at the point $here the piton enters the rock so that the girth hitch is snug against the rock. and on the type of rock. it $ill not be lost. because the piton is too long. he holding po$er depends on the climber placing the piton in a sound crack. he greater the resistance overcome $hile driving the piton. 3ote4 -itons that have rings as attachment points might not display much change in sound as they are driven in as long as the ring moves freely. Figure 5-).

drive it into another place. and then out$ard $hile observing the piton for movement. -ulling out on the attached carabiner eventually removes the piton %&igure 7(. Testing. Insert this rope into a carabiner attached to the piton. as in most free and direct(aid climbing situations. If the piton sho$s any sign of moving or if.K0 meter from the carabiner. drive the piton in as far as possible. !hen a directional anchor %pull in one direction* is used. ry to be in a secure position before testing.epeat these actions as many times as necessary. the emplacement is probably safe. Eerk vigorously up$ard. e. there is any #uestion of its soundness. If the sound regains its original pitch. . Alternate tapping from both sides $hile applying steady pressure. his procedure is intended for use in testing an omni(directional anchor %one that $ithstands a pull in any direction*. then grasp the rope at least . . and $hen using chocks. to each side. If the pitch has changed greatly. -ero-!oop.emo2ing 9itons. do$n$ard. .'*. upon driving it. concentrate the test in the direction that force $ill be applied to the anchor. ap the piton firmly along the a"is of the crack in $hich it is located. ap the piton to determine if the pitch has changed. o test pitons pull up about .Figure 5-)1. d. Attach a carabiner and sling to the piton before removal to eliminate the chance of dropping and losing it. meter of slack in the climbing rope or use a sling.

but can be made into e"cellent anchors $ith little adjustment. Chock craft is an art that re#uires time and techni#ue to master—simple in theory. provides an e"cellent anchor point. having fallen and $edged in a crack. 9iton remo2a!. a. and straightened may be reused. but comple" in practice. he advantages of using chocks are: • • • • • • actically #uiet installation and recovery. they may have been driven poorly the first time. Cinimal rock scarring as opposed to pitons. +oft iron pitons that have been used. +ometimes these chockstones are in unstable positions. Disa&2antages. 7&2antages. Bight to carry. he skilled climber must understand the application of mechanical advantage.Figure 5-)4. test them as described above and drive them again until certain of their soundness.asy to insert and remove. In training areas. <efore use. pitons already in place should not be trusted since $eather loosens them in time. unless severely damaged. . he disadvantages of using chocks are: . A natural chockstone. >sually easy to retrieve and. Imagination and resourcefulness are key principles to chock craft. . Also. Chocks Chock craft has been in use for many decades.eusing 9itons. b. and other forces that affect the belay chain in a fall. +ometimes can be placed $here pitons cannot %e"panding rock flakes $here pitons $ould further $eaken the rock*. f. removed. vectors. are reusable. but they must be checked for strength.

Chocks are usually good for a single direction of pull.nd $eighting of the placement helps to keep the protection in position. 9!acement. Avoid poor protection. cord.7*. $hich should be removed before placing the chock. he principles of placing chocks are to find a crack $ith a constriction at some point. . and set the chock by jerking do$n on the chock loop %&igure 7(. place a chock of appropriate siAe above and behind the constriction. then select a chock to fit it. and dirt. A chock resting on one small crystal or point of rock is likely to be unsafe. Ca"imum surface contact $ith a tight fit is critical. %1* . Figure 5-)5. A carabiner often provides enough $eight .nsure that the chock has a $ire or runner long enough@ e"tra ropes. if possible. Chock p!acements.* Avoid cracks that have crumbly %soft* or deteriorating rock. +ome cracks may have loose rock. %. choose one that has as much surface area as possible in contact $ith the rock.• • • Cay not fit in thin cracks. Book for a constriction point in the crack. grass. or $ebbing may be needed to e"tend the length of the runner. c. $hich may accept pitons. -ractice and e"perience necessary to become proficient in proper placement. A chock that sticks partly out of the crack is avoided. Dften provide only one direction of pull. %0* !hen selecting a chock.

It is $ell suited in a$k$ard positions and difficult placements.)*. Testing. then rotate it to the attitude it $ill assume under load@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. since it can be emplaced $ith one hand.%'* -arallel(sided cracks $ithout constrictions are a problem. firmly pull the chock in every anticipated direction of pull. o test it. %b* -lace a camming chock $ith its narro$ side into the crack. d. +ome chock placements fail in one or more directions@ therefore. !eighting the emplacement $ith e"tra hard$are is often necessary to keep the chocks from dropping out. A chock that falls out $hen the climber moves past it is unsafe and offers no protection. Chocks designed to be used in this situation rely on camming principles to remain emplaced. It can usually be placed #uickly and retrieved easily %&igure 7(. test it to ensure it remains in place.mplace the $edge(shaped chock above and behind the constriction@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. After seating a chock. use pairs of chocks in opposition. %a* . . Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ice he +BC2 offers #uick and easy placement of artificial protection.

An +BC2 should be e"tended $ith a runner and placed so that the direction of pull is parallel to the shaft@ other$ise. he versions that have a semi(rigid $ire cable shaft allo$ for greater fle"ibility and usage. pull the retractor bar back. since it may be impossible to reach the e"tractor bar for removal. and release the retractor bar. It should be placed so that it is aligned in the direction of force applied to it. It should not be placed any deeper than is needed for secure placement. $ithout the danger of the shaft snapping off in a fall. S8CD p!acements. b. a. o emplace an +BC2 hold the device in either hand like a syringe.Figure 5-)6. Careful study of the crack should be made before selecting the device for emplacement. place the device into a crack. it may rotate and pull out. +maller variations are available for finger(siAed cracks. %o!ts . he +BC2 holds $ell in parallel(sided hand( and fist(siAed cracks.

. c.lectric or even gas(po$ered drills can be used to greatly shorten drilling time. flaking. <olts provide one of the most secure means of establishing protection. $hich bores the hole. he rock should be inspected for evidence of crumbling. and runners. his normally takes more than 0: minutes for one hole. their siAe and $eight can make them difficult to carry on the climbing route. +afety glasses should al$ays be $orn $hen emplacing bolts. .mplacing a bolt $ith a hammer and a hand drill is a time( consuming and difficult process that re#uires drilling a hole in the rock deeper than the length of the bolt. +urgical tubing is useful in blo$ing dust out of the holes. the climber uses a piton hammer and hand drill $ith a masonry bit for drilling holes. . !hen using bolts. A climber should never hammer on a bolt to test or 6improve6 it. A hanger %carrier* and nut are placed on the bolt. <olts should be used $ith carriers. carabiners. or cracking.4*. and should be tested $ith a hammer. since this permanently $eakens it. and the bolt is inserted and then driven into the hole. /o$ever. b. a.<olts are often used in fi"ed(rope installations and in aid climbing $here cracks are not available. +plit bolts and e"panding sleeves are common bolts used to secure hangers and carriers %&igure 7(. =ail type bolts are emplaced by driving the nail $ith a hammer to e"pand the sleeve against the $all of the drilled hole. +ome versions are available in $hich the sleeve is hammered and turned into the rock %self(drilling*.

the anchor $ill e"tend and shock(load the remaining points or even cause complete anchor failure. his not only provides greater anchor strength. b. Se!#-equa!i@ing anchors. Figure 5-)". A pre(e#ualiAed anchor distributes the load e#ually to each individual point %&igure 7(.8*. Se!#-equa!i@ing 7nchor. A self(e#ualiAing anchor should only be used $hen necessary because if any one of the individual points fail. A self(e#ualiAing anchor $ill maintain an e#ual load on each individual point as the direction of pull changes %&igure 7(.5*. but also adds redundancy or backup because of the multiple points. $qua!i@ing 7nchors . It is aimed in the direction of the load. a. An anchor is pre(e#ualiAed by tying an overhand or figure( eight knot in the $ebbing or sling.#ualiAing anchors are made up of more than one anchor point joined together so that the intended load is shared e#ually.Figure 5-)7. %o!t +ith eBpan&ing s!ee2e. . his is sometimes used in rappelling $hen the route must change left or right in the middle of the rappel. 9re-equa!i@e& 7nchor. A pre( e#ualiAed anchor prevents e"tension and shock(loading of the anchor if an individual point fails.

terrain hazards. C!im ing A steep roc0 face is a terrain feature that can be avoided most of the time through prior planning and good route selection. A steep roc0 route would normally be considered an unli0ely avenue of approach and. 7t can leave the climbing party totally e)posed to weather. 4oc0 climbing can be time consuming.Figure 5-)'. especially for a larger unit with a heavy combat load. Climbing relatively short sections of steep roc0 $one or two pitches% may prove &uic0er and safer than using alternate routes. 9re-equa!i@e& anchor. therefore. might be wea0ly defended or not defended at all. 3ote4 !hen using $ebbing or slings. the angles of the $ebbing or slings directly affect the load placed on an anchor. and the enemy for the length of the climb. Sometimes steep roc0 cannot be avoided. All personnel in a unit preparing for deployment to mountainous terrain should be . An angle greater than 8: degrees can result in anchor failure %&igure 7(0:*.

H H H H H Clim(ing )undamentals *se o' Holds &oped Clim(ing +ela" Techniques Clim(ing Commands H &oped Clim(ing Methods Figure 5-.trained in the basics of climbing. $##ects o# ang!es on an anchor.oute Se!ection he e"perienced climber has learned to climb $ith the 6eyes.6 . ledges. and security teams are a few e)amples of small units who may re&uire roc0 climbing s0ills to gain their vantage points in mountainous terrain. he foundation for all of these styles is the art of climbing. . C!im ing Fun&amenta!s A variety of refined techni#ues are used to climb different types of rock formations. he mentally climbs the route. the climber studies all possible routes. Select personnel demonstrating the highest degree of s0ill and e)perience should be trained in roped climbing techni&ues. ensuring himself that the route has an ade#uate number of holds and the difficulty of the climb $ill be $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. or 6lines.*. using the hands primarily for balance. the climbing techni#ue is also used in roped climbing. nubbins. reconnaissance personnel. and other irregularities in the rock that $ill be used for footholds and handholds. taking note of any larger ledges or benches for resting places. !hen picking the line. 'hese personnel will have the !ob of pic0ing and 8fi)ing8 the route for the rest of the unit. 'his chapter focuses on the basics most applicable to military operations. rehearsing the step(by(step se#uence of movements that $ill be re#uired to do the climb. =o mountaineering e#uipment is re#uired@ ho$ever. . 4oc0 climbing has evolved into a specialized 8sport8 with a wide range of varying techni&ues and styles. +orward observers.ven before getting on the rock.6 to the top looking for cracks. It can be thought of as a combination of the balanced movement re#uired to $alk a tightrope and the techni#ue used to ascend a ladder. Climbing techni#ue stresses climbing $ith the $eight centered over the feet.

dry rock. C7ET=63 . In later lessons. allo$ing e individual to increase the length and difficulty of the climb under the protection of the climbing rope. he has climbed DD /I9/ for his o$n safety. Cost climbing helmets are not designed to provide protection from impact to the head if the $earer falls. falls from climbers above.ings can become caught on rock facial features and or lodged into cracks. -ersonnel not climbing can act as 6otters6 for those climbing. a 6top(rope6 belay can be used for safety.oute selection for military climbing involves picking the easiest and #uickest possible line for all personnel to follo$. he duties of the spotter are to help prevent the . <eyond that height a roped climbing should be conducted. dry them off by stomping and rubbing the soles on clean. !atches and bracelets can interfere $ith hand placements and may become damaged if $orn $hile climbing. +potting is only applicable if the climber is not going above the spotters head on the rock. Spotting +potting is a techni#ue used to add a level of safety to climbing $ithout a rope. beginning lessons in climbing should be performed CBD+. A small stick can be used to clean out dirt and small rocks that might be caught bet$een the lugs of the boot sole. All je$elry should be removed from the fingers. $hich could cause injuries during a slip or fall. In the training environment.Terrain Se!ection #or Training . If the soles are $et or damp. /o$ever. the boot soles should be dry and clean. /elmets should be $orn to protect the head from injury if an object. 9reparation In preparation for climbing. such as a rock or climbing gear. climbing skill and e"perience can only be developed by increasing the length and difficulty of routes as training progresses. If an individual climbs beyond the effective range of the spotter%s*. to the ground on lo$er(angled rock $ith plenty of holds for the hands and feet. A second man stands belo$ and just outside of the climbers fall path and helps %spots* the climber to land safely if he should fall. but $ill provide a minimal amount of protection if a climber comes in contact $ith the rock during climbing.

his techni#ue reduces e"cess force on the limbs. <ent legs and tense muscles tire #uickly. he trunk is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot or in conjunction $ith a hand. he five body parts used for climbing are the right hand. his vibration. Stance or %o&y 9osition. a$ay from the rock. If the spotter pushes the falling climber into the rock. deep abrasions of the skin or knee may occur. he spotter might be re#uired to fully support the $eight of the climber causing injury to the spotter. <ody position is probably the single most important element to good techni#ue. If strained for too long. helping to minimiAe fatigue. left foot. right foot. he legs are straight and the heels are kept lo$ to reduce fatigue. and so on. kno$n as 6. tense muscles may vibrate uncontrollably. C!im ing Technique Climbing involves linking together a series of movements based on foot and hand placement. comfortable stance is essential. b. C7ET=63 he spotter should not catch the climber against the rock because additional injuries could result.falling climber from impacting the head and or spine. left hand. he basic principle is based on the five body parts described here. a hand is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot. resulting in a loss of friction bet$een the boot sole and rock surface. lo$ering the heel. and movement. a. and &igure )(0 sho$s an incorrect stance. A rela"ed. $eight shift. Fi2e %o&y 9arts. he basic principle to achieve smooth climbing is to move only one of the five body parts at a time.lvis(ing6 or 6se$ing(machine leg6 can be cured by straightening the leg. a smooth climbing techni#ue results. %&igure )(. and reduce the impact of a fall. and body %trunk*. help the climber land feet first. !hen this series of movements is combined correctly. Beaning in to$ards the rock $ill cause the feet to push out$ard. &ollo$ing this simple techni#ue forces both legs to do all the lifting simultaneously. sho$s a correct climbing stance. Ankle joints could be t$isted by the fall if the climberUs foot remained high on the rock.* he body should be in a near vertical or erect stance $ith the $eight centered over the feet. or moving on to a more .

%.* !henever possible. three points of contact are maintained $ith the rock. -roper positioning of the hips and shoulders is critical. !hen using t$o footholds and one handhold. he hands are used to maintain balance. Figure 6-. Correct c!im ing stance. the hips and shoulders should be .a!ance& o2er oth #eet..restful position. ?eeping the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level $ill reduce arm fatigue. =ncorrect stance-stretche& out. Figure 6-).

$hen footholds are small. hand. he shoulders can be moved closer to the rock to reach handholds. %A typical climbing se#uence is sho$n in &igure )(1.centered over both feet. Bift the un$eighted foot and place it in a ne$ location. %0* he angle or steepness of the rock also determines ho$ far a$ay from the rock the hips and shoulders should be. Again. Dn lo$(angle slopes. $ithin one to t$o feet of the starting position. In most cases. . the hips are moved back to increase friction bet$een the foot and the rock. shift. and is called a high step* he trunk does not move during foot movement. he hips and shoulders must be centered over the support foot to maintain balance.D=. or body*. the hips are pushed closer to the rock. as the climbing progresses. -erforming these steps in this e"act order $ill not al$ays be necessary because the nature of the route $ill dictate the availability of hand and foot placements. intermediate holds. the body is resting on one foot $ith t$o handholds for balance.: + . !hen $eight must be placed on handholds. C!im ing Sequence. the hips are moved out a$ay from the rock to keep the body in balance $ith the $eight over the feet. +ometimes.!D: +hift the $eight from both feet to one foot. Dn steep rock. c.* + . fle"ed muscles tire #uickly. the arms should be kept straight to reduce fatigue. he body is still in balance over the feet and the eyes can see $here the hands need to go. $ith no effect on body position or balance %higher placement $ill result in a potentially higher lift for the legs to make. creating more stress. and movement %movement being either the foot. It should be avoided in the rest position as it places more $eight on the arms and hands. he steps defined belo$ provide a complete se#uence of events to move the entire body on the rock. hese are the basic steps to follo$ for a smooth climbing techni#ue. he shoulders are moved a$ay from the rock by arching the back. he basic steps are $eight. his is normally done on #uick. allo$ing the 6free6 foot to maneuver. his $ill allo$ lifting of one foot $ith no effect on the stance.

2uring this movement.: + .: + .+ . %. through 1 for remaining foot. /and movements can be delayed until numerous foot movements have been made. the trunk should be completely balanced in position and the removed hand should have no effect on stability. $hich not only creates shorter lifts $ith the legs. If both legs are bent. Cove the remaining hand as in +tep 7. .. + . Cove one hand to a ne$ position bet$een $aist and head height.: +hift the $eight onto both feet. &ollo$ing these steps $ill prevent lifting $ith the hands and arms./.epeat steps .+IL: =o$ the entire body is in a ne$ position and ready to start the process again..&D>.* Bift the body into a ne$ stance $ith both legs. but may allo$ a better choice for the ne"t hand movements because the reach $ill have increased. leg e"tension can be performed as soon as one foot has been moved.&IV. $hich are used to maintain stance and balance.

. Typica! c!im ing sequence.Figure 6-1.

Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0.Figure 6-1. .

because the legs are much stronger. Cany climbing routes have angles greater than ninety degrees %overhanging* and the arms are used to support partial body $eight. not the arms. usually resulting in lifting the body $ith one leg or one leg and both arms. these bony portions of the limbs offer little friction and 6feel6 on the rock.Figure 6-1. -roper climbing techni#ue is lifting the body $ith the legs. re#uiring one leg to perform the $ork of t$o or using the arms to lift the body. /olding or pulling the body into the rock $ith the arms and hands may be necessary as the angle increases %this is still not lifting $ith the arms*. Sa#ety 9recautions . even painful. %0* !hen the angle of the rock increases. to rest on. %. Dther than being uncomfortable. he same techni#ue applies even at those angles. %1* he climber should avoid moving on the knees and elbo$s. these movements become more critical. his type of lifting is inefficient. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0.* Cany climbers $ill move more than one body part at a time.

and to reduce the impact of a fall. it may be possible to remove it from the route and trundle it. you may encounter precariously perched rocks. his is e"tremely dangerous to climbers belo$ and should not be attempted unless you are absolutely sure no men are belo$.he follo$ing safety precautions should be observed $hen rock climbing. d. !hile ascending a seldom or never traveled route. a spotter can be used for safety. If the rock $ill endanger your second. although heavier cotton or leather $ork gloves are often used for belaying. he may be able to arrest his o$n fall by staying in contact $ith the rock. Avoid climbing directly above or belo$ other climbers %$ith the e"ception of spotters*. +hould a climber fall. he use of gloves in the training environment is especially discouraged. A thin polypropylene or $ool glove is best for rock climbing. !hen personnel must climb at the same time. If on a lo$(angle climb. immediately shout the $arning 6.DC?6 to alert climbers belo$. he duties of the spotter are to ensure the falling climber does not impact the head or spine. tossing it do$n. personnel should seek immediate cover behind any rock bulges or overhangs available. or flatten themselves against the rock to minimiAe e"posure. >pon hearing the $arning. c. If conducting a roped climb. If you are not sure that the flight path is clear. Avoid climbing $ith gloves on because of the decreased 6feel6 for the rock. follo$ing the same line. $hile their use in the mountains is often mandatory $hen it is cold. b. a. a fi"ed rope should be installed. !hen climbing close to the ground and $ithout a rope. he should do his utmost to maintain control and not panic. . /e should shout the $arning 6&ABBI=96 to alert personnel belo$. let the rope provide protection. =ever dislodge loose rocks carelessly. C7ET=63 9rasping at the rock in a fall can result in serious injuries to the upper body. grasping for any possible hold available. do not do it. +hould a rock become loose accidentally. e.

Avoid grasping small vegetation for handholds@ the root systems can be shallo$ and $ill usually not support much $eight. or the force is applied in a direction that strengthens it. the climber can avoid catastrophe by climbing $ith a $ide margin of safety. he selects a route $ell $ithin the ability of the $eakest member. the climber kno$s to use the protection of the climbing rope and belays.&D. he leader must apply the margin of safety taking into account the strengths and $eaknesses of the entire team or unit. A loose nubbin might not be strong enough to support the climberUs $eight. but it may serve as an ade#uate handhold. a. !hen climbing. <e especially careful $hen climbing on $eathered. or $hen climbing in other adverse $eather conditions. !hen the rock is $et.. sedimentary(type rock. a hold that appears $eak can actually be solid as long as minimal force is applied to it. Ese o# -o!&s he climber should check each hold before use. the climber increases his margin of safety by selecting routes that are $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. b. visual inspection if he kno$s the rock to be solid. !hen leading a group of climbers. <oth subjective %personnel(related* and objective %environmental* haAards must be considered $hen applying the margin of safety. !hen the climbing becomes difficult or e"posed. C!im ing (ith The Feet . !hen in doubt. depending on it. he margin of safety is a protective buffer the climber places bet$een himself and potential climbing haAards.f. g. <e e"tremely careful $hen climbing on $et or moss(covered rock@ friction on holds is greatly reduced. A lead climber increases his margin of safety by placing protection along the route to limit the length of a potential fall. his may simply be a #uick. +ometimes. he should grab and tug on the hold to test it for soundness <. :argin o# Sa#ety <esides observing the standard safety precautions. the climberUs ability is reduced and routes are selected accordingly.

he follo$ing describes a fe$ $ays the foot can be positioned on the rock to ma"imiAe friction. . %. Ca"imum friction is obtained by placing as much of the boot sole on the rock as possible. Also. Ca"imum friction is obtained from a correct stance over a properly positioned foot. placing only part of the foot on the hold may allo$ the climber to achieve a balanced stance. &ailure to climb any route. In the early learning stages of climbing. b. as in mountain $alking. he principle of using full sole contact.* %a* +mooth. . a. he beginning climber $ill have a natural tendency to look up for handholds.emember to keep the heels lo$ to reduce strain on the lo$er leg muscles.* Maximum Sole Contact. even the most strenuous techni#ues re#uire good foot$ork and a #uick return to a balanced position over one or both feet. he key is to use as much of the boot sole as possible. the leg muscles can rela" the most $hen the entire foot is placed on the rock. like bucket holds that e"tend deep into the rock. he climber may not be able to achieve a balanced position if the foot is stuck too far underneath a bulge in the rock. %b* Dn some large holds. also applies in climbing. he foot remains on the rock as a result of friction. . In this case. forgetting to use the feet properly. easy or difficult. %&igure )(' sho$s e"amples of ma"imum and minimum sole contact.6Climb $ith the feet and use the hands for balance6 is e"tremely important to remember. lo$(angled rock %slab* and rock containing large 6bucket6 holds and ledges are typical formations $here the entire boot sole should be used. most individuals $ill rely heavily on the arms. ry to keep the hands lo$ and train your eyes to look do$n for footholds. is usually the result of poor foot$ork. It is true that solid handholds and a firm grip are needed in some combination techni#ues@ ho$ever. the entire foot cannot be used.ven the smallest irregularity in the rock can support the climber once the foot is positioned properly and $eight is committed to it.

turn the foot side$ays and use the entire inside edge of the boot.* %a* Dn smaller holds. . or toe. $ell(defined ledges. using the strength of the big toe and the ball of the foot. !henever possible. Again. %&igure )(7 sho$s e"amples of the edging techni#ue. A stronger position is usually obtained on small ledges by turning the foot at about a '7( degree angle. more sole contact e#uals more friction and the legs can rest more $hen the heel is on the rock. Curling and stiffening the toes in the boot increases support on the hold. .Figure 6-4. may be used. he edging techni#ue is used $here horiAontal crack systems and other irregularities in the rock form small. edging $ith the front of the boot. %0* Edging.emember to keep the heel lo$ to reduce fatigue. $Bamp!es o# maBimum an& minimum so!e contact. >se of the toe is most tiring because the heel is off the rock and the toes support the climberUs $eight. he edge of the boot sole is placed on the ledge for the foothold. >sually. the inside edge of the boot or the edge area around the toes is used.

$Bamp!es o# e&ging technique. usually $orks better for smearing than for edging. the ball of the foot can be 6smeared6 over the hold. %&igure )() sho$s e"amples of the smearing techni#ue. %1* Smearing.* %a* . he leg should be kept straight $henever possible. do$n(sloping ledges and lo$(angled slab rock often re#uire good smearing techni#ue. he smearing techni#ue re#uires the boot to adhere to the rock by deformation of the sole and by friction.ffective smearing re#uires ma"imum friction bet$een the foot and the rock.ffective edging on small ledges re#uires stiff(soled foot$ear. . ypical mountain boots $orn by the >+ military have a relatively fle"ible lugged sole and. Cover as much of the hold as possible $ith the ball of the foot. $ith its softer sole.ounded. . he Army mountain boot. . edging ability on smaller holds $ill be some$hat limited.ock climbing shoes are specifically designed to ma"imiAe friction for smearing@ some athletic shoes also $ork $ell. therefore. intermediate holds. the better the edging capability. %b* +ometimes fle"ing the ankles and knees slightly $ill place the climberUs $eight more directly over the ball of the foot and increase friction@ ho$ever. Figure 6-5. he stiffer the sole. but $ill increase the amount of surface contact bet$een the foot and the rock.%b* . this is more tiring and should only be used for #uick. ?eeping the heel lo$ $ill not only reduce muscle strain. !hen footholds are too small to use a good edging techni#ue.

Eam holds are described in this te"t to broaden the range of climbing skills. he jamming techni#ue $orks on the same principal as chock placement. . he jamming techni#ue is a specialiAed skill used to climb vertical or near vertical cracks $hen no other holds are available on the rock face. such as edges. %&igure )(4 sho$s e"amples of jamming. and so on. %b* +ome foot jams may be difficult to remove once $eight has been committed to them. %'* Jamming. ry to use as much of the foot as possible for ma"imum surface contact. than others. even the entire leg or body are all used in the jamming techni#ue. $Bamp!es o# the smearing technique. It can be inserted above a constriction and set into the narro$ portion. ball of the foot. depending on the siAe of the crack. Aside from these t$o basic ideas. restful position. arms. Al$ays look or feel for easier to use features. like a camming device. he techni#ue is not limited to just $edging the feet@ fingers. he toes. hands. Eamming holds can be used in a crack $hile other handKfoot holds are used on the face of the rock. until it locks in place tight enough to support the climberUs $eight. pockets. the possibilities are endless. +ome positions are more tiring. resisting a do$n$ard pull. especially if a stiffer sole boot is used. inside and $ithin reach. Cany cracks $ill have facial features. or it can be placed in the crack and turned. he foot is set into a crack in such a $ay that it 6jams6 into place.* %a* he foot can be jammed in a crack in different $ays. or the entire foot can be used.Figure 6-6. -ractice jamming the foot in various $ays to see $hat offers the most secure. and even more painful on the foot.

and $hat configuration $ill best support the current stance as $ell as the movement to the ne"t stance. our body $eight is on our legs. +econdly.he foot is less likely to get stuck $hen it is t$isted or 6cammed6 into position. reverse the $ay it $as placed to prevent further constriction. he $ill be able to push directly do$n on a large hold $ith the palm of the hand. b. !hen removing the boot from a crack. he continually repositions his hands and arms to keep the body in balance. Core often though. he may simply need to place the hands up against the rock and e"tend the arm to maintain balance@ just like using an ice a" as a third point of contact in mountain $alking. As the individual climbs. the beginner $ill undoubtedly place too much $eight on the hands and arms. Dur hands grip. If $e think of ourselves climbing a ladder. . he $ill need to 6grip6 the rock in some fashion and then push or pull against the hold to maintain balance. $ith the $eight centered over the feet. <oth of these contribute to a rela"ed stance and reduce fatigue in the hands and arms. $Bamp!es o# >amming. Figure 6-7. Esing the -an&s he hands can be placed on the rock in many $ays. +electing handholds bet$een $aist and shoulder level helps in different $ays. As stated earlier. Dn lo$er(angled rock."actly ho$ and $here to position the hands and arms depends on $hat holds are available. a. and our arms pull on each rung only enough to maintain . +ometimes. the climber has less tendency to 6hang6 on his arms $hen the handholds are at shoulder level and belo$. Circulation in the arms and hands is best $hen the arms are kept lo$.

* %a* An effective push hold does not necessarily re#uire the use of the entire hand. -ush holds rely on the friction created $hen the hand is pushed against the rock. even up$ard on less obvious holds can prove #uite secure. +ome holds may not feel secure $hen the hand is initially placed on them. Ideally.* Push olds.our balance and footing on the ladder. he key is to move #uickly from the smaller. and on occasion. Df course. or the thumb may be all that is needed to support the stance. he follo$ing describes some of the basic handholds and ho$ the hand can be positioned to ma"imiAe grip on smaller holds. Cost often a climber $ill use a push hold by applying 6do$n$ard pressure6 on a ledge or nubbin. intermediate holds to the larger holds $here the $eight can be placed back on the feet allo$ing the hands and arms to rela". the side of the palm. -ushing side$ays. and $orks $ell@ ho$ever. as the siAe and availability of holds decreases. +ometimes the strength of the hold can be increased by s#ueeAing. -ushing in opposite directions and 6push(pull6 combinations are e"cellent techni#ues. he hold may improve or $eaken during the movement. %&igure )(5 sho$s e"amples of push holds. he key is to try and select a hold that $ill improve as the climber moves past it. %. his is fine. or 6pinching.6 the rock bet$een the thumb and fingers %see paragraph on pinch holds*. the climber should not limit his use of push holds to the application of do$n pressure. and the steepness of the rock approaches the vertical. this is the amount of grip and pull that should be used in climbing. the fingers. -ush holds often $ork best $hen used in combination $ith other holds. %b* Cost push holds do not re#uire much grip@ ho$ever. the grip must be stronger and more $eight might be placed on the arms and handholds for brief moments. friction might be increased by taking advantage of any rough surfaces or irregularities in the rock. Dn smaller holds. .

%&igure )(8 sho$s e"amples of pull holds. just good techni#ue. hese are the holds the climber has a tendency to hang from. also called 6cling holds. pressure on a pull hold can be applied straight do$n. .6 $hich are grasped and pulled upon.Figure 6-". Again. therefore. . Avoid the 6death grip6 syndrome by climbing $ith the feet.emember to try and keep the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level. or up$ard. <ecause of this increased feeling of security. $Bamp!es o# push ho!&s. %0* Pull olds. side$ays. are probably the most $idely used holds in climbing. creating an unbalanced stance. and. pull holds are often over$orked. Cost pull holds do not re#uire great strength. it normally feels more secure to the climber than a push hold. making use of intermediate holds instead of reaching for those above the head. -ull holds. 9rip plays more of a role in a pull hold. these are the holds the climber tends to stretch and reach for.* %a* Bike push holds.

forcing the palm of the hand to push against the rock. $ith the hands pulling in opposite directions. here is less tendency to hang from 6side(clings6 and the hands naturally remain lo$er. <oth hands can also be placed in the same crack. he thumb can often push against one side of the crack. Figure 6-'. $Bamp!es o# pu!! ho!&s. the grip is stronger $hen the fingers are closed together@ ho$ever. sometimes more friction is obtained by spreading the fingers apart and placing them bet$een irregularities on the rock surface.%b* -ulling side$ays on vertical cracks can be very secure. %c* &riction and strength of a pull hold can be increased by the $ay the hand grips the rock. his helps to hold the finger tips in . =ormally. creating a stronger hold. in opposition to the pull by the fingers. Dn small holds. grip can often be improved by bending the fingers up$ard. he number of possible combinations is limited only by the imagination and e"perience of the climber.

and the back of the hand@ ho$ever. Bike foot jams. %d* Another techni#ue that helps to strengthen a cling hold for a do$n$ard pull is to press the thumb against the side of the inde" finger. his hand configuration. +ometimes a small nubbin or protrusion in the rock can be 6s#ueeAed6 bet$een the thumb and fingers. If the climber has his $eight over his feet properly. %&igure )(. or place it on top of the inde" finger and press do$n.: sho$s e"amples of pinch holds. his techni#ue is called a pinch hold. -inch holds are often overlooked by the novice climber because they feel insecure at first and cannot be relied upon to support much body $eight.* Figure 6-)*. %'* Jam olds.place and reduces muscle strain in the hand. ?eeping the forearm up against the rock also allo$s the arm and hand muscles to rela" more. ape also adds friction . the pinch hold $ill $ork $ell in providing balance. Cotton tape can be used to protect the fingertips. $Bamp!es o# pinch ho!&s. he pinch hold can also be used as a gripping techni#ue for push holds and pull holds. Eamming $ith the fingers and hands can be painful and may cause minor cuts and abrasions to tender skin. kno$n as a 6ring grip. the fingers and hands can be $edged or cammed into a crack so they resist a do$n$ard or out$ard pull. %1* Pinch olds. prolonged jamming techni#ue re#uiring hand taping should be avoided.6 $orks $ell on smaller holds. &riction is applied by increasing the grip on the rock. knuckles.

only the fingers $ill fit. Another techni#ue for vertical cracks is to place the hand in the crack $ith the thumb pointed either up or do$n. leg. he fingers can sometimes be stacked in some configuration to increase friction. &riction can be created by applying cross pressure bet$een the fingers and the back of the hand. he hand is then clenched as much as possible. hands.6 re#uiring the use of arm. from the calf to the thigh. &or off $idths. !hen the arm is straightened. . and body jams.. >se as many fingers as the crack $ill allo$. leg. he leg can be used. his combination of clenching and camming usually produces the most friction. or 6off $idths. you may place your entire arm inside the crack $ith the arm folded and the palm pointing out$ard. In vertical cracks it is best to insert the fingers $ith the thumb pointing do$n to make use of the natural camming action of the fingers that occurs $hen the arm is t$isted to$ards a normal position. sho$s e"amples of jam holds.* %a* he hand can be placed in a crack a number of $ays. %c* Eamming techni#ue for large cracks. and fle"ed to fit the crack. . o jam or cam an arm.to the hand in jammed position. and the most secure hand jam in vertical cracks. or body into an off $idth.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect larger cracks and openings. or feet(you are making the jammed appendage 6fatter6 by folding or t$isting it inside the crack. Dther times a clenched fist $ill provide the necessary grip. he thumb is usually kept outside the crack in finger jams and pressed against the rock to increase friction or create cross pressure. /o$ever. %&igure )(. +ometimes an open hand can be inserted and $edged into a narro$er portion of the crack. the principle is the same as for fingers. sometimes a narro$er section may be deeper in the crack allo$ing the use of 6normal6 siAe protection. %b* In smaller cracks. is another techni#ue. it $ill t$ist the hand and tend to cam it into place.

$Bamp!es o# >am ho!&s. feet. Com ination Techniques he positions and holds previously discussed are the basics and the ones most common to climbing. he should al$ays strive to climb $ith his $eight on his feet from a balanced stance. . he $ill learn more $ays to position the hands. numerous combination techni#ues are possible. As the climber gains e"perience. and body in relation to the holds available@ ho$ever.Figure 6-)). &rom these fundamentals.

+ometimes. before the hands. usually 6hooking6 both hands over the ledge. mantling begins $ith pull holds. Combination possibilities are endless. It is commonly used $hen traversing to avoid crossing the feet. he change step. +till. even on an easy route. he climber pulls himself up until his head is above the hands. Cost $ill place more $eight on the hands and arms than is desirable. $ithout lunging or groping for holds.otating . the climber may come upon a section of the rock that defies the basic principles of climbing. b. the only alternative is to figure out some combination techni#ue that $ill $ork. $hile at the same time strengthening the grip on the holds. the climber may have to 6break the rules6 momentarily. t$o solid handholds should be used. he key to using these type of combination techni#ues is to plan and e"ecute them deliberately.a. though a certain degree of hand and arm strength certainly helps. most of these maneuvers re#uire good techni#ue more than great strength. o make the move. and some $ill put the climber in an 6out of balance6 position. or hop step. arms. Cany of these type problems re#uire the hands and feet to $ork in opposition to one another.0 sho$s the mantling se#uence.6 replacing the lead foot $ith the trail foot on the same hold. ?eeping the forearms against the rock during the maneuver takes some of the strain off the hands. he climber simply places his $eight on his handholds $hile he repositions the feet. yet #uickly. %&igure )(. his is not a problem and is done #uite fre#uently by e"perienced climbers. . or other body parts tire. $here the pull holds become push holds. $hich might put the climber in an a$k$ard position.* Change Step. %0* Mantling.* %a* !hen the ledge is above head height. +hort of turning back. o prevent an off balance situation. %. Cantling is a techni#ue that can be used $hen the distance bet$een the holds increases and there are no immediate places to move the hands or feet. /e often does this $ith a #uick 6hop. /e elevates himself until the arms are straight and he can lock the elbo$s to rela" the muscles. can be used $hen the climber needs to change position of the feet. It does re#uire a ledge %mantle* or projection in the rock that the climber can press straight do$n upon. he follo$ing is a brief description of some of the more common techni#ues.

Dnce the arms are locked. most individuals should be able to support their $eight. Cantling can be fairly strenuous@ ho$ever. the climber can often smear the balls of the feet against the rock and 6$alk6 the feet up during the maneuver to take some of the $eight off the arms. momentarily. on one arm if they keep it straight and locked. Dnce balanced over the foot. he climber may have to remove one hand to make room for the foot. %b* -ure mantling uses arm strength to raise the body@ ho$ever. he can stand up on the ledge and plan his ne"t move. . +ometimes edges $ill be available for short steps in the process. !ith the foot on the ledge. $eight can be taken off the arms and the climber can grasp the holds that $ere previously out of reach.the hands in$ard during the transition to push holds helps to place the palms more securely on the ledge. a foot can be raised and placed on the ledge.

:ant!ing sequence.Figure 6-). he hands are placed 6palms(up6 underneath the bulge. It is commonly used in places $here the rock projects out$ard. also. $hich applies more $eight and friction to the footholds. applying an up$ard pull. An 6undercling6 is a classic e"ample of handholds and footholds $orking in opposition %&igure )(. or body tension. he arms and legs . >nderclings can be used in the tops of buckets.. forming a bulge or small overhang. %1* !ndercling. Increasing this up$ard pull creates a counterforce.1*.

he 6lieback6 is another good e"ample of the hands $orking in opposition to the feet. he feet must be kept relatively high to maintain $eight. especially $hen the dihedral is near vertical. Beaning a$ay from the crack on t$o pull holds. Figure 6-)1. . he crack edge closest to the body is used for handholds $hile the feet are pressed against the other edge. %'* "ie#ack. En&erc!ing. body tension creates friction bet$een the feet and the hands. the climber $ill . he lieback techni#ue can be e"tremely tiring. If the hands and arms tire out before completing the se#uence. he climber can often lean back slightly in the undercling position. more or less. he techni#ue is often used in a vertical or diagonal crack separating t$o rock faces that come together at.should be kept as straight as possible to reduce fatigue. enabling him to see above the overhang better and search for the ne"t hold. creating ma"imum friction bet$een the sole and the rock surface. $hichever seems to produce the most friction. a right angle %commonly referred to as a dihedral*. %a* he climber ascends a dihedral by alternately shuffling the hands and feet up$ard. putting the body into an B( shaped position. he climber bends at the $aist.ither full sole contact or the smearing techni#ue can be used.

he stemming techni#ue can sometimes be used on faces.likely fall. rather than muscle. as $ell as in a dihedral in the absence of solid handholds for the lieback %&igure )(. he lieback can sometimes be used as a face maneuver %&igure )(. %7* Stemming. he arms should be kept straight throughout the entire maneuver so the climberUs $eight is pulling against bones and ligaments. Dften. the maneuver is kno$n as stemming. !hen the feet $ork in opposition from a relatively $ide stance. Figure 6-)4. or vice versa. . he lieback can be used alternately $ith the jamming techni#ue. for variation or to get past a section of a crack $ith difficult or none"istent jam possibilities. or for a rest position.7*. he legs should be straightened $henever possible. 8ie ack on a #ace. a lieback can be avoided $ith closer e"amination of the available face features.'*. %b* -lacing protection in a lieback is especially tiring. Book for edges or pockets for the feet in the crack or on the face for a better position to place protection from.

>sually. . legs. he climber ascends the chimney by alternately moving the hands and feet up the crack %&igure )(. Stemming on a #ace. Chimneys that do not allo$ a full stemming position can be negotiated using the arms. although smearing may $ork best in some instances.)*. his techni#ue $ill often feel more secure since there is more body to rock contact. &riction is created by pushing out$ard $ith the hands and feet on each side of the crack. foot apart and just big enough to s#ueeAe the body into. parallel cracks. Chimneys are cracks in $hich the $alls are at least . kno$n as chimneys. %a* he classic e"ample of stemming is $hen used in combination $ith t$o opposing push holds in $ide. or body as an integral contact point. full sole contact of the shoes $ill provide the most friction. Applying pressure $ith the back and bottom is usually necessary in $ider chimneys.Figure 6-)5.

. Chimney sequence.Figure 6-)6.

face features. lo$(angled rock formation that re#uires a slightly modified climbing techni#ue %&igure )( . %)* Sla# Techni$ue.Figure 6-)6. he arms should be straightened $ith the elbo$s locked $henever possible to reduce muscle strain. A slab is a relatively smooth. he feet must be kept relatively high up under the body so the force is directed side$ays against the $alls of the crack.emember to look for face features inside chimneys for more security in the climb. or a much narro$er crack irotection. he climber must ensure that the crack does not $iden beyond the climbable $idth before committing to the maneuver. Chimney sequence /continue&0. /o$ever. forcing the body against the opposing $all. +ince slab rock normally contains fe$. %c* . . %b* he climber can sometimes rest by placing both feet on the same side of the crack. . if any holds.4*. the techni#ue re#uires ma"imum friction and perfect balance over the feet.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect chimneys.

a climber might find himself confronted $ith difficulties part $ay up a route that e"ceed his climbing ability. he climber should also take advantage of any rough surfaces. . the climber can often stand erect and climb using full sole contact and other mountain $alking techni#ues. %4* %o&n Clim#ing. Dften. or other irregularities in the rock he can place his hands or feet on.%a* Dn lo$er(angled slab. Figure 6-)7. 2escending steep rock is normally performed using a roped method@ ho$ever.ven if climbing ropes and related e#uipment are on hand. /e may then have to bend at the $aist to place the hands on the rock. . he climber $ill have to fle" the ankles and knees so his $eight is placed more directly over the balls of the feet. S!a technique. the climber $ill need to apply good smearing techni#ue. %b* he climber must pay attention to any changes in slope angle and adjust his body accordingly. to increase friction. $hile keeping the hips over his feet. ma"imum friction cannot be attained on steeper slab from an erect stance. or the . Also. the climber may at some point be re#uired to do$n climb a route. Dn steeper slab. do$n climbing easier terrain is often #uicker than taking the time to rig a rappel point.ven the slightest change in the position of the hips over the feet can mean the difference bet$een a good grip or a #uick slip.

+ome holds $ill be less visible $hen do$n climbing. as $ell as to help lo$er the climber to the ne"t foothold. the climber can face out$ard. but being better able to use the hands and feet on the holds available. If the handholds are too high. use a roped descent. use a roped descent. As the steepness and difficulty increase. A bad landing could lead to injured ankles or a fall beyond the . !hen in doubt. %a* Dn easier terrain. do$n climbing is a skill $ell $orth practicing. 2o$n climbing can inadvertently lead into an unforeseen dangerous position on a descent. C7ET=63S . /ands should be moved to holds as lo$ as $aist level to give the climber more range of movement $ith each step. he can often turn side$ays. !hen in doubt. enabling him to see the route better and descend #uickly.. he climber must be careful not to overe"tend himself. he climber must often lean $ell a$ay from the rock to look for holds and plan his movements. %b* 2o$n climbing is usually more difficult than ascending a given route. Dn the steepest terrain. he may have trouble reaching the ne"t foothold. the climber $ill have to face the rock and do$n climb using good climbing techni#ues. !hatever the case may be. a$ay from the rock. 0. 2o$n climbing is accomplished at a difficulty level $ell belo$ the ability of the climber. Core $eight is placed on the arms and handholds at times to accomplish this. and slips are more likely to occur.abilities of others to follo$. forcing a release of his handholds before reaching the ne"t foothold. C7ET=63 2o not drop from good handholds to a standing position. still having a good vie$ of the descent route.

!eight is still concentrated over the feet. %c* 2escending slab formations can be especially tricky. is usually best on steeper slab. An alternate method for descending slab is to face a$ay from the rock in a 6crab6 position %&igure )(. &acing the rock. 2o$n climbing must be slo$ and deliberate. $hich can lead to uncontrollable speed. facing out$ard or side$ays. he climber is able to maintain full sole contact $ith the rock and see the entire descent route. but may be shifted partly onto the hands to increase overall friction. the climber $ill normally face the rock and do$n climb. and do$n(climbing $ith good smearing techni#ue. Dn lo$er( angle slab the climber may be able to stand more or less erect. %d* Dn steeper slab. Allo$ing the buttocks to 6drag behind6 on the rock $ill decrease the actual $eight on the footholds. .5*. and descend using good flat foot techni#ue. as in ascending. to maintain perfect balance and $eight distribution over the feet. and leading to the likelihood of a slip. he generally lo$er angle of slab rock may give the climber a false sense of security.planned landing area. he climber should avoid the tendency to move faster. reducing friction. and a tendency to move too #uickly. using the same smearing techni#ue as for ascending.

..ope& C!im ing !hen the angle. Cany aspects of roped climbing take time to understand and learn. 3ote4 A rope is completely useless for climbing unless the climber kno$s ho$ to use it safely. A severe fall. . and may even lead to strangulation in a severe fall. may induce further injuries. $here the climber might fall 0: feet or more and be left dangling on the end of the rope. especially for most personnel involved in military climbing. is highly unlikely in most instances. ying directly into the rope is perfectly safe for many roped party climbs used in training on lo$er(angled rock. climbers have developed many different knots and procedures for tying( in to the climbing rope. +ome of the older methods of tying directly into the rope re#uire minimal e#uipment and are relatively easy to inspect@ ho$ever. and difficulty of the proposed climbing route surpasses the ability of the climbersU safety margin %possibly on class ' and usually on class 7 terrain*. they offer little support to the climber.oped climbing is only safe if accomplished correctly. All climbers should kno$ ho$ to properly tie the rope around the $aist in case a climbing harness is unavailable. length. .opes are normally not used in training until the basic principles of climbing are covered. Tying-=n to the C!im ing .eading this manual does not constitute skill $ith ropes(much training and practice is necessary.ope Dver the years. ropes must be used to proceed. .

Seat -arness. the climbing rope should be run around the $aist belt and leg loop connector. Although this loop is much stronger than the gear loops. including cost. specialiAed e#uipment. it is not for a belay anchor. hese harnesses have a fi"ed buckle that.9rese+n -arnesses Although improvised harnesses are made from readily available materials and take little space in the pack or pocket. he gear loops $ill vary in number from one modelKmanufacturer to another. a. -rese$n harness are bulky. %0* Although most prese$n seat harnesses have a permanently attached belay loop connecting the $aist belt and the leg loops. such as a prese$n harness. %. 9ear loops se$n into the $aist belt on the sides and in the back are a common feature and are usually strong enough to hold #uite a fe$ carabiners and or protection. reduce the fle"ibility of gear. It is a #uick attachment point to haul an additional rope. $hen used correctly. he prese$n belay loop adds another link to the chain of possible failure points and only gives one point of security $hereas running the rope through the $aist belt and leg loop connector provides t$o points of contact. also. Cany prese$n seat harnesses are available $ith many different #ualities separating them. %'* Cany manufactured seat harnesses $ill have a prese$n loop of $ebbing on the rear. he more padding the higher the price and the more comfort. $hich reduces preparation time for roped movement. All prese$n harnesses provide a range of adjustability. $ill not fail before the nylon materials connected to it. prese$n harnesses provide other aspects that should be considered. %1* If more than t$o men $ill be on the rope. connect the middle position%s* to the rope $ith a carabiner routed the same as stated in the previous paragraph.* he most notable difference $ill be the amount and placement of padding. . /o$ever. =o assembly is re#uired.

=mpro2ise& -arnesses !ithout the use of a manufactured harness. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. and this type of harness promotes an upright position only $hen hanging on the rope from the attachment point. or ease of adjustment. his type of additional connection $ill provide a comfortable hanging position on the rope. %. especially $hile $earing a heavy pack. a. S+ami %e!t.* A chest harness $ill help the climber remain upright on the rope during rappelling or ascending a fi"ed rope. his is the safest harness to use as it relocates the tie(in point higher.b. he s$ami belt is a simple. belt(only harness created by $rapping rope or $ebbing around the $aistline and securing the ends.* %0* he prese$n chest harnesses available commercially $ill invariably offer more comfort or performance features. Chest -arness. reducing the chance of an inverted position $hen hanging on the rope. usually in the form of a carabiner loop to attach a carabiner and rope to. he chest harness $ill provide an additional connecting point for the rope. %If rappelling or ascending long or multiple pitches. but other$ise provides no additional protection from injury during a fall %if the seat harness is fitted correctly*. Fu!!-%o&y -arness. let the pack hang on a drop cord belo$ the feet and attached to the harness tie(in point. C7ET=63 his type of harness does not prevent the climber from falling head first. at the chest. many methods are still available for attaching oneself to a rope. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. such as padding. <ody position during a fall is affected only by the forces that generated the fall. than an improvised chest harness. A full(body harness only affects the body position $hen hanging on the rope and $ill not prevent head injury in a fall. Dne(inch $ebbing . /arnesses can be improvised using rope or $ebbing and knots. gear loops. c.

the standard method for attaching oneself to the climbing rope $as $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil around the $aist. he ends are secured $ith an appropriate knot. he knot must be tied snugly around the narro$ part of the $aist. %o+!ine-on-a-Coi!. and help prevent the rope from riding up over the rib cage and under the armpits. &ABB. Figure 6-)'. he end man should have a minimum of four $raps around the $aist before completing the knot.* he bo$line(on(a(coil can be used to tie(in to the end of the rope %&igure )(. b. he e"tra $raps distribute the force of a fall over a larger area of the torso than a single bo$line $ould. just above the bony portions of the hips %pelvis*. Tying-in +ith a o+!ine-on-a-coi!. In a severe fall. Avoid crossing the $raps by keeping them spread over the $aist area. 6+ucking in the gut6 a bit $hen making the $raps $ill ensure a snug fit. raditionally. A hard fall $ill cause the coils to ride up against the ribs. -D++I<IBI I D& A +.V. !hen the terrain becomes steeper. %0* he bo$line(on(a(coil is a safe and effective method for attaching to the rope $hen the terrain is lo$(angled.8*. a fall $ill generate more force on the climber and this $ill be felt through the coils of this type of attachment. !I /D> /. Although an effective s$ami belt can be assembled $ith a minimum of one $rap. usually $ith appro"imately ten feet of material. at least t$o $raps are recommended for comfort. %...$ill provide more comfort. any tie(in around the $aist only could .

ven in a relatively short fall. . c. . he loops are tied into the sling 6off center6 so the remaining ends are different lengths. and comfortable. =mpro2ise& Seat -arness.very climber should kno$ ho$ to tie some sort of improvised climbing harness from sling material. $ith the knots to the front. A safe. tie t$o fi"ed loops appro"imately ) inches apart %overhand loops*. %. Adjust the siAe of the loops so they fit snugly around the thigh. like a parachute harness. Connect the ends $ith the appropriate knot bet$een the front and one side so you $ill be able to see $hat you are doing. %1* Cake t$o to three $raps around the $aist $ith the long end in the opposite direction %$rapping to the outside*. Dff to one side.* Bocate the center of the rope. if the climber ends up suspended in mid(air and unable to regain footing on the rock. $rapping to the outside. Cake one complete $rap around the $aist $ith the short end. A seat harness can be tied from a length of $ebbing appro"imately 07 feet long %&igure )(0:*. . %0* +lip the leg loops over the feet and up to the crotch. he short end should be appro"imately ' feet long %' to 7 feet for larger individuals*. adjust the $aist $raps to a snug fit. and hold it in place on the hip. seatKchest combination harness can be tied from one(inch tubular nylon.place a 6shock load6 on the climberUs lo$er back. the rope around the $aist can easily cut off circulation and breathing in a relatively short time. 9rasping both ends. %1* he climbing harness distributes the force of a fall over the entire pelvic region. ?eep the $ebbing flat and free of t$ists $hen $rapping. binding do$n on the short end to hold it in place.

. %. %1* -lace an arm through each loop formed by the t$ist. he t$ist.: feet usually $orks.*. just as you $ould put on a jacket.Figure 6-. =mpro2ise& seat an& chest harness. making a sling 1 to ' feet long. $ider is better and $ill be more comfortable $hen you load this harness. d. %0* -ut a single t$ist into the sling.emember as you tie this harness that the remaining ends $ill need to be secured so choose the best length. forming t$o loops. but remember that $ith $ebbing. =mpro2ise& Chest -arness. and drape the sling over the shoulders. . he chest harness can be tied from rope or $ebbing. in the sling should be in the middle of the back. or cross. Appro"imately ) to .* ie the ends of the $ebbing together $ith the appropriate knot.

his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. in effect. f. reducing the chance of an inverted hanging position on the rope. but not by just tying the rope into both—the t$o harnesses must be 6fi"ed6 as one harness. %. create a type of full(body harness. A true full(body harness can be improvised by connecting the chest harness to the seat harness. the standing part of the rope is then .I ICAB BI=?.%'* Eoin the t$o loops at the chest $ith a carabiner. he strength of the rope means nothing if it is attached poorly. or incorrectly. C7ET=63 A full(body harness does not prevent falling head first@ body position in a fall is caused by the forces that caused the fall. he $ater knot should be set off to either side for easy inspection %if a pack is to be $orn. he attachment of the climbing rope to the harness is a C. Adjust the siAe of the sling if necessary. 7ttaching the . it is not a true full(body harness until the chest harness and the seat harness are connected as one piece. the knot $ill be uncomfortable if it gets bet$een the body and the pack*. A full(body harness affects the body position only $hen hanging on the rope. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. he chest harness should fit just loose enough to allo$ necessary clothing and not to restrict breathing or circulation. he climber ties the end of the climbing rope to the seat harness $ith an appropriate knot. &i" them together $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope so that the climbing rope can be connected directly to the chest harness and your $eight is supported by the seat harness through the connecting material. If using a chest harness.* he full(body harness is the safest harness because it relocates the tie( in point higher. %0* Although running the rope through the carabiner of the chest harness does.ope to the =mpro2ise& -arness. =mpro2ise& Fu!!-%o&y -arness. and comes off the harness in a fall. at the chest. e.

* A middleman must create a fi"ed loop to tie in to. rather than tying the rope to it. his is a common practice for moderate sno$ and ice climbing. and the chest harness helps keep the body upright. tie the rope directly to the harness for ma"imum safety. A rethreaded figure( eight loop tied on a doubled rope or the three loop bo$line can be used. C7ET=63 <ecause the carabiner gate may be broken or opened by protruding rocks during a fall. is secured around the tie(in loops $ith an overhand knot.clipped into the chest harness carabiner.6 %1* >nder certain conditions many climbers prefer to attach the rope to the seat harness $ith a locking carabiner. and possibly the e#uipment available. Descen&ing s!a in the cra position. A good rule of thumb is: 6!ear a climbing harness $hen the potential for severe falls e"ists and for all travel over sno$(covered glaciers because of the crevasse fall haAard. %0* he choice of $hether to tie(in $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil or into a climbing harness depends entirely on the climberUs judgment. Figure 6-)". If using the three loop bo$line. 3ote4 he climbing rope is not clipped into the chest harness $hen belaying. and especially for glacier travel $here $et and froAen knots become difficult to untie. he seat harness absorbs the main force of the fall. he standing part of the rope going to the lead climber is clipped into the chest harness carabiner. or third loop formed in the knot. %e!ay Techniques . C7ET=63 he knot must be tied around all the $aist $raps and the )( inch length of $ebbing bet$een the leg loops. %. ensure the end.

e"posed terrain. +tack the rope properly.6 can be applied to halt a fall.ying(in to the climbing rope and moving as a member of a rope team increases the climberUs margin of safety on difficult. the fall can be halted or 6arrested6 by another rope team member %belayer*. for an up$ard pull.emember the follo$ing key points: • • • • +elect the best possible terrain features for the position and use terrain to your advantage. try to use common sense and apply the basic principles stressed throughout this te"t. he belayer manipulates the rope so that friction. simultaneous movement only helps to ensure that if one climber falls. <elaying is a skill that re#uires practice to develop proficiency. if one person falls. &ollo$ the 6minimum6 rule for belay anchors(0 for a do$n$ard pull. Dne person climbs at a time. In some instances. . and for additional safety on rappels and stream crossings. but $ith practice. independent. Dn steep terrain. sitting position $henever possible. the procedure should become 6second nature. or a 6brake. >se a $ell braced. .6 If confronted $ith a peculiar problem during the setup of a belay.nsure anchor attachments are aligned. rope team members can often move at the same time. &or the climbing rope to be of any value on steep rock climbs. . ho$ever. +etting up a belay may at first appear confusing to the beginner. relying on the security of a tight rope and 6team arrest6 techni#ues to halt a fall by any one member. Choose a belay techni#ue appropriate for the climbing. <elay techni#ues are also used to control the descent of personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed rope installations. and snug. such as $hen traveling over sno$(covered glaciers. Aim and anchor the belay for all possible load directions. the rope team must incorporate 6belays6 into the movement. he $ill jerk the other rope team members off the slope. <elaying is a method of managing the rope in such a $ay that. >se a guide carabiner for rope control in all body belays. • • • • . $hile being belayed from above or belo$ by another.

and rope running to the climber are all on the guidehand side. C7ET=63 =ever remove the brake hand from the rope $hile belaying.6 C7ET=63 he belay remains in place the from the time the belayer commands 83(.• .8 9roce&ure #or :anaging the . removed from the rope.A9 "#8 until the climber commands 8"++ 3(. !hether the rope is $rapped around the body. guide carabiner %if applicable*.BAI. at times being fed to the climber $ith the other 6feeling6 or guide hand..6 $hich incorporate some type of friction device.nsure anchor attachments.ope A number of different belay techni#ues are used in modern climbing. there is no belay.nsure you are satisfied $ith your position before giving the command 6<. aking up rope. • he brake hand remains on the rope $hen belaying. the rope simply slides through the grasp of the brake hand. b. • • .A9. !hen giving slack. the rope management procedure is basically the same. ho$ever.6 he belay remains in place until the climber gives the command 6D&& <.V. and apply the brake to halt a fall. he belayer must be able to perform all three functions $hile maintaining 6total control6 of the rope at all times. a.BAI D=. ranging from the basic 6body belays6 to the various 6mechanical belays. he belayer must be able to perform three basic functions: manipulate the rope to give the climber slack during movement. take up rope to remove e"cess slack. re#uires a certain techni#ue to ensure the . otal control means the brake hand is =. or run through a friction device. If the brake hand is removed.

he guide hand can also help to pull in the rope %&igure )(0.). he brake can be applied at any moment during the procedure.* 9rasping the rope $ith both hands.. %0* ake in rope $ith the brake hand until the arm is fully e"tended. %1* /olding the rope in the brake hand. step '*. %'* 9rasp both parts of the rope.epeat step 7 of &igure )(0. .. step . step 0*.. e"tending the arm so the guide hand is father a$ay from the body than the brake hand %&igure )(0. he hand on the section of rope bet$een the belayer and the climber $ould be the guide hand. :anaging the rope. %7* +lide the brake hand back to$ards the body %&igure )(0.. place it behind the back and around the hips. $ith the guide hand %&igure )(0. step )*. he follo$ing procedure describes ho$ to take up e"cess rope and apply the brake in a basic body belay. It is applied by $rapping the rope around the front of the hips $hile increasing grip $ith the brake hand %&igure )(0. %)* . %.. slide the guide hand out. to the front of the brake hand..brake hand remains on the rope at all times.*. he other hand is the brake hand. step 1*. Figure 6-.

placing the buttocks lo$er than the feet. especially for beginners. $hat the climber feels most comfortable $ith. although probably not $ithout inflicting great pain on the belayer. or both feet cannot be braced $ell. and straightening the legs for ma"imum support. the rope running to the climber $ill pass bet$een the belayerUs feet. letting him kno$ $hen to give slack or take up rope. a. he leg on the 6guide . he body belay. or fall force. he sitting body belay is the preferred position and is usually the most secure %&igure )(00*. $ill hold lo$ to moderate impact falls $ell. C7ET=63 he belayer must ensure he is $earing ade#uate clothing to protect his body from rope burns $hen using a body belay. and the ones most applicable to military mountaineering. he follo$ing describes a fe$ of the more $idely used techni#ues. A body belay gives the belayer the greatest 6feel6 for the climber. re#uiring no special e#uipment. !hen perfectly aligned. the belayer may not be able to sit facing the direction he $ould like. he basic body belay is the most $idely used techni#ue on moderate terrain. +ometimes. It has been kno$n to arrest some severe falls.* Sitting 'ody 'elay.Choosing a %e!ay Technique he climber may choose from a variety of belay techni#ues. %. the belay may have to absorb. A method that $orks $ell in one situation may not be the best choice in another. It is best to sit in a slight depression. /eavy duty cotton or leather $ork gloves can also be $orn to protect the hands. and froAen. stiff. It uses friction bet$een the rope and the clothed body as the rope is pressured across the clothing. . and is effective in sno$ and ice climbing $hen ropes often become $et. and both legs $ill e#ually absorb the force of a fall. he belayer sits facing the direction $here the force of a fall $ill likely come from. and attempts to brace both feet against the rock to support his position. %o&y %e!ay. and the amount of load. It is the simplest belay. using terrain to his advantage.ope management in a body belay is #uick and easy. in its various forms. and should be the first techni#ue learned by all climbers. he choice bet$een body belays and mechanical belays depends largely on e#uipment available.

he standing body belay is used on smaller ledges $here there is no room for the belayer to sit %&igure )(01*. Sitting o&y e!ay. he belayer can also 6straddle6 a large tree or rock nubbin for support. Figure 6-. bracing the foot on the rock $hen possible. as long as the object is solid enough to sustain the possible load.hand6 side should then point to$ards the load. %0* Standing 'ody 'elay. .. !hat appears at first to be a fairly unstable position can actually be #uite secure $hen belay anchors are placed at or above shoulder height to support the stance $hen the force $ill be do$n$ard..

dumping the belayer out of position. Stan&ing o&y e!ay.1. his 6guide carabiner6 helps keep the rope in place around the hips and prevents loss of control in up$ard or do$n$ard loads %&igure )(0'*. just belo$ the bony high points of the hips. he rope should run around the narro$ portion of the pelvic girdle. If the rope runs too lo$. . %a* &or a body belay to $ork effectively. rendering the belay useless. If the rope runs too high. the load may pull the rope belo$ the buttocks. the force of a fall could injure the belayerUs midsection and lo$er rib cage.Figure 6-. %b* o prevent any of these possibilities from happening. It is also possible for a strong up$ard or do$n$ard pull to strip the rope a$ay from the belayer. the belay rope is clipped into a carabiner attached to the guide hand side of the seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil*. the belayer must ensure that the rope runs around the hips properly. and remains there under load $hen applying the brake.

&or the most part. $hich forms an obvious. is designed for the Cunter hitch. useless hitch. -ut some .* Munter itch. he locking pear(shaped carabiner. the basic body belay should be totally ade#uate on a typical military route. %.Figure 6-. he Cunter hitch $ill flip back and forth through the carabiner as the belayer s$itches from giving slack to taking up rope. he carabiner must be large enough. he hitch is tied by forming a loop and a bight in the rope. the carabiner should be attached to the front of the belayerUs seat harness. attaching both to the carabiner. A mechanical belay must be used $henever there is potential for the lead climber to take a severe fall. and of the proper design. <ui&e cara iner #or rope contro! in a o&y e!ay. he Cunter hitch is an e"cellent mechanical belay techni#ue and re#uires only a rope and a carabiner %&igure )(07*. /o$ever. he holding po$er of a belay device is vastly superior to any body belay under high loads. as routes used during military operations should be the easiest to negotiate. rope management in a mechanical belay is more difficult to master and re#uires more practice. As a climbing belay. b.4. ItUs fairly easy to place the bight on the carabiner back$ards. %a* he Cunter hitch $orks e"ceptionally $ell as a lo$ering belay off the anchor. :echanica! %e!ay. he Cunter is actually a t$o($ay friction hitch. to allo$ this function. or pearabiner.

%0* (igure-Eight %e)ice. rather than around the belayerUs body. though developed as a rappel device. he brake is increased by pulling the slack rope a$ay from the body. he advantage of any mechanical belay is friction re#uired to halt a fall is applied on the rope through the device.5. :unter hitch. he device itself provides rope control for up$ard and do$n$ard pulls and e"cellent friction for halting severe falls. he figure(eight device is a versatile piece of e#uipment and. as depicted in the follo$ing illustrations.+ =D change the function of the hands. As a belay device. has become $idely accepted as an effective mechanical belay device %&igure )(0)*. %b* he Cunter hitch $ill automatically 6lock(up6 under load as the brake hand grips the rope. is al$ays the guide hand. he hand on the rope running to the climber. the figure( eight $orks $ell for both belayed climbing and for lo$ering personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed(rope installations. or load.tension on the Cunter to ensure it is formed correctly. he belayer must be a$are that flipping the hitch 2D. Figure 6-. . he main principle behind the figure(eight device in belay mode is the friction developing on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:(degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. to$ards the load.

a bight placed into the climbing rope is run through the 6small eye6 of the device and attached to a locking carabiner at the front of the belayerUs seat harness. . Figure 6-. %1* Mechanical Camming %e)ice. Figure-eight &e2ice. >nlike the other devices. he brake is applied by pulling the slack rope in the brake hand to$ards the body. 3ote4 +ome figure(eight descenders should not be used as belay devices due to their construction and design. he guide hand is placed on the rope running to the climber. the mechanical camming device can stop a falling climber $ithout any input from the belayer. the device is normally attached directly to the anchor $ith the rope routed as in rappelling. Al$ays refer to manufacturerUs specifications and directions before use. but have no moving parts. A fe$ other devices perform similarly to this. locking the rope bet$een the device and the carabiner.ope management is performed as in a body belay.6. %b* As a lo$ering belay. +ome limitations to these type devices are minimum and ma"imum rope diameters. . he mechanical camming device has an internal camming action that begins locking the rope in place as friction is increased.%a* As a climbing belay. small diameter safety rope is used to connect the 6large eye6 of the figure eight to the locking carabiner for control of the device. A short.

slotted plate. Also. uses a belay device attached to the belayerUs harness. Additionally. An indirect belay. $sta !ishing a %e!ay A belay can be established using either a direct or indirect connection. and other tube devices are made in many different shapes. here are many other commercially available mechanical belay devices. Cost of these $ork $ith the same rope movement direction and the same braking principle. but belay positions must be made as 6bombproof6 as possible. he air traffic controller %A C*. the belayer $ill feel little or no force if . If the belay is correctly established. =n&irect %e!ay. climbers must sometimes make do $ith marginal protection placements along a route.ach type has advantages and disadvantages. his type of belay provides dynamic shock or $eight absorption by the belayer if the climber falls or $eights the rope. b. Setting Ep a %e!ay In rock climbing. Direct %e!ay. >sed often for rescue installations or to bring a second climber up to a ne$ belay position in conjunction $ith the Cunter hitch. a. creating a comfortable position and ease of applying the brake. the belayer is apt to pay closer attention to the belaying process. All belay positions are established $ith the anchor connection to the front of the harness. 2irect belays provide no shock(absorbing properties from the belayerUs attachment to the system as does the indirect belay@ therefore. if the second falls or $eights the rope. the belayer is not locked into a position. he direct belay removes any possible forces from the belayer and places this force completely on the anchor. hese all $ork on the same principle as the figure(eight device—friction increases on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:( degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. $hich reduces the direct force on the anchor and prevents a severe shock load to the anchor. the belay can be placed above the belayerUs stance. he choice $ill depend on the intended use of the belay. the belayer must set up the belay in relation to $here the fall force $ill come from and pay strict attention to proper rope management for the belay to be effective.%'* *ther Mechanical 'elay %e)ices. . the most commonly used.

adjusting his position or stance $hen necessary. &or a climbing belay to be considered bombproof. Barge ledges that allo$ a $ell braced. five basic steps are re#uired to set up a sound belay. he position should allo$ the belayer to maintain a comfortable.* . sitting stance are preferred.the climber falls or has to rest on the rope. he belay can be aimed through an anchor placement to immediately establish an up$ard pull@ ho$ever. b. 7im the %e!ay. 7nchor the %e!ay. the belayer must al$ays be prepared for the more severe do$n$ard fall force in the event intermediate protection placements fail. Cultiple anchor points capable of supporting both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls should be placed. Dnce the climbing line is picked. the belayer selects his position. and in line $ith the first protection placement. Book for belay positions close to bombproof natural anchors. the force on the belay could be straight do$n again. as he could be in the position for a fairly long time. the belay must no$ be 6aimed.egardless of the actual belay techni#ue used.6 he belayer determines $here the rope leading to the climber $ill run and the direction the force of a fall $ill likely come from. rela"ed stance. c. he belayer must aim his belay for all possible load directions. putting the belayer out of the direct path of a potential fall or any rocks kicked loose by the climber. !hen a lead climber begins placing protection. A single artificial placement should never be considered ade#uate for anchoring a belay %e"cept at ground level*. !ith the belay position selected. the fall force on the belayer $ill be in some up$ard direction. he follo$ing key points also apply to anchoring belays. but more often the belayer $ill have to place pitons or chocks. %. Se!ect 9osition an& Stance. the belayer must be attached to a solid anchor capable of $ithstanding the highest possible fall force. If this placement fails under load. he position must at least allo$ for solid artificial placements. ItUs best if the position is off to the side of the actual line. he rule of thumb is to place t$o anchors for a do$n$ard pull and one anchor for an up$ard pull as a CI=IC>C. . . a.ach anchor must be placed in line $ith the direction of pull it is intended to support. A solid natural anchor $ould be ideal.

saving the slings for the climb. &igure )(04 sho$s an e"ample of a common arrangement. %4* Arrangement of rope and sling attachments may vary according to the number and location of placements. %'* It is best for the anchors to be placed relatively close to the belayer $ith short attachments. . 6independent6. =ote ho$ the rope is connected from one of the anchors back to the belayer.%0* . If the climber has to be tied(off in an emergency. %7* he belayer can use either a portion of the climbing rope or slings of the appropriate length to connect himself to the anchors. <oth belayerUs stance and belay anchors should absorb the force of a fall. say after a severe fall. his is not mandatory. he can reach back $ith the guide hand and adjust the length of the attachment through the clove hitch as needed. %)* he anchor attachments should also help prevent the force of a fall from 6rotating6 the belayer out of position. the climbing rope must pass around the 6guide(hand side6 of the body to the anchors. he load can be placed on the -rusik and the belayer can come out of the system to render help. attaching the rope to the t$o 6do$n$ard6 anchors and a sling to the 6up$ard6 anchor. but often helps 6line(up6 the second attachment. &ollo$ the guidelines set forth and remember the key points for belay anchors@ 6in line6. and connect the sling to one of the anchors. %1* he attachment bet$een the anchor and the belayer must be snug to support the stance. +ling attachments are connected to the belayerUs seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil* on the guide(hand side. he rope is attached using either figure eight loops or clove hitches. ItUs best to use the climbing rope $henever possible. the belayer can attach a -rusik sling to the climbing rope. If the belayer has to change his stance at some point. reach back. Clove hitches have the advantage of being easily adjusted. o accomplish this.ach anchor attachment must be rigged 6independently6 so a failure of one $ill not shock load remaining placements or cause the belayer to be pulled out of position. and 6snug6.

the belayer may have to tie(off the climber and come out of the belay to free the rope@ a time(consuming and unnecessary task. 7ttach the %e!ay. and applies the actual . but make sure to stack it carefully so it $onUt tangle $ith the anchored portion of the rope or other slings. Stack the .* Dn small ledges.Figure 6-. the belayer takes the rope coming off the top of the pile.ope. he rope should be stacked on the ground. he must stack the rope to ensure it is free of t$ists and tangles that might hinder rope management in the belay. %0* he rope should never be allo$ed to hang do$n over the ledge.7. d. $here it $ill not get caught in cracks or nubbins as it is fed out to the climber. or on the ledge. he final point to remember is the rope must be stacked 6from the belayerUs end6 so the rope running to the climber comes off the 6top6 of the stacked pile. removes any slack bet$een himself and the climber. the rope can be stacked on top of the anchor attachments if there is no other place to lay it. he final step of the procedure is to attach the belay. !ith the rope properly stacked. e. %. If it gets caught in the rock belo$ the position. 7nchoring a e!ay. Dnce the belayer is anchored into position. he belayer must also ensure that the rope $ill not get tangled around his legs or other body parts as it 6feeds6 out.

he gives the signal. %e!ay setup. if any. $hich is normally closest to the rock %&igure )(05*. and rope running to the climber through the guide hand must still be aligned on the same . and the rope running to the climber $ill all be on the 6guide hand6 side. If the belay is set up correctly. !hen belaying the 6second6. the e"ception being a hanging belay on a vertical face. the anchor attachments. %. ensure the rope is clipped into the guide carabiner.* he belayer should make one #uick.BAI D=W6. the same procedure is used to set up the belay.belay techni#ue. %0* !hen the belayer is satisfied $ith his position. the belayer may choose to brake $ith the hand he feels most comfortable $ith.". 6<. he guide hand can be placed on the rock to help support the stance $hen applying the brake. Figure 6-. Anchor attachments. the fall force is of course do$n$ard and the belayer is usually facing a$ay from the rock. he brake hand is out a$ay from the slope $here it $onUt be jammed bet$een the body and the rock. should not have any negative effect on the belayerUs involvement in the system. the force. final inspection of his belay. guide carabiner if applicable. >nless the belay is aimed for an up$ard pull. If using a body belay. If the rope runs straight do$n to the climber and the anchors are directly behind the position. If the climber takes a fall. guide carabiner.

BAI6 commands are reversed so they sound different and $ill not be confused.* %$87D$. he rope $ill burn the belayer if the climber has to be lo$ered. :$73=3<. it becomes harder to distinguish one $ord from another and the shortest sentence may be heard as nothing more than jumbled syllables. or at the top at the anchor. hey must be pronounced clearly and loudly so they can be heard and understood in the $orst conditions. As the distance bet$een climber and belayer increases. A solid. . %=ote ho$ the critical 6<. C!im ing Comman&s Communication is often difficult during a climb. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. unless the belayer is using an improvised harness and the anchor attachment is at the rear. Aer a! Comman&s able )(.ach command is concise and sounds a bit different from another to reduce the risk of a misunderstanding bet$een climber and belayer.ope %e!ay A 6top(rope6 is a belay setup used in training to protect a climber $hile climbing on longer. he belayer is positioned either on the ground $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber. he belayer takes in rope as the climber proceeds up the rock. bombproof anchor is re#uired at the top of the pitch. C7ET=63 2o not use a body belay for top(rope climbing. Top-. e"posed routes.7CT=63 T7K$3 . lists standard rope commands and their meanings in se#uence as they $ould normally be used on a typical climb.side to prevent the belayer from being rotated out of position. A series of standard voice commands $ere developed over the years to signal the essential rope management functions in a belayed climb. the instructor can $atch the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements. C8=:%$.

=+ID=6 ake all the slack. Iou have appro"imately 07 feet of rope left. If multipitch climbing. <elayer removes brakeKtension.D-.BAI D=6 he belay is on@ you may climb $hen ready@ the rope $ill be managed as needed. .6 6 !.6T$CT D6E.=( I( &IV. Cy $eight $ill be on the rope. 6 .elease all brakingKtension on the rope so I can have slack $ithout pulling the rope.DC?6 -roceed.S$8F F. apply brake. ake in e"cess rope bet$een us $ithout pulling me off the route. and again. 6&ABBI=96 <elayer applies brake to arrest the fall. the rope $ill be managed as necessary. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position. 6CBIC<6 %as a courtesy* 6.6<. Climber selects a belay position.DC?6 6. ensure climbers belo$ hear. 6 A?. 9. and hold me. 6+BAC?6 . 6CBIC<I=96 %as a courtesy* I am ready to climb. +ignal $ill be echoed by all climbers in the area.6: F788=3< 6%C$CTS. I am falling. <elayer takes in rope. <elayer removes slack and applies brake.6 .

=6 Iou have appro"imately .. anchoring and putting the second on belay. Iou have 7 feet of rope left. prepares to climb.BAI6 belay.emoves the 6D&& <. the most important command is 6<. use only one. or $hen the climber is around a corner. . 6&IV. he ne$ belayer keeps slack out of the rope. Iou may remove the belay. I have finished climbing and I am anchored.BAI D=.ope comman&s. . above an overhang. +et up the belay position.ope& C!im ing :etho&s . o avoid any possible confusion $ith interpretation of multiple rope tug commands. It may be necessary to use a series of 6tugs6 on the rope in place of the standard voice commands. -repares to climb.BAI D=6 and signals the second to climb $hen ready. the second kno$s the climber is anchored and the second prepares to climb. remaining anchored.ope Tug Comman&s +ometimes the loudest scream cannot be heard $hen the climber and belayer are far apart. Climber sets up the belay. Iou have no more rope. !hile a lead climb is in progress. b. &or a rope tug command.6 his command is given only by the climber $hen the climber is anchored and is prepared for the second to begin climbing. . !ith the issue of this command. the leader issues three distinct tugs on the rope A& .7 feet of rope left. Climber selects a belay position $ithin the ne"t fe$ feet. his is the signal for 6<. or at the back of a ledge.6 +et up the belay. Ta !e 6-). remains anchored.. <elayer removes the belay and. a. his is especially true in $indy conditions. . +tart looking for the ne"t belay position.6&I&( .

his duty falls upon the most e"perienced climbers in the unit. . his method of climbing is not used for movement due to the necessity of pre(placing anchors at the top of a climb. and the climbing rope is connected to these anchors $ith a carabiner. giving the climber the same protection as a belay from above. you can easily avoid the climb itself.6 3ote4 Intermediate anchors are commonly referred to as 6protection. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. the primary mission of a roped climbing team is to 6fi"6 a route $ith some type of rope installation to assist movement of less trained personnel in the unit. these specific anchors $ill be referred to as 6protection@6 anchors . a leader or climber.6 6pro. &or standardiAation $ithin this publication. As he climbs the route.In military mountaineering. 8ea& C!im ing A lead climb consists of a belayer. roped climbing should be performed $henever the terrain becomes difficult and e"posed. top(roped climbing is valuable because it allo$s climbers to attempt climbs above their skill level and or to hone present skills $ithout the risk of a fall. he belayer is positioned either at the base of a climb $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber or at the top at the anchor. he belayer takes in rope as the climber moves up the rock. If you can easily access the top of a climb.ope& C!im ing op(roped climbing is used for training purposes only. hese 6intermediate6 anchors protect the climber against a fall(thus the term 6protecting the climb.6 6pieces. rope%s*.6 6pro placements. a.6 6pieces of pro. the instructor is able to keep an eye on the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements.6 and so on. and $ebbing or hard$are used to establish anchors or protect the climb. the leader emplaces 6intermediate6 anchors. op(roped climbing may be used to increase the stamina of a climber training to climb longer routes as $ell as for a climber practicing protection placements. usually $orking in t$o( or three(man groups or teams called assault climbing teams. Top-. &or training.ven if the climbing is for another purpose. b.

taking on the role of lead climber. he most e"perienced individual is the 6lead6 climber or leader. a standard roped climbing procedure is used for ma"imum speed and safety. and sno$(covered glaciers $here the rope team can often move at the same time. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the other rack or desires a break. he lead climber carries most of the climbing e#uipment in order to place protection along the route and set up the .established for other purposes. or to protect and assist an individual $ho has little or no e"perience in climbing and belaying. b. !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers.6 probably the most $idely used rope installation in the mountains. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. or other rope installations. Bead climbing $ith t$o climbers is the preferred combination for movement on technically difficult terrain. a. +$inging leads. !hichever techni#ue is chosen. he procedures for conducting a lead climb $ith a group of t$o are relatively simple. and are efficient for installing a 6fi"ed rope. or 6leap frogging. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. such as rappel points. A group of three climbers are typically used on moderate sno$.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. $o climbers are at least t$ice as fast as three climbers. a shortage of ropes %such as si" climbers and only t$o ropes*. c.6 C7ET=63 2uring all lead climbing. and is responsible for selecting the route. stopping occasionally to set up belays on particularly difficult sections. he belayer simply adjusts his position. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. each climber in the team is either anchored or being belayed. belays. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing. $ill be referred to as 6anchors. he leader must ensure the route is $ell $ithin his ability and the ability of the second. A group or team of three climbers is sometimes used in rock climbing because of an odd number of personnel.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multipitch routes. ice.

in the event that either the leader or the second should fall. he belayer should keep just enough slack in the rope so the climber does not have to pull it through the belay. etc. If he cannot see the climber. >nless told other$ise by the climber. %'* !hile belaying. he leader must also ensure that the second has the necessary e#uipment. he belayer can reply $ith 6CBIC<6. If the belayer notices too much slack developing in the rope.ne"t belay. the belayer %sometimes referred to as the 6second6*.BAI D=6. affirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. the second must pay close attention to the climberUs every move. such as a piton hammer. he leader must also ensure that the rope is routed in a $ay that $ill allo$ it to run freely through the protection placements. again. %0* he other member of the climbing team. the belayer can slo$ly give slack on the rope as the climber proceeds on the route. until the climber tells him other$ise. !hen the leader is ready. %. It is the belayerUs responsibility to manage the rope. is responsible for belaying the leader. he must 6feel6 the climber through the rope. or 6rope drag6.* he leader is responsible for emplacing protection fre#uently enough and in such a manner that. removing the belay anchor. If the climber $ants a tighter rope. nut tool. he double checks the belay. to remove any protection that the leader may place. 6<. 6CBIC<I=96. the second $ill normally set up the first belay $hile the leader is arranging his rack. . he leader can then signal. he leader then begins climbing. only as a courtesy. !hen the belay is ready. it can be called for. the belayer signals. the fall $ill be neither long enough nor hard enough to result in injury. reaffirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. %1* <efore the climb starts. thus minimiAing friction. only as a courtesy. to let the belayer kno$ he is ready to move. and retrieving the protection placed by the leader bet$een belay positions %also called 6cleaning the pitch6*. the e"cess rope should be taken in #uickly. $hether by sight or feel.. ensuring that the rope runs free and does not inhibit the climberUs movements.

the leader gives the command 6+BAC?6 and the belayer gives slack. At this position. A typical leader 6rack6 consists of: • • • • • +i" to eight small $ired stoppers on a carabiner. &ive to ten standard length runners. &our to si" medium to large $ired stoppers on a carabiner. in a piece of protection above the tie(in point on the leaders harness. he must also determine ho$ much. $ith t$o carabiners on each. slack $ill sometimes be needed to place the rope through the carabiner %clipping*. he leader is able to pull a bight of rope above the tie(in point and clip it into the carabiner in the protection above. or 6rack. %. he belayer remains attached to at least one anchor until the command 6<. !hen the leader selects a particular route. each on a separate carabiner. connects to the anchor and signals 6D&& <. and $hat types.6 the necessary e#uipment onto his harness or onto slings around the head and shoulder. he leader must carry enough e#uipment to safely protect the route. In this situation. the command 6 A?.6 is given by the leader and the belayer takes in the remaining slack. of e#uipment might be re#uired to safely negotiate the route. %)* he leader continues on the route until either a designated belay location is reached or he is at the end of or near the end of the rope. or the clip.BAI6. he belayer prepares to climb by removing all but at least one of his anchors and secures the remaining e#uipment. he selected e#uipment must be carried by the leader. +BC2s of re#uired siAe. .D-. Assorted he"entrics. additional anchors for the ne"t belay. !hen the leader has completed the connection. d.* he leader $ill assemble. the leader sets an anchor. %if more slack is needed the command $ill be repeated*.%7* As the leader protects the climb. each on a separate carabiner.BAI D=6 is given. and any other items to be carried individually such as rucksacks or individual $eapons. .

0: feet of . place the items in order from smallest to the front and largest to the rear. the necessary e#uipment. 3ote4 If using an over the shoulder gear sling. 3ote4 he route chosen $ill dictate.: feet of .(inch $ebbing.(inch $ebbing. %0* he belayer and the leader both should carry many duplicate items $hile climbing. • Barge locking carabiner %pear shape carabiners are multifunctional*. • • • • • • +hort -rusik sling."tra carabiners.appel device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*. $ith t$o carabiners on each. =ut tool. • • . Cordellette. Cembers of a climbing team may need to consolidate gear to climb a particular route.• • • $o to three double length runners."tra carabiners. • . Bong -rusik sling. to some degree. =ut tool %if stoppers are carried*. . . <elay device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*. .

the climber 6clips6 the rope into the carabiner %&igure )(08*. and upon completion of any traverse. he potential fall of the second $ill result in a pendulum s$ing if protection is not ade#uate to prevent this. C7ET=63 Beader should place protection prior to.e. moving past a difficult section. 9enerally. saving hard$are for difficult sections. or pendulum. Dnce an anchor is placed. %0* Correct Clipping Techni$ue. placement of protection. he danger comes from any objects in the s$inging path of the second. during. he leader should try to keep the climbing line as direct as possible to the ne"t belay to allo$ the rope to run smoothly through the protection $ith minimal friction. and <. and routing of the climbing rope through the protection. -rotection should be placed $henever the leader feels he needs it. If the climbing is difficult. %. is re#uired. C7ET=63 he climber must remember he $ill fall t$ice the distance from his last piece of protection before the rope can even begin to stop him. Beading a difficult pitch is the most haAardous task in roped climbing. If the climbing becomes easier. kno$n as a traverse. the rope can be routed through the carabiner in t$o possible $ays. protection should be placed more fre#uently. hard falls and must e"ercise keen judgment in route selection. As a carabiner hangs from the protection. Dn some routes an e"tended diagonal or horiAontal movement. Dne $ay $ill allo$ the rope to run smoothly as the climber .* Placing Protection. As the leader begins this type of move. protection can be placed farther apart.. protection is placed from one stable position to the ne"t. he must consider the secondUs safety as $ell as his o$n.&D. for both the leader and second if either should fall. he lead climber may be e"posed to potentially long. he anchor should be placed as high as possible to reduce the potential fall distance bet$een placements. his $ill minimiAe the potential s$ing.

%b* Dnce the rope is clipped into the carabiner. $hen released. the leader must ensure the carabiner on the protection does not hang $ith the carabiner gate facing the rock@ $hen placing protection in a crack ensure the carabiner gate is not facing into the crack. the climber should check to see that it is routed correctly by pulling on the rope in the direction it $ill travel $hen the climber moves past that position. If the clip is made correctly.moves past the placement@ the other $ay $ill often create a dangerous situation in $hich the rope could become 6unclipped6 from the carabiner if the leader $ere to fall on this piece of protection. !hen placing protection.nsure the carabiner gate is not resting against a protrusion or crack edge in the rock surface@ the rock may cause the gate to open. In addition. Dnce leaving that piece of protection. a series of incorrectly clipped carabiners may contribute to rope drag. /o$ever. in a . a rotation of the clipped carabiner to ensure that the gate is not resting against the rock may be all that is necessary. %c* Another potential haAard peculiar to leading should be eliminated before the climber continues. C7ET=63 . • • • • 9rasp the rope $ith either hand $ith the thumb pointing do$n the rope to$ards the belayer -ull enough rope to reach the carabiner $ith a bight =ote the direction the carabiner is hanging from the protection -lace the bight into the carabiner so that. %a* If the route changes direction. he carabiner is attached to the anchor or runner $ith the gate facing a$ay from the rock and opening do$n for easy insertion of the rope. the rope may force the carabiner to t$ist if not correctly clipped. clipping the carabiner $ill re#uire a little more thought. the rope does not cause the carabiner to t$ist.

the climber should ensure that after the clip has been made. o prevent this possibility.'.5: degrees. here are t$o $ays to accomplish this: determine $hich direction the gate $ill face before the protection or runner is placed or once clipped. the climber $ill often encounter problems $ith 6rope drag6 through the protection positions. C!ipping on to protection.leader fall. +traight gate ovals or 62s6 are less likely to have this problem and are stronger and are highly recommended. the gate is facing a$ay from the direction of the route. rotate the carabiner up$ards . <ent gate carabiners are not recommended for many climbing situations. Figure 6-. his problem is more apt to occur if bent gate carabiners are used. it is possible for the rope to run back over the carabiner as the climber falls belo$ the placement. <ent gate carabiners are easier to clip the rope into and are used mostly on routes $ith bolts preplaced for protection. If the carabiner is left $ith the gate facing the direction of the route there is a chance that the rope $ill open the gate and unclip itself entirely from the placement. =o matter ho$ direct the route. %1* Reducing Rope %rag+ !sing Runners. he friction created by rope drag $ill increase to .

C7ET=63 . o prevent this. Ese o# s!ings on protection. or anchor.ope drag can be mistaken for the climber. causing the belayer to not take in the necessary slack in the rope and possibly resulting in a serious fall.some degree every time the rope passes through a carabiner.ope drag can cause confusion $hen belaying the second or follo$er up to a ne$ belay position. almost straight line as it passes through the carabiners %&igure )(1:*. Cinimal rope drag is an inconvenience@ severe rope drag may actually pull the climber off balance. . . Figure 6-1*. the placements should be positioned so the rope creates a smooth. inducing a fall. It $ill increase dramatically if the rope begins to 6AigAag6 as it travels through the carabiners.

to the protection to e"tend the rope connection in the necessary direction. . Ese o# s!ings to eBten& p!acement positions."tending placements $ith runners $ill allo$ the climber to vary the route slightly $hile the rope continues to run in a relatively straight line. All $ired chocks used for . an out$ard or up$ard pull from rope drag may cause correctly set chocks to pop out. you should 6e"tend6 the protection %&igure )(1. even if the line is direct to eliminate the possibility of movement. he runner is attached to the protectionUs carabiner $hile the rope is clipped into a carabiner at the other end of the runner. or runner. %b* =ot only is rope drag a hindrance. As the climber moves above the placements.ope drag through chock placements can be dangerous.%a* If it is not possible to place all the protection so the carabiners form a straight line as the rope moves through. %c* !ired chocks are especially prone to $iggling loose as the rope pulls on the stiff cable attachment. it can cause undue movement of protection as the rope tightens bet$een any 6out of line6 placements. . even $hen used 6actively6.*. 2o this by attaching an appropriate length sling. Cost all chocks placed for leader protection should be e"tended $ith a runner. Figure 6-1).

3ote4 Any placement e"tended $ith a runner $ill increase the distance of a potential fall by the actual length of the sling. Figure 6-1. .leader protection should be e"tended to reduce the chance of the rope pulling them out %&igure )(10*. resulting in difficult removal or inability to remove them at all. most cases of +BC2 movement result in the +BC2 moving to a position that does not provide protection in the correct direction or no protection at all due to the lobes being at different angles from those at the original position. such as roped /e"entrics and ri(Cams.. rope drag through pitons $ill usually only affect the leaderUs movements but $ill continue to protect as e"pected. +ome of the larger chocks. ensuring they are long enough to function properly. Cany of todayUs chocks are manufactured $ith pre(se$n $ebbing installed instead of cable. have longer slings pre( attached that $ill normally serve as an ade#uate runner for the placement. Chocks $ith smaller sling attachments must often be e"tended $ith a runner. %e* .ope drag $ill #uite often move +BC2s out of position. Ese o# s!ing on a +ire& stopper. A correctly placed piton is generally a multi(directional anchor. %d* !hen a correctly placed piton is used for protection. ry to use the shortest runners possible. &urthermore. therefore. it $ill normally not be affected by rope drag. or 6$alk6 them deeper into the crack than initially placed.

* h. he can.BAI D=. %. again as a courtesy. he belayer maintains tension on the rope.BAI6 to the belayer. !hen removing the protection. g.BAI D=. since removal of these remaining anchors can introduce slack into the rope. as $ell as follo$ the leaderUs commands.6 and the leader can. he second must remain attached to at least one of the original anchors $hile the leader is preparing the ne"t belay position. reply $ith 6CBIC<. he second has to issue commands to the leader. rock fall. A long pitch induces $eight and sometimes 6drag6 on the rope and the belayer above $ill have difficulty distinguishing these from a rope $ith no slack.f. the man cleaning the pitch should rack it properly to facilitate the e"change and or arrangement of e#uipment at the end of the pitch. he removed materials and hard$are can be organiAed and secured on the secondUs rack in preparation to climb. he immediately establishes an anchor and connects to it. !hen this is completed he can signal 6D&& <. removes any remaining anchor hard$areKmaterials and completes any final preparations. Dnce the lead climber reaches a good belay position. If necessary. no$ the climber.6 he second.6 the belayer must remove and keep all slack from the rope. unless other$ise directed. % his is especially important as in many situations the belayer cannot see the follo$er. the hard$are can remain on the rope until the second . or 6cleaning the pitch6. and inade#uately protected traverses can result in damage to e#uipment or injury to the second.* !hen the leader has established the ne$ belay position and is ready to belay the follo$er. !hen removing protection. his does not imply there is no danger in follo$ing. <elaying the follo$er is similar to belaying a top(roped climb in that the follo$er is not able to fall any farther than rope stretch $ill allo$. $hile the final preparations are taking place. +BC2s or chocks may be left attached to the rope to prevent loss if they are accidentally dropped during removal. the 6ne$6 belayer signals 6<. as a courtesy. !hen the second is ready. signal 6CBIC<I=9. he second can no$ remove the leaderUs belay and prepare to climb. +harp rocks. &ollo$ing. a leader has a variety of responsibilities. or seconding.6 %0* >pon signaling 6<.

. taking on the role of lead climber. If too much slack develops. %. and is the simplest form of aid climbing. giving you the ability to ascend more difficult routes than you can free climb. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. he should signal 6 A?.6 and $ait until the e"cess is removed before continuing the climb. a.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multi(pitch routes.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup.=+ID=.* he second may need to place full body $eight on the rope to facilitate use of both hands for protection removal by giving the command 6 . . $hile remaining attached to an anchor. 7i& C!im ing !hen a route is too difficult to free climb and is unavoidable.BAI. his allo$s you to hang solely on the protection you place. he can signal 6D&& <. if the correct e#uipment is available you might aid climb the route. %0* !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. Dnce the second completes the pitch. he belayer simply adjusts his position. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the belayer or desires a break. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading.reaches a more secure stance. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads.egardless of the type of protection used. Clean aid consists of using +BC2s and chocks. Aid climbing consists of placing protection and putting full body $eight on the piece. the method of aid climbing . $quipment. or 6leap frogging. the rope should be unclipped from the piton to avoid the possibility of damaging the rope $ith a hammer strike.6 he second must also ensure that he does not climb faster than the rope is being taken in by the belayer.6 he leader removes the belay. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing. +$inging leads. he should immediately connect to the anchor. Aid climbing can be accomplished $ith various types of protection. he e#uipment is e"changed or organiAed in preparation for the ne"t pitch or climb. Dnce secured.D-. If removing a piton.

+$inging a hammer to place pitons $ill lead to climber fatigue sooner than clean aid. In addition to the e#uipment for free climbing.is the same. -iton usage $ill usually leave a scar in the rock just by virtue of the hardness of the piton and the force re#uired to set it $ith a hammer. A lot of time and $ork is e"pended in a short distance no matter ho$ the hole is drilled. %a* -lacing bolts for aid climbing takes much more time than using pitons or clean aid. <olting for aid climbing consists of consecutive bolts about 0 feet apart. Cost piton placements $ill re#uire the use of both hands. %. 2rilling a deep enough hole takes appro"imately thirty minutes $ith a hand drill and up to t$o minutes $ith a po$ered hammer drill. %b* Dther items that can be used instead of the boltKhanger combination are the removable and reusable 6spring(loaded . /o$ever. <olts are used in many $ays in climbing today. Consider other forms of protection $hen noise could be haAardous to tactics.* =oise $ill also be a factor in both applications. hey are a more permanent form of protection and more time is needed to place them. <olts are used $hen no other protection $ill $ork. <olts used in climbing are a multi(part e"panding system pounded into predrilled holes and then tightened to the desired tor#ue $ith a $rench or other tool. he most common use is $ith a hanger attached and placed for anchors in face climbing. % he $eight of a po$ered hammer drill becomes an issue in itself. $ith or $ithout the hanger. the strength of a $ell(placed piton is more secure than most clean aid protection. other specialiAed e#uipment $ill be needed. he typical climbing boltKhanger combination normally is left in the hole $here it $as placed.* Pitons. -itons are used the same as for free climbing. -lacing bolts creates more noise $hether drilled by hand or by motoriAed drill. +ince pitons are multidirectional. A constant pounding $ith a hammer on the hand drill or the motoriAed pounding of the po$ered drill may alert the enemy to the position. bolts can be used for aid climbing. %0* 'olts.

Chocks are used the same as for free climbing. A carabiner can be used in place of the fifi hook. or steps. .or -iders. although in aid climbing.asy removal means a slight loss of security $hile in use. +BC2s are used the same as for free climbing. and some piton siAes that can be pounded into the holes. full body $eight is applied to the +BC2 as soon as it is placed.removable bolts6 such as rivets %he" head threaded bolts siAed to fit tightly into the hole and pounded in $ith a hammer*. smooth(surfaced hook strong enough for body $eight. place a loop of cable over the head and onto the shaft of the rivet or bolt and attach a carabiner to the other end of the loop %a stopper $ith the chock slid back $ill suffice*. %4* (ifi ook. %5* -scenders. %)* Etriers . %1* S"C%s. At least t$o etriers %aiders* should be connected by carabiner to the free ends of the daisy chains. %-rusiks can be used but are more difficult than ascenders. %'* Chocks.0 inches. .. he small loops are just large enough for t$o or three carabiners. although the fifi hook is simpler and ade#uate.triers %aiders* are tied or prese$n $ebbing loops $ith four to si" tied or prese$n internal loops.* . !hen using rivets or bolts $ithout a hanger. split(shaft rivets.ivet hangers are available that slide onto the rivet or bolt after it is placed and are easily removed for reuse. %7* %aisy Chains. $o daisy chains should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness. 2aisy chains are tied or prese$n loops of $ebbing $ith small tied or prese$n loops appro"imately every t$o inches. A fifi hook is a small. Ascenders are mechanical devices that $ill move easily in one direction on the rope. he internal loops are large enough to easily place one booted foot into. appro"imately every . although in aid climbing. . $eight is applied to the chock as soon as it is placed. but $ill lock in place if pushed or pulled the other direction. he fifi hook should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness and is used in the small loops of the daisy chain.

secure your balance by grasping the top of the aider $ith your hands. %4* . but this creates a potential for a fall to occur even though you are on the aider and 6hooked6 close to the protection $ith the daisy chain. &rom this height. 3ote4 Coving the $aist higher than the top of the aider is possible. you could fall the full length of the daisy chain resulting in a static fall on the last piece of protection placed. you are no longer supported from above by the daisy chain. and fifi hook attached to the rope tie(in point of the harness as stated above. If this happens. the fifi hook can easily fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted.* he leader places the first piece of protection as high as can safely be reached and attaches the appropriate slingKcarabiner %0* Attach one daisy chainKaider group to the ne$ly placed protection %1* Clip the rope into the protection. the climb continues as follo$s: %. one at a time. Technique. as high as you can comfortably reach@ if using pitons or bolts you .b. move up the steps until your $aist is no higher than the top of the aider. !ith the daisy chains. you are no$ standing above your support. %7* !hen both feet are in the aider. aiders. into the steps in the aider. and secured temporarily to a gear loop or gear sling. he belay $ill be the same as in normal lead climbing and the rope $ill be routed through the protection the same $ay also. As the daisy chain tie(in point on the harness moves above the top of the aider. again. he big difference is the movement up the rock. this effectively shortens the daisy chain@ maintain tension on the daisy chain as the hook can fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. %the same as for normal lead climbing* %'* Insure the protection is sound by $eighting it gradually@ place both feet. %)* -lace the fifi hook %or substituted carabiner* into the loop of the daisy chain closest to the daisy chainKaider carabiner.elease one hand from the aider and place the ne"t piece of protection.

o make this easier. After ascending another 0: feet. ascenders are much faster and safer than -rusiks. you can easily unclip and remove the protection. !hen your $eight is on the rope above the piece. and rest your upper body on the daisy chain that you have 6shortened6 $ith the fifi hook %5* Clip the rope into the protection %8* Attach the other daisy chainKaider group to the ne"t piece of protection %. !hen adjusted to the correct height. this $ould normally increase the difficulty of removing protection.may need both hands free( 6lean6 back$ards slo$ly.. the arms need not support much body $eight. %.epeat entire process until climb is finished c. o ascend the route. use ascenders instead of -rusiks. Clear each knot as you unclip it. repeat this procedure. Secon&ing. the belayer $ill need to ascend the route. C7ET=63 If both ascenders should fail $hile ascending the pitch. Attach each ascender to a daisy chainKaider group $ith carabiners. 3otes4 . above the piece. o adjust the ma"imum reachKheight of the ascenders on the rope.* >nlike lead climbing. you $ill have difficulty reaching and maintaining a grip on the handle. a serious fall could result. If the ascender is too high.:(0: feet by tying a figure eight loop and clipping it into the harness $ith a separate locking carabiner as soon as the ascent is started.nsure the loops formed by the short tie(ins do not catch on anything belo$ . . tie in short on the rope every . !hen the pitch is completed.:* . move the ascenders. one at a time. adjust the effective length of the daisy chains $ith a carabiner the same as $ith the fifi hook@ the typical height $ill be enough to hold the attached ascender in the hand at nose level. as you approach the protection on the ascenders. 2o not unclip the previous figure eight until the ne$ knot is attached to another locking carabiner. o prevent this possibility. there $ill be a continuous load on the rope during the cleaning of the route.

possibly resulting in the protection failing. e.* /ooks are any device that rests on the rock surface $ithout a camming or gripping action.as you ascend. one ascenderKdaisy chainKaider group is removed from the rope and clipped to the protection $ith a carabiner. If the second $ere to clean the section by hanging on the rope $hile cleaning. o make this safer and easier. Cleaning is accomplished by removing the protection as it is passed $hen all $eight is removed from it. the protection $ill be pulled in more than one direction. and other protection placed easily by hand. his type of aid climbing $ill normally leave no trace of the climb $hen completed. formed by tying in at the end of the rope. do not tie into the end of the rope. As the second moves to the beginning of the traverse. !hile leading an aid traverse. d. the rope is unclipped from the protection before the aiderKdaisy chain is attached. the second should hang on the protection just as the leader did. Clean aid climbing consists of using protection placed $ithout a hammer or drill involvement: chocks. he second $ill negotiate the traverse by leapfrogging the daisy chainKaider groups on the ne"t protection just as the leader did. /ooks are just $hat the name implies. hooks. %keep the ascenders attached to the daisy chainKaider group for convenience $hen the traverse ends*. Secon&ing Through a Tra2erse. C!ean 7i& C!im ing. the climber is hanging on the protection placed in front of the current position. ensure the protection does not 6move6 from itUs original position. %0* +econding an aid pitch can be done in a similar fashion as seconding free(climbed pitches. !hen climbing the aiders on clean aid protection. %. +BC2s. his is in effect a self(belay. 0. he second can be belayed from above as the second 6climbs6 the protection. /o$ever. a curved piece of hard steel $ith a hole in one end for $ebbing attachment. he hook . If the nature of the rock $ill cause the 6hanging loop6 of rope. to get caught as you move up$ard. he second maintains a shorter safety tie(in on the rope than for vertical movement to reduce the possibility of a lengthy pendulum if the protection should pull before intended.

/ook usage is faster and #uieter but the margin of safety is not there unless hooks are alternated $ith more active forms of protection. It takes at least t$ice as long to climb an average length pitch because of the third climber and the e"tra belaying re#uired. although bolts can be used. C7ET=63 !hen climbing $ith a team of three. If the last t$enty foot section of a route is negotiated $ith hooks. Three-:an C!im ing Team Dften times a movement on steep terrain $ill re#uire a team of more than t$o climbers. some have curved or notched 6blades6 to better fit a certain crystal shape on a face placement.blade shape $ill vary from one model to another.7:(foot rope $ould re#uire si" belays for three climbers.::(foot climb $ith a . a three(man team is at a disadvantage on a steep.7:(foot rope $ould normally re#uire t$o belays for t$o climbers@ a . b. &or e"ample: a . protected traverses . he distance bet$een belay positions $ill be halved if only one rope is used because one climber must tie in at the middle of the rope. only t$o are described belo$. %0* +ome featureless sections of rock can be negotiated $ith hook use. 9iven one rope. A four(man team should be broken do$n into t$o groups of t$o unless prevented by a severe lack of gear. the methods $ill vary. hese types of devices due to their passive application. a forty foot fall could result. At times a three(man climb may be unavoidable and personnel should be familiar $ith the procedure. Although a team of three may choose from many different methods. are only secure $hile $eighted by the climber. $hich involves more difficulties.::(foot climb $ith a . If the climb is only one pitch. 3ote4 ime and complications $ill increase $hen a three(man team uses only one rope. a. A four(man team %or more* more than doubles the difficulty found in three men climbing together. belayed climb. $o ropes are recommended for a team of three climbers.

=umber 0 returns the hard$are to the leader and belays him up the ne"t pitch.* he first method can be used $hen the belay positions are not large enough for three men. If using one rope. he most e"perienced individual is the leader. !hen the pitch is completed he secures himself to one of number 0Us belay anchors.BAI6 from the leader. or number . each climber should be skilled in the belay techni#ues re#uired. and cleans the route %e"cept for traverses*. !hen the leader completes this pitch. climber. %b* =umber 0 ascends belayed by number . t$o climbers tie in at each end and the other at the mid point. he sets up the ne"t belay and belays number 0 up.BAI D=. ascends belayed by number 0. !hen number . and number 1. %c* =umber 1 ascends belayed by number 0.. or number 0 climber. /e should not have to change anchor attachments because the position $as already aimed for a do$n$ard as $ell as an up$ard pull $hen he belayed the leader. he e#uipment used to protect the traverse must be left in place to protect both the second and third climbers. the second $ill tie in at one end of both ropes. is the stronger of the remaining t$o and $ill be the belayer for both number . he changes ropes and puts number 1 on belay. %. Although the number 1 climber does no belaying in this method.$ill re#uire additional time. !hen number 0 receives 6D&& <. he second. and the other t$o climbers $ill each tie in to the other ends. he se#uence for this method %in one pitch increments* is as follo$s %repeated until the climb is complete*: %a* =umber . !hen the leader completes the pitch. !hen number 1 receives 6<.6 he removes his anchor and climbs to number 0Us position.Us . =umber 1 $ill be the last to climb. !hen using t$o ropes. he again sets up a ne$ belay. =umber 0 belays the leader up the first pitch $hile number 1 is simply anchored to the rock for security %unless starting off at ground level* and manages the rope bet$een himself and number 0.

he rope to the ascending number 1 could be secured to a separate anchor. since number 0 $ould not have to belay number 1 and could be either belaying number . %d* =ormally.. to the ne"t belay or climbing to number . the number 1 climber could ascend a fi"ed rope to number 0Us belay position using proper ascending techni#ue. he rope should be located so it does not contact any sharp edges. he belayer $ill have to remain alert for differences . $ith no effect on the other t$o members of the team.belay is ready. he brings up number 0 $hile number 1 remains anchored for security. he standard rope commands are used@ ho$ever. only one climber $ould be climbing at a time@ ho$ever. !hen number 1 is not climbing. his re#uires either a special belay device that accepts t$o ropes. =umber 0 again cleans the pitch and the procedure is continued until the climb is completed. or $ith t$o Cunter hitches. and number 0 and number 1 climb simultaneously. %0* he second method uses either t$o ropes or a doubled rope. %d* In this method. the number 0 climber may include the trailing climberUs name or number in the commands to avoid confusion as to $ho should be climbing. but this $ould re#uire additional time and gear. %a* As the leader climbs the pitch. /e climbs $hen told to do so by number 0. and positioned directly off the anchors established for the belay. such as the tuber type. the rope $ill be loaded $ith number 1Us $eight. If number 1 is to ascend a fi"ed rope to the ne"t belay position. he ropes must travel through the belay device%s* $ithout affecting each other. number 1 performs no belay function. he remains anchored to the rock for security. his $ould save time for a team of three. he leader reaches the ne"t belay position and establishes the anchor and then places both remaining climbers on belay. Dne remaining climber $ill start the ascent to$ard the leader and the other $ill start $hen a gap of at least .: feet is created bet$een the t$o climbers. he $ill trail a second rope or $ill be tied in $ith a figure eight in the middle of a doubled rope.

and safer. =nsta!!ation .ope A fi"ed rope is a rope anchored in place to assist soldiers in movement over difficult terrain.in rope movement and the climbers $ill have to climb at the same speed. 'hey can limit the battlefield and.&ope +ridge H Suspension Traverse H /ertical Hauling 0ine H Simple &aising S"stems FiBe& . with highly s0illed personnel trained on rope installations. even worse. As terrain becomes steeper or more difficult. but staying on route $ill usually prevent a possible s$ing if stance is not maintained. faster. Its simplest form is a rope tied off on the top of steep terrain. he belayer $ill have additional re#uirements to meet as opposed to having just one second.ed &ope H &appelling H -ne. However. %b* /aving at least t$o e"perienced climbers in this team $ill also save time. Dne of the 6second6 climbers also cleans the pitch. he use of harnesses. he possible force on the anchor $ill be t$ice that of one second. H )i. ascenders. but adds to total mission $eight. . he second that is not cleaning the pitch can climb off route. leaders can be assured that even a unit with limited mountain s0ills and e)perience will be able to successfully move and operate in terrain that would otherwise have been impassable. fi"ed rope systems may re#uire intermediate anchors along the route. and other technical gear makes fi"ed rope movement easier. prevent a unit from accomplishing its mission. Coving on a fi"ed rope re#uires minimal e#uipment.ope =nsta!!ations "bstacles on the battlefield today are inevitable.

t$o e"perienced climbers rope up for a roped climb. additional hard$are can be brought along and placed at the leaderUs discretion. the leader $ill establish the top anchor. the second $ill clean the pitch on his $ay up. If the leader placed protection. -rusik. he $ill stack and manage the rope. >pon reaching the end of the pitch. he knot is slid along the rope as the individual ascends. /e ensures the rope runs smoothly up the slope and does not get tangled as the climber ascends. An individual can easily prevent a long fall by attaching himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot %for e"ample. Although leader protection is usually not needed on a typical slope. Figure 7-). Esing a #iBe& rope.*. .o install a fi"ed rope. Eti!i@ation All personnel using the fi"ed rope grasp the rope $ith the palm do$n$ard and use it for assistance as they ascend the slope %&igure 4(. he friction knot used in this manner is referred to as a self(belay %&igure 4(0*. Dnce the anchor is rigged. he second $ill establish a belay if protection is being placed. he second unties from his end of the rope and begins to climb. the leader $ill take up any remaining slack bet$een himself and the second. Dther$ise. If the climber slips and loses control of the rope. the friction knot $ill grab the rope and arrest the fall. he leader must have the necessary e#uipment to rig the anchor at the top of the pitch. /e $ill anchor the installation rope and remain tied into the rope. autoblock*.

it can be left in place and recovered after the last rappel. If not. the last climber $ill tie into the rope and be belayed from above.ope (ith =nterme&iate 7nchors !henever the route varies from the fall line of the slope.. the fi"ed rope must be anchored at intermediate anchor points %&igure 4(1*.e!ay. Intermediate anchor points should also be used on any long routes that e"ceed the length of a single rope. Esing a se!#.Figure 7-. he climber no$ can easily free the rope if it gets caught on anything as it is taken up from the belayer. he use of intermediate anchor points creates independent sections and allo$s for changes in direction from one section to the ne"t. his type of fi"ed rope is commonly used along e"posed ridges and narro$ mountain passes. he independent sections allo$ for more personnel to move on the fi"ed rope. FiBe& . . .etrie2a! If the fi"ed rope is to be used on the descent.

Availability of anchors %natural and artificial*. he second sets up a standard belay. actical considerations are met. avoids obstacles. $o e"perienced climbers prepare for a roped climb. . he leader $ill carry a typical rack $ith enough hard$are to place an ade#uate number of intermediate anchor points. =nsta!!ation. he route they select must have the follo$ing characteristics: • • • • Cost suitable location. a. FiBe& rope +ith interme&iate anchors. ease of negotiation.Figure 7-1. Area is safe from falling rock or ice.

/e ensures that the fi"ed rope $ill be appro"imately knee to chest level as climbers negotiate the installation.ope crossovers should be avoided. he second then moves to ne"t anchor point and repeats the process. /e attaches himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot to create a self(belay.* he leader places an anchor at all points $here a change of direction occurs.• • A rope routed bet$een knee and chest height %$aist high preferred*. !hen he reaches an anchor point. double figure(eight*. /e should use a sling to anchor himself if there is any chance of slipping and falling. 3ote4 +ling attachments should be kept as short and snug as possible to ensure that a load on the fi"ed rope belo$ the anchor is placed only on that anchor. he temporarily anchors the rope. . %1* he second unties from the rope and anchors it at the bottom. 3ote4 . /e then attaches the rope using an anchor knot %for e"ample. he self(belay $ill protect the second as he climbs and fi"es the rope to the intermediate anchor points. and attaches the rope to the anchor. middle(of(the(rope clove hitch. he leader makes use of any available natural anchors. . he unclips the climbing rope so he can advance the self(belay beyond the anchor point. %. /e also makes every attempt to route the rope so personnel $ill not have to cross back and forth over the rope bet$een sections.nough slack must be left in the rope so the second can tie the knots necessary to fi" the rope. he $ill place the anchors and route the climbing rope as in a typical roped climb. %0* !hen the leader reaches the end of the pitch. As the leader climbs the route. /e then takes up any e"cess slack. his $ill prevent one section from affecting another section. /e then takes the slack out of the section belo$ the anchor point.

%'* If a long runner is to be used at any anchor point, the second should adjust the section belo$ it so the runner is oriented in the direction $here the load or pull on the anchor $ill come from. his $ill help isolate the section. %7* he sections are normally adjusted fairly snug bet$een anchor points. A slack section may be necessary to move around obstacles in the route or large bulges in the terrain. If clove hitches are used, adjusting the clove hitches at each end of the section can leave any amount of slack. %)* A middle(of(the(rope -rusik safetied $ith a figure eight may be used $hen utility ropes are available. hese are used to adjust the rope height %either higher or lo$er*. %4* In addition to the fi"ed rope, the second could anchor etriers to be used as footholds. %5* !hen the second reaches the end of the pitch, the rope is removed from the top anchor and the remaining slack is removed from the last section. he rope is reattached to the anchor. If additional fi"ed rope is re#uired the procedure is repeated using another rope. he second $ill tie the ropes together before anchoring the ne"t section, creating one continuous fi"ed rope. b. Eti!i@ation. -ersonnel should be attached to the fi"ed rope during movement for safety reasons. %.* If a self(belay is desired, a harness should be $orn. A friction knot $ill be tied to the installation rope using a short sling. he sling $ill then be attached to the harness. Another short sling $ill be used as a safety line. Dne end of the sling $ill be attached to the harness and the other $ill have a carabiner inserted. his safety line is also attached to the fi"ed rope during movement. Dnce the climber reaches an anchor point, he removes his safety line and attaches it to the anchor or attaches it to the ne"t section of rope. /e $ill then untie the friction knot and tie another friction knot beyond the anchor point. he use of a mechanical ascender in the place of the friction knot could greatly speed up movement.

%0* here $ill be many situations $here a self(belay may not be re#uired. In these situations an individual may attach himself to the fi"ed rope using only a safety line. he individual $ill tie into the middle of a sling rope appro"imately .0 feet long. &i"ed loops are tied into the running ends and a carabiner is attached into each of the fi"ed loops. he individual no$ has t$o points of attachments to the fi"ed rope. >pon reaching an anchor point, one safety line is removed and advanced beyond the anchor point onto the ne"t section. hen the ne"t safety is removed and placed on the ne"t section. his $ay the individual is al$ays secured to the fi"ed rope at all times. %1* -ersonnel $ill move one at a time per section during the entire movement. Dnce an individual changes over to the ne"t section he signals the ne"t man to climb. !hen descending on the fi"ed rope, personnel can do$n climb using the installation for assistance. Another option $ould be to descend using a hasty rappel. c. ,etrie2a!. !hen the installation is retrieved, the ne"t to last man on the system $ill untie the knots at the intermediate anchor points and reclips the rope as he ascends. /e $ill be attached to rope using a self(belay. Dnce he reaches the top of the pitch, the rope should be running the same as $hen the leader initially placed it. he last man $ill untie the rope from the bottom anchor and tie into the rope. /e $ill the clean the pitch as he climbs $hile being belayed from above. ,appe!!ing !hen an individual or group must descend a vertical surface #uickly, a rappel may be performed. ;appelling is a #uick method of descent but it is e"tremely dangerous. hese dangers include anchor failure, e#uipment failure, and individual error. Anchors in a mountainous environment should be selected carefully. 9reat care must be taken to load the anchor slo$ly and to ensure that no e"cessive stress is placed on the anchor. o ensure this, bounding rappels should be prohibited, and only $alk do$n rappels used. Constant vigilance to every detail $ill guarantee a safe descent every time. Se!ection o# a ,appe! 9oint

he selection of the rappel point depends on factors such as mission, cover, route, anchor points, and edge composition %loose or jagged rocks*. here must be good anchors %primary and secondary*. he anchor point should be above the rappellerUs departure point. +uitable loading and off(loading platforms should be available. =nsta!!ation o# the ,appe! 9oint A rappel lane should have e#ual tension bet$een all anchor points by establishing primary and secondary anchor points. he rappel rope should not e"tend if one anchor point fails. he follo$ing methods of establishing an anchor can be performed $ith a single or double rope. A double rope application should be used $hen possible for safety purposes. a. If a rappel lane is less than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* 2ouble the rope and tie a three(loop bo$line around the primary anchor to include the primary anchor inside t$o loops and enough rope in the third loop to run to the secondary anchor %another three(loop bo$line secured $ith an overhand knot*. %0* <o$line secured $ith an overhand knot %or any appropriate anchor knot*. %1* 2ouble the rope and establish a self(e#ualiAing anchor system $ith a three(loop bo$line or any other appropriate anchor knot b. If a rappel lane is greater than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* >se t$o ropes. !ith both ropes, tie a round turn anchor bo$line around a primary anchor point. ake the remaining rope %the tail from the primary anchor bo$line* and tie another round turn anchor bo$line to a secondary anchor point. he secondary anchor point should be in a direct line behind the primary anchor point. he anchor can be either natural or artificial.

%0* >se t$o ropes. ,stablish a multi(point anchor system using a bo$line on a bight or any other appropriate anchor knot. c. +ituations may arise $here, due to the length of the rappel, the rappel rope cannot be tied to the anchor %if the rope is used to tie the knots, it $ill be too short to accomplish the rappel*. he follo$ing techni#ues can be used: %.* !hen using a natural anchor, tie a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, or another rope around the anchor using proper techni#ues for slinging natural anchors. he rappel rope $ill have a fi"ed loop tied in one end, $hich is attached to the anchor created. %0* !hen using an artificial anchor, tie off a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, runner, or another rope to form a loop. >se this loop to create an e#ualiAing or pre(e#ualiAed anchor, to $hich the rappel rope $ill be attached. 6peration o# the ,appe! 9oint 2ue to the inherent dangers of rappelling, special care must be taken to ensure a safe and successful descent. a. Communication. Climbers at the top of a rappel point must be able to communicate $ith those at the bottom. 2uring a tactical rappel, radios, hand signals, and rope signals are considered. &or training situations use the commands sho$n in able 4(..

C6::73D BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= ;A--,B BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= <,BAI

<=A$3 %D ;appeller

:$73=3< I am ready to begin rappelling. I am on belay and you may begin your rappel.


BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& ;A--,B


I have completed the rappel, cleared the rappel lane, and am off the rope. I am off belay.

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& <,BAI


Ta !e 7-). ,appe! comman&s. 3otes4 .. 0. In a training environment, the lane number must be understood. In a tactical situation, a series of tugs on the rope may be substituted for the oral commands to maintain noise discipline. he number of tugs used to indicate each command is IA! the unit +D-.

b. Duties an& ,esponsi i!ities. %.* 2uties of the rappel point commander are as follo$s:
• •

,nsures that the anchors are sound and the knots are properly tied. ,nsures that loose rock and debris are cleared from the loading platform.

Allo$s only one man on the loading platform at a time and ensures that the rappel point is run orderly.

,nsures that each man is properly prepared for the particular rappel: gloves on, sleeves do$n, helmet $ith chin strap fastened, gear prepared properly, and rappel seat and knots correct %if re#uired*. /e also ensures that the rappeller is hooked up to the rope correctly and is a$are of the proper braking position.

• • •

,nsures that the proper signals or commands are used. 2ispatches each man do$n the rope. Is the last man do$n the rope.

%0* 2uties of the first rappeller do$n are as follo$s:
• • •

+elects a smooth route, for the rope, that is clear of sharp rocks. Conducts a self(belay. Clears the route, placing loose rocks far enough back on ledges to be out of the $ay, $hich the rope may dislodge.

,nsures the rope reaches the bottom or is at a place from $hich additional rappels can be made.

,nsures that the rope $ill run freely around the rappel point $hen pulled from belo$.

Clears the rappel lane by straightening all t$ists and tangles from the ropes.

<elays subse#uent rappellers do$n the rope or monitors subse#uent belayers

akes charge of personnel as they arrive at the bottom %off(loading platform*.


A rappeller is al$ays belayed from the bottom, e"cept for the first man do$n. he first man belays himself do$n the rope using a self(belay attached to his rappel seat, $hich is hooked to the rappel rope $ith a friction knot. As the first man rappels do$n the rope, he 6$alks6 the friction knot do$n $ith him. %1* ,ach rappeller do$n clears the ropes, and shouts, 6Dff rappel,6 %if the tactical situation permits*. After the rope is cleared and the rappeller is off rappel, he acts as the belayer for ne"t rappeller. %'* +oldiers $ear gloves for all types of rappels to protect their hands from rope burns. %7* ;appellers descend in a smooth, controlled manner. %)* he body forms an B(shape $ith the feet shoulder($idth apart, legs straight, and buttocks parallel to the ground. !hen carrying e#uipment or

additional $eight, a modified B(shape is used $ith the legs slightly lo$er than the buttocks to compensate for the additional $eight. he rappellerUs back is straight. /e looks over the brake shoulder. he guide hand is e"tended on the rope $ith the elbo$ e"tended and locked. he rope slides freely through the guide hand. he guide hand is used to adjust e#uipment and assist balance during descent. he rappeller grasps the rope firmly $ith the brake hand and places it in the brake position. ;eleasing tension on the rope and moving the brake hand regulates the rate of descent. he rappeller never lets go of the ropes $ith his brake hand until the rappel is complete. c. Tying 6## During the ,appe!. It may be necessary to stop during descent. his can be accomplished by passing the rope around the body and placing three or more $raps around the guide(hand(side leg, or by tying off using the appropriate knot for the rappel device. ,eco2ery o# the ,appe! 9oint After almost all personnel have descended, only t$o personnel $ill remain at the top of the rappel point. hey $ill be responsible for establishing a retrievable rappel. a. $sta !ishing the ,etrie2a !e ,appe!. o set up a retrievable rappel point, a climber must apply one of the follo$ing methods: %.* 2ouble the rope $hen the rappel is less than half the total length of the rope. -lace the rope, $ith the bight formed by the midpoint, around the primary anchor. Eoin the tails of the rappel rope and thro$ the rope over the cliff. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner, just belo$ the anchor point, $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. !hen the rappeller reaches the bottom, he pulls on that portion of the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. %0* !hen the length of the rappel is greater than half the length of the rope used, join t$o ropes around the anchor point $ith an appropriate joining knot %e"cept the s#uare knot*. Adjust the joining knot so that it is a$ay

from the anchor. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner just belo$ the anchor point $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. >pon completion of the rappel, pull the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. 3otes4 .. 0. !hen setting up a retrievable rappel, use only a primary point@ care is taken in selecting the point. ,nsure the soldiers have a safety line $hen approaching the rappel point, $ith only the rappeller going near the edge.

b. ,etrie2ing the ,appe! ,ope. he ne"t to last rappeller $ill descend the lane, removing any t$ists, and routes the rope for easiest retrieval. Dnce he reaches the end of the rappel, he tests the rope for retrieval. If the rappel is retrievable, the last man $ill rappel do$n. Dnce he is off rappel, he pulls the lane do$n. Types o# ,appe!s 2uring military mountaineering operations, many types of rappels may be used. he follo$ing paragraphs describe some these rappels. a. -asty ,appe! %&igure 4('*. he hasty rappel is used only on moderate pitches. Its main advantage is that it is easier and faster than other methods. 9loves are $orn to prevent rope burns. %.* &acing slightly side$ays to the anchor, the rappeller places the ropes horiAontally across his back. he hand nearest to the anchor is his guide hand, and the other is the brake hand. %0* o stop, the rappeller brings his brake hand across in front of his body locking the rope. At the same time, he turns to face up to$ard the anchor point.

/e must lean out at a sharp angle to the rock. he foot corresponding to the brake hand precedes the guide hand at all times. $hich is on the same side of the hip that the rope crosses %for e"ample. he rappeller faces the anchor point and straddles the rope. he <2> collar is turned up to prevent rope burns on the neck. . and runs it around either hip. and his back straight to reduce friction.appe! %&igure 4(7*. &rom there. the rappeller leans back and faces directly to$ard the rock area so his feet are horiAontal to the ground. and other clothing may be used to pad the shoulders and buttocks. /e keeps his legs spread $ell apart and relatively straight for lateral stability. %o&y . the right hip to the left shoulder to the right hand*. the rope runs to the brake hand. he rappeller keeps the guide hand on the rope above him to guide himself((not to brake himself. and back over the opposite shoulder. he rappeller leads $ith the brake hand do$n and faces slightly side$ays. b.Figure 7-4. o brake. /e then pulls the rope from behind. diagonally across the chest. 9loves are $orn. -asty rappe!.

9loves can be $orn to prevent rope burns.appe! %&igure 4()*. he seat rappel differs from the body rappel in that the friction is absorbed by a carabiner that is inserted in a sling rope seat and fastened to the rappeller.. c. /asty rappels and body rappels are not belayed from belo$. Seat--ip . 0. /asty rappels and body rappels are not used on pitches that have overhangs@ feet must maintain surface contact. %o&y rappe!. 3otes4 .Figure 7-5. . his method provides a faster and more frictional descent than other methods.

care is taken that the rope is hooked correctly into the carabiner to avoid the gate being opened by the rope. hen run the rope through the single carabiner. Boose clothing or e#uipment around the $aist may be accidentally pulled . repeat this process to place t$o round turns around the shaft of the locking carabiner. -lace the rappel rope%s* into the locking carabiner@ slack is taken bet$een the locking carabiner and anchor point and $rapped around the shaft of the locking carabiner and placed into the gate so that a round turn is made around the shaft of the locking carabiner %&igure 4(4*.Figure 7-6. and is fast and safe. If a single rope is used. /o$ever. &ace the anchor point and descend using the upper hand as the guide and the lo$er hand as the brake. his method has minimal friction. Any remaining slack is pulled to$ard the uphill anchor point.* An alternate techni#ue is to insert t$o carabiners opposite and opposed. stand to one side of the rope. If using a right(hand brake. stand to the right of the rappel rope. Seat-hip rappe!. %. stand to the left of the rappel rope facing the anchor@ if using a left(hand brake. %0* o hook up for the seat(hip method. his helps to keep the rappel rope a$ay from the harness. hen insert a locking carabiner into the t$o carabiners $ith opening gate on brake hand side.

o reduce the amount of friction on the figure(eight. &or this reason. . he figure(eight descender puts less kinks in the rope.into the locking carabiner and lock %stop* the rappel. place the original bight into the carabiner and not around the neck of the descender. pass a bight through the large eye and then over the small eye onto the neck. 9roper hookup using cara iner +rap. Figure 7-7. %. %Bess friction re#uires more braking force from the rappeller. he brake is applied by moving the brake hand to the rear or do$n$ard.* %0* he guide hand goes on the rope that is running from the anchor. -lace the small eye into a locking carabiner. he brake hand goes on the slack rope. Figure-$ight Descen&er.* o use the figure(eight descender. and it can be used $ith one or t$o ropes %&igure 4(5*. the rappeller must tuck in his shirt and keep his e#uipment out of the $ay during his descent. d.

hese include slots or plates and tubers. 6ther De2ices. A friction knot can be used as a belay for a rappeller %&igure 4(8*. Cany different types of devices are similar in design and operation to the basic plate. It also allo$s for easier self( belay. Figure-eight &escen&er.Figure 7-".appe! De2ice.) of an inch in siAe. f. he knot acts as the brake hand $hen the rappeller must $ork or negotiate an obstacle re#uiring the use of both hands. $Bten&ing the . Se!#-%e!ay Techniques. d. preventing accidental damage %&igure 4(8*. he rappel device can be e"tended using either a piece of $ebbing or cordage to move the device a$ay from the body and the harness. he knot acts as a belay if the rappeller loses control of the rope. . Cost of these devices can accommodate t$o ropes not greater than 4K. &ollo$ manufacturerUs directions for using these devices for rappelling. e.

e!ay. or $hether an anchor knot or retrievable bo$line is used.( meter %$aist* high for loading and unloading@ a tightening system@ and a rope tight enough for ease of crossing. depending upon the tactical situation and area to be crossed %crossing a gorge above the tree line may re#uire constructing artificial anchors*. /o$ever. $Bten&e& hookup +ith se!#.Figure 7-'. !hich side the tightening system is utiliAed. 6ne-.ope %ri&ge he one(rope bridge is constructed using a static rope. they all share common elements to safely construct and use the bridge: t$o suitable anchors@ good loading and unloading platforms@ a rope about . he rope is anchored $ith an anchor knot on the far side of the obstacle and is tied off at the near end $ith a tightening system. depends on the techni#ue. . A one(rope bridge may be built many $ays.

=atural anchors.Site Se!ection A suitable crossing site must have 6bombproof6 anchors on both the near side and far side. c. If t$o carabiners are used. . Dnce the knot has been pulled out.:. Dnce across. the gates $ill be opposing. he anchor should be $aist high. =nsta!!ation Esing Transport Tightening System he transport tightening system provides a mechanical advantage $ithout re#uiring additional e#uipment. the far side man anchors the rope using a tensionless anchor. If crossing a stream. he site must also have suitable loading and off(loading platforms to facilitate safe personnel movement. the s$immerKclimber $ill temporarily anchor the installation rope. he rope must first be anchored on the far side of the obstacle. soldiers route the remainder of the rope around the near side anchor point and hook the rope into the carabiner. such as large trees and solid rock formations. are al$ays preferred. Dne man on the near side ties a fi"ed(loop knot %for e"ample. a. the s$immer must be belayed across. his system is kno$n as a transport(tightening system %&igure 4(. he man on the far side pulls the knot out four to si" feet from the near anchor. b. hese anchors must be e"tremely strong due to the amount of tension that $ill be placed upon them. $iremanUs. he opening gate must be up and a$ay from the loop. At that time. figure(eight slip knot* appro"imately 1 feet from the near side anchor and places the carabiner into the loop of the knot. If crossing a ravine or gorge. crossing may involve rappelling and a roped climb.

>sing more personnel can over(tighten the rope and bring the rope critically close to failure. . Transport tightening system. A three(man pull team on the near side pulls the slack out of the installation rope.0*..1*. d. or a tensionless anchor knot %&igure 4(.Figure 7-)*. 3ote4 =o more than three personnel should be used to tighten the rope. e.*. he knot should be close enough to the near side anchor to allo$ personnel to easily load the installation. round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight %&igure 4(. he rope the can be secured using one of three methods: transport knot %&igure 4(.

Figure 7-)). Figure 7-)..oun& turn aroun& anchor an& t+o ha!# hitches on a ight. . Transport knot . .

$eb $rap. a second static rope may be installed under less tension and alongside the tight rope to increase safety. a. he rope is brought across the obstacle the same $ay as discussed in paragraph 4(. 3ote4 2uring training.'* is another method for gaining a mechanical advantage. Dnce across. thus having a backup in case of failure of the tighter rope. c. =nsta!!ation Esing F-9u!!ey Tightening System he V(pulley tightening system %&igure 4(. $o steel carabiners are inserted $ith opposing gates into the friction knot. the far side man anchors the rope. b. An individual $ould clip into both ropes $hen crossing.Figure 7-)1.:. Dne soldier ties a friction knot %autoblock. ?leimheist* $ith a sling rope onto the bridging rope on the near side bank. . Tension!ess anchor knot.

!hen the rope is tight. he rope is routed around the near side anchor and through the carabiners. Figure 7-)4. As the rope is pulled tight. g. A second sling rope is tied to the bridge rope and then anchored to the near side anchor. from inside to outside. it is tied off $ith a tensionless anchor knot. or round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight.d. here are several methods of accomplishing this. f. F-pu!!ey tightening system. his knot $ill be used as a progress capture device. one man pushes the friction knot back to$ard the far side. . creating a pulley effect that tightens the system. transport knot. he three(man pull team on the near side then pulls on the rope. and is run back to the near side anchor. e. Eti!i@ation he rope bridge can be used to move personnel and e#uipment over obstacles.

%0* Monkey Cra&l %&igure 4(. Comman&o cra+!. the soldier hooks one leg and the opposite arm over the rope. 3ote4 Dnly one man at a time is allo$ed on the bridge $hile conducting a commando cra$l.a. and pushes $ith his feet to make progress. -referably. monkey cra$l. and pull the rucksack across.)*. /e progresses by pulling $ith his hands and arms. . Figure 7-)5. all soldiers $ill tie a safety line and attach it to the rope installation as they cross. he may $ear it over both shoulders. If the soldier must cross $ith his rucksack. and yrolean traverse.7*. he soldier lies on top of the rope $ith the upstream foot hooked on the rope and the knee bent close to the buttocks@ the do$nstream leg hangs straight to maintain balance. o recover if he falls over. he soldier hangs belo$ the rope suspended by his hands $ith both heels crossed over the rope. If dry crossing is impossible. /e pulls $ith his hands and arms.* Commando Cra&l %&igure 4(. attach it to the bridge. If a dry crossing is possible soldiers $ill use one of three methods: commando cra$l. :etho& o# Crossing. although the preferred method is to place another carabiner into the top of the rucksack frame. soldiers $ill use the rope bridge as a hand line. +oldiers $ill al$ays cross on the do$nstream side of the installation. %. and then pushes do$n $ith the other hand to regain position.

/e then faces the rope and clips into the rope bridge.Figure 7-)6. he rappel seat method is the preferred method. he soldier ties a rappel seat %or dons a seat harness* $ith the carabiner facing up and a$ay from his body. /e rotates under the rope and pulls $ith his hands and arms to make progress.4*. Figure 7-)7. . a carabiner is inserted into the frame and attached to the rope bridge.appe! seat metho&. :onkey cra+!. . %1* Rappel Seat Method %&igure 4(. he soldier the places one or both legs through the shoulder carrying straps and pulls the rucksack across. If crossing $ith rucksacks.

+ome of these items include tubular nylon $ebbing. All the slack is pulled to the near side. packs can be joined together $ith a sling to facilitate moving more than one rucksack at one time. a. . or supplies.5*. such as cre$(served $eapons.may dictate the rigging of these items. &inally. Construction. -au!ing 8ine A hauling line may be used to move rucksacks or casualties across the rope bridge %&igure 4(. . cordage %various siAes*. ammunition. A unit +D. An additional rope is brought across the rope bridge and anchored to the far side.* Machine /uns. Any special e#uipment. anchor the sling rope to the buttstock of the machine gun. use a sling rope and tie a rerouted figure(eight around the spine of the front sight post. and carabiners. and a figure(eight slip knot is tied at the loading platform. -au!ing !ine.b.igging Specia! $quipment. Additional tie do$ns may be necessary to prevent accidental disassembly of the $eapon. he other end is anchored on the near side. Figure 7-)". %. he rigging should use various items that $ould be readily available to a deployed unit. ABIC. must be rigged for movement across the rope bridge. hen tie t$o evenly spaced fi"ed loops. o rig machine guns. but many e"pedient methods e"ist. A carabiner is inserted into the loop and clipped onto the rope bridge. %0* -"0CE Packs.

If the < C chooses the dry method. he same techni#ue used for the rucksacks is used to pull the litter across. . assembled on the far side. %. . Dn each side of this carabiner. %'* A three(man pull team. %7* he < C then attaches himself to the rope bridge and moves across. :o2ing 8itters.ucksacks.etrie2a! Dnce all e"cept t$o troops have crossed the rope bridge. then ties a fi"ed loop and places a carabiner into the fi"ed loop. the bridge team commander %< C* chooses either the $et or dry method to dismantle the rope bridge. he rope should no$ only pass around the near side anchor. :o2ing . takes the end brought across by the ne"t to last man and pulls the rope tight again and holds it. >se carabiners to attach the rucksack frames to the rope bridge. he far side remains anchored. and then moves across the bridge using the yrolean traverse method. c.emove the slack bet$een the carabiners. %0* he ne"t to last man to cross attaches the carabiner to his rappel seat or harness. he carabiner of the hauling line $ill remain on the rope bridge. -ersonnel on the far side pull the rucksacks across using the hauling line $hile personnel on the near side manages the slack at all times. hen place the carabiners in each of the lift straps onto the rope bridge. hen clip the carabiner of the hauling line into the carabiner of the rucksack closest to the far side. a. he should have anchored his tightening system $ith the transport knot. using the hauling line tie a middle(of(the( rope clove hitch around both of the horiAontal lift straps of the litter. %1* he < C then removes all knots from the system.* he < C back(stacks all of the slack coming out of the transport knot.b. .

the < C breaks do$n the far side anchor. /e then manages the rope as the slack is pulled to the far side. Suspension Tra2erse he suspension traverse is used to move personnel and e#uipment over rivers. %1* he < C ties a fi"ed loop. and then pulls the rope across. inserts a carabiner. b. any method can be used to anchor the tightening system. and attaches it to his rappel seat or harness. and up or do$n a vertal.%)* Dnce across. ravines.* All personnel cross e"cept the < C or the strongest s$immer. %0* he < C then removes all knots from the system. If the < C chooses a $et crossing. removes the knots. chasms. %. %'* he < C then moves across the obstacle $hile being belayed from the far side. Figure 7-)'. Suspension tra2erse. Site Se!ection .

hree to five . and mark the ape" on both poles. he e"act siAe of the poles depends on the type of load and location of the installation. -lace the locking bar on the outside edge of the pole.he crossing site must have bombproof anchors at the near side and the far side. Cake sure the rope end is pointing do$n as it is tied. $o sturdy poles are needed.* . Construction. If the anchors do not provide sufficient height to allo$ clearance. 7-#rames. c.nsure that proper height is attained and that the installation runs in a straight line bet$een the t$o anchors.ven in $ooded mountainous terrain constructing an A(frame may be necessary due to the lack of height $here the installation is needed. a. and suitable loading and off(loading platforms. depending on the siAe of the poles used for the A(frame. -osition this knot on . tie a clove hitch around the left pole %standing at the base of the poles and facing the top* 1 inches above the ape" marking. All personnel must be $ell trained and $ell rehearsed in the procedures. b. %0* !ith a sling rope. %+ee &igure 4(0:A. +ite selection determines $hether more height is needed@ mission re#uirements determine site selection.* %1* -lace the poles side by side and $rap the sling rope horiAontally around both poles si" to eight times.0 feet long. leaving about . It may be necessary to join another sling rope to the first by using a s#uare knot secured $ith overhand knots. an A(frame must be used. =nsta!!ation Installation of a suspension traverse can be time(consuming and e#uipment(intensive. ry to find natural pockets in $hich to place the base of the A(frame poles. he t$o main installations that use A(frames are the suspension traverse and vertical hauling line. . he average siAe A(frame pole should be at least 1 inches in diameter and 8 to . -lace t$o poles $ith the butt ends flush. $rapping do$n from the clove hitch %&igure 4(0:<*. An A(frame placed out of proper alignment can cause the system to collapse.5 inches of the sling rope free on top of the clove hitch.'(foot sling ropes are needed. %. $quipment.

* %'* Dn the last horiAontal $rap %ensure there are at least t$o $raps belo$ the joining knot* to $hich the clove hitch is not tied. !hen starting the first vertical $rap. %+ee &igure 4(0:&. pass the rope bet$een the poles above the horiAontal $raps. Cake at least t$o additional $raps belo$ the joining s#uare knot. Insert a carabiner into the last t$o vertical $raps %&igure 4(0:.the outside of one of the poles so as not to interfere $ith the vertical $raps. ensure it is in the same direction as the .*. +ecure $ith overhand knots tied in the tails. %7* Dn the last vertical $rap. and make four to si" tight vertical $raps around the horiAontal $raps %&igure 4(0:2*.5(inch tail on the top of the clove hitch. %+ee &igure 4(0:C. Cake the $raps as tight as possible.*. he vertical $raps must be as flat as possible ne"t to each other.* Figure 7-. pass the rope bet$een the poles belo$ the $raps. . 7-#rame hori@onta! an& 2ertica! +raps. ie it off $ith a s#uare knot in the section of rope coming from the clove hitch.

If the ground is soft. . If more than one sling rope is needed. -lace a transport tightening system in each installation rope at the near %upper* anchor. Anchor the traverse ropes as close together as possible so that the ropes do not cross.). $ith the legs firmly emplaced or anchored $ith pitons.*. ie a sling rope bet$een the legs $ith a round turn $ith t$o half hitches around each leg. =nsta!!ation Construction. tie end(of(the(rope clove hitches $ith the locking portions facing to the rear. .* -lace the A(frame %if needed* so that both traverse ropes run over the ape" and the A(frame splits the angle formed bet$een the near %upper* and far %lo$er* anchors. he use of clove hitches and half hitches permits easy adjustment of the spreader rope. Adjust the A( . tie the t$o ropes together $ith a s#uare knot and secure $ith half hitches or overhand knots. Dne man rappels do$n the pitch and secures t$o installation %traverse* ropes to the far anchor $ith an anchor knot.%)* >se a spreader rope to prevent the A(frame from collapsing from pressure applied at the ape" %&igure 4(0. 7-#rame sprea&er. the direction of kick. ie the tails off at a '7(degree angle $ith a round turn and t$o half hitches to a secondary anchor point. he spreader rope should be no more than ) inches above ground level.un the installation ropes through or around the anchor in opposite directions and tie off. Figure 7-. dig the legs in about ) inches. %. %4* If the ground is a hard surface. d. .emove all slack in the rope bet$een the legs.nsure that the A(frame is in line $ith the anchors.

7nchoring the 7-#rame to the tra2erse rope. %1* Anchor the A(frame to the traverse rope.. %'* >se a carrying rope to attach loads to the traverse ropes %&igure 4(01*.. .'(foot sling rope $ith a s#uare knot and t$o overhand knots. It must also be placed in a straight line bet$een the upper and lo$er anchor points. ie a clove hitch at the center of a sling rope.. -lace it over one of the poles above the ape" and move do$n to the ape" so that the locking bar of the clove hitch is to the inside of the A(frame.frame under the traverse ropes after tightening to firmly implant the A( frame. not forcing it in a lateral direction. +ecure each end of the sling rope to one of the tightened static lines $ith t$o -rusik knots(one for$ard and one to the rear of the A( frame on the same static line rope %&igure 4(00*.* or the A(pulley tightening system %paragraph 4( . %0* ighten the installation ropes using either the transport tightening system %paragraph 4(. Figure 7-. 3ote4 he A(frame should be positioned so that the angles created by the A(frame bisecting the installation rope are appro"imately e#ual on both sides. 2isplace the knot one(third of the distance do$n the loop and tie an overhand knot both above and belo$ the s#uare knot. Eoin the ends of a . his forms t$o small loops and one large loop that is longer than the t$o small loops combined.0*. his creates do$n$ard pressure holding the A(frame in position.

a second rope may be needed to pull the load across and should be attached to the carrying rope the same as the first. !hen the suspension traverse is near horiAontal. %5* Attach the load by running the long loop of the carrying rope through the load or through the soldierUs harness and attaching the bottom loop to the traverse rope carabiner.1. preventing him from hitting the lo$er anchor. 2escent must be belayed slo$ly and be controlled. tie a si" $rap middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot to both static ropes near the far side off(loading point. his is $here a belay rope $ill be attached %4* !ith a sling rope.Figure 7-. his acts as a stopper knot for the man descending. Attach a belay rope to the center loop of the carrying rope using a fi"ed loop or locking carabiner on the side opposite the joining knot %&igure 4( 01*. %)* Insert second carabiner into the one placed into the $raps of the A( frame. %7* Attach the carrying rope to the traverse ropes $ith carabiners %or a pulley* that have the gates reversed and opening in opposite directions. Carrying rope #or use on a tra2erse. +oldiers descending should hold onto the carrying rope and keep their feet high to avoid contact $ith the ground. 2ue to the constant .

Aertica! -au!ing 8ine he vertical hauling line is an installation used to move men and e#uipment up vertical or near(vertical slopes %&igure 4(0'*.etrie2a! he suspension traverse is not as readily retrievable as the one(rope bridge. Site Se!ection he first and most important task is to determine $here to construct the vertical hauling line. the installing unit should dismantle it after it is no longer needed.4. rucksacks. It is often used $ith a fi"ed rope for personnel movement.tension maintained on the belayer. or supplies Figure 7-. he hauling line is used to move e#uipment. Aertica! hau!ing !ine. use a relay man. such as mortars or other cre$( served $eapons. If the belayer cannot vie$ the entire descent route. . herefore. Boading and unloading platforms should be easily accessible natural . he site must have an appropriate top anchor that is secure enough to hold the system and load. use a mechanical belay.

%+ee &igure 4(07. and lay the middle of the installation rope over the ape" of the A(frame@ a 1:( centimeter %. and anchor it.0(inch bight. =nsta!!ation Construct an A(frame. ensuring that the locking bars of the clove hitches are on the inside.platforms that provide a safe $orking area. find the middle.5. he site should also have sufficient clearance to allo$ for space bet$een the slope and pulley rope for easy hauling of troops or e#uipment. . if necessary.0(inch* bight should hang belo$ the ape". he ideal platform at the top allo$s construction of the vertical hauling line $ithout the use of an A(frame. a. 2ouble one installation rope. tie clove hitches above the A(frame lashing on each side of the ape" $ith the installation rope. . 7ttaching the anchor rope to the 7-#rame. o maintain the .* Figure 7-.nsure that the portion of the rope that forms the bight comes out of the bottom of the clove hitch.

Additional fi"ed loops may be tied in the hauling line for more control over the object $hen moving large loads. belay from the top using the hauling line.0( inch bight hanging from the ape" of the A(frame. he A(frame should not lean out$ard more than '7 degrees once loaded since the legs can lose their position. c. ie fi"ed loops %$iremanUs. use a transport tightening system $ith the doubled rope. +tation t$o climbers at the unloading platform to retrieve loads. he angle should be .0 inches apart. If e#uipment and personnel are only being lo$ered. ie the ends of another installation rope together $ith a joining knot to form the hauling line. . Attach the rope to the system by t$o carabiners $ith gates up and opposed or one mountain rescue pulley $ith a locking steel carabiner in the .7 to 07 degrees unloaded. !hen personnel are moved using a vertical hauling line. d. or single butterfly* on opposite sides of the endless rope at the loading and unloading platforms. Attach personnel to the hauling line by use of a rappel seat or seat harness. the primary anchor %round turn $ith a bo$line*@ and place it over the spreader on the legs of the A(frame. -ersonnel ascending the vertical hauling line use this as a simple fi"ed rope. >se as many men as needed to pull the load to the top by pulling on the rope opposite the load. Attach e#uipment to the hauling line . 3ote4 Cortar tubes and similar objects are attached to the line by t$o knots so that the tube stays parallel and as close to the hauling line as possible. or to. f. ie this off at an anchor point to the rear of the A(frame installation and adjust the angle of the A(frame so it leans out over the cliff edge. o anchor the A(frame. g.0 inches above the joining knot by a carabiner in the fi"ed loop. $ith about 0: feet of rope $ithout knots at one end for the anchor. make a knotted hand line@ anchor it in line $ith. directional figure(eight. hro$ the knotted hand line over the A(frame spreader rope and do$n the side of the cliff. $hich is tied to the A(frame. +pace the overhand knots in the knotted hand line . e.b.

+ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. and the rope condition. 3ote4 -ersonnel using the hauling line for movement must apply all related principles of climbing. o reduce fatigue of those personnel moving the load. Simp!e . o move materials or troops up on one side of the hauling line. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. !hen it is no longer needed.educe e"cessive friction on the system. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. . load $eight. and availability of anchors. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. Theory. . hey $ill al$ays be safetied $hile $orking near the edge. >se the follo$ing procedures to construct a V(pulley system.h. . F-9u!!ey System he V(pulley system is a simple. If only e#uipment is being hauled up. easily constructed hauling system %&igure 4(0)*. . $eather. the installing unit $ill return and dismantle the system.. e#uipment.emove all obstacles and any loose objects that could be dislodged by personnel and e#uipment. terrain. Construction. but it may be necessary to use a belay rope. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage.etrie2a! he vertical hauling line is used along a main supply route. !hen in use. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 1:. b. it is not necessary to use the knotted hand line rope. simple rigging techni#ues can be used to increase the mechanical advantage of the hauling system. c.aising Systems Coving heavy objects $ith limited manpo$er may be necessary in mountainous terrain. pull the other side from belo$. Al$ays station t$o operators at the top of the vertical hauling line to aid men or to retrieve loads $hen they reach the top. a. the A(frame should lean slightly over the edge of the cliff to prevent e"cessive $ear on the ropes that pass over sharp rocks. Consi&erations. the load rubbing against the rock $all.

tie a middle(of(rope -rusik knot secured $ith a figure(eight knot on the load side of the pulley. +ecure it $ith a figure(eight knot. then place the $orking end into the carabiner.stablish an anchor %anchor pulley system SA-+T*. %1* At an angle a$ay from the A-+. >sing the tails tie a double(double figure(eight knot.* . establish a moveable pulley system %C-+* to create a 6V6 in the hauling rope. %0* !ith a sling rope %preferably 4 millimeter*.nsure the Cunter hitch is loaded properly before tying the mule knot. and run the hauling rope through the pulley. Cechanical ascenders should not be used as an C-+. place a pulley into the carabiner. ake the tails e"iting the figure( eight and tie a Cunter hitch secured by a mule knot. . Cove the $orking end back on a parallel a"is $ith the A-+. -lace a carabiner on the runner at the anchor point.%. . Insert a locking carabiner into the t$o loops formed. his $ill be used as a progress capture device %-C2*. -rovide a pulling team on the $orking end $ith e"tra personnel to monitor the -rusik knots. A mechanical descender may be used in place of the -rusik knot. ie another -rusik knot on the load side of the hauling rope.

the main anchor should be $ell back from the edge and all ropes should pull parallel to the load. Consi&erations. load $eight. 6ther Factors. E-9u!!ey System he >(pulley system is another simple.Figure 7-. the 6V6 is lost along $ith the mechanical advantage. d. 3ote4 Avoid the possibility of overstressing the anchors. . &or greater efficiency. $eather. terrain. easily(constructed hauling system %&igure 4(04*. a. -rotect the rope from edges and other abrasive parts of the rock.6. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. e#uipment. F-pu!!ey system. <e a$are of reduced sensitivity to the load due to the mechanical advantage. If the t$o pulleys touch. and availability of anchors. >se belays and backup safeties. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load.

+ecure the -rusik $ith a double(double figure eight. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. c. Construction. Figure 7-. Attach a locking carabiner to the anchor.b. and the rope condition. %7* Construct a second anchor. Theory.7. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 0:. -lace the fi"ed loops into the locking carabiner of the second anchor. %0* -repare the load or casualty for hauling.. >se the follo$ing procedures construct a >(pulley system. %1* Bo$er a bight to the casualty or the load. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. %. . the load rubbing against the rock $all.* Anchor the hauling rope. -lace a locking carabiner the on to the harness or the rigged load. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. E-pu!!ey system. %)* ie a middle of the rope -rusik onto the haul rope e"iting the pulley. %'* -lace the bight into the carabiner@ or place the bight on to a pulley and then place pulley into the carabiner. his is the -C2.

pace. 5ountain wal0ing on roc0 and snow. H In addition to proper techni#ue. H he soldier3s $eight is centered directly over the feet at all times. acclimatiAation. and a unit can cover a given . re#uires more rest halts. he mountaineer sets a tempo. !hen a moderate pace is set. over sno$ or grass(covered slopes. s0iing or snow shoeing. %asic 9rincip!es >p scree or talus. and the $ill to climb are key to successful mountain operations. even under ideal conditions. . and light conditions affect the rate of climb. hen. produces early fatigue. pace is adapted to conditions. and results in loss of climbing time. /e places his foot flat on the ground to obtain as much %boot* sole(ground contact as possible.est. and any indentations in the slope are used to advantage. conditioned and acclimatiAed soldier has greater endurance and moves more efficiently. H <reaks are kept to a minimum. H he terrain. and stream crossing are the 0ey travel s0ills a military mountaineer must possess.:ountain (a!king Techniques 5ountain travel encompasses the full spectrum of techni&ues used to negotiate steep. rappelling. according to the pace of the unit in $hich he is moving. good nutrition and hydration. %-hysical differences mean that the tempos of t$o people moving at the same speed $ill not al$ays be the same. the chance of personnel overheating is lessened. rugged terrain. A soldier can only move as fast as his lungs and legs $ill allo$.* he soldier maintains tempo and compensates for changes of slope or terrain by adjusting the length of his stride. $eather. Coving too fast. his interval helps lessen the 6accordion6 effect of people at the end of the file $ho must constantly stop and start. he places his foot on the uphill side of grass tussocks. /e straightens the knee after each step to allo$ for rest bet$een steps. and rhythm are enhanced $hen an interval of three to five paces is kept bet$een individuals. empo. proper training. technical roc0 and ice climbing. the basic principles of mountain $alking remain the same. An angle of ascent or descent that is too steep is avoided. he more adverse the conditions. he trained. the slo$er the pace. through boulder fields or steep $ooded mountainsides. conditioning. and takes moderate steps at a steady pace. or number of steps per minute. small talus and other level spots to avoid t$isting the ankle and straining the Achilles tendon. the need for rest halts decreases.

H he rest step is used for steep slopes. deeper inhale. If possible. he number of breaths per step $ill change depending on the difficulty of the climb. %0* &ollo$ing the first halt.distance in a minimal time. %1* his slo$. and higher elevations. soldiers lean against a tree.. %1* Bater in the march longer halts may be necessary due to fatigue or mission re#uirements. steady.* 2uring the first half(hour of movement an adjustment halt should be taken. supports the $eight. using the 6pressure breathing6 techni#ue. adjust packs and add or remove appropriate layers of clothing. -ace is kept slo$ and rhythmic. sno$fields. %0* <reathing is synchroniAed $ith the rest step. he soldier e"hales strongly. If possible. H 2o$nhill $alking uses less energy than uphill but is much harder on the body. rela"ing the muscles of the for$ard leg $hile resting his entire body$eight on the rear leg. +teeper slopes or higher elevations may re#uire several breaths per step. +oldiers $ill loosen or tighten bootlaces as needed. halting rest step is more efficient than spurts of speed. +tepping do$n can hammer the full body$eight onto the feet and legs. $hich are rapidly e"hausting and re#uire longer recovery. <listers and . rests should be taken on level ground avoiding steeper inclines. enabling an easier. the soldier pauses briefly. or hillside to relieve the shoulders of pack $eight. !hen the air thins at altitude it is especially important to breathe deeply. breathe deeply. rock.* After each step for$ard. It controls pace and limits fatigue by giving the lungs and legs a moment to recuperate bet$een steps. At these halts soldiers should immediately put on additional clothing to avoid chilling—it is much easier to keep a $arm body $arm than to $arm up a cold one.7 hours. to . and snack on trail food. hydrate. he rear leg is kept straight $ith the knee locked so that bone. a good rest is needed to revive tired muscles. %. not muscle. hese halts are kept short enough to avoid muscles stiffening %one to t$o minutes*. %'* After a climb. %. a $ell(conditioned party may take a short rest every .

!hile traversing. H -ar& <roun&. %. the soldier should step off in the ne$ direction $ith the uphill foot. for techni#ues and use of the ice a". surface. and the ground above grass or brush clumps to level off the route. employ the rest step to rest the leg muscles. If side hill travel is necessary. he soldier keeps his back straight and bends at the knees to absorb the shock of each step.efer to Chapter . It is most commonly found under mature forest canopy. o turn at the end of each traverse. and areas $here animals have beaten out multiple trails. and use any lo$er angle flat areas such as rocks. !alking $ith a slight for$ard lean and $ith the feet in a normal position make the descent easier. on sno$ slopes and grassy slopes. Techniques Countain $alking techni#ues can be divided according to the general formation. animal trails. +teep slopes can be traversed rather than climbed straight up. %. <ody $eight is kept directly over the feet and the full boot sole is placed on the ground $ith each step. ice a". knee damage.* ?eep a moderate pace and $alk $ith knees fle"ed to absorb shock. &or small stretches the herringbone step may be used—ascending straight up a slope $ith toes pointed out. $ould be from $alking straight up. through thick brush. A normal progression..blackened toenails. as the slope steepens. his prevents crossing the feet and possible loss of balance. A ski pole. and ground cover such as $alking on hard ground. o avoid these problems the soldier should start by tightening bootlaces to ensure a snug fit %also keep toenails trimmed*. back injury. and back pain may follo$. try to s$itchback periodically. !eighted do$n $ith a rucksack. and loss of balance. /ard ground is firmly compacted. to a herringbone step. rocky soil that does not give $ay under the $eight of a soldier3s step. in lo$ brush or heather. the full sole(to( ground principle is accomplished by rolling the ankle do$nhill on each step.* !hen ascending. H +ide hill travel on any surface should be avoided $henever possible. or $alking stick $ill help take some of the load and give additional stability. and then to a traverse on the steeper areas. . the soldier is vulnerable to t$isted ankles. %0* 2escending is best done by $alking straight do$n the slope $ithout traversing. and on scree and talus slopes.

7:: meters in many mountainous areas. aggressive manner. /)0 Diagona! Tra2erse Technique.0 Step Kicking. &ully laden soldiers $ill need to kick steps. he steps should be angled slightly into the slope for added security. /10 Descen&ing Sno+. /arder sno$ or steeper slopes call for the plunge step. driving the heel into the sno$ $hile keeping his leg straight. +tep kicking is a basic techni#ue used $hen crampons are not $orn. held in the uphill hand. $hich must be done in a positive. /e shifts his $eight to the ne$ foot plant and continues do$n $ith the other foot. Dn steeper terrain it may be necessary to s#uat on the $eighted leg $hen setting the plunge step. /arder sno$ re#uires more effort to kick steps. . +ucceeding climbers $ill follo$ directly in the steps of the trailbreaker. his techni#ue is a t$o(step se#uence. he diagonal traverse is the most efficient means to ascend sno$. he upper body should be kept erect or canted slightly for$ard. he soldier performs a basic rest step. he soldier shifts his $eight to the leading %uphill* leg and brings the un$eighted trail %do$nhill* foot ahead of the uphill foot. steps off. he techni#ues for ascending and descending moderate sno$ slopes are similar to $alking on hard ground $ith some e"ceptions. placing the leading %uphill* foot above and in front of the trailing %do$nhill* foot. each one improving the step as he ascends. /. he soldier may need to slice the step $ith the side of his boot and use the diagonal techni#ue to ascend. he ice a". alus and brush may be covered by hardened sno$fields. In conjunction $ith the ice a" it provides balance and safety for the soldier. and they $ill not be as secure. is placed in the sno$ above and to the front.H Sno+ S!opes. At this point the a" is moved for$ard in preparation for the ne"t step. simply $alk straight do$n. $hich take half of the boot. returning to the in(balance position. his is the in(balance position. Dn softer sno$ the soldier s$ings his foot into the sno$. +no$(covered terrain can be encountered throughout the year above . he soldier faces out. allo$ing the leg3s $eight and momentum to carve the step. If the sno$ is soft and the slope gentle. streams made crossable $ith sno$bridges. It is best used on moderate slopes $hen the sno$ is soft enough to leave clear footprints. /e shifts $eight to the for$ard %do$nhill* leg and then moves the uphill foot up and places it out ahead of the trail foot. and plants his foot solidly.. and $eighting the trail leg.

%. hese slopes generally provide firm surfaces $hile northern and eastern e"posures remain unconsolidated. trees. 3ote4 !et grass can be e"tremely slippery@ the soldier must be a$are of ground cover conditions. %a* Dften the best descent is on a different route than the ascent. and rocks as the subsurface sno$ has melted a$ay creating hidden traps. !hen looking for a firmer travel surface. &or the military mountaineer. he hop(skip step can be useful on this type of slope. %0* !hen descending a grassy slope. H <rassy S!opes. the lo$er leg takes all of the $eight. 9rassy slopes are usually composed of small tussocks of gro$th rather than one continuous field. the traverse techni#ue should be used because of the uneven nature of the ground. brush is both a help and a hindrance. his maintains ma"imum sole contact and prevents possible do$nhill ankle roll(out. slopes $ith southern and $estern e"posures set up earlier in the season and #uicker after storms. $atch for dirty sno$—this absorbs more heat and thus hardens faster than clean sno$. A climber can easily build up too much speed and fall if a direct descent is tried. <rush(filled gullies can provide routes and rally points concealed from observation@ on . he night3s cold hardens the sno$ surface. he do$nhill foot points about '7 degrees off the direction of travel %do$nhill*. $here the ground is more level. !hen traversing. he follo$ing are tips for travelling on sno$. %c* ravel late at night or early in the morning is best if daytime temperatures are above freeAing and the sun heats the slopes. and the upper leg is used only for balance. %d* Avoid $alking on sno$ ne"t to logs.* !hen ascending. H Thick %rush./40 Tips on Sno+ Tra2e!. but are more prone to avalanches in the spring. step on the upper side of each hummock or tussock. the climber3s uphill foot points in the direction of travel. In this techni#ue. %b* In the =orthern /emisphere.

All principles of ascending hard ground and sno$ apply.* Ascending scree slopes is difficult and tiring and should be avoided. Avoid running do$n scree as this can cause a loss of control. Cliffs and steep ravines are hidden traps. and blo$ do$ns and thickets can obstruct travel as much as manmade obstacles. H Scree S!opes. the soldier then steps up and repeats the process $ith the lo$er foot. back straight. Al$ays keep the a" on the uphill side. o . he climber uses the a" for balance as he moves up to it. they should be as close together as possible %one behind the other at single arm interval* to prevent injury from dislodged rocks. feet pointed do$nhill. !hen several climbers descend a scree slope together. but each step is carefully chosen so that the foot does not slide do$n $hen $eighted. ascending or descending. climbers should al$ays step on the uphill side of rocks and stay alert for movement underfoot. After determining that the step is stable. %. 2isturbing unstable talus can cause rockslides. !hen $alking in talus. his is done by kicking in $ith the toe of the upper foot %similar to step(kicking in sno$* so that a step is formed in the loose scree. the a" can be used placing both hands on the top and driving the spike into the scree slope above the climber. use caution because drop(offs may be encountered. standing on lo$er branches and using upper limbs for support. and then repeats the process. $eight is transferred to the upper leg. !hen brush must be negotiated take the most direct route across the obstacle@ look for do$ned timber to use as raised paths through the obstacle@ or create a tunnel through the obstacle by prying the brush apart. and heels dug in. H Ta!us S!opes. !hen the bottom of the slope %or run out Aone* cannot be seen.the other hand steep brushy terrain is haAardous to negotiate. Climbers must stay in close columns $hile $alking through talus so that dislodged rocks do not reach dangerous speeds before reaching lo$er soldiers. %0* he best method for descending scree slopes is to come straight do$n the slope using a short shuffling step $ith the knees bent. alus slopes are composed of rocks larger than a man3s fist. +cree varies in siAe from the smallest gravel to about the siAe of a man3s fist. +lopes composed of the smallest rocks are called scree slopes. %1* +cree slopes can be traversed using the ice a" as a third point of contact. !hen the herringbone or diagonal method is used to ascend scree. if possible.

elbo$s. navigation. =avigation consists of three distinct stages: orientation. he same skills and e#uipment used in orientation are essential for good navigation.prevent rock fall injuries. Backing cover. knees and toes. 6. Carelessness can cause the failure of the best(planned missions. sno$. and route finding. 3a2igation =avigation is the process of determining one3s present position. the $arning. It may also be used as a third point of contact on difficult terrain. H =avigation includes the determination of the objective3s location and the direction from the soldier3s starting point to the objective. personnel should anticipate $hich $ay the rock is falling and move out of its path to the left or right. -ersonnel near the bottom of the cliff immediately lean into the cliff to reduce their e"posure. grass. H Drientation is simply figuring out e"actly $here one is. avoid traversing belo$ other climbers. is the foundation of good navigation. H If a soldier slips or stumbles on sloping terrain %hard ground. or scree* he must immediately self(arrest. digging into the slope $ith hands. H !henever a rock is kicked loose. -ersonnel more than 1 meters a$ay from the bottom of the cliff may look up to determine $here the rock is heading and seek cover behind an obstacle. soldiers should be trained in the use of the ice a" for self(arrest. assisted by an altimeter and 9-+. If he falls back$ards and rolls over he must immediately try to turn over onto his stomach $ith his legs do$nhill and self(arrest $ith hands and toes.ockW6 is shouted immediately. H !hen traveling through steep terrain. and selecting and follo$ing a route bet$een these t$o points. All other basics of mountain $alking apply. compass and identifiable terrain features. . If not in use the ice a" is carried in or on the rucksack $ith its head do$n and secured. he a" can be used to arrest a fall on solid ground. the location of a target objective. grass and scree as $ell as sno$. and do not look up. he use of the map. Sa#ety Consi&erations he mountain $alking techni#ues presented here are designed to reduce the haAards of rock fall and loss of control leading to a fall.

. and bad $eather should be e"pected. Compasses. a solid base of mountaineering e"perience. . %.1 inches has occurred. $hich are reflected in the altimeter. route planning. the altimeterKbarometer gives the navigator ne$ techni#ues for position finding. If the altimeter displays an elevation gain of 1:: feet. he altimeter is a vital piece of navigational e#uipment that can save valuable time in determining position through elevation. %1* Altimeters come in t$o types: $rist(mounted digital altimeters and analog altimeters.oute finding is picking the best line of travel that matches the e#uipment and capabilities of the team. marked in feet or meters of elevation above sea level. b. 7!timeters. or millibars. %0* Changes in the $eather are usually accompanied by air pressure changes. a loss of barometric pressure of .* he standard altimeter is a modified barometer. good judgement and sound tactical instincts.H . It also gives the navigator valuable $eather information specific to his immediate location. usually inches of mercury. the displayed elevation $ill rise by a corresponding amount. he magnetic compass is the simplest and most $idely used instrument for measuring directions and angles in the mountains. a. it can be used to read altitude by means of the altimeter3s scale. his means that a barometric pressure change of one inch of mercury e#uals roughly . <y measuring air pressure. checking progress and terrain identification. usually attached to a cord.::: feet of elevation. 9ood route finding incorporates a comprehensive a$areness of terrain. A barometer is an instrument that measures the $eight of a column of air above itself and displays the result on a scale marked in units of pressure. As the air pressure drops due to the approach of inclement $eather for instance. millimeters of mercury. he lensatic compass is most commonly used in the military and can be employed in a variety of $ays for either day or night navigation. +ince air pressure drops uniformly as elevation is gained.

ven though altimeters can be precise they are affected by both pressure and temperature changes and should be monitored carefully. It can determine the latitude. It also does not compound navigational errors as compass use can. global.) meters* in $hiteouts or on featureless terrain. rapid ascents or descents sometime overcome the adjustment. and so forth* is reached. %7* he altimeter may e"pand or contract because of changes in temperature. it can provide position %accurate up to . Although some altimeters are temperature(compensated. his can result in faulty elevation readings. saddles. his is especially important $hen $eather fronts are moving rapidly through the area. %. or on the $rist under the parka and hand gear %digital*. %)* ?eep the altimeter at a constant temperature. he 9-+ is a space(based. <!o a! 9ositioning System. survey monuments. he user then calls up the desired checkpoint and the receiver $ill display direction and distance to the checkpoint. continuously available radio positioning navigation system. . %4* . his is best accomplished by storing the altimeter %analog* in a pocket or on a cord around the neck. Bocation information is also displayed in military grid coordinates. c. all($eather. causing them to give poor readings. It can also compute travel time to the ne"t checkpoint. stream(trail intersections. he receiver can accept many checkpoints entered in any coordinate system by the user and convert them to the desired coordinate system. longitude and elevation of the individual user. It is highly accurate in determining position location derived from a satellite constellation system.* he 9-+ provides precise steering information as $ell as position locations. he soldier should become familiar $ith the specific altimeter he employs and understand its capabilities and limitations. %0* <ecause the 9-+ does not need visible landmarks to operate.%'* <ecause the altimeter is sensitive to changes in air pressure it must be recalibrated $henever a point of kno$n elevation %summits.

or plateaus are better.(satellite constellation is not yet complete. deep valleys. &or navigation. Identify the spheroid and datum information on the pertinent map sheets and then check that the 9-+ receiver has the compatible datum loaded. 3a2igation Techniques. the better the system performs. but due ."tremely cold temperatures %(' degrees & and belo$* and high elevations $ill adversely affect the operation of the 9-+. <attery life and overall performance can be improved by placing the 9-+ inside the parka or coat. Dther$ise. so anything that blocks light $ill reduce or block the effectiveness of the signals. he 9-+ can be used to supplement these techni#ues. or altimeter navigation. it is performs best in more open areas such as the desert. %7* <ecause the 9-+ re#uires horiAon to horiAon vie$s for good satellite reception its use can be limited in the mountains. enter their coordinates as $ay points. the 9-+ $ill sho$ different locations than those on the map. terrain association. Canyons. spurs. he more unobstructed the vie$ of the sky. he choice of movement techni#ue often determines the route and navigational techni#ue. due to the freeAing of the batteries and the BC2 screen. If not then you must contact the +0 for updated datum or maps. %)* !hen using 9-+ in regions $ith #uestionable surveying and mapping products. summits. he three are not mutually e"clusive and are normally used together. start point and objective.idgelines. %'* +ince the 0. .%1* 2uring route planning. open valleys. after choosing critical checkpoints. he best use of the 9-+ is to verify these as they are reached. d. Although the 9-+ can be used in any terrain. saddles. he 9-+ navigational signals are similar to light rays. coverage may be limited to specific hours of the day in certain areas of the $orld. operational datum of the local maps must be reconciled $ith the datum used in navigational and targeting systems. three techni#ues can be used: dead reckoning. $ith one chosen as the primary techni#ue. as a backup to terrain association and compass navigation. %4* . and steep mountainsides are all problematic spots to use for shots.

and attack points are all used. !hen clear cut. burned(over. sno$y or $hiteout conditions on a sno$field.+* strategy is especially valuable in mountain terrain association and should be practiced e"tensively.ough compass headings are used to establish a general direction to the ne"t checkpoint@ used $hen the checkpoint headed to$ard is a linear feature. <ecause of the comple" nature of mountainous terrain. catching features. siAe. and not a precise point. checkpoints. . dead reckoning is usually of limited value on most movements. he shape. glacier. he compass is generally employed more to support terrain association and to orient the map.* Dea& . orientation. navigational corridors. he standard terrain association techni#ues all apply. %. Avoid brush for speed and ease of movement@ the military crest of spurs and ridgelines generally provides the best route $hile providing terrain masking effects. /andrails. it should not be used as the main techni#ue. elevation. he main e"ception is during periods of limited visibility on featureless terrain. slope %+D+. /eavy fog. he altimeter may finaliAe the search for the objective by identification through elevation.to the problems associated $ith the restricted line of sight in the mountains. his $ill enable the navigator to make the terrain $ork in his favor. Dld(gro$th forest provides the easiest travel. bo"ing(in areas. . large plateau or valley floor all $ould call for dead reckoning as a primary navigational techni#ue. %a* After e"tensive study of the map and all available sources of information it helps to create a mental image of the route. %0* Terrain 7ssociation. or large avalanche slide areas are encountered. that feature becomes an e"panded objective. than as a primary navigational aid. his simplifies the navigational problem by giving a large feature to navigate to first. !hen a small objective lies near or on an easily identifiable feature.eckoning. it may be necessary to bo" or contour around them as they may be full of slash or brushy second(gro$th small trees.

uniform surface. dusk. such as da$n. H %a* !hen moving along any linear feature such as a ridge. Altimeters provide assistance to the navigator in several $ays. H !hen looking up from lo$ ground to high ground. $atercourse. H !hen seen in the clear air of high altitude. $ater. in computing rates of ascent or descent. such as sno$. H !hen the object is in sharp contrast to the background. H !hen you are looking across a partially cleared depression. or desert. or trail $hich is sho$n on the map. H !hen the light is bright and the sun is shining from behind the observer.%b* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing closer than they actually are: H !hen most of the object is visible and offers a clear outline. H !hen your vision is narro$ly confined. H !hen the object blends into the background. hey aid in orientation. or lo$ visibility $eather@ or $hen the sun is in your eyes. and in $eather prediction. %c* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing farther a$ay than they actually are: H !hen only part of the object is seen or it is small in relation to its surroundings. but not behind the object being vie$ed. H !hen you are looking across an e"posed depression. check the . H H !hen looking do$n from high ground to lo$ ground. H !hen the light is poor. %1* 7!timeter 3a2igation. open road or track. in resection. H !hen looking over a smooth. H !hen looking do$n a straight.

altimeter. gross bedding planes of rock. H %b* he navigator fre#uently finds it necessary to determine his position through the use of resection. sno$fields and glaciers. 7pproach 6 ser2ations. as mountain summits can rarely be clearly seen from valley floors. cliff bands. cliffs. most mountaintops are so large that there is usually no specific point to shoot at. he point $here the resecting back aAimuths cross the contour line is the navigator3s location. he altimeter can be used to verify elevation and establish a notional linear feature— a contour line. %.* Closer vie$ing displays these patterns and angles on a smaller scale. along $ith $eather conditions. In addition. H %d* Altimeters can be used as barometers to assist in $eather prediction. 9eneral angles of the large rock masses can be seen from afar. e. H %c* >sing the altimeter to calculate rates of ascent can help in sound decision(making. +no$y or vegetated ledge systems appear. A modified resection can be performed by shooting an aAimuth to a kno$n. he point $here the indicated elevation contour crosses that feature is your location. clearly visible summit or similar feature and then plotting the back aAimuth on the map. <y determining your present elevation and finding $here that particular contour crosses the back aAimuth you should locate your position. If he is located on a good linear feature he $ill have a decent idea of $here he is. his can be difficult $hen in lo$ ground. may present themselves. &ault lines. .ates of travel. such as couloirs or gullies. studying it for climbing routes. . 2istant vie$s can reveal large( scale patterns of ridges. and crevasse Aones become visible. light conditions %time of day*. and the physical condition of the team. In this case. are all key variables that can influence the success or failure of the mission. !atch the mountain during the approach march. the soldier should take multiple aAimuths to kno$n features. !eaknesses in the mountain $alls.

sno$ pits. your rate of movement $ill be significantly faster than during periods of inclement $eather. Dn slopes $ith an angle of 1: to '7 degrees that are sparsely vegetated an avalanche . cross above the starting Aone or belo$ the run(out Aone. &or $eaker skiers. +outhern slopes are sunnier and drier than northern slopes. %1* Individual ski abilities $ill affect your rate of movement. combined $ith the specific geological background of the operational area. =orthern slopes can be sno$ier and. f. 3ote4 Dpposite rules apply in the +outhern /emisphere. because of more intense glaciation in past ages. g. shovel tests.* Conduct a thorough map reconnaissance considering the $eather. %0* !eather conditions $ill affect the chosen route. %. vegetation. are often steeper. as they are generally derived from the overall structure of the particular mountain group. he follo$ing must be considered $hen selecting a route in the $inter. hickly forested areas usually have a deep sno$ pack. $ith sparser or different types of vegetation. forested areas are full of potentially dangerous obstacles. $ater features. and the siAe of the unit.%0* Cost of these features repeat themselves at increasingly finer levels. A basic kno$ledge of mountain geology. pays off in more efficient travel.oute Se!ection. 2uring calm $eather. and impact on your route choices. and ski shear tests must be conducted prior to crossing an avalanche danger Aone. If you must cross one. 2uring movement. %7* Vegetation can $ork for you or against you. constrain your choice of terrain. <ottom line: avoid avalanche danger areas. individual ski abilities. avalanche danger. %'* Avalanche danger Aones must be identified by map revie$ and data gathered during route planning. 3atura! =n&icators o# Direction in the 3orthern -emisphere. terrain relief. (inter .

!hen touring use climbing skins to maintain control and lessen lost time per hour due to individuals falling.danger is still present. forested areas provide $elcome relief from $ind and blo$ing sno$. H >se a steady. do not needlessly give up elevation gained. H -reset aAimuths on your compass. %4* 2uring ski movements. !eather and tactical situation permitting. If $eak skiers are in the group. efficient use of terrain $ill greatly improve morale and reduce fatigue. and so on to get accurate readings. Caintain a steady climb rate and avoid over e"ertion. H If no terrain features e"ist for steering marks. unshifting $ind to aid you in maintaining course. . travel on the $ind$ard side of ridgelines. Avoid cornices and be a$are of their probable and improbable fracture lines. use your back aAimuth and tracks to maintain course. H Bimit steering marks to shorter distances since visibility can change #uickly. %5* he follo$ing are additional hints for navigation in sno$y conditions: H ?eep the compass $arm. H =ever take aAimuths near metallic objects. ice a". >nder deep sno$ pack small creeks and ponds may be hard to locate. /old the compass far enough from your $eapon. Barge froAen lakes and rivers can provide e"cellent means of increasing your rate of march. !hile traveling in mountainous terrain. and south facing slopes $hen the avalanche danger is high. stay a$ay from restrictive terrain $ith sheer drop(offs. H Cake fre#uent compass checks. If the $eather turns bad. Avoid north. east. %)* !ater features provide valuable navigation aids.

%7* ?eeping count of pace is e"tremely difficult in $inter and mountain environments. hick vegetation and rough. At times. %. and other navigation instruments in lo$ temperatures $ith bare hands is difficult. he follo$ing conditions and characteristics of cold $eather and mountainous regions make accurate navigation difficult. $hiteouts. and drifting sno$. fog. outlines of small lakes and similar landmarks. .h. short hours of daylight. sno$fall. drastically limit visibility. he most reliable method is the use of a 7:(meter long piece of field $ire or rope. particular attention must be paid to identifying landmarks. steep slopes hamper attempts at accurate pace counts. are fre#uently encountered and make magnetic compass readings difficult and sometimes unreliable. compasses. caused by large ore deposits. %'* /andling maps.emoving hand $ear may only be possible for short periods. 9ro !ems. Careful map reconnaissance. <ecause the appearance of the terrain is #uite different in $inter from that in summer.* In $inter. $hich makes recognition of irregularities in the terrain e"tremely difficult. %1* Cagnetic disturbances. trails.oute 9!anning -roper route planning can make the difference bet$een success and failure on long mountain movements. %0* /eavy sno$ may completely cover e"isting tracks. bliAAards. kno$ledge of the enemy . both on the ground and from aerial photographs. . an overcast sky and sno$(covered terrain create a phenomenon called flat light. especially above tree line.

situation. Check the datum descriptor %for foreign maps* to ensure compatibility $ith entered datum in 9-+ units.* !hen conducting a map reconnaissance. !hite $ith blue contours indicates glaciers or permanent sno$fields. Bo$ ice cliffs and ice caves may be indicated if they provide local landmarks. cable and tram$ays are often found. and an accurate assessment of the unit3s capabilities are all key parts of the planning process. rock or avalanche slide paths and meado$s are all possible.:. An . photographs give details not al$ays sho$n on maps %crags and overhangs*. clear cuts. documented information gathered from units previously in the area.::: map depicts greater detail than a . <ro$n contour lines on $hite mean dry areas $ithout significant forest cover.::: maps can be used if available. there are some commonly seen applications for mountainous terrain.econnaissance. terrain analysis of the operational area. opographic maps provide the primary source of information concerning the area of operations. or published sources such as alpine journals or climbing guides may help. +tandard military topographic maps are generally accurate graphic depictions of the operational area. Civilian . <ecause e"amination of the micro(terrain is so important for mountain operations.:7:. %. In addition. :ap . he outline of the sno$ or ice is sho$n by dashed blue lines $hile their contour lines are solid blue. +ketch maps supplement other sources of information but should not be relied on for accuracy since they are seldom dra$n to scale. a. Countain(specific terrain features may be directly addressed in the legend.:07. even larger scale maps are desirable. often sho$ing the most recent changes to logging trails and mining access roads. verbal descriptions. pay close attention to the marginal information. /igh ice cliffs $hich are e#ual to or e"ceed the contour interval $ill be sho$n. obli#ue angle. +tudy the surrounding terrain and the legend for other clues. Along $ith sketch maps. such facilities as ski lifts. A . Along $ith the standard topographic map color scheme.::: map and should be used $henever possible. Areas above tree line. &orest service and logging and mining company maps provide additional information. Aerial.0.

If the enemy force is better prepared to maneuver in the mountains. re#uires identification of tentative landing Aones for insertions. &ords and river crossing sites should be identified. Avalanche danger prohibits travel on certain slopes or valley floors. he confined nature of mountain travel means that crucial passes become significant chokepoints and planners should designate over$atchesKsurveillance positions beforehand. $nemy Situation. impassable torrents.uins. resupply and medevac. are factored in. %0* Dbstacles.important point to remember is that thick brush in small gullies and streambeds may not be depicted by green. barns. c. but should still be e"pected. and plans made to avoid them. >se of terrain(masking becomes essential because of the e"tended visibility offered by enemy observation points on the dominant high ground.—Is the enemy force on his o$n groundR Are they accustomed to the terrain and the $eatherR Are they trained mountain troops $ith specialiAed e#uipmentR—Dnly after ans$ering these and other #uestions can an effective route plan be completed. $ill re#uire technical e#uipment to cross if bridges are not present. they have a marked advantage. e"tractions. bridges. and large open areas above tree line. and route selection must be scrutiniAed. . potential bivouac sites are noted on the map. trails. %1* /elicopter support. such as rivers and gorges. roads. $eather permitting. 2ue to the potential for haAardous $eather conditions. =ot all mountainous terrain is created e#ual and not all movement plans have the same e"pectation of .oute selection should only be done after revie$ing all available information about the friendly and enemy situation. 7na!ysis o# the 6perationa! 7rea. Alternate routes should be chosen $ith $eather imposed obstacles in mind: spring flood or afternoon sno$melt turns small streams into turbulent. . 2anger areas in the mountains@ isolated farms and hamlets. sheds and terrain(protected hollo$s are all possible bivouac sites. b.

. %1* Dperations above tree line in temperate climates or in the brushy Aone of arid mountains means that material for suspension traverse A(frames must be packed. d. En roken Trai! 0 to 1 kph %cross %roken Trai! 1 to ' kph %trail Dn foot %no sno$ cover* . %'* /eavy spruceKfir tangles slo$ progress to a cra$l. %0* . e. especially $hen there is sno$ cover. chocks and camming units* $ill call for different e#uipment and techni#ue than that used for steep limestone %pockets. he thick brush and krummholtA mats of subalpine Aones and temperate forested mountains can create obstacles that must be bypassed. and $ho have been hardened $ith training hikes through the mountains. Time-Distance Formu!as. therefore planners should ensure routes do not blindly traverse these Aones.outes through granite rock %long cracks. +oldiers $ho have received basic military mountaineer training. $ho kno$ ho$ to move through rough terrain. good friction@ use of pitons. including the geology. $ill perform better than troops $ithout this background. smooth rock@ bolts.success. $hile the $ater(cut V(shape of river valleys allo$s movement throughout the compartment. he follo$ing rates are listed as a guide % able 5(. camming units*. -lanners must undertake a thorough analysis of the general terrain to be crossed. Computing march rates in the mountains is e"tremely difficult.*. %.* /eavily glaciated granite mountains pose different problems than does river(carved terrain. Enit 7ssessment.ates are given for movement over flat or gently rolling terrain for individuals carrying a rifle and loaded rucksack. mountain structure and forms. and ground cover. he >(shaped valley bulldoAed out by a glacier forces maneuver elements do$n to the valley floor or up to the ridge tops. !hen assessing unit movement capabilities the key indices are training and conditioning levels.

basic mountaineering gear. his distance plus .0 kph sno$* Dn foot %more than . +ince sno$ can be e"pected in the mountains most months of the year. realistic rates of march.0 kph 0 to 1.* Carch distances in mountainous terrain are often measured in time rather than distance units. Time-&istance #ormu!as. . Combined soldier loads that e"ceed 7: pounds per man can be e"pected to slo$ movement significantly in mountainous terrain.5 to 7.) kph +kijoring =KA 1 to 0' kph Ta !e "-).0 kph of sno$* +no$shoeing .. he heavier loads $ill e"haust soldiers mentally and physically.' to . foot . %. helicopter support cannot be relied on. to 7.0 to ' kph +kiing ..0 kph 1.) to 1. it becomes obvious that soldiers $ill be carrying $eights $ell in e"cess of that 7:(pound limit.) kph '. Add one hour for each . actical movements. 9iven the increased $eight of e"tra ammunition for cre$(served $eapons.. %'* In the harsh environment of the mountains. >nits should conduct cross(country movements in the mountains $ith the e"pected rucksack and BC.country* $alking* Dn foot %less than . sno$ cover $ill significantly affect rates of march. $eights in order to obtain accurate. such as patrolling or deliberate assaults.) to 1. he process of transporting e"tra e#uipment and sustainment supplies $ill result in vastly increased movement times.0 kph 0 to 1. and clothing for mountain travel.. units should have some e"perience at basic sno$ travel.::: feet of descent to the time re#uired for marching a map distance. first measure the map distance. In order to do this. %1* Individual loads also affect march rates. %0* As able 5(. foot of .K1 is a good estimate of actual ground distance.::: feet of ascent or 0. should take this into account. indicates.

vegetation. $eather reports. ime allotted and distance to be covered must be considered. -lot start and end points. %'* 8ocation o# $nemy. sno$ condition reports. 2o not plan a route beyond the means of your e#uipment. -lan a route that allo$s ma"imum use of the masking effect of the terrain. Avoid silhouetting on ridgelines.oute. %1* . . Additionally. <ather =nte!!igence =n#ormation. Avoid danger areas or areas of recent enemy activity unless re#uired by the mission. Identify the starting point and determine the movement objective. his includes degree of slopes.* Tra##ica i!ity. %0* Time-Distance Formu!a. a. roads. Carry enough e#uipment to move along the route and to survive if an e"tended stay becomes necessary. >se vegetation to mask your movement if possible %especially coniferous forests*. he follo$ing guidelines apply to all situations. he leader should use all the latest topographic data he can find. avalanche probability. and trails accurately.oute Se!ection Cany variables affect the selection of the proper route.. sno$ depth. and any past or recent history of operations in the area may be of help.equire& $quipment. and the likelihood of crevasses. Check the date of the map for an indication of the reliability of the map in depicting vegetation. b. avalanche probability. aerial photos. Carefully scrutiniAe the area in bet$een and begin to select the route. he most important consideration in every leader3s mind $hen plotting a movement is 6$here is the enemyR6 he latest intelligence reports are essential. Se!ect a Current :ap. $idth of trails. clearings. Consider the follo$ing: %. Se!ect a . c.

econnaissance . 'here are limits on the safe use of these techni&ues. 2ead spaces or communications holes are common. Such crossings should not be ta0en lightly. there are a variety of techni&ues the small unit leader may choose from. %)* Con&itions. %4* Checkpoints.Capa i!ities o# Enit. . 7f a water obstacle is too wide. Avoid the use of manmade features as checkpoints due to their unreliability and lack of permanence. 'he force of the flowing water may be e)tremely great and is most often underestimated. :ountain Stream Crossing "perations conducted in mountainous terrain may often re&uire the crossing of swift flowing rivers or streams. When rivers or streams must be crossed. +elect features that are uni#ue to the area. 'hey should be treated as danger areas and avoided whenever possible. or deep.%7* Communications. he unit must be able to negotiate the route chosen. All rivers and streams are obstacles to movement. as $ell as their training level $hen selecting your intended route. 7t may re&uire the use of rafts or boats. >se all available information and plan accordingly. swift. 'his chapter covers the techni&ues for crossing mountain streams that have a depth generally not e)ceeding waist deep. and depth of the water. ake into consideration their present health.nsure that $hen you select your checkpoints they are visually significant %elevation* and that they are easily identifiable. .Contro! 9oints. its width. #ot all mountain rivers or streams will be fordable with these techni&ues. !hen plotting a route on the map. speed of the current. utiliAe prominent terrain features on either side of the route as checkpoints. an alternate route should be used. 4econnaissance of &uestionable crossing sites is essential. depending upon the type of stream. Communications $ill be severely limited in the mountains. or the crossing will re&uire ma!or bridging by engineers.

Crossigs..*.* he time of day the crossing can be an important factor. 2epending upon the time of year. perhaps from a ridge. 3orma! !ocations o# sha!!o+est +ater an& sa#est crossing sites. b. or head$aters. recent $eather is a big factor@ there may have been havy rain in the last eight hours. unfordable sloughs may not sho$ on the map. photo. +ite selection is e"tremely important once you determine that you must make a crossing %&igure 8(. and or aerial* may not al$ays reveal that a $ater obstacle e"ists. depending on the distance from the source. a. sno$. !henever it is possible that a unit $ill be re#uired to cross a $ater obstacle. its commander must plan some type of crossing capability. the closer you are to the source. the follo$ing considerations should be made: %. is sometimes better than a hundred close vie$s from a riverbank. A distant vie$. As glaciers. the rivers rise. If a dry crossing is unavailable. Book for a high place from $hich you can get a good vie$ of the obstacle and possible crossing sites. In a s$amp. reaching their m"imum height bet$een mid afternoon and late evening. for e"ample. if . and they may be concealed from aerial observation by a canopy of vegetation. or ice melt during the day. +ite selection must be made before the arrival of the main body. Figure '-).econnaissance of the route %map. the better your chances are of finding a natural sno$ or ice bridge for crossing. Although early morning is generally best bcause the $ater level is normally lo$er during this period. A dry crossing on fallen timber or log jams is preferable to attempting a $et crossing.

point of the river or stream.made during the early morning. Crossings $ill be easiest on a smooth. In some areas. %0* A crossing point should normally be chosen at the $idest. or under a large pile of boulders $ork $ell. %'* he crossing site should have lo$ enough banks on the near and far side to allo$ a man carrying e#uipment to enter and e"it the stream $ith relative ease. the $ater forced to flo$ around it $ill erode the stream bottom. 2eadman anchors buried in the ground. . Dnce a log jam is formed. ho$ever. If a handline or rope bridge is to be constructed. $ill also allo$ clothing to dry more #uickly during the heat of the day. firm bottom.ventually deep drop(offs or holes may develop. along $ith safe loading and unloading areas. +harp bends in the river should be avoided since the $ater is likely to be deep and have a strong current on the outside of the bend. above the tree line for e"ample. especially around the sides and off the do$nstream end of the log jam. ho$ever. artificial anchors may have to be constructed. It is often easier to select a route through these braided sections rather than trying to cross one main channel. is the greater distance to the far bank may increase e"posure time and often the sand and gravel bars bet$een the channels $ill offer little cover or concealment. A $et crossing in the vicinity of a log jam . %7* Bog jams and other large obstructions present their o$n haAards. especially those $hich are fed by glacier run( off. A log jam that totally bridges a section of the stream may be the best $ay to cross. the crossing site should have suitable anchors on the near and far bank. contain sections $ith numerous channels. %1* Cany mountain streams. Bogs floating do$nstream $ill generally get hung up in shallo$er sections creating the jam. ho$ever the time re#uired to find a site $ith solid natural anchors $ill probably be less than the time re#uired to construct artificial anchors. =atural anchors are not a necessity. A dra$back to crossing these braided channels. Barge rocks and boulders provide poor footing and cause a great deal of turbulence in the $ater. and thus shallo$est. if any.

2epending on the circumstances of the crossing %for e"ample. 9reparation o# Troops an& $quipment -repare men and e#uipment for a crossing as far in advance as feasible. maps and any e"tra clothing in $aterproof bags %trash bags also $ork $ell*. select a crossing site that has enough natural protection on the near and far banks so that security teams may be placed out and enough cover and concealment is available for the siAe of the element making the crossing. tactical situation. hese bags also provide additional buoyancy in case of a fall. the crossings must be conducted as efficiently as possible to minimiAe e"posure to enemy observation. !hen cover and concealment is minimal. H ?eep a sharp lookout for floating timber that could knock you off your feet. if available. a. +ome things to consider $hen crossing near log jams are: H Cross $ell to the do$nstream side $hen possible. A handline $ill greatly increase safety here. H If you must cross on the upstream side. !rap radios. Dther$ise the clothing $ould fill up and retain $ater. If a person is s$ept off his feet and caught in the debris of the jam. &inal preparation should be completed in a security perimeter on the near side just before crossing. stay $ell upstream from the log jam. temperature of the air and $ater*. -reparation includes the follo$ing. b. !aterproof $ater(sensitive items. <oots should be $orn . the crossing can be made in minimal clothing so that dry clothing is available after the crossing. he could easily dro$n. $hich $ould $eigh the body do$n. +DI. rousers are unbloused and shirts are pulled out of the trousers. All pockets are buttoned. as in the higher alpine Aones. %)* !hen possible.should be performed a good distance belo$ or above it. his allo$s $ater to escape through the clothing. his is especially critical if an individual must s$im to shore. papers. binoculars.

he individual should generally face upstream and slightly side$ays. /o$ever. In this case the helmet should be $orn $ith the chinstrap fastened. c. Boad(carrying e#uipment harness and load(bearing vest %B<V* is unbuckled and $orn loosely. the risk of head injury if a person slips is high. /elmets are normally removed and placed in the rucksack in slo$ moving streams $ith sandy or gravel bottoms. +ecure everything $ell $ithin your pack. he may choose to face more side$ays as this . Dn the far side. f. At times. leaning slightly into the current to help maintain balance. It is e"tremely difficult to remove a buckled harness in the $ater in an emergency. streams should be forded individually for a speedier crossing. It is easier to find one large pack than to find several smaller items. he $aist strap C>+ be unbuckled so you can get rid of the pack #uickly if you are s$ept off your feet and have to resort to s$imming. If a pack has a chest strap it must also be unbuckled. $hen crossing s$ift flo$ing streams. If you have to resort to s$imming it is easier done $ithout the helmet. he rucksack should be $orn $ell up on the shoulders and snug enough so it does not flop around and cause you to lose your balance. and $hen the degree of e"perience permits. socks and inner soles should be removed. d. he average soldier should be able to cross most streams $ith mild to moderate currents and $ater depths of not much more than knee deep using proper techni#ues. especially those $ith large rocks and other debris. e. a. =n&i2i&ua! Crossings !henever possible. Individual $eapons should be attached to the pack or slung over the shoulder.to protect feet from rocks@ ho$ever. the boots can be drained and dry socks replaced.

/e should take short. b. his allo$s t$o points of contact to be maintained $ith the streambed at all times. the feet should be placed on the upstream side of it $here the turbulence is less severe and the $ater normally shallo$er. d. $ith the do$nstream foot normally in the lead. he feet should be shuffled along the bottom rather than lifted. If an obstacle is encountered. or other staff can be used to give the individual a third point of contact %&igure 8(0*. holes and drop(offs $ith the lead foot and adjust his route accordingly. he staff should be used on the upstream side of the individual and slightly leaned upon for support. he staff should be moved first. sturdy tree limb. then the feet shuffled for$ard to it. c. and if available. thus reducing the currentUs overall force on the individual. . o increase balance. a long ice a". deliberate steps.$ill reduce the surface area of the body against the current. Bunging steps and crossing the feet result in a momentary loss of balance and greatly increase the chance of a slip. he individual still moves at a do$nstream angle $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. he individual should normally cross at a slight do$nstream angle so as not to fight the current. e. here is normally less chance of a slip $hen stepping off $ith the current as opposed to stepping off against the current. he individual must constantly feel for obstacles.

he team still moves at a slight do$nstream angle.. &or chain crossing. a team crossing may be used. Team Crossing !hen the $ater level begins to reach thigh deep. t$o or more individuals cross arms $ith each other and lock their hands in front of themselves %&igure 8( 1*. . he line should cross parallel to the direction of the current. or anytime the current is too s$ift for personnel to safely perform an individual crossing. he largest individual should be on the upstream end of the line to break the current for the group. =n&i2i&ua! crossing +ith sta##. but $ith the added support of each other. he line formed $ill then move across the stream using the same principles as for individual crossings.Figure '-. stepping off $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. he line formed faces the far bank.

a crossing site $hich may be unsafe for individual or team crossings can be made safe $ith the installation of a handline or rope bridge. a. his duty should be performed by the most capable and strongest s$immer in the party. .Figure '-1. . !hether a handline or rope bridge is to be installed. 2eciding $hether to install a handline or a rope bridge $ill depend on the anchors available. he $ill pendulum back to the near bank. it may re#uire only a couple of individuals to enter the $ater. someone must cross the stream $ith one end of the rope and anchor it on the far side. and the distance from the near and far anchors. Cany times though. height of the anchors above the $ater. If a one( rope bridge can be constructed. he ma"imum distance a one(rope bridge is capable of spanning is appro"imately .escuers should be poised on the near bank at points $here the individual . $sta !ishing the Far 7nchor.ope =nsta!!ations !hen the $ater level begins to reach $aist deep or the current is too s$ift for even a team crossing.K0 to 0K1 the length of the rope in use. he belay position should be placed as far above the crossing as possible. he s$immer should be belayed across for his o$n safety. Chain metho& #or stream crossing. the chosen site must be closely e"amined. Crossing on a handline $ill still re#uire each individual to enter the $ater and get $et. In the event that the current is too strong for the individual. he stream at this point may be impassable.

$ill pendulum back. %..V. /e should =. then a rope bridge should be installed as such. $here he can immediately release it in an emergency.* he individual may attach the belay rope to his seat harness or a s$ami belt $ith a carabiner. A -&2 $ill greatly increase his o$n personal safety. If this is impossible. he initial crossing site should be free of obstacles that $ould snag the rope and prevent the pendulum back to the bank for an easy recovery. he individual may also choose to tie a fi"ed loop into the end of the belay rope and hang on to it. %0* Anytime a crossing site must be used $here the s$immer may encounter problems getting to the far bank. A -&2 may also be used by the last man across. . tie directly into the rope $hen being belayed for a stream crossing. =nsta!!ation o# a -an&!ine. and the rope must be installed to assist in a $et crossing. If the s$immer should be s$ept a$ay and become tangled. as he $ill release the rope from the anchor and be belayed across as the first man b. If the s$immer must release the rope at any time. should he fail to reach the far bank. he should have on a life vest or other personal flotation device %-&2*. If it is possible to use a rope high enough above the $ater to enable soldiers to perform a dry crossing. he must be able to release himself #uickly from the rope and s$im to shore as best he can. he $ill have to rely on his o$n $ater survival skills and s$imming ability to get to shore. then it should be installed as a handline %&igure 8('*.

%1* Crossing $ill al$ays be performed on the do$nstream side of the handline. rather than straight across the stream. /ere again. shuffling the feet $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. %. appro"imately thirty to forty(five degrees. or it may be installed $ith a transport tightening system if a tighter rope is re#uired.Figure '-4.* he far anchor should be do$nstream from the near anchor so that the rope $ill run at an angle do$nstream from the near anchor. pulled tight. Dne end of the belay rope $ill be on the near bank and the other end on the far bank. %'* A second climbing rope is used as a belay %&igure 8(7*. It should be sent across $ith the strong(s$immer. Stream crossing using a han&!ine. An appropriate knot is tied into the . it is easier to move $ith the current as opposed to directly across or against it. and anchored on the near bank. %0* he rope may be anchored immediately on the far bank.

he loops are short enough so the individual is al$ays $ithin arms reach of the handline should he slip and let go. Figure '-5. %7* >nder most circumstances. Dne loop is connected to the handline $ith carabiner%s* and the individual crossing connects one loop to himself. the handline should be crossed one person at a time. . his keeps rope stretch and load on the anchors to a minimum. %e!ay rope #or crossing using a han&!ine. If a mishap should occur the individual can be retrieved from either shore. he individuals are belayed from both the near and far banks. It is important that the belay rope =D be anchored or tied to the belayer so that it may be #uickly released if necessary.middle of the belay rope to form t$o fi"ed loops $ith each loop being appro"imately ) inches long. $hichever appears easiest. he belay on the opposite shore can be released allo$ing the individual to pendulum to the bank.

he safest methods of crossing are al$ays $ith the use of a handline or one(rope bridge. c. It is al$ays possible to cross at a different time or place. or they can be attached to the handline and pulled along behind the individual. then a site should be selected to install a rope bridge. All $eak and nons$immers should be identified before a crossing so that stronger s$immers may give assistance in crossing. Sa#ety . f. and individual e"perience. d.:: meters upstream to $atch for any obstacles that may be carried do$nstream and interfere $ith the crossing. %4* If a large amount of e#uipment must be moved across the stream. use a different techni#ue. speed of the current. he follo$ing safety procedures are minimum guidelines that should be follo$ed $hen conducting a river or stream crossing. $idth of the stream. a. b. he techni#ue used is directly dependent upon $ater depth.iver and stream crossings present one of the most haAardous situations faced by the military mountaineer.%)* . recoilless rifles. such as mortars. A lookout should be posted 7: to . especially heavier $eapons. e. If the installation of a handline or rope bridge becomes too difficult at a given crossing site.ucksacks can be either carried on the back the same $ay as for individual crossings. . and so on. or choose another route. then that site should be considered too haAardous and another site selected. stream bottom configuration. =ot every river or stream can be crossed safely.

seek out the closest and safest spot. 2o not try to fight the current. for assistance or rescue. at least t$o life vests or other -&2s should be on hand to provide additional safety for the strong s$immer $ho must establish the far anchor. Caneuver to$ards shore in a position $ith the feet do$nstream. d. lifeguards should be posted do$nstream $ith poles or ropes prepared to thro$. e. and the last man across $ho retrieves the system.g. S+imming here are times $hen you might be alone and have no choice but to s$im across. b. If the shore is too difficult to reach. !hen the unit kno$s a rope installation $ill be re#uired for crossing. a. c. h. ry to avoid back$ater eddies and converging currents as they often contain dangerous s$irls. >se the feet to protect the rest of the body and to fend off submerged rocks. o get yourself out of the $ater as #uickly as possible. /ypothermia $ill set in #uickly in colder $aters. and fanning the hands alongside the body to add buoyancy and to fend off submerged rocks. such as a sandbar. Immediately jettison any e#uipment or clothing that restricts movement. ?eep the head above $ater to observe for obstacles and attempt to maneuver a$ay from them. facing do$nstream. Avoid bubbly $ater under falls as it has little buoyancy. or there may be a time that you find yourself suddenly plunged into a s$ift river or rapids. !hen conducting individual crossings %those $ithout a handline or rope bridge*. . <reath bet$een the $ave troughs. the follo$ing techni#ues could save your life. In either case.

:o2ement 62er Sno+ 7n& =ce 5ovement over snow and ice covered slopes presents its own uni&ue problems. 5ovement on steeper slopes re&uires an ice a), crampons, and the necessary training for this e&uipment. ,ersonnel will also have to learn how to place solid anchors in snow and ice to protect themselves during these movements if roped. Snow covered glaciers present crevasse fall hazards even when the slope is relatively flat, re&uiring personnel to learn uni&ue glacier travel and crevasse rescue techni&ues. All the principles of roc0 climbing, anchor placement, belays, and rope usage discussed throughout the previous chapters apply to snow and ice climbing as well. 'his chapter will focus on the additional s0ills and techni&ues re&uired to move safely through snow covered mountains and over glaciated terrain. :o2ement 62er Sno+ he military mountaineer must be e#ually adept on both sno$ and ice due to route necessity and rapidly changing conditions. Dn steep slopes in deep sno$, the climber may climb straight up facing the slope. he ice a" shaft, driven directly into the sno$, provides a #uick and effective self(belay in case of a slip—the deeper the shaft penetrates the sno$, the better the anchor %&igure .:(.*. It is usually best, ho$ever, to climb sno$( covered slopes in a traversing fashion in order to conserve energy, unless there is significant avalanche danger.

Figure )*-). Se!#- e!ay on sno+. a. he progression from $alking on flat terrain to moving on steep terrain is the same as for moving over sno$(free terrain. If the sno$ is packed the sole of the boot $ill generally hold by kicking steps, even on steep slopes. !here it is difficult to make an effective step $ith the boot, a cut made $ith the adAe of the ice a" creates an effective step. In these situations crampons should be used for faster and easier movement. b. !hen descending on sno$, one can usually come straight do$nhill, even on steep terrain. Covement do$nhill should be slo$ and deliberate $ith the climber using an even pace. he heels should be kicked vigorously into the sno$. he body may be kept erect $ith the aid of an ice a", $hich may be jammed into the sno$ at each step for additional safety. /ere again, crampons or step cutting may be necessary. A techni#ue kno$n as glissading may also be used as an easy method of descent and is covered in detail later in this chapter. :o2ement 62er =ce Ice is found in many areas of mountains $hen sno$ is present, and during the summer months also $here perennial sno$pack e"ists. Cany times an ice area $ill be do$nslope of a sno$field and sometimes the ice pack itself $ill be lightly covered $ith sno$. ,ven if using an ice a" and or crampons, movement $ill still be difficult $ithout proper training. Ese 6# =ce 7B 7n& Crampons Covement over sno$ and ice is almost impossible $ithout an ice a" and or crampons. a.=ce 7B. !hen $alking on sno$ or ice, the ice a" can be used as a third point of contact. !hen the terrain steepens, there are a number of $ays to use the ice a" for sno$ or ice climbing. +ome positions are more effective than others, depending on the intended result. Iou may find other $ays to hold and use the a", as long the security remains in effect. %.* Cane 9osition. he ice a" can be used on gentle slopes as a $alking stick or cane %&igure .:(0*. he a" is held by the head $ith the spike do$n and the pick facing to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. !hen moving

up or do$n gentle slopes the ice a" is placed in front as the third point of contact, and the climber moves to$ard it. !hen traversing, the a" is held on the uphill side, in preparation for a self(arrest.

Figure )*-.. Esing the ice aB in the cane position. %0* Cross %o&y 9osition or 9ort 7rms 9osition. Dn steeper slopes the a" can be used in the port arms position, or cross body position %&igure .:(1*. It is carried across the chest, upslope hand on the shaft, spike to$ards the slope. he head of the a" is held a$ay from the slope $ith the pick to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. ,nsure the leash is connected to the upslope hand, $hich allo$s the a" to be used in the hammer position on the upslope side of the climber. he spike, in this case, is used as an aid for maintaining balance.

Figure )*-1. =ce aB in the cross o&y or port arms position. %1* 7nchor 9osition. As the slope continues to steepen, the a" may be used in the anchor position %&igure .:('*. he head is held in the upslope hand and the pick is driven into the slope. he spike is held in the do$nhill hand and pulled slightly a$ay from the slope to increase the 6bite6 of the pick into the ice. If the climber is $earing a harness, the pick can be deeply inserted in the ice or hard sno$ and the a" leash could be connected to the tie(in point on the harness for an anchor %ensure the a" is placed for the intended direction of pull*.

Figure )*-4. =ce aB in the anchor position. %'* 9ush--o!& 9osition. Another variation on steep slopes is the push( hold position %&igure .:(7*. he hand is placed on the shaft of the a" just belo$ the head $ith the pick for$ard. he pick is driven into the slope at shoulder height. he hand is then placed on the top of the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-5. =ce aB in the push-ho!& position.

%7* Dagger 9osition. he dagger position is used on steep slopes to place a handhold above shoulder height %&igure .:()*. he hand grasps the head of the a" $ith the pick for$ard and the shaft hanging do$n. he a" is driven into the surface in a stabbing action. he hand is then placed on the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-6. =ce aB in the &agger position. %)* -ammer 9osition. he hammer position $ill set the pick deepest in any sno$ or ice condition %&igure .:(4*. he a" is used like a hammer $ith the pick being driven into the slope. Dn vertical or near(vertical sections, t$o a"es used in the hammer position $ill often be re#uired.

Figure )*-7. =ce aB in the hammer position.

b. Crampons. !alking in crampons is not complicated but it does present difficulties. !hen $alking in crampons, the same principles are used as in mountain $alking, e"cept that $hen a leg is advanced it is s$ung in a slight arc around the fi"ed foot to avoid locking the crampons or catching them in clothing or flesh. he trousers should be bloused to prevent catching on crampons. All straps should be secured to prevent stepping on them and, potentially, causing a fall. he buckles should be located on the outside of each foot $hen the crampons are secured to prevent snagging. ;emember, $hen the crampon snags on the pants or boots, a tear or cut usually results, and sometimes involves the skin on your leg and or a serious fall. %.* $o methods of ascent are used on slopes: traversing and straight up. %a* A traverse on ice or sno$ looks much like any mountain $alking traverse, e"cept that the ankles are rolled so that the crampons are placed flat on the surface %&igure .:(5*. Dn sno$ the points penetrate easily@ on ice the foot must be pressed or stamped firmly to obtain ma"imum penetration. At the turning points of a traverse, direction is changed $ith the uphill foot as in mountain $alking.

Figure )*-". Correct an& incorrect crampon technique. %b* A straight up method is for relatively short pitches, since it is more tiring than a traverse. he climber faces directly up the slope and $alks straight uphill. As the slope steepens, the herringbone step is used to maintain the flatfoot techni#ue. &or short steep pitches, the climber may also face do$nslope, s#uatting so the legs almost form a 8:(degree angle at the knees, driving the spike of the ice a" into the slope at hip level, and then moving the feet up to the

a". <y repeating these steps, the a" and crampon combination can be used to climb short, steep pitches $ithout resorting to step cutting. his method can be tiring. he techni#ue is similar to the crab position used for climbing on slab rock and can also be used for short descents. %0* A techni#ue kno$n as 6front(pointing6 may be used for moving straight uphill %&igure .:(8*. It is especially useful on steep terrain, in combination $ith the ice a" in the push(hold, dagger, or hammer position. &ront(pointing is easiest $ith the use of more rigid mountain boots and rigid crampons. he techni#ue is similar to doing calf raises on the tips of the toes and is much more tiring than flat(footing. %a* he techni#ue starts $ith the feet appro"imately shoulder $idth apart. !hen a step is taken the climber places the front points of the crampons into the ice $ith the toe of the boot pointing straight into the slope. %b* !hen the front points have bitten into the ice the heel of the boot is lo$ered slightly so that the first set of vertical points can also bite. he body is kept erect, $ith the $eight centered over the feet as in climbing on rock.

Figure )*-'. Front-pointing +ith crampons. c. Aertica! =ce. !hen a climb on ice reaches the ):( to 4:(degree angle, t$o ice a"es may be helpful, and $ill become necessary as the angle approaches 8:

. and traverse. Descen&ing +ith Crampons an& =ce 7B. al$ays ensure the points of the crampons are inserted in the sno$ or ice and take short.degrees. F!at-#ooting in the cra position. If leashes of the correct length and fit are attached to both a"es.:(. gradually turn side$ays@ on steeper slopes. bend at the $aist and knees as if sitting.:(.: and . Figure )*-)*. !henever possible.egardless of the techni#ue used. he crab position or front(pointing may also be used for descending. d. he same basic climbing techni#ues described in Chapter ) should be applied. keeping the feet flat to engage all vertical crampon points and keep the $eight over the feet as in descending rock slab %&igures . it may be possible to hang completely from the a"es $hile moving the feet. . As the slope steepens. descend straight do$n the fall line. deliberate steps to minimiAe the chance of tripping and falling do$n the slope. Dn steep terrain.*. . assume a cross body or port arms position $ith the a".

he techni#ues can be used in any combination. raverse $ith feet flat. . %0* =ce 7B. A typical progression could be as follo$s: %. logical progression. e. >se crampons in the follo$ing situations: H H H H H !alking as on flat ground. >se the ice a" in these situations: H H H H H H H Cane position on flat ground.* Crampons. -ush(hold position using front(pointing techni#ue. 3orma! 9rogression. 2agger position using front(pointing techni#ue. Anchor position $ith pick on uphill side. Cane position on uphill side as slope steepens. &ront(pointing. /ammer position using front(pointing techni#ue. /erringbone step straight up the slope. dictated by the terrain and skill of the individual. -ort arms position $ith spike on uphill side. <acking up the slope %crab position*.Figure )*-)). Ese o# ice aB in &escent. he use of the ice a" and crampons follo$s a simple.

C!im ing sequence. +tep cutting is an e"tremely valuable techni#ue that is a re#uired skill for any military mountaineer %&igure . in some cases. <egin by positioning the feet in a secure stance and placing the a" in the hammer position as high as possible. and move the hand up the a" shaft..0*. Figure )*-).:(. a single a" can be 6climbed6 in steps to move upslope on lo$(angle to near vertical terrain %&igure .emove the a" and place it at a higher position and begin again.epeat this until the hand is on top of the head of the a". save the $eight of the crampons altogether. >sing cut steps can save valuable time that $ould be spent in donning crampons for short stretches of ice and can. +teps may also have to be cut by the lead team to enable a unit $ithout proper e#uipment to . +lo$ly and carefully move the feet to higher positions alternately.1*. f.e. . Step Cutting. . >sing most of these positions.:(. C!im ing Sequence.

If handholds are cut. although a traverse $ill normally be adopted.* Sno+. a traverse is also the preferred method. steps may be cut by s$inging the a" in a near(vertical plane. chop above the fracture line to fashion the step. !hen using the pick it should be given an out$ard jerk as it is placed to prevent it from sticking in the ice. using the inside corner of the adAe for cutting. %'* -an&ho!&s. /ard ice re#uires that the pick of the a" be used. !hen changing direction. In descending. %1* Step Cutting in a Tra2erse. a step large enough for both feet and crampons must be made. !hen cutting steps in a traverse. his techni#ue $ill reduce the chance of an un$anted fracture in the ice breaking out the entire step. . Cutting ahead one step then cutting an intermediate step keeps all of the steps relatively close to one another and maintains a suitable interval that all personnel can use. they should be smaller than footholds. +teps used for resting or for turning must be larger. the preferred cutting se#uence is to cut one step at an armUs length from the highest step already cut. %0* =ce. In ascending. then cut one bet$een those t$o. Dnce the step is formed. %. the adAe is best used to further shape and clean the step. he step should be fashioned so that it slopes slightly in$ard and is big enough to admit the entire foot.negotiate sno$( or ice(covered terrain. <egin by directing a line of blo$s at right angles to the slope to make a fracture line along the base of the intended step. steps may be cut straight up the slope. As units continue to move up areas $here steps have been cut they should continue to improve each step. and angled more. Dn slopes of firm sno$ and soft ice. =e"t.

Se!#-7rrest. g. $hich should prevent a fall of any significance %this is a self belay not a self(arrest*.'*. 2uring movement on steep ice. +elf(arrest is difficult on steep ice because the ice a" pick instantly 6bites6 into the ice. the a" pick $ill be in the ice solidly before the body is moved. he large number of climbers injured or killed $hile climbing on sno$ and ice can be attributed to t$o major failings on the part of the climber: climbing unroped. A climber should al$ays carry an ice a" $hen climbing on steep sno$ or ice@ if a fall occurs. a fall %&igure . . and a lack of kno$ledge and e"perience in the techni#ues necessary to stop. Step cutting an& han&ho!& cutting. C7ET=63 +elf(arrest re#uires the a" pick to gradually dig in to slo$ the descent. possibly resulting in either arm or shoulder injury.:(. or arrest. he must retain possession and control of his ice a" if he is to successfully arrest the fall.Figure )*-)1. or the a" is deflected immediately upon contact.

. Se!#-arrest technique.Figure )*-)4.

and feet pointed do$nslope. stomach on the slope. . H /ead do$nslope. stomach on the slope. back to the slope. back to the slope. H /ead upslope. and feet pointed upslope. and feet pointed do$nslope.Figure )*-)4. the climber $ill find himself in one of four positions. Dnce the roll or spin has been controlled. H /ead do$nslope. the climber must first gain control of his body.* A climber $ho has fallen may roll or spin@ if this happens. Se!#-arrest technique /continue&0. $hether it is $ith his ice a" or simply by brute force. %. and feet pointed upslope. %0* o place the body in position to arrest from the four basic fall positions the follo$ing must be accomplished. H /ead upslope.

the body is in proper relation to the slope for an arrest.%a* In the first position. %'* !hen a fall occurs. $ith the head of the a" by one shoulder and the spike near the opposite hip. Dne hand grasps the head of the a". $hile the other hand is on the shaft near the spike. Dnce sufficient control of the body is attained. stomach on the slope. %c* In the third position. his is accomplished by rolling the body to$ard the head of the a". $ith the feet pointed do$nslope.aising the spike end of the shaft increases the biting action of the pick. or slide of a mountaineer do$n a steep slope covered $ith sno$ %&igure . his $ill cause the body to rotate into a head up. the feet must be raised to prevent the crampons from digging into the sno$ or ice too #uickly. e"cept skis . lifting up on it to prevent the spike from digging into the slope. the climber drives the pick of the ice a" into the slope.7*. the body must first be rotated from face up to face do$n on the slope. %d* In the fourth position. could severely injure his ankles and legs. stomach do$n position. If crampons are not $orn. controlled. increasing the pressure until the fall is arrested. <!issa&ing 9lissading is the intentional. $ith the pick pointed into the slope. . he a" is held diagonally across the chest. %1* he final position $hen the arrest of the fall is completed should be $ith the head upslope. It is critical that control of the ice a" be maintained at all times. the climber should immediately grasp the a" $ith both hands and hold it firmly as described above. 9lissading is similar to skiing. 3ote4 If crampons are $orn.:(. %b* In the second position. rapid descent. his could cause the climber to tumble and also. the pick of the ice a" is placed upslope and used as a pivot to bring the body into proper position. the head of the a" must be driven into the sno$ to the climberUs side. the toe of the boots may be dug into the slope to help arrest the fall.

Sa#ety. pick. c. and the heels and feet raised and pointed do$nslope. since drop(offs may e"ist out of vie$. A glissade should never be attempted on a slope $here the bottom cannot be seen. Also. as painful injury could result.are not used. he s#uatting glissade is accomplished by placing the body in a semi(crouched position $ith both knees bent and the body $eight directly over the feet. brake. >sing this method the glissader sits on the sno$ $ith the legs flat. $ith the e"ception that the hand on the shaft must be locked against the hip for control. he ice a" is firmly grasped in the same manner as the s#uatting glissade. Squatting <!issa&e. a sitting glissade should not be used if the sno$ cover is thin. and guide for the glissade. he only piece of e#uipment re#uired is the standard ice a". he same balance and control are necessary. he ice a" is grasped $ith one hand on the head. and the other hand on the shaft. he t$o basic methods of glissading are: a. he sitting glissade is slo$er but easier to control than the s#uatting glissade. and adAe outboard %a$ay from the body*. but instead of skis the soles of the feet or the buttocks are used. . $hich serves as the rudder. he hand on the shaft grips it firmly in a position that allo$s control as $ell as the application of do$n$ard pressure on the spike of the a". Sitting <!issa&e. b.

2eadman anchors can be constructed from sno$shoes.* Cut a horiAontal recess into the ice. Ice pitons installed in pairs are a bombproof anchor@ ho$ever. %. decreasing the perceived security of the anchor. he standard ice piton is made of tubular steel and is . a. skis. . he ice piton is not seen in modern ice climbing but may still be available to the military. >sed singularly. ice pitons have no threads for friction to hold them in the ice once placed and are removed easily. Sno+ 7n& =ce 7nchors Ice and sno$ anchors consist of sno$ pickets. =ce 9itons. and ice pitons.: inches in length. &ollo$ the instructions belo$ for placing ice pitons in pairs. flukes. ice pitons are a strong anchor but are easily removed. or any large items. sleds. backpacks. +afe use of ice pitons re#uires placement in pairs.Figure )*-)5. he ice piton is used to establish anchor points. <!issa&ing techniques. deadman(type anchors. ice scre$s. and also create a vertical surface %t$o clean surfaces at right angles to each other*.

%1* Connect the t$o rings $ith a single carabiner. !ebbing or rope can be used if the rings are turned to the inside of the intersection.)*. making further use difficult. the pitons should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary. ensuring the carabiner is not cross(loaded. %'* est the piton pair to ensure it is secure. he piton $ill heat from solar radiation. Figure )*-)6. $hich allo$ them to be easily t$isted into position by hand. he pair of pitons. or the ice may crack or soften. =ce Scre+s. +ome scre$s have longer 6hangers6 or handles. he ice scre$ is the most common type of ice protection and has replaced the ice piton for the most part %&igure . c. !hen an ice piton is removed. -lace ice scre$s as follo$s: .:( . such as top roping. the ice that has accumulated in the tube must be removed before it freeAes in position.4*. If it pulls out or appears $eak. move to another spot and replace it. If repeated use is necessary for one installation. %7* he effective time and or strength for an ice piton placement is limited. are multidirectional.:(.%0* 2rive one piton into the horiAontal surface and another into the vertical surface so that the t$o pitons intersect at the necessary point %&igure . $hen placed correctly. =ce piton pair. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the pitons $ith ice chips once they have been placed.

:: degrees from the lo$er surface. %. If you have a short a" %4: centimeters or less*. the ice that has accumulated in the tube. must be removed before further use. or the ice may crack or soften. the scre$s should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary.%. %0* &orce the ice scre$ in until the threads catch. Figure )*-)7. he effective time and or strength of an ice scre$ placement is limited. you may be able to use the spike in the eye or hanger to ease the turning. If repeated use is necessary for one installation.* %'* As $ith ice pitons. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the scre$ $ith ice chips once it has been emplaced. such as top roping.* Clear a$ay all rotten ice from the surface and make a small hole $ith the a" pick to start the ice scre$ in.emember that you may only have use of one hand at this point depending on your stance and the angle of the terrain. 9!acement o# ice scre+ using the pick. !hen an ice scre$ is removed. melting of the ice around a scre$ over a period of time must be considered. he scre$ $ill heat from solar radiation. %1* urn the scre$ until the eye or the hanger of the ice scre$ is flush $ith the ice and pointing do$n. he scre$ should be placed at an angle 8: to . >se either your hand or the pick of the ice a" to scre$ it in. .

&or dry or $ind(packed sno$. he length of the bollard should be at least t$ice the $idth. 9ickets an& =ce 7Bes. %.: feet. It must be inspected fre#uently to ensure that the rope is not cutting through the sno$ or ice more than one(third the length of the anchor@ if it is. -orseshoe or %o!!ar& 7nchor. its strength depending upon the prevailing te"ture of the sno$. e. his is an artificial anchor shaped generally like a horseshoe %&igure . -ickets and ice a"es may be used as sno$ anchors as follo$s. . It is formed from either ice or sno$ and constructed by either cutting $ith the ice a" or stamping $ith the boots. the $idth should not be less than . pickets. In ice.d. -orshoe o# o!!ar& anchor. Figure )*-)".* his type of anchor is usually available and may be used for fi"ed ropes or rappels. he backside of the anchor must al$ays be undercut to prevent the rope from sliding off and over the anchor. a ne$ anchor must be constructed in a different location.5*. he trench around the horseshoe should be stamped as deeply as possible in the sno$ and should be cut not less than ) inches into the ice after all rotten ice is removed. or other e#uipment for added strength.:(. this $idth may be narro$ed to 0 feet. !hen constructed of sno$. the reliability of the anchor should al$ays be suspect. %0* A horseshoe anchor constructed in sno$ is al$ays precarious. depending on the strength of the ice. he backside of the bollard can be reinforced $ith ice a"es.

he direction of pull on long items. If using the leash ensure it is not $orn. the carabiner should be placed in the hole closest to the sno$ surface to reduce leverage. frayed. $qua!i@e& 7nchors. A similar anchor. ski poles. he simplest connection to the a" is to use a sling or rope directly around the shaft just under the head. or any other item large enough or shaped correctly to achieve the design. sno$shoes. A carabiner can be clipped through the hole in the head. %&igure . t$o or more anchors should be used. f.* %0* As $ith multipoint anchors on rock. he construction is identical to that of the dead man anchor used in earth. he picket may also be tied off $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope as in tying off pitons. also. %. Dther items suitable for dead man anchor construction are backpacks. sometimes referred to as a 6dead guy. rappel points.* !henever possible. . !hen using an ice a" as a sno$ anchor. such as a picket or a". especially $hen a picket or a" cannot be driven in all the $ay.7 degrees off perpendicular from the lo$er surface. or other fi"ed rope installations.nsure the attaching point is accessible before burying. . the anchor may be buried in the sno$ and used as a 6dead man6 anchor. or cut from general use@ is strong enough@ and does not t$ist the a" $hen loaded. +no$ and ice anchors must be constantly checked due to melting and changing sno$ or ice conditions. If the picket cannot be driven in all the $ay to the top hole. should be at a right angle to its length. it should be mandatory for main anchors at all belay positions.* he picket should be driven into the sno$ at 7 to .6 can be made $ith a large sack either stuffed $ith noncompressible items or filled $ith sno$ and buried. !hile this is not al$ays practical for intermediate anchor points on lead climbs or fi"ed ropes.:(. it should be inserted $ith the $idest portion of the a" shaft facing the direction of pull. t$o or more sno$ or ice anchors can be joined together $ith a sling rope or $ebbing to construct one solid. %0* An ice a" can be used in place of a picket.8 sho$s an e"ample of three sno$ pickets configured to an e#ualiAed anchor.%. %1* !henever the strength of the sno$ anchor is suspect. skis.

A bo$line on a bight tied into the climbing rope can also be used instead of sling ropes or $ebbing. a. he immediately yells 6&ABBI=9. Figure )*-)'. &or climbing on sno$ and ice. Tie-=n :etho&. Covement on 9laciers. !hen crevasses are e"pected. .ope& C!im ing 6n =ce 7n& Sno+ !hen climbing on ice or sno$ team members tie into a climbing rope the same as $hen they climb on rock.e#ualiAed anchor. he rope bet$een the climbers should be fully e"tended and kept reasonably tight. a three(man rope team is recommended. he fallen climber also applies the self(arrest procedure. for more information*. the tie(in is modified slightly. b. +hould any member fall. $qua!i@e& anchor using pickets. &or movement on gentle or moderate slopes $here there is little chance of a serious fall.:(4. =ormally the climbers move in single file using the steps created by the lead climber and improving them $hen necessary. <y using this . :o2ement. the tie(in procedure is normally the same as for rock climbing@ ho$ever. $hen moving over sno$(covered glaciers. all climbers move simultaneously. %+ee paragraph .6 he other rope team members immediately drop into a self(arrest position.

he brake is applied by $rapping the rope around the heel of the boot %&igure . 9enerally.*. %e!aying on Sno+ an& =ce.method. he shaft of the a" is tilted slightly uphill and jammed into the sno$. he holding strength of the boot(a" belay is directly related to the firmness of the sno$ and to the strength of the ice a" shaft. %oot-aB e!ay. Figure )*-.6 the entire team as a $hole arrests the fall of one member. and $hen crossing sno$(covered crevasses $here the sno$ bridges appear $eak.* %oot-7B %e!ay. called the 6team arrest. the climbers use belayed climbing techni#ues as in rock climbing. A bight formed in the rope is placed over the boot and around the shaft of the ice a". Dn steeper slopes.:(0:*. his belay can be useful in areas $here the full length of the ice a" can penetrate the sno$. %. the high(force falls found in rock climbing are not present on sno$ and ice unless the pitch being climbed is e"tremely steep. he belayer places his uphill foot against the do$nhill side of the a" for support. he principles of belaying on ice and sno$ are the same as on rock. c. .

d. he procedures for emplacing fi"ed ropes on ice are basically the same as on rock $ith the e"ception that anchors need more attention. FiBe& . both in initial placement and in subse#uent inspection. he use of fi"ed ropes on ice is recommended for moving units through icefall areas on glaciers or other steep ice conditions. he 6flo$6 or movement of glaciers is caused by gravity. H +urging glacier—annual flo$ of the ice e"ceeds the melt@ the movement is measurable over a period of time. A strong platform should be constructed for the standing body belay. A glacier is formed by the perennial accumulation of sno$ and other precipitation in a valley or dra$. !hen using the hitch off of the anchor. his belay techni#ue is also used on sno$ and ice. :o2ement 6n <!aciers Covement in mountainous terrain may re#uire travel on glaciers. portions separate and are sometimes left hanging on mountains. %1* :unter -itch. An understanding of glacier formation and characteristics is necessary to plan safe routes. he accumulated sno$ eventually turns to ice due to metamorphosis. or cliffs. here are a fe$ different types of glaciers identifiable primarily by their location or activity.opes.etreation glacier—a deteriorating glacier@ annual melt of entire glacier e"ceeds the flo$ of the ice.%0* %o&y %e!ay. also. and steps may have to be cut to assist personnel. H Valley glacier—resides and flo$s in a valley. ridgelines. he position can be improved by digging depressions into the sno$ or ice for a seat and footholds. H /anging glacier—these are a result of valley or cir#ue glaciers flo$ing and or deteriorating. he body belay can be used on sno$ and ice. . a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor should be constructed as a minimum. H Cir#ue glacier—forms and resides in a bo$l. As the movement continues. he principles are the same as for belays on rock—solid anchors must be used and a $ell(braced position assumed. H . H -iedmont glacier—formed by one or more valley glaciers@ spreads out into a large area.

and defines common terminology used in reference to glaciers. sho$s a cross section of a glacier.* Figure )*-. . %&igure .:(0.:(00 depicts common glacier features. his paragraph describes the common characteristics of glaciers. and &igure .). <!acier cross section.a. Characteristics an& De#initions.

%1* he ablation Aone is the area $here the sno$ melts off the ice in summer.* &irn is compacted granular sno$ that has been on the glacier at least one year. %. %0* he accumulation Aone is the area that remains sno$(covered throughout the year because of year(round sno$fall.Figure )*-. &irn is the building blocks of the ice that makes the glacier. Celt e#uals or e"ceeds sno$fall. <!acier #eatures.. he sno$fall e"ceeds melt. ..

hese $ill usually be seen at the base of a major incline and can make an ascent on that area difficult.%'* he firn line separates the accumulation and ablation Aones.* A sno$ bridge is a some$hat supportive structure of sno$ that covers a crevasse. %5* A transverse crevasse forms perpendicular to the flo$ of a glacier. %)* A moat is a $all formed at the head %start* of the glacier. %. %. %7* A bergschrund is a large crevasse at the head of a glacier caused by separation of active %flo$ing* and inactive %stationary* ice. As you approach this area.:* 2iagonal crevasses form at an angle to the flo$ of a glacier. he strength of a sno$ bridge depends on the sno$ itself. he firn line can change annually. . %. Cost of these are formed by the $ind. as these could be sno$ bridges remaining over crevasses. %. %8* Bongitudinal crevasses form parallel to the flo$ of a glacier.. hese are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 1: degrees or more. hese are formed by heat reflected from valley $all. %4* A crevasse is a split or crack in the glacier surface.emember that sno$ bridges $ill be $eakest lo$er on the glacier as you enter the accumulation Aone.1* +eracs are large pinnacles or columns of ice that are normally found in icefalls or on hanging glaciers. hese are normally found $here a glacier $idens. . hese are formed $hen the glacier moves over an irregularity in the bed surface. hese are normally found along the edges $here a glacier makes a bend. you may see 6strips6 of sno$ in the ice.0* Icefalls are a jumble of crisscross crevasses and large ice to$ers that are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 07 degrees or more. <e cautious.

and ice avalanches.%. $hen visibility is poor. %. hese can be large enough for a human to slip into. %0:* A =unatak is a rock projection protruding through the glacier as the glacier flo$s around it.4* he medial moraine is in the middle of the glacier. In $inter. Crossing sno$ bridges constitutes the greatest potential danger in movement over glaciers in the summer. %0. %00* -ressure ridges are $avelike ridges that form on glacier normally after a glacier has flo$ed over icefalls. %. b. %. crevasses are $idest and covered by the least sno$. ice flo$ing over irregularities and cliffs . o$ard the end of the summer. +no$(covered crevasses make movement on a glacier e"tremely treacherous. %.* An ice mill is a hole in the glacier formed by s$irling $ater on the surface. his is also formed as t$o glaciers come together or as a glacier moves around a central peak. Dn the steep pitch of a glacier. %01* A glacier $indo$ is an opening at the snout of the glacier $here $ater runs out of the glacier. he principle dangers and obstacles to movement in glacial areas are crevasses.5* he terminal moraine is at the base of a glacier and is formed as moraines meet at the snout or terminus of a glacier.7* he moraine is an accumulation of rock or debris on a glacier caused by rockfall or avalanche of valley $alls.)* he lateral moraine is formed on sides of glacier. %.'* Ice avalanches are falling chunks of ice normally occurring near icefalls or hanging glaciers. the difficulty of recogniAing them is increased.8* he ground moraine is the rocky debris e"tending out from the terminus of a glacier. icefalls. his is formed by the scraping of earth as the glacier gre$ or surged and e"posed as the glacier retreats. Dangers an& 6 stac!es.

his jumbled cliff of ice is kno$n as an icefall. Figure )*-.* Coving on glaciers brings about the haAard of falling into a crevasse. he risk of traveling in the accumulation Aone can be managed to an acceptable level $hen ropes are used for connecting the team members %&igure . . criss(crossed $ith crevasses.in the underlying valley floor cause the ice to break up into ice blocks and to$ers. 7 !ation @one o# g!acier in summer. Although the crevasses are visible in the ablation Aone in the summer %&igure . %.1. Crampons and an ice a" are all that is re#uired to safely travel in the ablation Aone in the summer.:(01*. the accumulation Aone $ill still have hidden crevasses.:(0'*. Icefalls present a major obstacle to safe movement of troops on glaciers.

double the rope and one ties into the middle and the other t$o at the ends. %'* If a team member falls into a crevasse. ie in to the bights and the ends. o locate the positions. form a 6A6 $ith the rope and e"pand the 6A6 fully. the remaining members go into team arrest. assess the situation.ope teams mo2ing in the accumu!ation @one o# a g!acier. . and use the necessary techni#ue to remove the person from the crevasse. %1* Connect to the rope $ith the appropriate method and attach the -rusik as re#uired. if three people are on a team. three to four people $ill tie in to one rope at e#ual distances from each other. he rope should be kept relatively tight either by -rusik belay or positioning of each person. If the team members need to assemble in one area. he simplest and most common . use the -rusik to belay each other in.4.Figure )*-. keeping the end and the bight on each 6side6 of the 6A6 even. %0* !hen conditions $arrant. If four people are on a team.

he first rule for movement on glaciers is to rope up %&igure .method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed.ope& :o2ement. . If traveling $ith a sled in to$. . the other members immediately perform self(arrest. c. %7* All items should be secured to either the climber or the ropeKharness to prevent inadvertent release and loss of necessary items or e#uipment. use markers that $ill be noticeable against the $hite conditions. but connect it to the rope $ith $ebbing or rope also. he best combination is a three(man rope team. halting the fall. secure it not only to a climber to pull it. -acks should be secured to the ropeKharness $ith $ebbing or rope. is at a disadvantage on a sno$(covered glacier. If an individual should break through a sno$ bridge and fall into a crevasse. $hile ideal for rock climbing. At points of obvious $eakness in the sno$ bridges. the rope team members $ill move at the same time $ith the rope fully e"tended and reasonably tight bet$een individuals. the members may decide to belay each other across the crevasse using one of the established belay techni#ues.:(07*. 9enerally. their security being the team arrest. he first team member can place a ne$ marker $hen the last team member reaches the previous marker. %)* If marking the route on the glacier is necessary for backtracking or to prevent disorientation in storms or flat(light conditions. A roped team of t$o.

5. leaving a third of the rope bet$een each team member and a third on each end of the rope. the rope should be divided into thirds.ope team members must be able to #uickly remove the climbing rope from the harness%es* during a crevasse rescue. %0* . his allo$s #uick detachment of the rope for rescue purposes. he remaining 6thirds6 . $hether improvised or premanufactured.* . he standard practice for connecting to the rope for glacier travel is $ith a locking carabiner on a figure(eight loop to the harness. %1* If a rope team consists of only t$o people. %. it is strongly recommended that all personnel $ear a seatKchest combination harness. 9reparations #or rope& mo2ement. the probability e"ists that an individual may remain suspended in a crevasse for a fairly lengthy amount of time $hile trying to get himself out or $hile a$aiting help from his rope team members. <ecause of this. as for a four(person team. he team members tie into the middle positions on the rope. he appropriate standing part of the rope is then clipped to the chest harness carabiner.Figure )*-.ven $ith proper training in crevasse rescue techni#ues.

and it could be stepped on during movement and or climbing. $ith double fishermanUs knots. it is essential that he be able to rid himself of his backpack. d. -rusik knots are attached to the climbing rope for all glacier travel. &orm the -rusik knot on the rope in front of the climber. the pack should be attached to the climbing rope $ith a sling rope or $ebbing and a carabiner. by itself. he ends of the ropes are tied together. the $eight of an ascender hanging on the rope during movement $ill become annoying.0(foot ropes. to anchor the climbing rope for crevasse rescue. Ese o# 9rusik Knots. If necessary. <efore movement. Securing the %ackpack. &or safety reasons. his gives each climber an additional length of rope that can be used for crevasse rescue.of the rope should be coiled and either carried in the rucksack. 3ote4 An ascender can replace a -rusik sling in most situations. he drop cord length should be minimal to allo$ the fallen individual to reach the pack after releasing it. should one of the men fall through and re#uire another rope. if $arm clothing is needed. movement over a sno$(covered glacier by a single t$o(man team should be avoided $herever possible.. or possibly force him into an upside do$n position $hile suspended in the crevasse. !hen . he $eight of the average pack $ill be enough to hinder the climber during crevasse rescue. Crevasse rescue procedures performed by a t$o( man rope team. he -rusik slings are made from the 4(millimeter by )(foot and 4(millimeter by . A fallen climber can immediately drop the pack $ithout losing it. e. If an individual should fall into a crevasse. and for self(rescue in a crevasse fall. he -rusiks are used as a self(belay techni#ue to maintain a tight rope bet$een individuals. Attach this sling to the locking carabiner at the tie in point on the harness. or carried over the head and shoulder. may be e"tremely difficult. forming endless loops or slings. this e"cess end rope can be used to connect to another rope team for safer travel. An overhand knot can be tied into the sling just belo$ the -rusik to keep e#ual tension on all the -rusik $raps.ucksack. 3ote4 he self(arrest techni#ue used by one individual $ill $ork to halt the fall of his partner on a t$o(man rope team@ ho$ever. the chance of it failing is much greater. /o$ever. attached to the rucksack.

melts more rapidly than that $hich covers crevasses. he difference bet$een glacier ice and narro$ sno$(covered cracks is immediately apparent@ the covering sno$ is $hite. and icefalls.* Additional obstacles in getting onto a glacier may be s$ift glacier streams. %. %. $hich covers glacier ice. though their depths may be clogged $ith masses of sno$. on(the(ground reconnaissance conducted from available vantage points. .outes. . large crevasses remain open. An individual operating in the mountains must appreciate certain limitations in glacier movement imposed by nature.* In the area of the firn line. =arro$ cracks can be jumped. connecting both sides of it. =arro$ cracks may be covered. !ider cracks $ill have to be circumvented unless a solid piece of ice joins into an ice bridge strong enough to support at least the $eight of one member of the team. they only supplement. heavily crevassed portions.hanging from the drop cord. Dpen crevasses are obvious. the pack should be oriented just as $hen $earing it %ensure the cord pulls from the top of the pack*. and their presence is an inconvenience rather than a danger to movement. the Aone that divides seasonal melting from permanent falls of sno$. %0* &urther considerations to movement on a glacier are steep sections. Crossing Cre2asses. In this Aone. and difficult mountain terrain bordering the glacier ice. f. he same obstacles may also have to be overcome in getting on and off a valley glacier at any place along its course. $hich may be major obstacles to progress. /o$ever. g. he use of current aerial photographs in conjunction $ith aerial reconnaissance is a valuable means of gathering advance information about a particular glacier. $hereas the glacier ice is gray. provided the take off and landing spots are firm and offer good footing. +uch ice bridges are often formed in the lo$er portion of a crevasse. the sno$. steep terminal or lateral moraines. and do not take the place of.

<ridges are generally slightly concave because of the settling of the sno$. and may form firmer bridges. !hen crossing a bridge that seems sufficiently strong enough to hold a member of the team. but difficult to detect in flat light. !hen moving parallel to a crevasse. a crevasse is probably present. its detection is difficult. If he is.* Dnce a crevasse has been completely bridged. but should the shaft meet no opposition from an underlying layer of sno$.%0* >sually the upper part of a glacier is permanently sno$ covered. especially during heavy falls of dry sno$. <elo$ this surface cover are found other sno$ layers that become more crystalline in te"ture $ith depth. for even $ide crevasses may be completely concealed by sno$ bridges. %. he should retreat gently from the bridge and determine the $idth and direction of the crevasse. the team may proceed. +no$ bridges are formed by $indblo$n sno$ that builds a cornice over the empty interior of the crevasse. a counter drift is formed on the lee$ard side. he gro$th of the lee$ard portion $ill be slo$er than that to the $ind$ard so that the juncture of the cornices occurs over the middle of the crevasse only $hen the contributing $inds blo$ e#ually from each side. It is in this sno$(covered upper part of a glacier that crevasses are most difficult to detect. the prober should probe closer to his position to make sure that he is not standing on the bridge itself. and gradually turn into glacier ice. . all members of the team should keep $ell back from the edge and follo$ parallel but offset courses. he sno$ surface here $ill vary in consistency from dry po$der to consolidated sno$. /e should then follo$ and probe the margin until a more resistant portion of the bridge is reached. +ince cohesion of dry sno$ depends only on an interlocking of the branches of delicate crystals. the team $ill generally move at the same time on a tight rope. such bridges are particularly dangerous during the $inter. Sno+ %ri&ges. <ridges can also be formed $ithout $ind. As long as a firm foundation is encountered. If the presence of hidden crevasses is suspected. his concavity is perceptible in sunshine. the leader of a roped team must probe the sno$ in front of him $ith the shaft of his ice a". In such a situation. h. As the cornice gro$s from the $ind$ard side. !hen $armer $eather prevails the sno$ becomes settled and more compacted. %0* A crevasse should be crossed at right angles to its length.

%d* he third assumes the middle personUs belay position. i. they should proceed as follo$s for a team of three glacier travelers: %a* he leader and second take up a position at least . A #uick ice a" anchor should be placed for the other belays. If the stability of the sno$ bridge is under #uestion. . he boot(a" belay should be used only if the sno$ is deep enough for the a" to be inserted up to the head and firm enough to support the possible load. distribute the $eight over as $ide an area as possible. 7rresting an& Securing a Fa!!en C!im er. until he reaches firm sno$ on the far side of the crevasse. he third goes into a self(belay behind the second and remains on a tight rope. =umber t$o belays number three across. Dnce the second is across. %1* In crossing crevasses.$ith each individual prepared to go into self(arrest. he assumes the belay position. carefully probing the sno$ and evaluating the strength of the bridge. +kis or sno$shoes help distribute the $eight nicely. he middle can be belayed across by both the first and last. 2eadman or e#ualiAing anchors should be used $hen necessary. %c* he leader should move for$ard. Cany fragile bridges can be crossed by lying do$n and cra$ling to the other side. Cost crevasse falls $ill be no more than body height into the opening if the rope is kept snug bet$een each person. %b* he second belays the leader across using one of the established belay techni#ues. /e then continues as far across as possible so number t$o $ill have room to get across $ithout number one having to move. he simplest and most common method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. =umber one moves out on a tight rope and anchors in to a self(belay.: feet back from the edge. 2o not stamp the sno$.

If the leader has fallen only partially through the sno$ bridge.* o provide a #uick means of holding an une"pected breakthrough. he is supported by the sno$ forming the bridge and should not thrash about as this $ill only enlarge the hole and result in deeper suspension. +hould a team member other than the leader e"perience a partial fall. the rescue procedure $ill be same as for the leader. he rope should remain tight at all times and the team arrest positions adjusted to do so. to anchor the rope. /o$ever.* %a* Dnce the fall has been halted by the team arrest. he follo$ing scenario is an e"ample of the se#uence of events that take place after a fall by the leader in a three(person team. the rope is al$ays kept taut. =umber 1 must al$ays be . or in being suspended in the crevasse by the rope. In this $ay the rope remains reasonably tight bet$een number 0 and number 1. only complicated slightly by the position on the rope. If the fall occurs close to the near edge of the crevasse. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . and then even an instantaneous check by the other members $ill not prevent a deeper fall. the fall $ill cause the rope to cut through the bridge. =umber 1 slo$ly releases his portion of the load onto number 0. It generally is safer to retain the rucksack. !hen the leader une"pectedly breaks through. A fall through a sno$ bridge results either in the person becoming jammed in the surface hole. number 1 $ill proceed to number 0Us position. All movements should be slo$ and aimed at rolling out of the hole and distributing the $eight over the remainder of the bridge. %0* !hen the person falls into a crevasse. al$ays being prepared to go back into self( arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. as its bulk often prevents a deeper fall. the entire load must be placed on number 0 to allo$ number 1 to move for$ard and anchor the rope.. it usually can be checked before the climber has fallen more than ) feet. %b* Dnce number 0 is confident that he can hold the load. % his scenario is for a team of three. the second and third immediately go into a self(arrest position to arrest the fall. if the person $as almost across. the length of the fall depends upon ho$ #uickly the fall is arrested and $here in the bridge the break takes place. using the -rusik as a self belay.%.

%1* hese preliminary procedures must be performed before retrieving the fallen climber. =ormally.escue Techniques. =umber 1 $ould place the load on number . Cre2asse . if the middle person should fall through.: feet in front of number 0 %on the load side*. %c* !hen number 1 reaches number 0Us position he $ill establish a bombproof anchor 1 to . =umber 0 remains connected to the anchor and monitors the anchor.. %f* A fi"ed loop can be tied into the slack part of the rope. j. but continues for$ard using a short -rusik as a self(belay. number . +no$ bridges are usually strongest at the edge of the crevasse. /e must no$ #uickly check on the condition of number . he -rusik knot is adjusted to$ard the load. %d* =umber 1 connects the rope to the anchor by tying a -rusik $ith his long -rusik sling onto the rope leading to number . close to number 0. If number 1 should fall through a crevasse. An overhand knot should be tied into the long -rusik sling to shorten the distance to the anchor. as a minimum. the procedure is the same e"cept that number . his could be either a deadman or a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor.prepared to go back into self(arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. and attached to the anchor %to back up the -rusik knot*. onto the anchor. assumes the role of number 1. %g* =umber 1 remains tied in. depending on ho$ close number 0 is to the lip of the crevasse. and attached to the anchor $ith a carabiner. %e* =umber 0 can then release the load of number . and a fall is most likely to occur some distance a$ay from the .Us anchor. $ould anchor the rope by himself. then anchor his rope and move for$ard $ith a -rusik self(belay to determine the condition of number 0. and decide $hich rescue techni#ue $ill be re#uired to retrieve him.

=umber . he assisting rope team should move to a point bet$een the fallen climber and the remaining rope team members. and the assisting team can attach their -rusik or ascender bet$een this long -rusik and the arresting team member. 3ote4 +afety in numbers is obvious for efficient crevasse rescue techni#ues. %. the rope usually cuts deeply into the sno$. As the assisting team pulls. a crevasse fall $ill occur at the edge of the sno$ bridge. .nsure the padding is anchored from falling into the crevasse for safety of the fallen climber. or backpackKrucksack. %0* FiBe& .Us rope through the anchor -rusik for a belay. he arresting team member closest to the fallen climber should attach the long -rusik to themselves and the rope leading to the fallen climber. ski pole. In order to reduce friction.edge. thus relieving the strain on the sno$.ope Teams. he assisting team can attach to the arresting teamUs rope $ith a -rusik or ascender and both rope teamsU members can all pull simultaneously. he may be able to climb out on a fi"ed rope. here may be times $hen the remaining members of a rope team can render little assistance to the . such as an ice a". place padding. a belay can be initiated by the fallen climberUs team $hile the assisting team pulls. If necessary. ski.* Ese o# 7&&itiona! . If a fall occurs a$ay from the edge. on the edge of the ice. In some situations. -ush the padding for$ard as far as possible to$ard the edge of the crevasse. thus greatly increasing friction for those pulling from above.ope. If the fallen climber is not injured. clips number 1Us rope to himself. under the rope and at right angles to the stress. Additional rope teams have the necessary e#uipment to improve the main anchor or establish ne$ ones and the strength to pull a person out even if he is deep in the crevasse. /e then climbs out using number 1Us rope as a simple fi"ed line $hile number 0 takes up the slack in number . +trength of other rope teams should al$ays be used before establishing more time(consuming and elaborate rescue techni#ues. the -rusik belay $ill be managed by the arresting team member at the long -rusik. %1* 9rusik 7scen&ing Technique. Another rope team can move for$ard and assist in pulling the victim out of a crevasse.

%e* !ith his $eight removed from the short -rusik. %f* he procedure is repeated. %d* he individual stands in the foot loop. the short -rusik acts as a self(belay and allo$s the climber to take as long a rest as he $ants $hen sitting in the harness. %c* he long -rusik is attached to the rope just belo$ the short -rusik. the individual can simply grasp the rope and pull himself over the edge and out of the hole.person in the crevasse. Dnce the crevasse lip is reached. he fallen climber inserts his footKfeet into the loop formed allo$ing the knot to cinch itself do$n. %g* <esides being one of the simplest rope ascending techni#ues. he double fishermanUs knot is spread apart to create a loop large enough for one or both feet. /o$ever. %b* he individual slides their short -rusik up the climbing rope as far as possible. it is slid up the rope as far as it $ill go. to ascend the rope. Dther times.:(0) sho$s the proper rope configuration. %&igure . it may just be easier for the fallen climber to perform a self(rescue.6 of the long sling. the rope team members on top may have to remain in self(arrest. If poor sno$ conditions make it impossible to construct a strong anchor. it is sometimes desirable to keep the chest harness connected to the rope for additional .* he techni#ue is performed as follo$s: %a* he fallen climber removes his pack and lets it hang belo$ from the drop cord. he individual then hangs from the short -rusik $hile he moves the long -rusik up underneath the short -rusik again. alternately moving the -rusiks up the rope. or 6stirrup. he rope should be detached from the chest harness carabiner to make the movements less cumbersome.

. he basic V rig is a 61(to(. %'* F-9u!!ey -au!ing System. a simple raising system can be rigged to haul the victim out of the crevasse. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . In actual field use. % his scenario is for a team of three. he follo$ing describes rigging of the system. to the anchor. If a fallen climber is injured or unconscious. A pulley can be used here if available.::(pound load $ith this system. %c* =umber 1 $ill use number 0Us short -rusik to rig the haul -rusik. In theory. he use of mechanical rescue pulleys can help reduce this friction in the system.6 system. he long -rusik sling can be routed through the chest harness carabiner for additional support $hen standing up in the stirrup. it $ould only take about 11 pounds of pull on the haul rope to raise a . 9rusik ascen&ing technique.:(04*. he V(pulley hauling system is one of the simplest methods and the one most commonly used in crevasse rescue %&igure . %b* he slack rope e"iting the anchor -rusik is clipped into a separate carabiner attached to the anchor. number 0 $ill attach himself to the anchor $ithout using the rope and clear the connecting knot used. some of this mechanical advantage is lost to friction as the rope bends sharply around carabiners and over the crevasse lip. Figure )*-. In this case the -rusik knots must be 6on top6 of the chest harness carabiner so they can be easily slid up the rope $ithout interference from the carabiner. he $ill not be able to offer any assistance in the rescue. If additional rope teams are not immediately available. /e moves to$ard the crevasse lip %still on his o$n self( . =umber 1 remains connected to the rope.6. and they have decided to install the V rig.* %a* After the rope team members have arrested and secured number .support. providing mechanical advantage to reduce the $orkload on the individuals operating the haul line.

he system is no$ ready for another haul. he anchor should be monitored for the duration of the rescue. %e* =umber 1 then moves to$ards the anchor and number 0. foot for every 1 feet of rope taken up during the haul.Us rope %load rope* as close to the edge as possible. C7ET=63 he force applied to the fallen climber through use of the V(pulley system can be enough to destroy the harness(to( rope connection or injure the fallen climber if e"cess force is applied to the pulling rope. the load is simply placed back on the anchor -rusik and number 1 moves the haul -rusik back to$ard the edge.belay* and ties number 0Us short -rusik onto number . the load %fallen climber* $ill be raised . =umber 1Us rope becomes the haul rope. =umber 0 could help pull if necessary but first $ould connect to the haul rope $ith a -rusik just as number 1. 3otes4 H he V(pulley adds more load on the anchor due to the mechanical advantage. %d* Another carabiner %and pulley if available* is clipped into the loop of the haul -rusik and the rope bet$een number 1Us belay -rusik and the anchor is clipped %or attached through the pulley*.6 system. H !ith the 61(to(. If the haul -rusik reaches the anchor before the victim reaches the top. .

Dther rope team members $ill belay the probers. the best decision is to relocate the proposed bivouac area far enough a$ay to avoid that crevasse.If the probe suddenly has no resistance $hile pushing do$n. poles. Dther items could be used but the length and strength of the probe is most important. -robing should be in 0(foot intervals in all directions $ithin the site. Attempts to outline the crevasse can be futile if the crevasse is large. a crevasse is present. a.Figure )*-. =ormally. and so on. he best type of probe $ill be the manufactured collapsing probe pole. Cark boundaries $ith $ands or other items such as skis. . <!acier %i2ouac 9roce&ures !hen locating a bivouac site or a gathering area $here the team might need or $ant to unrope.* -robe the tent site again after digging to the desired surface. he prober is 6feeling6 for a solid platform to place the tent by pushing the probe as hard and deep as possible into the surface. at least one person $ill need to 6probe6 the area for hidden crevasses.7. at least eight feet in length. %+ometimes only a fe$ feet one $ay or the other is all thatUs needed to reach a good platform. F-pu!!ey hau!ing system.

$hich keeps tents closer together. In deep soft sno$. probe a route a$ay from the bivouac site and probe the latrine area also. %. by . distance to be moved. here should be no unroped movement outside the probedKmarked areas. terrain. and construct the $alls by interlocking the blocks $ith overlapping placements.* &or block construction. the probe still doesnUt contact a hard surface. the weather. :ountain . increased pressure $ill be noticed $ithout reaching a solid platform. Dccasionally $hile probing.b. Closer tents $ill make communicating bet$een tent groups and rope teams easier. he $alls should be slightly higher than the tent. Cultiple tent sites can be connected. tactical situation. d. relatively minor in!uries may re&uire evacuation. he $alls can be constructed from loose sno$ piled on the perimeter. imperative that all personnel are trained in mountain evacuation techni&ues and are self . by 0 feet. e.escue 7n& $2acuation Steep terrain and adverse weather are common in mountainous environments. 7t is. At a minimum. If there is a chance for severe storms $ith high $inds. probe again after digging. he amount of sno$fall may be such that even after digging into the sno$. If a latrine area is needed. c. ry to find a solid platform. or operational ceiling of the aircraft may ma0e this impossible. build $alls on the $ind$ard side of the tent site. %0* Cut blocks appro"imately . %1* +no$ $alls can also provide shelter from $ind for food preparation. digging three or four feet to find a consolidated layer $ill result in enough sno$ moved to build up decent $alls around the tent site. and e)isting installations. 'he evacuation techni&ue chosen is determined by the type of in!ury. -robe all areas bet$een the tents if you plan to move in those areas. move the soft sno$ from the surface into the $all foundation areas %do$n to a consolidated layer of sno$*. If a dugout latrine is necessary. therefore. or blocks can be cut from consolidated sno$ layers. sno$ $alls may be constructed to protect the tent site from $ind. Air evacuation is preferred: however. Under these conditions.

physician/s assistant. and maintain moderate body $armth. . is overall in charge at all times. medic%. &or training missions al$ays have a medical plan developed before an emergency arises %plan for the $orst and hope for the best*. %1* Immediately ensure the victim has an open air$ay. . Consi&erations he techni#ues of evacuation are proven techni#ues. he follo$ing actions $ill be done immediately at the rescue scene.evel 77 mountaineers are re&uired with a .evel 7 and .2. /o$ever. ho$ever.escues $ill be unplanned %improvised* or planned rescue operations. %. %0* -revent further injuries to the victim and to others. and one person only. !ork and e"pense should be no deterrent $hen a life is at stake. and physical risk to the rescuers must be $eighed against this purpose. there is no e"cuse for failing to make the ma"imum effort $ithin this limitation. . hey are. Dne person. b. !hen evacuating a victim from mountainous areas keep in mind that the purpose of a rescue operation is to save a life. a. 'riage is performed by the most e)perienced medical personnel available $physician.erforming a rescue operation can be a significant emotional event. 4escue scenarios must be practiced and rehearsed until rescue party members are proficient in the many tas0s re&uired to e)ecute a rescue. . >se reasonable care in reaching the victim.nsure that the C. control serious bleeding. &or a planned rescue. 'o perform most of the high angle rescues. e#uipment that is especially suited and designed for rescue should be used.* Assume command. .VAC plan is a comprehensive plan and must be thought out and understood by all that may be involved in a potential rescue. c. all subject to improvement and should be discarded or modified as better methods of handling victims are developed.evel 777 supervising. resume victimUs breathing. Casualties should be triaged before evacuation.sufficient.

hese stations must be staffed $ith the minimum medical personnel to provide proper emergency treatment. 9!anning . lack of e#uipment or $rong e#uipment.escue 6perations . vehicle. . a. hanging glacier. %)* 2ecide $hether to evacuate $ith available facilities or to send for help.$SCE$. should be used for evacuation. T-$ . -rotect the patient from environmental haAards. %'* 2o not move the victim until you have ascertained the e"tent of injuries. +peed is less important than correct action. %4* !hen the evacuation route is long and arduous. . +peed in getting to a hospital must be balanced against the probability of further injury if $orking $ith ine"perienced people. the rescuer should not take action $ithout first determining the e"tent of the haAard and his ability to handle the situation. %7* 2o nothing more until you have thoroughly considered the situation. unless it is necessary to prevent further injuries or the victim is located in a dangerous location %for e"ample. evacuation of a seriously $ounded soldier should never be delayed to a$ait aircraft.esist the urge for action. possibility of falling rocks*. !hen a victim develops signs of shock or $orsens $hile being evacuated. :EST 36T %$C6:$ 7 C7SE78TD. his plan should have contingencies included so as not to rely on a single asset. or a change in $eather. %5* /elicopters or heated vehicles.If the victim is unconscious.very commander should have a medical evacuation plan before undertaking an operation. avalanche run(out Aone. !hen rescuing a casualty %victim* threatened by hostile action. he should be treated and retained at one of these stations until his condition allo$s evacuation. or any other immediate haAard. and terrain at hand. a series of litter relay points or stations should be established. continually monitor pulse. if available. !hile the use of aircraft or vehicles is preferred and can e"pedite a rescue operation. environmental haAard.

H -lan the action. priority. he rescue team leader must evaluate the situation and analyAe the factors involved.b. $hat. Cake a realistic estimate of time available . c. H errain features and location of the casualties. H If treatment can be provided at the scene@ if the victims re#uire movement to a safer location. $hen. treatment. H If ade#uate assistance is available to aid in security. H Are additional personnel. H =umber of casualties by precedence %urgent. and the nature of their injuries. H actical situation. routine. H number of casualties by type %litter or ambulatory*. d. or special rescue e#uipment neededR H Are there circumstances. security.#uipment re#uired for the rescue operation. he task must be identified. H . tactical immediate*. his evaluation can be divided into three major steps: H Identify the task. $hy. such as aircraft accidents %mass casualties*.valuate the circumstances of the rescue. rescue. In planning a rescue. H . and ho$ the situation happened. Circumstances of the rescue are as follo$s: %. relate it to the circumstances of the situation. medical. $here. that may re#uire specialiAed skillsR H !hat is the $eather conditionR H Is the terrain haAardousR H /o$ much time is availableR %0* he time element may cause a rescuer to compromise planning stages or treatment %beyond first aid*. and evacuation.* After identifying the task. the rescuer tries to obtain the follo$ing information: H !ho.

%'* Considerations for the main rescue group for a planned rescue are as follo$s: %a* Carry all needed e#uipment. %0* Consider altitude and visibility. pulse rate. remember to think things through logically for safety and to prevent the rescuer from accidentally untying himself or the fallen climber. hot food and drinks. he rescue plan should proceed as follo$s: %. sleeping bags. and so on*. lo$ering lines. %c* !hen performing all rescues. !ith all rescue techni#ues. and rescue belay points*. . e. If the victim is airlifted out. ropes.as #uickly as possible to determine the action time remaining. blood pressure. bivouac sacks. All problems or comple"ities of rescue are no$ multiplied by the number of casualties. the situation. drugs started. ime becomes the critical element. attach a paper $ith the medical actions that $ere performed on the ground %for e"ample.* In estimating time available. ime available is a balance of the endurance time of the casualty. stove. fi"ed lines. he key elements are the casualtyUs condition and environment. %d* Constantly inform the casualty %if they are conscious* as to $hat you are doing and $hat he must do. tents. the rescuers are al$ays tied in for safety. the casualtiesU ability to endure is of primary importance. and the personnel and e#uipment available. $alking trails. anchor points. %b* -repare the evacuation route %ground transport to hospital. Ca"imum use of secure. reliable trails or roads is essential. %1* Cass casualties are to be e"pected on the modern battlefield. Age and physical condition may vary. $arm clothes. and stretchers.

emove dead personnel. H F=. H 9.ST ST7<$4 . o manage a mass casualty rescue or evacuation.ST7<$4 .=6. %'* /igh altitudes and gusting $inds reduce the ability of fi"ed($ing or rotary($ing aircraft to assist in operations.$$4 Injured personnel $ho can evacuate themselves $ith minimal assistance. Specia! Training .D ST7<$4 .%1* . H 9. such as moving large amounts of debris or cutting through a $all. In high altitudes. H F6E.=6.=6.elying on aircraft or specialiAed e#uipment is a poor substitute for careful planning. H S$C63D ST7<$4 . .=6. H T-=.=TD 63$4 -ersonnel $ith life(threatening injuries that re#uire immediate emergency care to survive@ first aid and stabiliAation are accomplished before evacuation. available time is drastically reduced.T. separate stages are taken. and to #uickly transport casualties to a medical treatment facility.nsure that blankets and rain gear are available.vacuation of $ounded personnel is based on the victimUs condition and is prioritiAed as follo$s: H 9. or gusting $inds. :ass Casua!ties !hen there are mass casualties. a. . H 9.emove personnel $ho are not trapped among debris or $ho can be easily evacuated. .emove personnel $ho may be trapped by debris.=TD F6E.ven a mild rain can complicate a normally simple rescue. an orderly rescue may involve further planning.otary($ing aircraft may be available to remove casualties from cliffs or inaccessible sites. b. .=TD T(64 -ersonnel $ith injuries that re#uire medical care but speed of evacuation is not essential.=TD T-.emove the remaining personnel $ho are trapped in e"tremely difficult or time(consuming situations.4 he logistics removal of dead personnel. e"treme cold. but $hose e"traction only re#uires the e#uipment on hand and little time.

Dne( man carries include the sling(rope carry and the rope coil carry. -ersonnel $ho are injured and re#uire prompt evacuation should not be forced to $ait for mobile evacuation or special e#uipment. four(hand. Conscious or unconscious casualties may be transported this $ay. litter teams should receive instruction in military mountaineering and basic first aid. t$o(hand. and poncho litter* are viable means of transporting injured personnel@ ho$ever. the best method of manual transportation is selected.(. he members of litter teams must be proficient in the techni#ues of belaying and choosing belay points. it can be lost through carelessness. the mountainous terrain lends itself to several other techni#ues. piggyback. he basic carries taught in the +oldierUs Canual of Common asks %firemanUs carry. :anua! Carries -ersonnel $ho are not seriously injured but cannot evacuate themselves may be assisted by fello$ soldiers. the type and e"tent of his injury must be evaluated. 6ne-:an Carries. %. . saddleback.. <ased upon the evaluation of the type and e"tent of the soldierUs injury. pistol belt.ope Carry. before trying to move the $ounded soldier. %b* he assistant places the casualty face do$n on the bearerUs back ensuring the casualtyUs armpits are even $ith the bearerUs shoulders. rough handling. 2ressings over $ounds must be reinforced.* S!ing-. a. -roper support and protection must be given to victims and litter bearers $hen evacuating over steep. difficult terrain. he sling(rope carry %&igure . and fractured bones must be properly immobiliAed and supported. or inade#uate protection from the elements. herefore. 9reparations #or $2acuation Although the $ounded soldierUs life may have been saved by applying first aid. Bitter bearers and medics must kno$ the use and care of rope as an item of e#uipment.7( meter sling rope and t$o men—one as the bearer and the other as an assistant to help secure the casualty to the bearerUs back.* re#uires a '. %a* he bearer kneels on all fours.<efore receiving training in basic mountain evacuation.

and runs the ends over the bearerUs shoulders and back under the bearerUs arms. %0* . and back around to the front of the bearer. Figure ))-). . %b* +eparate the loops on one end of the coil. %d* he assistant runs the ends of the sling rope under the casualtyUs armpits.ope Coi! Carry.K0( meter coiled rope. S!ing-rope carry. $hen available. he rope coil carry re#uires a bearer and a 1) . he rope is tied $ith a s#uare knot $ith t$o overhand knots just above the bearerUs belt buckle. %a* -lace the casualty on his back. %f* he rope must be tight. %e* he assistant runs the ends of the rope bet$een the casualtyUs legs. -adding. crosses the ends. around the casualtyUs thighs. should be placed $here the rope passes over the bearerUs shoulders and under the casualtyUs thighs.%c* he assistant then finds the middle of the sling rope and places it bet$een the casualtyUs shoulders. forming t$o almost e#ual groups. It can be used to transport a conscious or unconscious victim.

If the coils are too long and the bearer is shorter. the bearer rolls over %to$ard the casualtyUs uninjured side*. he methods for securing a victim to a rappellerUs back are described belo$.appe!. 3ote4 he length of the coils on the rope coil and the height of the bearer must be considered. he carrier can also conduct a seat(hip rappel $ith a victim secured to his back. %u&&y . . A sling(rope harness can be used around the victimUs back and bearerUs chest. pulling the casualty onto his back. b. /e then moves for$ard until the coil is e"tended. %d* he bearer lies on his back bet$een the casualtyUs legs and slides his arms through the loops. the bearer carefully stands. $hich frees the bearerUs hands.%c* +lide one group of loops over the casualtyUs left leg and the other group over the right leg. his also prevents the coils from slipping off the carrierUs chest. he $raps holding the coil should be in the casualtyUs crotch $ith the loops on the other end of the coil e"tending up$ard to$ard the armpits. the casualty $ill hang too lo$ on the bearerUs back and make it a cumbersome evacuation. In this case. tied $ith a joining knot at chest level. %e* 9rasping the casualtyUs arm. %g* A sling rope around both the casualty and bearer. the rappeller faces the cliff and assumes a modified B(shape body position to compensate for the $eight of the victim on his back. %f* /olding the casualtyUs $rists. the rope must be uncoiled and recoiled $ith smaller coils. using his legs to lift up and keeping his back as straight as possible. he victim is top(rope belayed from above. $hich provides the victim $ith a point of attachment to a secured rope. aids in keeping an unconscious victim upright. If this is not done.

%8* A large rucksack can be slit on the sides near the bottom so that the victim can step into it. he victim straddles the carrier. depending on the injury* and rests his hands on his knees $hile the victim straddles his back. and back under the victimUs left armpit. he carrierUs shoulders may need to be padded to prevent cutting by the rope. across the carrierUs chest and back across the carrierUs and victimUs left hip. he rope is run diagonally. %7* he rope is run diagonally.%. %)* he t$o rope ends should no$ meet.* %1* he remaining long end of the sling rope is routed under the victimUs buttocks. he rope is passed under the victimUs right armpit and over the carrierUs right shoulder. the carrier ties a standard rappel seat %brake hand of choice. +lack in the pistol belt sling should be avoided. %'* he rope is then run horiAontally. and passed over the victimUs and carrierUs right hip. and the belay man secures the loose ends of the pistol belts under the victimUs buttocks. since the carrier is most comfortable $hen the victim rests high on his back %see &C 5(17*. across the carrierUs chest. from right to left. %5* An alternate method is to use t$o pistol belts hooked together and draped over the carrierUs shoulders. A '7(centimeter tail of the sling is placed on the victimUs left hip.0(meter sling rope is used. % his method describes the procedure for a seat(hip rappel $ith right(hand brake. . over his left shoulder. from left to right. from right to left. %0* A '.* o secure the victim to the carrierUs back $ith a rope. %4* he knot is positioned on the victimUs left hip. he t$o ends are tied together $ith a s#uare knot and overhand knots. he carrier $ears the rucksack $ith the victim inside. he victim is belayed from the top $ith the carrier conducting a standard rappel. across the victimUs back.

over the shoulder. can be rappelled do$n a steep cliff using a seat(shoulder or seat(hip rappel. If the litter must be carried. on traverse lines. he casualtyUs and rappellerUs shoulders should be padded $here the sling rope and rappel lines cross if a seat(shoulder rappel is used. and the loose ends are tied together $ith an overhand knot. 8itters Cany types of litters are available for evacuating casualties in rough mountain terrain. and on hauling lines in the vertical or horiAontal position.:* is best issued for company medics since it is light$eight. he knot can be adjusted to help the outside arm grip the $ebbing. It is also important to render psychological support to any victim a$aiting evacuation. It can be improvised $ith poles. his should be done under medical supervision after stabiliAation. and readily available. :anu#acture& 8itters. and then carried again. he rope is folded in half. as described above.* he poleless. he buddy team should be belayed from above $ith a bo$line tied around the victimUs chest under his armpits. his litter may be used $hen rappelling. Casualties may be secured to litters in many different $ays. $hich is important if a great distance must be traveled. and e#uipment available. he belay rope must run over the rappellerUs guide hand shoulder. hese slings are attached to the litter rails %t$o or three to a side. 7!! casua!ties must e secure&.:* A casualty secured to a carrier. . his enables the carriers to hook and unhook the litter from the belay. and then do$n along the other arm. +lings are available to aid the soldiers $ith litter carrying. belayed. and then routed up along the handling arm. >tility rope or $ebbing ) meters long may be used. nature of injuries. nonrigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(47. depending on the number of litter bearers* by a girth hitch. a sling rope should be $ound around the litter end and tied off in a l(meter(long loop. a. Casualties should be secured $ith the chest strap and pelvic straps. hese slings help distribute the load more evenly. depending on the terrain. behind the neck. he follo$ing litters are readily available to mountaineering units. $hich are se$n on one side.%. %. easy to carry.

.(44)4* is best suited for areas $here several casualties are to be transported. his litter is rectangular and has no vertical leg divider so that it $ill accommodate other litters. may be rigged for movement over rough or mountainous terrain. It is also kno$n as a modified +tokes litter. .:() or >+A& D ::(47(7 for additional information on the +tokes litter. +trapping is also provided to make a secure hoist point for aircraft e"traction and high(angle rescues. he litter consists of t$o parts that join together to form a rigid litter.1. although heavy and unsuited to for$ard deployment.* %7* he standard collapsible litter %=+= )71:(::(451(48:7* %rigid pole folding litter* is most readily available in all units and. +ome +tokes litter frames have a central $eld on the frame end. %)* he > 0::: is manufactured in Austria and is specifically designed for mountaineering operations. %'* he +tokes metal litter %=+= )71:(::(:'0(5.* is suited for situations as above@ ho$ever. !hen joined together the shoulder and $aist straps are used to secure the casualty to the litter. !inding the rope around the frame end $ill distribute the force over a $ider area and stabiliAe the system. All other litters may be placed inside this litter basket and transported across traverse lines. %+ee &C 5(. $hich is a potential breaking point. !heel sets are another accessory to the > 0::: litter %either t$o $heels or one*@ they attach to the litter for use during a lo$(angle rescue. %1* he mountain basket(type rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(. the casualty must be moved in and out of the litter since no other litter $ill fit inside it.5.ach part has shoulder and $aist straps that can be used to man(pack the litter making it e"tremely light and portable.%0* he poleless semi(rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(4)::* may be used the same as the nonrigid litter. It offers more victim protection and back support because of the $ooden slats se$n into it. he folding aluminum litter %=+= )71:(::(451( 40:7* is a compact version of the pole litter and is better suited for for$ard deployment.

and poles. ponchos. If possible. b.. A backboard must be used $ith this system for patients $ho have injuries to the shoulder area.0. a large item. Cost flat(surface objects of suitable siAe can be used as litters. scoop stretchers. it is not a spinal immobiliAation device. A litter can be improvised from many different things. tarpaulin. these objects should be padded. the hood must be up and under the victim.(0*. shelter halves. Fie!&-$Bpe&ient 8itters.6*-). such as a blanket.* Bitters can also be made by securing poles inside blankets.000* provides e"cellent patient support and protection %&igure .%4* he patient rescue and recovery system %=+= )71:(:. %. not dragging on the ground. tent supports. bags. and most other immobiliAation e#uipment.esuce an& reco2ery systems /3S3 651*-*)-. $indo$ shutters. ladders. %0* If poles cannot be found. doors. . cots. If a poncho is used. . or mattress covers. jackets. Figure ))-. hen the rolls can be used to obtain a firm grip to carry the victim. skis.(0):(. and other similar items... shirts. his system $ill accommodate long and short backboards. +uch objects include boards. can be rolled from both sides to$ard the center.. /o$ever. benches. sacks. +ome may need to be tied together to obtain the re#uired siAe. -oles can be improvised from strong branches.

Figure ))-1. empty bo"es. .ope !itter. starting in the middle of the rope so that t$o people can $ork on the litter at one time. sleeping bags. little material e"ists to construct litters. %d* Bine the litter $ith padding such as clothing.(1*.ach clove hitch should be about . %c* -ass the remainder of the rope through the bights outside of the clove hitches.. make a clove hitch over each bight. .%1* A rope litter is prepared using one rope %&igure . he rope litter is the most commonly used field(e"pedient litter. . It re#uires 0: to 1: minutes to prepare and should be used only $hen other materials are not available. 2ress the clove hitches do$n to$ard the closed end of the bight to secure the litter and tie off the ends of the rope $ith clove hitches.7 centimeters from the closed end of the bight $hen the litter is complete. 3ote4 Above the tree line. %b* !ith the remainder of the rope. centimeters long. &our to si" bearers are re#uired to carry the litter. %a* Cake 0' bights about '7 to ).

escue Systems . %7* -ull up on the rope. 5 centimeters in diameter at the butt ends. After placing the clove hitches over the bights. a. he rope $ill automatically feed through the belay.escue systems are indispensable $hen conducting rescue operations. -lace the tail from the mule knot into the carabiner in the -rusik cord. ake t$o . >sing a mechanical advantage rescue system allo$s a minimal amount of rescuers to perform tasks that $ould take a larger number of people $ithout it.0 inches belo$ the mule knot. ake t$o 1( to '( meter poles. A large number of soldiers $ill not al$ays be available to help $ith a rescue. slide them in %a$ay from the closed end* about . his system is used to bring a climber over a section that he is unable to climb.* &irst. 2ress do$n the clove hitches against the poles. and place a carabiner into the loop. but $ill continue climbing once he is past the difficult section.%e* Cake the rope litter more stable by making it about ) inches $ider. 2o not remove the belay. . %. %0* ie a -rusik knot $ith short -rusik cord about . and slide each pole do$n through the bights on each side. tie off the follo$ing climber at the belay $ith a mule knot.(meter poles. 3ote4 he above measurements may have to be altered to suit the overall length of rope available. %e!ay 7ssist.7 centimeters. %'* Caintain control of the brake side of the rope and pull all of the slack through the carabiner in the -rusik cord. %1* >ntie the mule knot $ithout letting the follo$ing climber descend any more than necessary. and tie them off across the head and foot of the litter $ith the remaining tails of the climbing rope. .

%5* .%)* If the leader has to pull for a distance he can tie another mule knot at the belay to secure the second climber before sliding the -rusik do$n to get more pulling distance. clip a nonlocking carabiner through the loop in the overhand knot and clip it over the rope. he belay escape is used $hen a climber has taken a serious fall and cannot continue. he belayer is anchored and is performing an indirect belay. tie off the belay device on your body using a mule knot.emove the -rusik cord and carabiner. b. attach the climbing rope from the belay device. %7* . and must assist the injured climber or go for assistance. the leader secures the belay $ith a mule knot. %4* After the climber can continue climbing.emove the climbing rope from the belay device attached to the harness. %. 3ote4 !ith all rescue techni#ues make sure that you al$ays think everything through. then untie the mule knot and continue belaying normally. 2o not compound the problemW !hen doing any rescue $ork the rescuers $ill al$ays be tied in for safety. %1* >sing a guard knot or Cunter mule. and double check all systems to ensure that you donUt accidentally untie the fallen climber or find yourself $ithout back(up safety. %'* >ntie the mule knot in the belay device attached to the harness and slo$ly lo$er the climber. %e!ay $scape. o improve this system. %0* Attach a short -rusik cord to the load rope and secure it to the anchor $ith a releasable knot. transferring the $eight of the climber onto the -rusik.* After a climber has been injured. . he belayer $ill remain secured to an anchor at all times. o accomplish this he must escape the belay system.

rope(edge friction. belays.elease the mule knot securing the -rusik. hand $inches. Although the vertical or horiAontal hauling lines can also be used. a. transferring the $eight to the anchor. .aising Systems? %e!ays? an& %ackup Sa#eties. It becomes important to monitor the system and to understand the forces involved. %0* %e!ays. and can be modified and augmented to handle heavier loads. +ince all means of raising a victim %pulley systems. It can be rigged $ith the e#uipment on hand.aising systems. his is the main reason for t$o(rope raising systems %raising rope and belay rope*.* . and other variables. the V(pulley system is the most adaptable. <ackup -rusik safeties should be installed in case any part of the pulley system fails. %. $hich must be surmounted. !hen considering a raising system for evacuations. . $hich theoretically gives three pounds of lift for each pound of force e"pended. %1* %ackup Sa#eties. !henever ropes are used for an evacuation operation. these numbers decrease due to rope(pulley friction. . are often encountered along the evacuation path. the overriding safety concern is damage to the ropes. he primary raising system used is the V(pulley system.aising System. %4* At this point the climber is secured by the rope to the anchor system and the belayer can no$ assist the injured climber.%)* . >sing mechanical raising systems tends to reduce the soldierUs sensitivity to the siAe of the load. backup safety -rusiks are used to . In practice. the V(pulley system offers a mechanical advantage that re#uires less e"ertion by the transport team. it becomes easy to overstress and break anchors and hand ropes. A separate belay rope is attached to the litter and belayed from a separate anchor. and backup safeties are of special importance in any raising operation. and po$er $inches* depend on mechanical advantage.aising operations place a greater load on all elements of the system than do lo$ering operations. <ecause the stresses generated by the V(pulley system can cause anchors to fail. 8o+-7ng!e $2acuation Cliffs and ridges.

the signalman assists the attendant in moving the litter over the edge and onto the loading platform. %1* he litter attendants secure the ropes to the litter. taking care not to jar the casualty. %. %'* he raising cre$ sets up the V(pulley system. %.( '*. he litter bearers take their positions and move the litter do$n $ith the speed of descent controlled by the belay man. . %)* Attendants guide the litter around obstacles $hile the cre$ continues to raise the system.* he raising ropes and belay ropes are secured to top anchors and are thro$n do$n to the litter cre$. b.* Dne man serves as the belay man and another takes his position on the rope in front of the belay man. % his is the signalman or relay man. !hen descending a moderately steep slope that can be do$n(climbed. . if possible. the litter and victim are prepared as described earlier %&igure . assisting him in lo$ering the litter. c. %0* -adding is placed at the cliff edge and over any protrusions to protect the ropes from abrasion. %4* As the litter nears the cliff edge.* 3ote4 If the load is too heavy at this time. another pulley is added to the system to increase the mechanical advantage.. %7* Dne member of the cre$ secures himself to an anchor and moves to the edge of the cliff to transmit signals and directions. Descen&ing S!opes. he litter is prepared as already described. hese should be attached to alternate anchor points.safeguard the system.aising the 8itter.

As long as safety principals are follo$ed. Bengths of sling rope or 4(millimeter cordage $ork best. he cliffs $ith the smoothest faces are chosen for the route. and anchor points for the A(frame. /e reconnoiters so that the team need not retrace its steps if a cliff is encountered. many different techni#ues can be used. good loading and unloading platforms. -igh-7ng!e $2acuation .(7*: a.vacuation do$n cliffs should be used only $hen absolutely necessary and only by e"perienced personnel. >se multiple anchors for the litter and litter tenders. clearance for the casualty along the route. +ite selection should have the follo$ing features: suitable anchor points.&escen&ing. %0* he e"tra man may assist $ith the litter or precede the team to select a trail. clearing a$ay shrubs and vines. practical passage should be taken utiliAing available natural anchors as belay positions. 8o+-ang!e e2acuation . if used. +ecure the litter to the lo$ering rope $ith a minimum of four tie(in points %one at each corner of the litter*. Cake the attached ropes adjustable $ith -russik knots so that each corner of . b.Figure ))-4. %1* he most direct.. here are many $ays to lo$er a casualty do$n a steep slope. Dne of the easiest and safest techni#ues is as follo$s %&igure .

C!i## e2acuation &escent. Dnce the steep slope has been negotiated. hey can be attached to separate anchors and either self( belay themselves or be lo$ered by belayers. ie the top of the ropes $ith loops and attach to the lo$ering rope $ith a pear shaped locking carabiner. :easurement Con2ersion Factors :E8T=98D %D T6 6%T7=3 Cillimeters . d. $o litter tenders $ill descend $ith the litter to control the descent and to monitor the casualty. Figure ))-5. continue the rescue $ith a lo$(angle evacuation.the litter can be raised or lo$ered to keep the litter stable during descent. c.:1814 Inches .

1814 .Centimeters Centimeters Ceters Ceters Ceters ?ilometers ?nots . A human body is bulky and is apt to be thro$n to$ard the surface or the sides... If any indication of the location of the victim is found. random probing starts in that vicinity.14 . 18. chances of survival are remote. 'he best chance of survival in snow country is to avoid an avalanche: but. they are depending on you for rescueA =mme&iate 7ction +urvivors at the avalanche site organiAe into the first rescue team and immediately start rescue operations.:105. . if a member of your group is in an avalanche. he tip and edges of the slide are also likely areas to search. <enera! 9roce&ures .7. after two hours.) Inches &eet Inches &eet Iards Ciles C-/ 72a!anche Search an& .05.robability of survival drops rapidly and. Chances of survival after burial by an avalanche are appro)imately .:81) .)0.escue Techniques 'he effect of an avalanche can be disastrous.14 1. collision with obstacles such as roc0s and trees accounts for @> percent. and hypothermia and shoc0 accounts for =< percent. Suffocation accounts for ?> percent of avalanche fatalities..< percent if the victim is located within the first => minutes. .

hats. urbulence. and repeat it as long as a live rescue remains possible. Cake a #uick but systematic check of the slide area and the deposition area. . immediately select personnel to begin a beacon search.stablish from $itnesses $here the victim $as located just before the avalanche to determine the point $here the victim disappeared—the 6last seen6 point.nsure all other beacons are turned off or to receive to eliminate erroneous signals. poles. >nless other$ise indicated. $ould be e"pected to sink deeper and deeper into the avalanche@ ho$ever. . a digger can be standing by to assist $hen needed. A human body. a. usually the toe of the slide. a high probability e"ists that the victim $ill be near the do$nhill flo$ line passing through these t$o points. packs. establish a probable victim trajectory line leading to high priority search areas. • Any terrain features that catch and hold avalanche debris are also apt to catch a victim. start the coarse probe at the deposition area. If the initial search reveals items from the victim. terrain. several factors influence the bodyUs location. and the victimUs o$n efforts to e"tricate himself all interact to determine the final burial position. >sing this and any other information.. make an initial probe search in that area. boots. If t$o points of the victimUs trajectory can be established. b. $sta !ishing the Aictim's :ost 9ro a !e 8ocation In many respects. goggles.esort to the fine probe only $hen the possibility of a live rescue is highly improbable. his probing should take only a fe$ seconds. $ith a higher density than the flo$ing sno$. if enough personnel are available. Book for skis. If using avalanche beacons. +tudy of a large number of case histories leads to the follo$ing conclusions. • • he majority of buried victims are carried to the place of greatest deposition. or any other article the person may have been carrying—it might still be attached to the victim. and mark all clues. All personnel should have a shovel or other tool for digging or. a moving avalanche resembles a li#uid. ice a"es. DrganiAe initial searchers and probers. gloves. . Cake a coarse probe of all likely areas of burial.

. the greater $ill be his burial depth. Although the probers do not need previous training the search leader must be familiar $ith the techni#ue to ensure proper e"ecution of the probe line. • Vegetation. Conversely. An obstacle may simply delay the victimUs motion. the limp body of an unconscious victim is likely to be buried deeply. although they may operate differently in the search mode. Although this type of pole . he closer the victimUs trajectory is to the center of the slide. Bonger poles are difficult to manage. but only if the victim is $earing an active transceiver. he likelihood of a victim being buried in a particular bend is proportional to the amount of debris deposited there. All currently available transceivers are compatible. In the case of large and violent avalanches. especially in a high $ind.fforts of the victim to e"tricate himself by vigorous motion and 6s$imming6 definitely minimiAe burial depth. a.• If an avalanche follo$s a $andering gully. • . rocks. • Ca"imum speed of the flo$ing sno$ occurs at the avalanche center. >se of avalanche transceivers is the most efficient method of searching for an avalanche victim. 9ro ing #or 72a!anche Aictims -robing offers the advantage of re#uiring simple e#uipment that can be operated by personnel $ith no previous training. a search of the surrounding terrain is advisable. Victims have been located in tree tops outside the slide area. leading to final burial do$n flo$ from the obstacle. • An occasional e"ception to the above is emphasiAed. he victim may not be buried but may have been hurled a$ay from the avalanche by $ind blast. all debris deposit areas are likely burial spots.: feet long is recommended for the primary probe pole. each $ith its o$n manufacturerUs instructions for proper use and care. 9ro e 9o!es. he victim tends to be retained above the obstacle.igid steel tubing appro"imately 1K'(inch in diameter and appro"imately . and other obstacles act as snares. &riction reduces flo$ velocity along the edges. Cany models of transceivers are available.

he only sure check is by digging. +uch a plan of operation is especially important $hen more than one victim is buried. probing $ith the $rist strap do$n@ or the basket can be removed so that the point is do$n %the preferred method*. -robing does not come to a halt $hen a possible contact is made. &or the probing operation to be effective. . $hile thirty is normally the upper limit. probing lines must be orderly and properly spaced. initial probing attempts can be started using ski poles in one of t$o $ays: the ski pole can be reversed. $hich allo$s the ski pole to penetrate the sno$ more easily. it is difficult to transport to the avalanche site because of its length and $eight. %0* If no probing poles are available. but are stronger and are connected $ith cable instead of bungee cord. $o distinct probing methods are recogniAed: coarse probe and fine probe. A string may be used to keep the probe lines aligned. but $ill re#uire added time to maintain. 9ro ing 8ines. A common problem is encountering debris $ithin the sno$ that can be mistaken for the victim. hese poles are similar to folding tent poles. hese poles should be carried on the outside of the pack for immediate access. 9ro ing Techniques. %.* .performs best. coarse probing implies a . $enty per line is satisfactory. %0* +triking a body gives a distinct feel to the probe. As evidenced by their names. c. the number of personnel per line should be limited. %.* he probe line maintains a steady advance upslope."tra probes are carried by the shovel cre$ to replace those left in contact. A shovel cre$ follo$s up on the strike by digging do$n along the pole. o ensure systematic and orderly probing.ach person operating in avalanche areas should carry folding sectional poles. he probe is left in contact and the line continues. $hich is easily recogniAable in soft sno$ but less recogniAable in hard compacted sno$. Advancing uphill automatically helps set the pace and permits easy probing to the full length of the probe. he number of probers in the line $ill be dictated by not only the $idth of the area to be probed but the number of personnel available. b.

-. &ine probing involves close(spaced probing $ith emphasis on thoroughness.6 <y using these commands. %b* A single probe pole insertion is made at the center of the straddle span.::(percent chance of locating the body. $hile the fine probe has. he probers themselves $ork silently.* he coarse probe functions as follo$s: %a* -robers are spaced along a line 1: inches center to center.6 6>. %d* hree commands are used for the complete se#uence: • • • 62D!= -. %.D<. clear commands are essential for efficient probing... he coarse probe techni#ue has a 4:(percent chance of locating the victim on a given pass. Coarse probing is used during initial phases of the search $hen live recovery is anticipated. the group advances 0: inches and repeats the single probe.$ider spacing of probe pole insertions $ith emphasis on speed. the leader can maintain closer control of the advancing probe line. +trict discipline and firm. %0* he fine probe functions as follo$s: . essentially. &ine probing is the concluding measure. %c* Dn command of the probe line commander.D<.2.7 inches apart.6 6+ . A string may also be used along the probe line to keep the probers dressed.. a .!A. although this re#uires the use of t$o soldiers to control the string. $ith feet about . It is important that the commands be adjusted to a rhythm that enforces the ma"imum reasonable pace. $hich almost guarantees finding the body.&D.

: inches from the adjacent one.ach man probes in front of his left foot.I9/ -.-. %c* he commands for the fine probe are: • • • • • • • 6B.6 6>... foot and repeats the probing se#uence.-.6 %d* 9ood discipline and coordinated probing is even more important in fine probing than $ith the coarse probe.. .D<.ach probe is made .!A.D<. >se of a string to align the probers is especially important $ith the fine probe.-. .D<.%a* -robers are spaced the same as for the coarse probe.6 6>. he three insertions are made along the line established by the string. and finally in front of his right foot.6 6>. . %b* Dn command.D<.. Careless or irregular probing can negate the advantages of fine probing. -.& -.D<.6 6. then in the center of his straddled position. foot.6 6C.2.. the line advances .6 6+ .D<.. $hich is then moved ahead ...= .&D.

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