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03_conventional_water_treatment

03_conventional_water_treatment

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Sections

  • Reflections
  • Simple Sorting
  • Where are we going?
  • Unit Processes Designed to Remove Particulate Matter
  • Screening
  • Sedimentation
  • Sedimentation: Effect of the particle concentration
  • How fast do particles fall in dilute suspensions?
  • Sedimentation: Particle Terminal Fall Velocity
  • Particle Terminal Fall Velocity (continued)
  • Drag Coefficient on a Sphere
  • Drag Coefficient: Equations
  • Example Calculation of Terminal Velocity
  • Sedimentation Basin: Critical Path
  • Sedimentation Basin: Importance of Tank Surface Area
  • Design Criteria for Sedimentation Tanks
  • Lamella Closeup
  • Sedimentation of Small Particles?
  • Particle/particle interactions
  • Energy Barrier
  • Coagulation
  • Coagulant introduction with rapid mixing
  • Flocculation
  • Mechanical Flocculation
  • Hydraulic Flocculators
  • Velocity Gradient Flocculation
  • Increase Velocity Gradient
  • Volume occupied by a particle
  • Collision Time
  • Flocculation Reactor Design
  • Shear
  • Too much shear?
  • Reaction time?
  • Reaction time is more complex
  • Laminar Pipe Flow
  • Coagulation/Flocculation
  • Jar Test
  • Unit Processes in Conventional Surface Water Treatment
  • Conventional Surface Water Treatment
  • Filtration
  • Slow Sand Filtration
  • Diatomaceous Earth Filters
  • Membrane Filters
  • Rapid Sand Filter (Conventional US Treatment)
  • Particle Removal Mechanisms in Filters
  • Filter Design
  • Backwash
  • Ways to Improve Filtration
  • Disinfection
  • Disinfection Options
  • Chlorine
  • Chlorine Reactions
  • EPA Pathogen Inactivation Requirements
  • EPA Credits for Giardia Inactivation
  • Disinfection CT Credits
  • NYC CT?
  • NYC CT Problem
  • Ozone
  • Removal of Dissolved Substances (1)
  • Removal of Dissolved Substances (2)
  • Cryptosporidium Oocyst
  • Reynolds Number Check
  • Diatomaceous Earth

Monroe L.

Weber-Shirk
School of Civil and
Environmental Engineering
Water Treatment

Reflections

What are the two broad tasks of
environmental engineers?

What is the connection between the broad
tasks of environmental engineers and
building a water treatment plant?

Why may the water need to be
changed/treated?

Simple Sorting

Goal: clean water

Source: (contaminated) surface water

Solution: separate contaminants from water

How?

Where are we going?
particles
dissolved chemicals
pathogens

Unit processes* designed to
remove ___________
remove __________ ___________
inactivate __________

*Unit process: a process that is used in similar ways in
many different applications
sedimentation
filtration
...

Unit Processes Designed to
Remove Particulate Matter

Screening

Sedimentation

Coagulation/flocculation

Filtration

slow sand filters

rapid sand filters

diatomaceous earth filters

membrane filters

Conventional Surface Water
Treatment
Screening
Coagulation
Flocculation
Sedimentation
Filtration
Disinfection
Storage
Distribution
Raw water
Alum
Polymers
Cl
2
sludge
sludge
sludge

Screening

Removes large solids

logs

branches

rags

fish

Simple process

may incorporate a mechanized trash
removal system

Protects pumps and pipes in WTP

Sedimentation

the oldest form of water treatment

uses gravity to separate particles from water

often follows coagulation and flocculation

occurs in NYC’s __________ reservoirs

Sedimentation: Effect of the
particle concentration

Dilute suspensions

Particles act independently

Concentrated suspensions

Particle-particle interactions are significant

Particles may collide and stick together
(form flocs)

Particle flocs may settle more quickly

Particle-particle forces may prevent further
consolidation

How fast do particles fall in
dilute suspensions?
Gravity
Fluid drag

What are the important
parameters?

Initial conditions

After falling for some time...

What are the important
forces?

_________

__________

projected
Sedimentation:
Particle Terminal Fall Velocity
ma F ·

0 · − + W F F
b d
p p
g ρ ∀
2
2
t
w P D d
V
A C F ρ ·
W
d
F
b
F
p w
g r "
velocity terminal particle
t coefficien drag
gravity to due on accelerati
density water
density particle
area sectional cross particle
volume particle
·
·
·
·
·
·
· ∀
t
D
w
p
p
p
V
C
g
ρ
ρ
A
_______ W ·
________
b
F =
Identify forces

Particle Terminal Fall Velocity
(continued)
b d
F W F − ·
g
V
A C
w p p
t
w P D
) (
2
2
ρ ρ ρ − ∀ ·
w P D
w p p
t
A C
g
V
ρ
ρ ρ ) ( 2

2
− ∀
·
d
A
p
p
3
2
·

( )
w
w p
D
t
C
gd
V
ρ
ρ ρ −
·
3
4

2
( ) 4

3
p w
t
D w
gd
V
C
r r
r
-
=
Force balance (zero acceleration)
3
3
4
r
p
π · ∀
2
r A
p
π ·
We haven’t yet assumed a shape
Assume a _______
sphere

0.1
1
10
100
1000
0
.
1 1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Reynolds Number
D
r
a
g

C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Drag Coefficient on a Sphere
laminar
Re
t
V dρ
µ
·
turbulent
turbulent
boundary
Stokes Law

Drag Coefficient:
Equations
Laminar flow Re < 1
Transitional flow 1 < Re < 10
4
Fully turbulent flow Re > 10
4
24
Re
D
C ·
Re
t
V dρ
µ
·
( )
µ
ρ ρ
18
2
w p
t
g d
V

·
( )
w
w p
t
gd
V
ρ
ρ ρ −

3 . 0
( )
w
w p
D
t
C
gd
V
ρ
ρ ρ −
·
3
4

General Equation
0.4
D
C ·
Use the graph

Example Calculation of Terminal
Velocity
Determine the terminal settling velocity of a
cryptosporidium oocyst having a diameter of 4 µ m
and a density of 1.04 g/cm
3
in water at 15°C
[µ =1.14x10
-3
kg/(s•m)].
Reynolds
?
3
2
999 kg/m
9.81 m/s
w
ρ
g
=
=
Work in your teams.
Use mks units (meters, kilograms, seconds).
Convert your answer to some reasonable set of units
that you understand.
Solutio
n

0.001
0.01
0.1
0.1 1 10
floc diameter (mm)
f
l
o
c

d
e
n
s
i
t
y
10
100
1000
f
l
o
c

t
e
r
m
i
n
a
l

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
m
/
d
a
y
)
floc density
Vt (m/day)
Floc Density and Velocity
(Approximate)

floc w
w
ρ ρ
ρ

| `

. ,
Water inlet
36 - 100 m/day
Water inlet
36 - 100 m/day
0.4 mm
______ kg/m
3
floc
ρ ·
1030
Based on experimental data for
Alum-clay flocs

Sedimentation Basin:
Critical Path
Horizontal velocity
Vertical velocity
L
H
captured gets barely just that velocity terminal ·
c
V
A
Q
V
h
·
( )
µ
ρ ρ
18
2
w p
t
g d
V

·
Sludge zone
I
n
l
e
t

z
o
n
e
O
u
t
l
e
t

z
o
n
e
Sludge out

t
V
h
V
A = WH
Q = flow rate
(property of the particle)
(property of the tank)

Sedimentation Basin:
Importance of Tank Surface Area
c
V
h
V
L
H
W
Suppose water were flowing up through a sedimentation tank. What
would be the velocity of a particle that is just barely removed?
Q

· θ

c
s
H HQ Q Q
V
LW A q
= = = =
"
s
residence time
volume of tank
A top surface area of tank
WHL
θ ·
∀ · ·
·
Want a _____ V
c
, ______ A
s
, _______ H, _______ θ .
small large
Time in tank
small large

c
s
Q
V
A
=

Conventional Sedimentation Basin
Settling zone
Sludge zone
I
n
l
e
t

z
o
n
e
O
u
t
l
e
t

z
o
n
e
Sludge out

long rectangular
basins

4-6 hour
retention time

3-4 m deep

max of 12 m
wide

max of 48 m
long
We can’t do this in our laboratory scale
plants!
What is V
c
for this sedimentation tank?
3 24
18 /
4
c
H m hr
V m day
hr day θ
· · ·

Settling zone
Sludge zone
I
n
l
e
t

z
o
n
e
O
u
t
l
e
t

z
o
n
e
Design Criteria for
Sedimentation Tanks
Minimal turbulence (inlet baffles)
Uniform velocity (small dimensions normal to velocity)
No scour of settled particles
Slow moving particle collection system
Q/A
s
must be small (to capture small particles)
This will be one of the ways you can improve the
performance of your water treatment plant.

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

Lamella

Sedimentation tanks are
commonly divided into
layers of shallow tanks
(lamella)

The flow rate can be
increased while still
obtaining excellent
particle removal
Lamella decrease distance particle
has to fall in order to be removed

Lamella
Design needs improvement! Need method to transport
particles to bottom of tank.


Lamella Closeup
Region of particle-free fluid above the
suspension
Suspension
Thin particle-free fluid layer beneath the
downward-facing surface
Concentrated sediment
α
b
L
cos sin
lamella
c
Q
v
wL wb α α
·
+
w = width of lamella

c
s
Q
V
A
=
cos sin
lamella
c
V
v
L
b
α α
·
+

Lamella Design Strategy

Angle is approximately 60° to get
solids to slide down the incline

Re must be less than 2000

Shear doesn’t causing resuspension
if flow is laminar

Lamella spacing must be large
relative to floc size (flocs can be
several mm in diameter)
Upflow velocity (Q/A
s
) can be as
large as 100 m/day
lamella
lamella
Q
Q
N
·
Re
lamella
V b
ν
·
( )
( )
tan
cos
sin
k
lamella
L L
N
b
α
α

·

Sedimentation of Small
Particles?

How could we increase the sedimentation
rate of small particles?
( )
µ
ρ ρ
18
2
w p
t
g d
V

·
Increase d (stick
particles together)
Increase g (centrifuge)
Decrease viscosity
(increase temperature)
Increase density difference
(dissolved air flotation)

Particle/particle interactions

Electrostatic repulsion

In most surface waters, colloidal surfaces are
negatively charged

like charges repel __________________

van der Waals force

an attractive force

decays more rapidly with distance than the electrostatic
force

is a stronger force at very close distances
stable suspension

Energy Barrier

Increase kinetic energy of
particles

increase temperature

stir

Decrease magnitude of energy
barrier

change the charge of the particles

introduce positively charged
particles
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Layer of
counter ions
van der
Waals
Electrostatic

Coagulation

Coagulation is a physical-chemical process
whereby particles are destabilized

Several mechanisms

adsorption of cations onto negatively charged
particles

decrease the thickness of the layer of counter
ions

sweep coagulation

interparticle bridging

Coagulation Chemistry

The standard coagulant for water supply is
Alum [Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
*14.3H
2
O]

Typically 5 mg/L to 50 mg/L alum is used

The chemistry is complex with many possible
species formed such as AlOH
+2
, Al(OH)
2
+
, and
Al
7
(OH)
17
+4
The primary reaction produces Al(OH)
3

Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ 6H
2
O→2Al(OH)
3
+ 6H
+
+ 3SO
4
-2
pH = -log[H
+
]

Coagulation Chemistry
Aluminum hydroxide [Al(OH)
3
] forms
amorphous, gelatinous flocs that are heavier
than water

The flocs look like snow in water

These flocs entrap particles as the flocs
settle (sweep coagulation)

Coagulant introduction with
rapid mixing

The coagulant must be mixed with the water

Retention times in the mixing zone are typically
between 1 and 10 seconds

Types of rapid mix units

pumps

hydraulic jumps

flow-through basins with many baffles

In-line blenders

In-line static mixers

Flocculation

Coagulation has destabilized the particles
by reducing the energy barrier

Now we want to get the particles to collide

We need relative motion between particles

________ ________ (effective for particles
smaller than 1 µ m)

_________ _____________ (big particles hit
smaller particles)

_______
Differential sedimentation
Shear
Brownian motion

Mechanical Flocculation

Shear provided by turbulence
created by gentle stirring

Turbulence also keeps large flocs
from settling so they can grow
even larger!

Retention time of 10 - 30 minutes

Advantage is that amount of
shear can be varied independent
of flow rate

Disadvantage is the tanks are far
from plug flow

Hydraulic Flocculators

Types

Horizontal baffle

Vertical baffle

Pipe flow

Questions for design

How long must the suspension be in the “reactor”

How should the geometry of the reactor be
determined?

Velocity Gradient Flocculation
With red particle as frame of reference
With fixed frame of reference

Increase Velocity Gradient
Velocity gradient!

du
G
dy
·

How much water is cleared of particles
from stationary particle’s perspective?

Volume cleared is proportional to projected area
of stationary particle

Volume cleared is proportional to time

Volume cleared is proportional to the velocity
gradient

The velocity of the water flowing past the
particle increases with the diameter of the
particle
3
cleared
d Gt ∀ ∝
2
d ∝
t ∝
G ∝
d ∝

How much volume must be cleared
before a collision occurs?

What is the average volume of water
occupied by a particle?

Given C mg/L of particles in suspension…

Need to know particle diameter (d)
And density (ρ
particles
)

How many particles are in a volume of
water?
3
6
particles
particles
C
N
d
π
ρ
·
g
number
volume
]
]
]

Volume occupied by a particle
3
6
particles
occupied
particles
d
C
π
ρ ⋅
∀ ·
Set volume occupied by a particle equal to volume cleared
3
cleared
d Gt ∀ ∝
3
3
6
particles
particles
d
d Gt
C
π
ρ ⋅

particles
collision
particles
t
G C
ρ



Collision Time

A measure of how long the particles must
be in the velocity gradient to double in size

A series of collisions must occur for
particles to grow large enough to be easily
removed by sedimentation
particles
collision
particles
t
G C
ρ



Flocculation Reactor Design

Critical design is when particle concentration is
low

Higher velocity gradients would decrease the
characteristic collision time

Why not design a tiny reactor with huge
velocity gradients?

SHEAR
particles
collision
particles
t
G C
ρ



Shear

The tangential force experienced by a fluid
in a velocity gradient is proportional to the
viscosity of the fluid

du
dy
τ µ ·
G τ µ ·
Fluid
viscosity
2
N s
m

]
]
]
Velocity
gradient
1
s
]
]
]
Shear
2
N
m
]
]
]

Too much shear?

Flocs can be broken by too much shear

Amazingly, we haven’t been able to find good
information on the shear level that causes
aluminum-clay flocs to breakup

fine grained cohesive sediments within estuarine
waters were shown to produce smaller flocs when
the shear exceeded 0.35 Pa (equivalent to a G of
approximately 400/s)

du
dy
τ µ ·

Reaction time?

Low particle concentrations require longer
flocculation

Goal is to get flocculation to work when
turbidity is as low as 10 NTU (equivalent to
approximately 20 mg/L of kaolin clay)
particles
collision
particles
t
G C
ρ


2650
1
400 0.020
collision
g
L
t
g
s L
| `

. ,

| ` | `


. , . ,
331 seconds

Reaction time is more complex

Aluminum hydroxide polymers significantly
increase the number of particles and the
probability of collision (and hence decrease t
collision
)

So for now we have to go with some empirical
guidelines

Gθ should be at least 20,000 where θ is the
hydraulic residence time in the flocculation reactor
Q
θ

·
Reactor volume
Flow rate

Laminar Flow Pipe Flocculation:
for tiny flows!

The max value for G is approximately
50/s

These equations assume laminar flow

Laminar flow requires that the
Reynolds number be less than 2000

See if you can figure out equations for
the length of the pipe
3
64
3
Q
G
d π
·
3
64
3
Q
d
G π
·
4
Re
Vd Q
D
ρ ρ
µ πµ
· ·
max
3
32Q
G
d π
·
max
1.5 G G ·

Given Gθ , Q and d, Find Floc Tube
Length
Given Gθ , Q and d, Find Floc Tube
Length
3
64
3
Q
G
d π
·
2
4
d L
Q
π
·
2
3
64 16
4 3 3
d L Q L
G
Q d d
π
θ
π
· ⋅ ·
3
16
dG
L
θ
·
True for laminar flow
θ ·
Q

·
2
4
d
L
π
Q

Laminar Pipe Flow
displacement
velocity
Velocity
gradient
r
r

Coagulation/Flocculation

Inject Coagulant in rapid mixer

Water flows from rapid mix unit into
flocculation reactor

Water flows from flocculation reactor into
sedimentation tank

make sure flocs don’t break!

flocs settle and are removed

Jar Test

Mimics the rapid mix, flocculation,
sedimentation treatment steps in a beaker

Allows operator to test the effect of
different coagulant dosages or of different
coagulants

Low tech water bottle test

Unit Processes in Conventional
Surface Water Treatment

We’ve covered

Sedimentation

Coagulation/flocculation

Coming up!

Filtration

Disinfection

Removal of Dissolved Substances

Conventional Surface Water
Treatment
Screening
Coagulation
Flocculation
Sedimentation
Filtration
Disinfection
Storage
Distribution
Raw water
Alum
Polymers
Cl
2
sludge
sludge
sludge

Filtration

Slow sand filters

Diatomaceous earth filters

Membrane filters

Rapid sand filters (Conventional Treatment)

Slow Sand Filtration

First filters to be used on a widespread basis

Fine sand with an effective size of 0.2 mm

Low flow rates (10 - 40 cm/hr)

Schmutzdecke (_____ ____) forms on top
of the filter

causes high head loss

must be removed periodically

Used without coagulation/flocculation!
filter cake

Diatomaceous Earth Filters

Diatomaceous earth (DE) is made of the silica
skeletons of diatoms

DE is added to water and then fed to a special
microscreen

The DE already on the microscreen strains particles
and DE from the water

The continuous DE feed prevents the gradually
thickening DE cake from developing excessive head
loss

Was seriously considered for Croton Filtration Plant

Membrane Filters

Much like the membrane filters used to
enumerate coliforms

much greater surface area

Produce very high quality water (excellent
particle removal)

Clog rapidly if the influent water is not of
sufficiently high quality

More expensive than sand and DE filters

Rapid Sand Filter
(Conventional US Treatment)
Sand
Gravel
Influent
Drain
Effluent
Wash water
Anthracite
Size
(mm)
0.70
0.45 - 0.55
5 - 60
Specific
Gravity
1.6
2.65
2.65
Depth
(cm)
30
45
45

Particle Removal Mechanisms in
Filters
Transport
Attachment
Molecular diffusion
Inertia
Gravity
Interception
Straining
Surface forces

Filter Design
Filter media
silica sand and anthracite coal
non-uniform media will stratify with _______ particles at the top
Flow rates
2.5 - 10 m/hr
Backwash rates
set to obtain a bed porosity of 0.65 to 0.70
typically 50 m/hr
smaller

Sand
Gravel
Influent
Drain
Effluent
Wash water
Anthracite
Backwash

Wash water
is treated
water!

WHY?
Only clean water
should ever be on
bottom of filter!

Ways to Improve Filtration

Filter to waste

Extended Terminal Sub-fluidization Wash

Alum feed directly to filter?

Potato starch?

Disinfection

Disinfection: operations aimed at killing or
____________ pathogenic microorganisms

Ideal disinfectant

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________
inactivating
Toxic to pathogens
Not toxic to humans
Fast rate of kill
Residual protection
Economical

Disinfection Options

Chlorine

chlorine gas

sodium hypochlorite (bleach)

Ozone

Irradiation with Ultraviolet light

Sonification

Electric Current

Gamma-ray irradiation
Poisonous gas – risk of a leak

Chlorine

First large-scale chlorination was in 1908 at the
Boonton Reservoir of the Jersey City Water
Works in the United States

Widely used in the US

Typical dosage (1-5 mg/L)

variable, based on the chlorine demand

goal of 0.2 mg/L residual

Trihalomethanes (EPA primary standard is 0.08
mg/L)
Pathogen/carcinogen tradeoff
Chlorine
oxidizes organic
matter

Chlorine Reactions
Cl
2
+ H
2
O → H
+
+ HOCl + Cl
-
HOCl ↔ H
+
+ OCl
-

The sum of HOCl and OCl
-
is called the
____ ______ _______

HOCl is the more effective disinfectant

Therefore chlorine disinfection is more
effective at ________ pH

HOCl and OCl
-
are in equilibrium at pH 7.5
free chlorine residual
low
+1 -2 +1 0 Charges -1
Hypochlorous acid Hypochlorite ion

EPA Pathogen Inactivation
Requirements

SDWA requires 99.9% inactivation for
Giardia and 99.99% inactivation of viruses

Giardia is more difficult to kill with
chlorine than viruses and thus Giardia
inactivation determines the CT
Concentration x Time
Enumerating Giardia is difficult, time-consuming and costly.
How would you ensure that water treatment plants meet this
criteria?
Where are Giardia removed/inactivated?
Safe Drinking Water Act

EPA Credits for Giardia
Inactivation
Treatment type Credit
Conventional Filtration 99.7%
Direct Filtration* 99%
Disinfection f(time, conc., pH, Temp.)
* No sedimentation tanks

Disinfection CT Credits
Contact time (min)
chlorine pH 6.5 pH 7.5
(mg/L) 2°C 10°C 2°C 10°C
0.5 300 178 430 254
1 159 94 228 134
To get credit for 99.9% inactivation of Giardia:
Inactivation is a function of _______, ____________
______, and ___________.
concentration time
pH
temperature

NYC
CT?
Kensico
Hillview
Delaware Pipeline
21.75 km long
5.94 m diameter
peak hourly flow
= 33 m
3
/s
3.4 x 10
6
m
3
volume =603,000 m
3
5 hour residence time!

NYC CT Problem

Hillview Reservoir is an open reservoir

Should the chlorine contact time prior to arrival at
Hillview count?
Giardia contamination from Upstate
Reservoirs will be decreased, but
recontamination at Hillview is
possible

Ozone

Widely used in Europe
O
3
is chemically unstable

Must be produced on site

More expensive than chlorine (2 - 3 times)

Typical dosages range from 1 to 5 mg/L

Often followed by chlorination so that the
chlorine can provide a protective _______
residual

Removal of Dissolved
Substances (1)

Aeration (before filtration)

oxidizes iron or manganese in groundwater

oxidized forms are less soluble and thus
precipitate out of solution
removes hydrogen sulfide (H
2
S)

Softening (before filtration)

used to remove Ca
+2
and Mg
+2

usually not necessary with surface waters

Removal of Dissolved
Substances (2)
Activated Carbon (between filtration and disinfection)
extremely adsorbent
used to remove organic contaminants
spent activated carbon can be regenerated with superheated
steam
Reverse Osmosis
semi-permeable membrane allows water molecules to pass, but
not the larger ions and molecules
primarily used for desalination
also removes organic materials, bacteria, viruses, and protozoa

Conventional Surface Water
Treatment
Screening
Coagulation
Flocculation
Sedimentation
Filtration
Disinfection
Storage
Distribution
Raw water
Alum
Polymers
Cl
2
sludge
sludge
sludge

Summary

Cryptosporidium Oocyst
( ) ( )( )

,
`

.
|


·


m s
kg
1.14x10 18
kg/m 99 9 kg/m 1040 m/s 1 8 9. m 4x10

3
3 3 2
2
6
t
V
( )
µ
ρ ρ
18
2
w p
t
g d
V

·
m 4x10
m/s 1 8 9.
kg/m 99 9
kg/m 1040
6
2
3
3

·
·
·
·
d
g
ρ
ρ
w
p
m/s 10 14 . 3
7 −
· x V
t
cm/day 7 . 2 ·
t
V

Reynolds Number Check
Re<<1 and therefore in Stokes Law range
Re
Vdρ
µ
·
( ) ( ) ( )
7 6 3
3
3.14 10 m/s 4 10 m 999kg/m
Re
kg
1.14x10
s m
x x
− −

·

Re = 1.1 x 10 Re = 1.1 x 10
-6 -6

Diatomaceous Earth
DE
Clay

lamella lamella
lamella
Q
Q v wb
N
· ·
cos sin
lamella c
L
v v
b
α α
| `
· +

. ,
( )
( )
tan
cos
sin
k
lamella
L L
N
b
α
α

·
( )
( )
tan
sin
cos sin
cos
c
k
Qb L
v
b wbL wbL
α
α α
α
| `
+ ·


. ,
( )
( ) ( )
tan
cos
sin
sin
cos
c k
L
b
Q
v wL wL
α
α
α
α
·


cos sin
lamella
c
Q
v
wL wb α α
·
+
( )
( ) ( )
tan
sin
cos cos sin
c
k
Q
v
L
wL wL
b
α
α α α
·
| `
− +

. ,
1
cos sin
c
lamella
Q
v
L
wbN
b
α α
·
+

Reflections
 What are the two broad tasks of environmental engineers?  What is the connection between the broad tasks of environmental engineers and building a water treatment plant?  Why may the water need to be changed/treated?

Simple Sorting
 Goal: clean water  Source: (contaminated) surface water  Solution: separate contaminants from water  How?

Where are we going?
 Unit processes* designed to
 remove ___________ particles  remove __________ ___________ dissolved chemicals  inactivate __________

 *Unit process: a process that is used in similar ways in many different applications
 sedimentation  filtration  ...

pathogens

Unit Processes Designed to Remove Particulate Matter  Screening  Sedimentation  Coagulation/flocculation  Filtration slow sand filters rapid sand filters diatomaceous earth filters membrane filters .

Conventional Surface Water Treatment Raw water Screening Alum Polymers Filtration sludge Coagulation Cl2 Disinfection sludge Flocculation Storage Sedimentation sludge Distribution .

Screening  Removes large solids  logs  branches  rags  fish  Simple process  may incorporate a mechanized trash removal system  Protects pumps and pipes in WTP .

Sedimentation  the oldest form of water treatment  uses gravity to separate particles from water  often follows coagulation and flocculation  occurs in NYC’s __________ reservoirs .

Sedimentation: Effect of the particle concentration  Dilute suspensions Particles act independently  Concentrated suspensions Particle-particle interactions are significant Particles may collide and stick together (form flocs) Particle flocs may settle more quickly Particle-particle forces may prevent further consolidation .

How fast do particles fall in dilute suspensions?  What are the important parameters? Initial conditions After falling for some time...  What are the important forces? _________ Gravity __________ Fluid drag .

Sedimentation: Particle Terminal Fall Velocity Fd + Fb − W = 0 ∀pρ p g W = _______ Fb =" p r w g ________ Fd = C D AP ρ w Vt 2 2 W ∑ F = ma Identify forces Fb Fd ∀ p = particle volume projected Ap = particle cross sectional area ρ p = particle density ρw = water density g = acceleration due to gravity C D = drag coefficient Vt = particle terminal velocity .

r w ) Vt = 3 CD rw .Particle Terminal Fall Velocity (continued) Fd = W − Fb C D AP ρ w Vt 2 = Vt 2 2 2∀ p ( ρ p − ρ w ) g C D AP ρ w ∀p = d Ap 3 2 4 = ∀ p (ρ p − ρw )g Force balance (zero acceleration) We haven’t yet assumed a shape 3 ∀ p = πr 3 Ap = πr 2 sphere Assume a _______ Vt = 2 4 gd ( ρ p − ρ w ) 3 CD ρw 4 gd ( r p .

Drag Coefficient on a Sphere 1000 Drag Coefficient 100 10 1 0. 1 10 1 Stokes Law Reynolds Number Re = Vt d ρ µ laminar turbulent turbulent boundary .1 10 00 00 0 10 00 00 00 10 00 00 10 00 0 10 00 10 0 0.

4 Vt ≈ gd ( ρ p − ρ w ) 0.Drag Coefficient: Equations General Equation Vt = 4 gd ( ρ p − ρ w ) 3 CD Vt d ρ Re = µ ρw Vt = d 2 g( ρ p − ρw ) 18µ Laminar flow Re < 1 24 CD = Re Transitional flow 1 < Re < 104 Fully turbulent flow Re > 10 4 Use the graph CD = 0.3 ρw .

Solutio Reynolds .Example Calculation of Terminal Velocity Determine the terminal settling velocity of a cryptosporidium oocyst having a diameter of 4 µ m and a density of 1.04 g/cm3 in water at 15°C [µ =1.14x10-3 kg/(s•m)]. Use mks units (meters.81 m/s 2 Work in your teams. Convert your answer to some reasonable set of units that you understand. seconds). kilograms. ρw =999 kg/m3 g =9.

Floc Density and Velocity (Approximate) 36 .100 m/day Water inlet Based on experimental data for Alum-clay flocs floc terminal velocity (m/day) 0.001 0.1 10 ρ floc =______ kg/m3 1030 0.4 mm 1 10 floc diameter (mm) .01 floc density Vt (m/day) 100 0.1 1000  ρ floc − ρ w    ρw   floc density 0.

Sedimentation Basin: Critical Path Horizontal velocity A = WH Vertical velocity A Vt = d 2 g( ρ p − ρw ) 18µ Vh = Inlet zone Q Q = flow rate Outlet zone Vh Sludge zone Vt H Sludge out L (property of the particle) Vc = terminal velocity that just barely gets captured (property of the tank) .

_______ θ . small large small large Suppose water were flowing up through a sedimentation tank.Sedimentation Basin: Importance of Tank Surface Area θ= ∀ Q Time in tank W θ = residence time ∀ = WHL = volume of tank A s = top surface area of tank Vh Vc H HQ Q Q Vc = = = = q " LW As H L Want a _____ Vc. _______ H. ______ As. What Q would be the velocity of a particle that is just barely removed? Vc = A s .

Conventional Sedimentation Basin  long rectangular basins  4-6 hour retention time  3-4 m deep  max of 12 m wide  max of 48 m long What is Vc for this sedimentation tank? Inlet zone Sludge zone Sludge out H 3 m 24 hr Vc = = = 18 m / day θ 4 hr day We can’t do this in our laboratory scale Outlet zone Settling zone .

Design Criteria for Sedimentation Tanks Settling zone Inlet zone Outlet zone Sludge zone  _______________________________ Minimal turbulence (inlet baffles)  _______________________________ to velocity) Uniform velocity (small dimensions normal  _______________________________ No scour of settled particles  _______________________________ Slow moving particle collection system  _______________________________ Q/As must be small (to capture small particles) This will be one of the ways you can improve the performance of your water treatment plant. .

Lamella  Sedimentation tanks are commonly divided into layers of shallow tanks (lamella)  The flow rate can be increased while still obtaining excellent particle removal Lamella decrease distance particle has to fall in order to be removed .

Lamella Design needs improvement! Need method to transport particles to bottom of tank. .

.

Lamella Closeup Q Vc = As Qlamella vc = wL cos α + wb sin α w = width of lamella L b L cos α + sin α b  Region of particle-free fluid above the suspension  Suspension  Thin particle-free fluid layer beneath the downward-facing surface  Concentrated sediment vc = Vlamella α .

Lamella Design Strategy  Angle is approximately 60° to get solids to slide down the incline  Re must be less than 2000  Shear doesn’t causing resuspension if flow is laminar Qlamella = Q N lamella N lamella = Ltan k − L cos ( α ) b sin ( α )  Lamella spacing must be large relative to floc size (flocs can be several mm in diameter)  Upflow velocity (Q/As) can be as large as 100 m/day Vlamella b Re = ν .

Sedimentation of Small Particles?  How could we increase the sedimentation rate of small particles? Increase d (stick particles together) Vt = d g ( ρ p − ρ w ) Increase density difference 2 Increase g (centrifuge) 18µ (dissolved air flotation) Decrease viscosity (increase temperature) .

colloidal surfaces are negatively charged stable suspension  like charges repel __________________  van der Waals force  an attractive force  decays more rapidly with distance than the electrostatic force  is a stronger force at very close distances .Particle/particle interactions  Electrostatic repulsion  In most surface waters.

Electrostatic Energy Barrier  Increase kinetic energy of particles increase temperature stir Layer of counter ions + ++ + + +++ +  Decrease magnitude of energy barrier + ++ + + +++ + van der Waals change the charge of the particles introduce positively charged particles .

Coagulation  Coagulation is a physical-chemical process whereby particles are destabilized  Several mechanisms adsorption of cations onto negatively charged particles decrease the thickness of the layer of counter ions sweep coagulation interparticle bridging .

Al(OH)2+.3H2O]  Typically 5 mg/L to 50 mg/L alum is used  The chemistry is complex with many possible species formed such as AlOH+2 . and Al7(OH)17 +4 The primary reaction produces Al(OH)3 Al2(SO4)3 + 6H2O→2Al(OH)3 + 6H+ + 3SO4-2 pH = -log[H+] .Coagulation Chemistry  The standard coagulant for water supply is Alum [Al2(SO4)3*14.

Coagulation Chemistry  Aluminum hydroxide [Al(OH)3] forms amorphous. gelatinous flocs that are heavier than water  The flocs look like snow in water  These flocs entrap particles as the flocs settle (sweep coagulation) .

Coagulant introduction with rapid mixing  The coagulant must be mixed with the water  Retention times in the mixing zone are typically between 1 and 10 seconds  Types of rapid mix units  pumps  hydraulic jumps  flow-through basins with many baffles  In-line blenders  In-line static mixers .

Flocculation  Coagulation has destabilized the particles by reducing the energy barrier  Now we want to get the particles to collide  We need relative motion between particles ________ motion (effective for particles Brownian ________ smaller than 1 µ m) _________ _____________ (big particles hit Differential sedimentation smaller particles) _______ Shear .

Mechanical Flocculation  Shear provided by turbulence created by gentle stirring  Turbulence also keeps large flocs from settling so they can grow even larger!  Retention time of 10 .30 minutes  Advantage is that amount of shear can be varied independent of flow rate  Disadvantage is the tanks are far from plug flow .

Hydraulic Flocculators  Types Horizontal baffle Vertical baffle Pipe flow  Questions for design How long must the suspension be in the “reactor” How should the geometry of the reactor be determined? .

Velocity Gradient Flocculation With fixed frame of reference With red particle as frame of reference .

Increase Velocity Gradient du G= dy Velocity gradient! .

How much water is cleared of particles from stationary particle’s perspective?  Volume cleared is proportional to projected area of stationary particle  Volume cleared is proportional to time  Volume cleared is proportional to the velocity gradient  The velocity of the water flowing past the particle increases with the diameter of the particle ∝d ∝t ∝G 2 ∝d ∀ cleared ∝d Gt 3 .

How much volume must be cleared before a collision occurs?  What is the average volume of water occupied by a particle?  Given C mg/L of particles in suspension…  Need to know particle diameter (d)  And density (ρ particles)  How many particles are in a volume of C particles water? N =  number  π 3  volume    ρ particles g d 6 .

Volume occupied by a particle ρ particles ⋅ π 3 d 6 ∀cleared ∝ d 3Gt ∀occupied = C particles Set volume occupied by a particle equal to volume cleared π 3 ρ particles ⋅ d 6 ∝ d 3Gt C particles tcollision ρ particles ∝ G ⋅ C particles .

Collision Time tcollision ∝ ρ particles G ⋅C particles  A measure of how long the particles must be in the velocity gradient to double in size  A series of collisions must occur for particles to grow large enough to be easily removed by sedimentation .

Flocculation Reactor Design  Critical design is when particle concentration is ρ particles tcollision ∝ low G ⋅C particles  Higher velocity gradients would decrease the characteristic collision time  Why not design a tiny reactor with huge velocity gradients?  SHEAR .

Shear du τ =µ dy  The tangential force experienced by a fluid in a velocity gradient is proportional to the viscosity of the fluid τ = µG Shear  N  m2   Fluid viscosity  N ⋅ s  m2    Velocity gradient  1  s   .

Too much shear? du τ =µ dy  Flocs can be broken by too much shear  Amazingly.35 Pa (equivalent to a G of approximately 400/s) . we haven’t been able to find good information on the shear level that causes aluminum-clay flocs to breakup  fine grained cohesive sediments within estuarine waters were shown to produce smaller flocs when the shear exceeded 0.

020  s  L  331 seconds .Reaction time? tcollision ∝ ρ particles G ⋅C particles  Low particle concentrations require longer flocculation  Goal is to get flocculation to work when turbidity is as low as 10 NTU (equivalent to approximately 20 mg/L of kaolin clay) tcollision g   2650  L  ∝ 1  g   400  ⋅  0.

000 where θ is the hydraulic residence time in the flocculation reactor ∀ θ= Q Reactor volume Flow rate .Reaction time is more complex  Aluminum hydroxide polymers significantly increase the number of particles and the probability of collision (and hence decrease tcollision)  So for now we have to go with some empirical guidelines  Gθ should be at least 20.

Laminar Flow Pipe Flocculation: G for tiny flows! max 32Q = πd3  The max value for G is approximately 64Q G= 3π d 3 50/s  These equations assume laminar flow 64Q d=3 3π G  Laminar flow requires that the Reynolds number be less than 2000Vd ρ Q ρ 4 Re = µ π µD =  See if you can figure out equations for the length of the pipe Gmax = 1.5G .

Q and d. Find Floc Tube Length 64Q G= 3π d 3 True for laminar flow πd2 L ∀ π d 2L 4 θ= = = Q Q 4Q π d 2 L 64Q 16 L Gθ = ⋅ = 3 4Q 3π d 3d 3dGθ L= 16 .Given Gθ .

Laminar Pipe Flow displacement r velocity r Velocity gradient .

Coagulation/Flocculation  Inject Coagulant in rapid mixer  Water flows from rapid mix unit into flocculation reactor  Water flows from flocculation reactor into sedimentation tank make sure flocs don’t break! flocs settle and are removed .

flocculation. sedimentation treatment steps in a beaker  Allows operator to test the effect of different coagulant dosages or of different coagulants  Low tech water bottle test .Jar Test  Mimics the rapid mix.

Unit Processes in Conventional Surface Water Treatment
 We’ve covered
Sedimentation Coagulation/flocculation

 Coming up!
Filtration Disinfection Removal of Dissolved Substances

Conventional Surface Water Treatment
Raw water Screening Alum Polymers Filtration

sludge
Coagulation Cl2 Disinfection

sludge

Flocculation

Storage

Sedimentation

sludge

Distribution

Filtration
 Slow sand filters  Diatomaceous earth filters  Membrane filters  Rapid sand filters (Conventional Treatment)

Slow Sand Filtration
 First filters to be used on a widespread basis  Fine sand with an effective size of 0.2 mm  Low flow rates (10 - 40 cm/hr)  Schmutzdecke (_____cake forms on top filter ____) of the filter
causes high head loss must be removed periodically

 Used without coagulation/flocculation!

Diatomaceous Earth Filters  Diatomaceous earth (DE) is made of the silica skeletons of diatoms  DE is added to water and then fed to a special microscreen  The DE already on the microscreen strains particles and DE from the water  The continuous DE feed prevents the gradually thickening DE cake from developing excessive head loss  Was seriously considered for Croton Filtration Plant .

Membrane Filters  Much like the membrane filters used to enumerate coliforms much greater surface area  Produce very high quality water (excellent particle removal)  Clog rapidly if the influent water is not of sufficiently high quality  More expensive than sand and DE filters .

0.60 2.70 0.Rapid Sand Filter (Conventional US Treatment) Size (mm) Specific Depth Gravity (cm) 1.45 .65 5 .55 2.6 30 45 45 Anthracite Influent Sand Gravel 0.65 Drain Effluent Wash water .

Particle Removal Mechanisms in Filters Transport Molecular diffusion Inertia Gravity Interception Attachment Straining Surface forces .

70  typically 50 m/hr .10 m/hr smaller  Backwash rates  set to obtain a bed porosity of 0.65 to 0.5 .Filter Design  Filter media  silica sand and anthracite coal  non-uniform media will stratify with _______ particles at the top  Flow rates  2.

Backwash  Wash water is treated water!  WHY? water Only clean should ever be on bottom of filter! Anthracite Influent Sand Gravel Drain Effluent Wash water .

Ways to Improve Filtration  Filter to waste  Extended Terminal Sub-fluidization Wash  Alum feed directly to filter?  Potato starch? .

Disinfection  Disinfection: operations aimed at killing or inactivating ____________ pathogenic microorganisms  Ideal disinfectant _______________ Toxic to pathogens _______________ Not toxic to humans _______________ Fast rate of kill _______________ Residual protection _______________ Economical .

Disinfection Options  Chlorine  chlorine gas Poisonous gas – risk of a leak  sodium hypochlorite (bleach)  Ozone  Irradiation with Ultraviolet light  Sonification  Electric Current  Gamma-ray irradiation .

Chlorine  First large-scale chlorination was in 1908 at the Boonton Reservoir of the Jersey City Water Works in the United States Chlorine  Widely used in the US oxidizes organic matter  Typical dosage (1-5 mg/L)  variable.2 mg/L residual  Trihalomethanes (EPA primary standard is 0.08 Pathogen/carcinogen tradeoff mg/L) . based on the chlorine demand  goal of 0.

Chlorine Reactions Charges 0 +1 -2 +1 -1 Cl2 + H2O → H+ + HOCl + ClHypochlorous acid HOCl ↔ H+ + OCl.Hypochlorite ion  The sum of HOCl and OCl.are in equilibrium at pH 7.is called the free ______ residual ____chlorine _______  HOCl is the more effective disinfectant  Therefore chlorine disinfection is more effective at ________ pH low  HOCl and OCl.5 .

9% inactivation for Giardia and 99.99% inactivation of viruses  Giardia is more difficult to kill with chlorine than viruses and thus Giardia inactivation determines the CT Concentration x Time Enumerating Giardia is difficult.EPA Pathogen Inactivation Requirements  SDWA requires 99. How would you ensure that water treatment plants meet this criteria? Where are Giardia removed/inactivated? Safe Drinking Water Act . time-consuming and costly.

conc. pH.) * No sedimentation tanks . Temp.7% Direct Filtration* 99% Disinfection f(time.EPA Credits for Giardia Inactivation Treatment type Credit Conventional Filtration 99..

5 (mg/L) 2°C 10°C 2°C 10°C 0.5 pH 7. .5 300 178 430 254 1 159 94 228 134 Inactivation is a function of _______. ____________ time concentration pH temperature ______.9% inactivation of Giardia: Contact time (min) chlorine pH 6.Disinfection CT Credits To get credit for 99. and ___________.

4 x 106 m3 .94 m diameter peak hourly flow = 33 m3/s volume =603.000 m3 5 hour residence time! Hillview 3.NYC CT? Kensico Delaware Pipeline 21.75 km long 5.

but recontamination at Hillview is possible .NYC CT Problem  Hillview Reservoir is an open reservoir  Should the chlorine contact time prior to arrival at Hillview count? Giardia contamination from Upstate Reservoirs will be decreased.

3 times)  Typical dosages range from 1 to 5 mg/L  Often followed by chlorination so that the residual chlorine can provide a protective _______ .Ozone  Widely used in Europe  O3 is chemically unstable  Must be produced on site  More expensive than chlorine (2 .

Removal of Dissolved Substances (1)  Aeration (before filtration) oxidizes iron or manganese in groundwater oxidized forms are less soluble and thus precipitate out of solution removes hydrogen sulfide (H2S)  Softening (before filtration) used to remove Ca+2 and Mg+2 usually not necessary with surface waters .

but not the larger ions and molecules  primarily used for desalination  also removes organic materials.Removal of Dissolved Substances (2)  Activated Carbon (between filtration and disinfection)  extremely adsorbent  used to remove organic contaminants  spent activated carbon can be regenerated with superheated steam  Reverse Osmosis  semi-permeable membrane allows water molecules to pass. bacteria. and protozoa . viruses.

Conventional Surface Water Treatment Raw water Screening Alum Polymers Filtration sludge Coagulation Cl2 Disinfection sludge Flocculation Storage Sedimentation sludge Distribution .

Summary .

81 m/s 2 )(1040 kg/m 3 − 999 kg/m 3 )  kg  1.14 x10 −7 m/s Vt = 2.7 cm/day .14x10 −3  18   s⋅m 2 Vt = 3.Cryptosporidium Oocyst Vt = ρ p = 1040 kg/m 3 ρw = 999 kg/m g = 9.81 m/s 2 d = 4x10 −6 m 3 d 2 g( ρ p − ρw ) 18µ Vt ( 4x10 = −6 m ) ( 9.

1 x 10-6 Re<<1 and therefore in Stokes Law range .14 x10−7 m/s ) ( 4 x10−6 m ) ( 999kg/m3 ) ( Re = −3 kg 1.Reynolds Number Check Vd ρ Re = µ 3.14x10 s⋅m Re = 1.

Diatomaceous Earth Clay DE .

Qlamella = Q N lamella = vlamella wb N lamella = Ltan k − L cos ( α ) b sin ( α ) vlamella L  = vc  cos α + sin α  b  Qb sin ( α ) L vc  cos α + sin α  =   b  wbLtan k − wbL cos ( α ) b= L cos α Q sin ( α ) − sin α vc ( wLtan k − wL cos ( α ) ) Q sin ( α ) L  − wL cos ( α ) )  cos α + sin α  b  Qlamella vc = wL cos α + wb sin α Q 1 vc = wbN lamella L cos α + sin α b vc = ( wLtan k .

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