Consumer preference towards Cadbury

Introduction to the Industry

INTRODUCTION
In this research I have survey the product performance and buying behavior of famous brand of chocolates – Cadbury, which is consumed by people of all ages. During this research I have interacted with people of “New Delhi”. After this research I came to know how people perceives these products on the variables like price, quality, advertisement, satisfaction, taste, packaging, brand loyalty etc. I also came to know which particular brand of chocolate is most preferred by people of different age groups. In this research I have surveyed that how frequently and how much chocolate they consume, whether they buy small, big or family pack. Trend of ongoing changes in their likings has been shown in the report. In this report I have tried to explain the entire research and facts product wise.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

CONSUMER PREFERENCE

All marketing starts with the consumer. So consumer is a very important person to a marketer. Consumer decides what to purchase, for whom to purchase, why to purchase, from where to purchase, and how much to purchase. In order to become a successful marketer, he must know the liking or disliking of the customers. He must also know the time and the quantity of goods and services, a consumer may purchase, so that he may store the goods or provide the services according to the likings of the consumers. Gone are the days when the concept of market was let the buyer’s beware or when the market was mainly the seller’s market. Now the whole concept of consumer’s sovereignty prevails. The manufacturers produce and the sellers sell whatever the consumer likes. In this sense, “consumer is the supreme in the market”. As consumers, we play a very vital role in the health of the economy local, national or international. The decision we make concerning our consumption behavior affect the demand for the basic raw materials, for the transportation, for the banking, for the production; they effect the employment of workers and deployment of resources and success of some industries and failures of others. Thus marketer must understand this. Preference (or "taste") is a concept, used in the social sciences, particularly economics. It assumes a real or imagined "choice" between alternatives and the possibility of rank ordering of these alternatives, based on happiness, satisfaction, gratification, enjoyment, utility they provide. More generally, it can be seen as a source of motivation. In cognitive sciences, individual preferences enable choice of objectives/goals.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

History of chocolate:
The origin of chocolate can be traced back to the ancient Maya and Aztec civilizations in Central America, who first enjoyed “chocolati” a much-prized spicy drink made from roasted cocoa beans. Throughout its history, whether as cocoa or drinking chocolate beverage or confectionary treat, chocolate has been a much sought after food..

Chocolate across Europe An Italian traveler, Francesco carletti, was the first to break the Spanish monopoly. He had visited Central America and seen how the Indians prepared the cocoa beans and how they made the drink, and by 1606 chocolate was well established in Italy.

First chocolate for eating Up until this point all chocolate recipes were based on plain chocolate. It was an English doctor, sir Hans’s sloane, who- after traveling in south America- focused on cocoa and food values, bringing a milk chocolate recipe back to England. The original Cadbury milk chocolate was prepared to his recipe. History:

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury The earliest record of chocolate was over fifteen hundred years ago in the central America rain forests, where the tropical mix of high rain fall combined with high year round temperatures and humidity provide the ideal climate for cultivation of the plant from which chocolate is derived, the cacao tree. “ Chocolate is made from the cocoa bean, found in pods growing from the trunk and lower branches of the cacao tree, Latin name “ theobroma cacao” meaning “ food of the gods” Cacao was corrupted into the more familiar “ cocoa” by the early European explorers. The Maya brewed a spicy, bittersweet drink by roasting and pounding the seeds of the cacao tree with maize and capsicum peppers and letting the mixture ferment.”

Chocolate in Europe Xocolatl! or chocolat or chocolate as it became known, was brought to Europe by Cortez, by this time the conquistadors had learned to make the drink more palatable to European tastes by mixing the ground roasted beans with sugar and vanilla ( a practice still continued today), thus offsetting the spicy bitterness of the brew the Aztec’s drank. The first chocolate factories opened in Spain, where the dried fermented beans brought back from the new world by the Spanish treasure fleets were roasted and ground, and by the early 17 th century chocolate powder – from which the European version of the drink was made- was being exported to other parts of Europe. The Spanish kept the source of the drink- the beans- a secret for many years, so successfully in fact, that when English buccaneers boarded what they thought was a Spanish “ treasurer galleon” in 1579, only to find it loaded with what appeared to be “ dried sheep’s droppings, they burned the whole ship in frustration. If only they had known, chocolate was so expensive at that time, that it was worth it’s weight in silver ( if not gold), chocolate was treasure indeed !

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

CONSUMPTION OF CHOCOLATES IN INDIA
Chocolate consumption in India is extremely low. Per capita consumption is around 160 gms in the urban areas, compared to 8-10kg in the developed countries. In rural areas, it is even lower. Chocolates in India are consumed as indulgence and not as a snack food. A strong volume growth was witnessed in the early 90’s when Cadbury repositioned chocolates from children to adult consumption. The biggest opportunity is likely to stem from increasing the consumer base. Leading player like Cadbury has been attempting to do this by value for money offerings, which are affordable to the masses.

Back to the America’s Event’s went full circle when English colonists carried chocolate (and coffee) with them to England’s colonies in north America. Destined to become the united states of America and Canada, they are now the worlds largest consumers – by far – of both chocolate and coffee, consuming over half of the words total production of chocolate alone.

The Quakers The Quakers were, and still are, a pacifist religious sect, an offshoot of the puritans of English civil war and pilgrim fathers fame and a history of chocolate would not be complete without mentioning their part in it. Some of the most famous names in chocolate were Quakers, who for

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury centuries held a virtual monopoly of chocolate making in the English speaking world – fry, Cadbury and row tree are probably the best known. Its probably before the time of the English civil war between parliament and king Charles 1st that the Quaker’s who evolved from the puritans, first began their historic association with chocolate. Because of their pacifist religion, they were prohibited from many normal business activities, so as an industrious people with a strong belief in the work ethic (like the puritans), they involved themselves in food related businesses and did very well. Baking was a common occupation for them because bread was regarded as the biblical “staff of life”, and bakers in England were the first to add chocolate to cakes so it would be a natural progression for them to start making pure chocolate. They were also heavily involved in breakfast cereals but that’s another story. What is certain is that the fry, row tree and Cadbury families in England among others, began chocolate making and in fact Joseph fry of fry &sons (founded 1728 in Bristol, England) is credited with producing and selling the world’s first chocolate bar. Fry’s have now all but disappeared (taken over by Cadbury) and row tree have merged Swiss company nestle, to form the largest chocolate manufacturer in the world. Cadbury have stayed with chocolate production and are now, if not quite the largest, probably one of the best-known chocolate makers in the world.

Chocolate as we know it The first mention of chocolate being eaten in solid form is when bakers in England began adding cocoa powder to cakes in the mid 1600’s. Then in 1828 a Dutch chemist, Johannes van houten, invented a method of extracting the bitter tasting fat or “cocoa butter” from the roasted ground beans, his aim was to make the drink smoother and more palatable, however he unknowingly paved the way for solid chocolate as we know it.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury Chocolate as we know it today first appeared in 1847 when fry & sons of Bristol, England – mixed sugar with cocoa powder and cocoa butter (made by the van houten process) to produce the first solid chocolate bar then in1875 a Swiss manufacturer, Daniel peters, found a way to combine (some would say improve, some would say ruin) cocoa powder and cocoa butter with sugar and dried milk powder to produce the first milk chocolate.

CHOCOLATE PRODUCTION The cocoa-bean -- the heart of the sweetest delicacy in the world -- is bitter! This is why, up to the 18th century some native tribes ate only the sweetish flesh of the cocoa fruit. They regarded the precious bean as waste or used it, as was the case among the Aztecs, as a form of currency. TheVarieties There are two quite different basic classifications of cocoa, under which practically all varieties can be categorised: Criollo and Forastero cocoas. The pure variety of the Criollo tree is found mainly in its native Equador and Venezuela. The seeds are of finer quality than those of the Forastero variety. They have a particularly fine, mild aroma and are, therefore, used only in the production of highquality chocolate and for blending. However, Criollo cocoa accounts for only 10% of the world crop. The remaining 90% is harvested from trees of the Forastero family, with its many hybrids and varieties. The main growing area is West Africa. The cocoa tree can flourish only in the hottest regions of the world.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury The Harvest immediately after harvesting, the fruit is treated to prevent it from rotting. At fermentation sites either in the plantation or at, collecting points, the fruit is opened. Fermentation The fermentation process is decisive in the production of high quality raw cocoa. The technique varies depending on the growing region. Drying After fermentation, the raw cocoa still contains far too much water; in fact about 60%. Most of this has to be removed. What could be more natural than to spread the beans out to dry on the sun-soaked ground or on mats? After a week or so, all but a small percentage of the water has evaporated. Cleaning Before the real processing begins, the raw cocoa is thoroughly cleaned by passing through sieves, and by brushing. Finally, the last vestiges of wood, jute fibres, sand and even the finest dust are extracted by powerful vacuum equipment. Roasting The subsequent roasting process is primarily designed to develop the aroma. The entire roasting process, during which the air in the nearly 10 feet high furnaces reaches a temperature of 130 °C, is carried out automatically. Crushingandshelling The roasted beans are now broken into medium sized pieces in the crushing machine.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury Blending Before grinding, the crushed beans are weighed and blended according to special recipes. The secret of every chocolate factory lies in the special mixing ratios, which it has developed for different types of cocoa. Grinding The crushed cocoa beans, which are still fairly coarse are now pre-ground by special milling equipment and then fed on to rollers where they are ground into a fine paste. The heat generated by the resulting pressure and friction causes the cocoa butter (approximately 50% of the bean) contained in the beans to melt, producing a thick, liquid mixture. This is dark brown in color with a characteristic, strong odour. During cooling it gradually sets: this is the cocoa paste. At this point the production process divides into two paths, but which soon join again. A part of the cocoa paste is taken to large presses, which extract the cocoa butter. The other part passes through various blending and refining processes, during which some of the cocoa butter is added to it. The two paths have rejoined. CocoaButter The cocoa butter has important functions. It not only forms part of every recipe, but it also later gives the chocolate its fine structure, beautiful lustre and delicate, attractive glaze. Cocoa Powder After the cocoa butter has left the press; cocoa cakes are left which still contain a 10 to 20% proportion of fat depending on the intensity of compression. These cakes are crushed again, ground to powder and finely sifted in several stages and we obtain a dark, strongly aromatic powder, which is excellent for the preparation of delicious drinks - cocoa. Cocoa paste, cocoa butter, sugar and milk are the four basic ingredients for making chocolate. By blending them in ARYA College Of Engineering & I.T. 9.

Consumer preference towards Cadbury accordance with specific recipes the three types of chocolate are obtained which form the basis of ever product assortment, namely: Kneading In the case of milk chocolate for example, the cocoa paste, cocoa butter, powdered or condensed milk, sugar and flavouring - maybe vanilla - go into the mixer, where they are pulverized and kneaded.

Rolling Depending on the design of the rolling mills, three or five vertically mounted steel rollers rotate in opposite directions. Under heavy pressure they pulverise the tiny particles of cocoa and sugar down to a size of approx. 30 microns. (One micron is a thousandth part of a millimetre.)

Conching But still the chocolate paste is not smooth enough to satisfy our palates. But within two or three days all that will have been put right. For during this period the chocolate paste will be refined to such an extent in the conches that it will flatter even the most discriminating palate. Conches (from the Spanish word "concha", meaning a shell) is the name given to the troughs in which 100 to 1000 kilograms of chocolate paste at a time can be heated up to 80 °C and, while being constantly stirred, is given a velvet smoothness by the addition of certain amounts of cocoa butter. A kind of aeration of the liquid chocolate paste then takes place in the conches: its bitter taste gradually disappears and the flavor is fully developed. The chocolate no longer seems sandy, but dissolves meltingly on the tongue. It has attained the outstanding purity, which gives it its reputation.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

Introduction to Chocolate & Company

CADBURY

John Cadbury Milk chocolate for eating was first made by Cadbury in 1897 by adding milk powder John paste to the dark chocolate recipe of cocoa mass, cocoa butter and sugar. By today's standards this chocolate was not particularly good: it was coarse and dry and not sweet or milky enough for public tastes. There was a great deal of competition from continental manufacturers, not only the French,but also the Swiss, renowned for their milk chocolate. Led by George Cadbury Junior, the Bournville experts set out to meet the challenge. A considerable amount of time and money was spent on research and on new plant designed to produce the chocolate in larger quantities. A recipe was formulated incorporating fresh milk, and production processes were developed to produce a milk chocolate 'not merely as good as, but better than' the imported milk chocolate'.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury Four years of hard work were invested in the project and in 1905 what was to be Cadbury's top selling brand was launched. Three names were considered: Jersey, Highland Milk and Dairy Maid. Dairy Maid became Dairy Milk, and Cadbury's Dairy Milk, with its unique flavour and smooth creamy texture, was ready to challenge the Swiss domination of the milk chocolate market. By 1913 Dairy Milk had become the company's best selling line and in the mid twenties Cadbury's Dairy Milk gained its status as the brand leader, a position it has held ever since.

COMPANY OVERVIEW OF CADBURY INDIA
Cadbury began its operations in 1948 by importing chocolates and then re-packing them before distribution in the Indian market. After 59 years of existence, it today has five company-owned manufacturing facilities at Thane, Induri (Pune) and Malanpur (Gwalior), Bangalore and Baddi (Himachal Pradesh) and 4 sales offices (New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkota and Chennai). The corporte office is in Mumbai.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury Currently Cadbury India operates in three sectors viz. Chocolate Confectionery, Milk Food Drinks and in the Candy category. “CEO OF CADBURY INDIA - BHARAT PURI” With annual revenues of approximately $50 billion, the combined company is the world's second largest food company, making delicious products for billions of consumers in more than 160 countries. We employ approximately 140,000 people and have operations in more than 70 countries . In the Chocolate Confectionery business, Cadbury has maintained its undisputed leadership over the years. Some of the key brands are Cadbury Dairy Milk, 5 Star, Perk, Éclairs and Celebrations. Cadbury enjoys a value market share of over 70% - the highest Cadbury brand share in the world! Their flagship brand Cadbury Dairy Milk is considered the "gold standard" for chocolates in India. The pure taste of CDM defines the chocolate taste for the Indian consumer. In the Milk Food drinks segment their main product is Bournvita - the leading Malted Food Drink (MFD) in the country. Similarly in the medicated candy category Halls is the undisputed leader. The Cadbury India Brand Strategy has received consistent support through simple but imaginative extensions to product categories and distribution. A good example of this is the development of Bytes. Crispy wafers filled with coca cream in the form of a bagged snack, Bytes is positioned as "The new concept of sweet snacking". It delivers the taste of chocolate in the form of a light snack, and thus heralds the entry of Cadbury India into the growing bagged Snack Market, which has been dominated until now by Salted Bagged Snack Brands. Bytes was first launched in South India in 2003.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury Since 1965 Cadbury has also pioneered the development of cocoa cultivation in India. For over two decades, it has worked with the Kerala Agriculture University to undertake cocoa research and released clones, hybrids that improve the cocoa yield. Today, Cadbury is poised in its leap towards quantum growth and new categories of business, namely gums, mints, snacking and gifting. It is a part of the Cadbury Schweppes Group, world's No.1 Confectionery Company.

CADBURY WORLD WIDE
Cadbury is the world's largest confectionery company and have a strong regional presence in beverages in the Americas and Australia. With origins stretching back over 200 years, today their products - which include brands such as Cadbury, Schweppes, Halls, Trident, Dr Pepper, Snapple, Trebor, Dentyne, Bubblicious and Bassett - are enjoyed in almost every country around the world. We employ around 60,00 people.

Their heritage starts back in 1783 when Jacob Schweppe perfected his process for manufacturing carbonated mineral water in Geneva, Switzerland. And in 1824 John Cadbury opened in Birmingham selling cocoa and chocolate. These two great household names merged in 1969 to form Cadbury Schweppes plc. Since then they have expanded their business throughout the world by a programme of organic and acquisition led growth.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury Concentrating on their core brands in beverages and confectionery since the 1980s, they have strengthened their portfolio through almost fifty acquisitions, including brand icons such as Mott's, Canada Dry, Halls, Trident, Dentyne, Bubblicious, Trebor, Bassett, Dr Pepper, 7 Up and Snapple. It employ 60,000 people in over 200 countries Worlds No 1 Confectionery company World's No 2 Gums company World's No 3 beverage company

STORY OF CADBURY
The story of Cadbury Dairy Milk started way back in 1905 at Bournville, U.K., but the journey with chocolate lovers in India began in 1948. The pure taste of Cadbury Dairy Milk is the taste most Indians crave for when they think of Cadbury Dairy Milk. The variants Fruit & Nut, Crackle and Roast Almond, combine the classic taste of Cadbury Dairy Milk with a variety of ingredients and are very popular amongst teens & adults. Recently, Cadbury Dairy Milk Desserts was launched, specifically to cater to the urge for 'something sweet' after meals. Cadbury Dairy Milk has exciting products on offer Cadbury Dairy Milk Wowie, chocolate with Disney characters embossed in it, and Cadbury Dairy Milk 2 in 1, ARYA College Of Engineering & I.T. 15.

Consumer preference towards Cadbury a delightful combination of milk chocolate and white chocolate. Giving consumers an exciting reason to keep coming back into the fun filled world of Cadbury. Our Journey: Cadbury Dairy Milk has been the market leader in the chocolate category for years. And has participated and been a part of every Indian's moments of happiness, joy and celebration. Today, Cadbury Dairy Milk alone holds 30% value share of the Indian chocolate market. In the early 90's, chocolates were seen as 'meant for kids', usually a reward or a bribe for children. In the Mid 90's the category was re-defined by the very popular `Real Taste of Life' campaign, shifting the focus from `just for kids' to the `kid in all of us'. It appealed to the child in every adult. And Cadbury Dairy Milk became the perfect expression of 'spontaneity' and 'shared good feelings' The 'Real Taste of Life' campaign had many memorable executions, which people still fondly remember. However, the one with the "girl dancing on the cricket field" has remained etched in everyone's memory, as the most spontaneous & un-inhibited expression of happiness. This campaign went on to be awarded 'The Campaign of the Century', in India at the Abby (Ad Club, Mumbai) awards. In the late 90's, to further expand the category, the focus shifted towards widening chocolate consumption amongst the masses, through the 'Khanewalon Ko Khane Ka Bahana Chahiye' campaign. This campaign built social acceptance for chocolate consumption amongst adults, by showcasing collective and shared moments. More recently, the 'Kuch Meetha Ho Jaaye' campaign associated Cadbury Dairy Milk with celebratory occasions and the phrase "Pappu Pass Ho Gaya" became part of street language. It has been adopted by consumers and today is used extensively to express joy in a moment of achievement / success. The interactive campaign for "Pappu Pass Ho Gaya" bagged a Bronze Lion at the prestigious Cannes Advertising Festival 2006 for 'Best use of internet and new media'. The idea involved a ARYA College Of Engineering & I.T. 16.

Consumer preference towards Cadbury tie-up with Reliance India Mobile service and allowed students to check their exam results using their mobile service and encouraged those who passed their examinations to celebrate with Cadbury Dairy Milk. The 'Pappu Pass Ho Gaya' campaign also went on to win Silver for The Best Integrated Marketing Campaign and Gold in the Consumer Products category at the EFFIES 2006 (global benchmark for effective advertising campaigns) awards. Did You Know: Cadbury Dairy Milk emerged as the No. 1 most trusted brand in Mumbai for the 2005 edition of Brand Equity's Most Trusted Brands survey. During the 1st World War, Cadbury Dairy Milk supported the war effort. Over 2,000 male employees joined the armed forces and Cadbury sent books, warm clothes and chocolates to the front.

CADBURY BYTES

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury Cadbury Bytes was launched in 2004-05 as Cadbury's foray into the rapidly growing packaged snack market. Cadbury Bytes is a one of a kind snack, in that it is sweet and not salty, as compared to most of the other snacks. It's a bite sized snack with a crunchy wafer and rich Choco cream filling. There are three variants of Bytes available in the market - Regular, Coffee and Strawberry, at two price points- Rs 5 and Rs 10. Cadbury Bytes is targeted at teens as they are the largest consuming segment of packaged snack category. They are also the gateway to the family, especially for a new sweet snack. With Bytes, Cadbury has entered into a new category with well entrenched and established brands. It is an exciting challenge for us to take the brand forward and make it a stupendous success. Cadbury Bytes is positioned as the 'only sweet snack' in the world of salty snacks. The proposition we have arrived at is "Snacking ka meetha funda", where we take a pot-shot at other snacks, by saying `Har snack namkeen nahi hota'. The product is all about breaking a cliché and teenagers identify with breaking stereotypes. The new commercials- 'Tommy' and 'Villain', talk about breaking the stereotype.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury CADBURY BOURNVITA Cadbury was incorporated in India on July 19th, 1948 as a private limited company under the name of Cadbury-Fry (India). Cadbury Bournvita was launched during the same year. It is among the oldest brands in the Malt Based Food / Malt Food category with a rich heritage and has always been known to provide the best nutrition to aid growth and all round development. Throughout it's history, Cadbury Bournvita has

continuously re-invented itself in terms of product, packaging, promotion & distribution. The Cadbury lineage and rich brand heritage has helped the brand maintain its leadership position and image over the last 50 years The Journey: The brand has been an enduring symbol of mental and physical health ever since it was launched in 1948. It is hardly surprising then, that Bournvita enjoys a major presence in the Malt Food market. Given its market share of 17%, Cadbury Bournvita reaches across hundreds of cities, towns and villages through 3,50,000 outlets in India. It is a universal truth that mothers attach a lot of emotional importance to nourishment while bringing up their children. However, children always look out for the tastiest option to make their daily dose of milk more enjoyable. Cadbury now offers two options to capture this appeal: Cadbury Bournvita, with its popular chocolate taste, and its latest offering, Cadbury Bournvita 5 Star Magic, leveraging the rich chocolate and caramel flavour of Cadbury 5 Star. The Journey:

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury The brand has been an enduring symbol of mental and physical health ever since it was launched in 1948. It is hardly surprising then, that Bournvita enjoys a major presence in the Malt Food market. Given its market share of 17%, Cadbury Bournvita reaches across hundreds of cities, towns and villages through 3,50,000 outlets in India. It is a universal truth that mothers attach a lot of emotional importance to nourishment while bringing up their children. However, children always look out for the tastiest option to make their daily dose of milk more enjoyable. Cadbury now offers two options to capture this appeal: Cadbury Bournvita, with its popular chocolate taste, and its latest offering, Cadbury Bournvita 5 Star Magic, leveraging the rich chocolate and caramel flavour of Cadbury 5 Star Cadbury Bournvita advertising has moved with the times to reflect the changing needs of the consumers. During the '70s the communication centered on 'Good upbringing' and Bournvita became an essential building block for childhood. "Goodness that grows with you" was the campaign idea that communicated this thought. In the 80's the focus shifted from 'Upbringing' to 'Intelligence' with the more aggressive "Brought up right, Bournvita bright" campaign, which was very successful during its time. In the early '90s all brands in the category provided purely physical benefits like nourishment, energy and growth. It was at this time that Bournvita decided to raise the bar by promising physical and mental benefits. This resulted in the famous Tan Ki Shakti, Man Ki Shakti Campaign which became an anthem for the brand. In the new millennium, keeping pace with the evolving mindsets of the new age consumers, Cadbury Bournvita is about arming consumers with Confidence to take on physical and mental challenges that nobody else can, resulting in one of the most successful advertising campaigns which is based on 'Real Achievers who have grown up on Bournvita'.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury Did you know: In the 1980 Moscow Olympics, Cadbury Bournvita was the official health drink for the Indian team The Cadbury Bournvita Quiz Contest, which started airing on April 12th 1972, is India's longest running national school quiz contest. Starting out as a contest held in cities, and then on radio, the contest currently has been running for over 10 years on satellite television. It has over 500 episodes to its credit, and today the contest directly reaches more than 11,25,000 students, in 4000 schools across 66 cities and 7 countries - UAE, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, Nepal and India.

HALLS Halls accounts for 50% of international cough drop sales and is the leading sugar confectionery brand in the world. In 1930’s, the Hall brothers invented its Mentho-Lyptus formula, using a combination of menthol and eucalyptus, and began producing cough drops. The cough drops were introduced into the US during the mid-1950s. Warner-Lambert recognised the potential of the product and acquired Halls in 1964. In 1971, Warner Lambert began selling Halls under the Adams family, and the first national television campaign was aired in the US & the results were a resounding success. Our Journey:

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury Halls was first launched in India in 1968 & soon established itself asa ‘therapeutic’ candy competing in the cough lozenge market. Halls has been sold in India as part of the Pfizer & Warner Lambert networks before it came into the Cadbury fold in 2003 as part of a global merger with Adams Confectionery. Halls has had a colourful advertising history in India & was infact, one of the earliest brands to advertise on television in India. In the 1980’s, Ad’s featuring Meenakshi Sheshadri and later, Vijeta Pandit on its unique ‘vapour action’ formula with a classic Halls Jingle were aired which established the brand firmly in the market. In the 90’s, Halls advertising adopted a different take with its ‘Traffic Jam’ Ad where Halls restores order to a situation of chaos & the early 2000’s saw Halls advertising on the ‘refreshment’ platform. Over the years Halls has been strongly positioned on the` soothes sore throat ’ benefit in the consumers mind. Halls continues to be one of the leading mint brands in India even in the changed competitive context.

Did You Know: • • • Halls is marketed in 24 different countries around the world & is offered in over 26 flavours. Halls produced the largest sweet in the world in 1964. Weighing 76kilos, the sweet was put on exhibition in New York. Halls accounts for more than 50% of international cough drop sales.

In 2002, people consumed 100,000 tons of Halls!

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

BUBBALOO Cadbury India has expanded its confectionary portfolio in 2007 by foraying into the Bubble gum category with the launch of Bubbaloo Bubblegum- a successful bubblegum brand from its international portfolio. Bubbaloo is an innovative soft bubblegum with a centre filled liquid. It is filled with a high level of a great tasting fruit flavoured liquid that floods your mouth instantly. Bubaloo is currently available in two yummy flavors- Strawberry and Mixed Fruit. The communication focuses on the "fun filled liquid centre " of Bubbaloo and is anchored by “Bubba- the cat”, the international mascot for the brand Bubbaloo.

Did you know? Bubbaloo was first launched in 1984. Bubbaloo is sold in 25 countries and is particularly popular in Latin America. The record for the largest bubblegum bubble ever blown is 58.4cm. The bubble was blown by Susan Montgomery Williams of Fresno, California, USA at the ABC-TV studios in New York City, in 1994.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

Cadbury Brands:
 Chocolates  Snacks  Beverages  Candy

SNACKS:
Bytes

BEVERAGES
Bournvita

CANDY
Halls

CHOCOLATES
Dairy Milk ARYA College Of Engineering & I.T. 24.

Consumer preference towards Cadbury 5 Star Perk Celebrations Temptation Bournville Eclairs Gems

DAIRY MILK The story of Cadbury Dairy Milk started way back in 1905 at Bournville, U.K., but the journey with chocolate lovers in India began in 1948. The variants Fruit & Nut, Crackle and Roast Almond, combine the classic taste of Cadbury Dairy Milk with a variety of ingredients and are very popular amongst teens & adults. Cadbury Dairy Milk has exciting products on offer - Cadbury Dairy Milk Wowie, chocolate with Disney characters embossed in it, and Cadbury Dairy Milk 2 in 1, a delightful combination of milk chocolate and white chocolate. Giving consumers an exciting reason to keep coming back into the fun filled world of Cadbury. Today, Cadbury Dairy Milk alone holds 30% value share of the Indian chocolate market.

5 STAR

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

the second largest after Cadbury Dairy Milk with a market share of 14%, Cadbury 5 Star moves from strength to strength every year by increasing its user base. Launched in 1969 as a bar of chocolate that was hard outside with soft caramel nougat inside, Cadbury 5 Star has re-invented itself over the years to keep satisfying the consumers taste for a high quality & different chocolate eating experience. One of the key properties that Cadbury 5 Star was associated with was its classic Gold colour. And through the passage of time, this was one property that both, the brand and the consumer stuck to as a valuable association. More recently, to give consumers another reason to come into the Cadbury 5 Star fold, Cadbury 5 Star Crunchy was launched. The same delicious Cadbury 5 Star was now available with a dash of rice crispies.

PERK

Cadbury launched Perk in 1996. With its light chocolate and wafer construct, Cadbury Perk targeted the casual snacking space that was dominated primarily by chips & wafers.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury With the rise of more value-for-money brands in the wafer chocolate segment, Cadbury Perk unveiled two new offerings - Perk XL and XXL. In 2004, with an added dose of 'Real Cadbury Dairy Milk' and an 'improved wafer', Perk became even more irresistible

CELEBRATIONS

Cadbury Celebrations was aimed at replacing traditional gifting options like Mithai and dryfruits during festive seasons. Cadbury Celebrations is available in several assortments: An assortment of chocolates like 5 Star, Perk, Gems, Dairy Milk and Nutties and rich dry fruits enrobed in Cadbury dairy milk chocolate in 5 variants, Almond magic, raisin magic, cashew magic, nut butterscotch and caramels.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury The super premium Celebrations Rich Dry Fruit Collection which is a festive offering is an exotic range of chocolate covered dry fruits and nuts in various flavours and the premium dark chocolate range which is exotic dark chocolate in luscious flavours.

TEMPTATION

Cadbury Temptations is a range of delicious premium chocolate in five flavors variants - Roast Almond Coffee, Honey Apricot, Mint Crunch, Black Forestand Old Jamaica. ury Cocoa Partnership Ghana Programmes CADBURY COCOA PARTNERSHIP GHANA PROGRAMMESs Cadbury and Cadbury colleagues have been working with communities in Ghana for a number of years. Together we have donated over 2.6 tones of school books, raised funds for over 950 wells, and delivered over 5,000 bikes helping to increase the attendance of thousands of children who commute long distances to school.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

Research Methodology Research Methodology
Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. Researchers need to know, which of the methods or techniques, are relevant and which are not, and what would they mean and indicate and why. Researcher also need to understand the assumptions underlying various technique and they need to know the criteria by which they can decide that certain techniques and procedure will be applicable to certain problems and others will not.

DEFINITION OF RESEARCH
Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. It is a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. “Research may be defined as a systematized effort to gain new knowledge.” -Redman and Moray

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

PROCESS OF RESEARCH

Problem Identification and definition Research Design Type of Research Unit Identification Sampling

(a) (b) (c)

Data collection

Data Analysis and representation

Interpretation of the result

Suggestation

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

TYPES OF RESEARCH
There are various types of research like: 1) Descriptive v/s analytical 2) Applied v/s fundamental 3) Quantitative v/s qualitative 4) Conceptual v/s empirical

RESEARCH DESIGN
“A research design is simply the framework or plan for a study that is used asguide in collecting and analyzing the data. It is blueprint that is followed in completing a study.”

SCOPE OF THE STUDY
As learning is a human activity and is as natural, as breathing. Despite of the fact that learning is all pervasive in our lives, psychologists do not agree on how learning takes place. How individuals learn is a matter of interest to marketers. They want to teach consumers in their roles as their roles as consumers. They want consumers to learn about their products, product attributes, potential consumers benefit, how to use, maintain or even dispose of the product and

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury new ways of behaving that will satisfy not only the consumer’s needs, but the marketer’s objectives. The scope of my study restricts itself to the analysis of consumer preferences, perception and consumption of Cadbury Chocolates. There are many other brands of chocolates available but my study is limited to a major player of chocolates leaving behind the others.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This project is based on the comparative study consumer behavior towards Cadbury chocolates. Objectives of the study are:  The other objective is to know about the customer satisfaction level associated with the product and the customer preference level.  To increase customer satisfaction and recapture the market share by fulfilling the customer needs.  To study the factors affecting the consumption pattern.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
In attempt to make this project authentic and reliable, every possible aspect of the topic was kept in mind. Nevertheless, despite of fact constraints were at play during the formulation of this project. The main limitations are as follows:  Due to limitation of time only few people were selected for the study. So the sample of consumers was not enough to generalize the findings of the study.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury  The main source of data for the study was primary data with the help of self-administered questionnaires. Hence, the chances of unbiased information are less.  People were hesitant to disclose the true facts.  The chance of biased response can’t be eliminated though all necessary steps were taken to avoid the same

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter describes the methodology of the study. This project is based on information collected from primary sources. After the detailed study, an attempt has been made to present comprehensive analysis of consumption of Cadbury chocolates consumed by the people. The data had been used to cover various aspects like consumption, consumer’s preference and customer’s satisfaction regarding Cadbury chocolates. In collecting requisite data and information regarding the topic selected, I went to the residents of “NewDelhi” and collected the data. Survey design: The study is a cross sectional study because the data were collected at a single point of time. For the purpose of present study a related sample of population was selected on the basis of convenience. Sample Size and Design: ARYA College Of Engineering & I.T. 33.

Consumer preference towards Cadbury A sample of 100 people was taken on the basis of convenience. The actual consumers were contacted on the basis of random sampling.

Research Period: Research work is only carried for 2 or 3 weeks. Research Instrument: This work is carried out through self-administered questionnaires. The questions included were open ended, dichotomous and offered multiple choices.

Data Collection: The data, which is collected for the purpose of study, is divided into 2 bases:  Primary Source: The primary data comprises information survey of “Comparative study of consumer behavior towards Nestle and Cadbury chocolates”. The data has been collected directly from respondent with the help of structured questionnaires.  Secondary Source: The secondary data was collected from internet, References from Library. Data Analysis: The data is analyzed on the basis of suitable tables by using mathematical techniques. The technique that I have used is bar technique.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

Analysis and Interpretation
LIKING FOR THE CHOCOLATES Table:1 Liking for the Chocolate Number of Respondents Yes 95 No 5

Chart:1 ARYA College Of Engineering & I.T. 35.

Consumer preference towards Cadbury From the above analysis of the given sample of 100 respondents it is concluded that out of 100 people 95 people likes to eat chocolate while only 5 people don’t prefer to eat chocolate.

DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

Table:2 AGE GROUPS NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS

0-10 14

10-20 42

20-30 33

ABOVE 30 11

Chart:2 According to the above analysis it is concluded that I have surveyed 100 respondents out of which 14, 42, 33, 11 belongs to age group 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, above30 respectively.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

PREFERENCE ACCORDING TO AGE GROUPS

Table:3 AGE GROUPS 0-10 10-20 7 35 2 1

BRANDS CADBURY NO CONSUMTION

20-30 24 1

ABOVE 30 5 1

Chart:3 According to the above analysis it is concluded that people of different age groups prefer mostly Cadbury brand of chocolate people of age group above 30 equally likes to have both brands. BRAND PREFERENCE

Table:4 BRANDS CADBURY OTHERS

PREFERENCE BY CONSUMERS 73 22

Chart:4

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury From the above analysis of given sample of 93 respondents who eat chocolates it is concluded that only 22 people prefer to eat other brands as while 73 people likes to eat Cadbury chocolates.

PURCHASE OF CHOCOLATES PURCHASE OF CADBURY CHOCOLATES

Table:5 SUB- BRANDS DAIRY MILK 5 STAR PERK CELEBRATIONS TEMPTATIONS CADBURY CHOCOLATES NUMBER OF RESPONDANTS 69 64 61 49 41

Chart:5 From the above analysis of given sample of 73 respondents who eat Cadbury chocolates it is concluded that mostly people has purchased Dairy Milk sub-brand of Cadbury while Temptation is least purchased by the people.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury OVERALL PURCHASE OF CHOCOLATES Table:7 OVERALL PURCHASE OF SUB- BRANDS OF CHOCOLATES SUB-BRANDS PERCENTAGE OF PURCHASE DAIRY MILK 40 5 STAR 20 PERK 13 CELEBRATIONS 15 TEMPTATIONS 12

PREFERENCE OF SUBRANDS OF CADBURY CHOCOLATES Table: 8 SUB- BRANDS CADBURY CHOCOLATES GRAND TOTAL OF AVERAGE PREFERENCE (GRAND TOTAL / No. OF DAIRY MILK 5 STAR PERK CELEBRATIONS TEMPTATION 315 220 176 136 91 RESPONDANTS) 4.3 3 2.4 1.86 1.24 1 2 3 4 5 RANKS

According to the above analysis it is concluded that in Cadbury Brand, Dairy milk is the most preferred sub-brand as it is ranked first by the respondents. While Temptation is the least preferred sub-brand of Cadbury chocolates. INFLUENCING FACTORS DURING PURCHASE ARYA College Of Engineering & I.T. 39.

Consumer preference towards Cadbury

OVERALL INFLUENCE

Table :10 FACTORS FLAVOR/TASTE PRICE QUALITY PACKAGING FORM BRAND IMAGE COLOR SHAPE QUANTITY

GRAND TOTAL 435 295 391 344 301 354 344 297 268 342

AVERAGE 4.58 3.1 4.12 3.62 3.17 3.73 3.62 3.13 2.82 3.6

RANK 1 9 2 4 7 3 4 8 10 6

According to the above analysis it is concluded that on an average mostly people are influenced by flavor/taste followed by quality, brand and image. It is surprised to know that very few people are influenced by price followed by shape of the chocolate.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury INFLUENCING FACTORS DURING PURCHASE OF CADBURY CHOCOLATES

Table:11 FACTORS FLAVOR/TASTE PRICE QUALITY PACKAGING FORM BRAND IMAGE COLOR SHAPE QUANTITY GRAND TOTAL 335 235 307 277 231 271 262 224 213 262 AVERAGE 4.6 3.2 4.2 3.79 3.16 3.71 3.59 3.07 2.92 3.59 RANK 1 7 2 3 8 4 5 9 10 5

According to the above analysis it is concluded that on an average mostly people are influenced by flavor/taste followed by quality, packaging and brand. Here color and shape are not all influencing people while purchasing Cadbury chocolates.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

FACTORS GIVING MOST SATISFACTION TO CONSUMERS OVERALL

Table:13 FACTORS FLAVOR/TASTE PRICE QUALITY PACKAGING FORM BRAND IMAGE COLOR SHAPE QUANTITY GRAND TOTAL 427 337 367 338 332 358 328 332 335 328 AVERAGE 4.81 3.6 3.86 3.56 3.49 3.77 3.45 3.49 3.52 3.45 RANK 1 4 2 5 7 3 9 7 6 9

According to the above analysis it is concluded that on an average people are most satisfied with the flavor/taste of a chocolate followed by quality and brand. It is surprising to know that although people are satisfied with quality but unsatisfied with the quantity.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury IN CADBURY CHOCOLATE

Table:14 FACTORS FLAVOR/TASTE PRICE QUALITY PACKAGING FORM BRAND IMAGE COLOR SHAPE QUANTITY GRAND TOTAL 334 269 282 272 264 282 247 259 258 255 AVERAGE 4.6 3.68 3.86 3.73 3.62 3.86 3.38 3.55 3.53 3.49 RANK 1 5 2 4 6 2 10 7 8 9

According to the above analysis it is concluded that on an average people are most satisfied with the flavor/taste of a chocolate followed by quality and brand. It is surprising to know that although people are satisfied with quality but unsatisfied with the quantity and image.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

FORM PREFERENCE

Table:16 FORM OF CHOCOLATE HARD NUTTIES CRUNCHY CHEW NUMBER OF RESONDENTS 33 25 29 20

Chart:8 According to the above analysis it is concluded that most of the people likes to eat hard chocolate and chew form of a chocolate is least preferred.

PACK OF CHOCOLATES PREFERED

Table:17 PACK SIZE SMALL BIG NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS 28 48

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FAMILY PACK

19

Chart:9 According to the above analysis it is concluded that out of sample of 95 people who eat chocolates likes to buy big pack. Family pack is mostly preferred by aged people only.

PROMOTIONAL OFFERS

Table:18 PROMOTIONAL OFFERS FREE GIFTS PRICE OFFER ANY OTHER NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS 52 23 20

Chart: 10 According to the above analysis it is concluded that out of sample of 95 people who eat chocolate 52 are attracted by free gifts, 23 by price offers while 20 were attracted by some other reasons.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

FACTORS AFFECTING PURCHASE

Table:19 FACTORS ADVERTISEMENT SUGGESTION FROM FRIENDS AND RELATIVES ATTRACTIVE DISPLAY DOCTORS ADVICE BRAND AMBASSADORS INGREDIENTS NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS 65 16 11 15 9 25

Chart: 11 According to the above analysis it is concluded that Advertisement is the best measure to attract customers to purchase more. Its impact is much more than other factors. While friends and relatives and brand ambassadors also play a significant role in this regard.

MEDIA OF ADVERTISEMENT

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

MEDIA OF ADVERTISEMENT TELEVISION NEWSPAPERS BROCHURES HOARDING DISPLAY

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS 82 7 3 4 15

Chart:12 According to the above analysis it is concluded that television emerges as the best media for advertisement of chocolates that compel consumers to buy. It is much more than other ways as out of 95 respondents 82 are attracted to by through television media while brochures are the least attracting media.

FREQUENCY OF CONSUMPTION

Table:21 FREQUENCY OF CONSUMPTION ONCE IN A FORTNIGHT DAILY WEEKLY MONTHLY QUARTERLY NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS 16 17 39 18 5

Chart:13 According to the above analysis it is concluded that mostly people purchase chocolates weekly. Only 15 out of 95 purchase chocolates quarterly.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

REASONABLE PRICE

Table:22 PRICE OF CHOCOLATE BELOW 5 5-10 10-20 20-30 ABOVE 30 NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS 6 23 51 4 11

Chart: 14 According to the above analysis it is concluded that the consumer thinks 10-20 Rs is the reasonable price of a chocolate. So it must be worthwhile to know this as it may effect the sale of chocolates.

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury CONSUMER’S BRAND LOYALTY

Table:23 BRAND LOYALTY ACTIONS POSTPONE YOUR PURCHASE SWITCH OVER TO OTHER BRANDS GO TO OTHER SHOP FOR SEARCH OF PREFERED BRAND NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS 26 24 45

Chart:15 According to the above analysis it is concluded that mostly people are loyal to the brand as in the absence of availability of their preferred brand mostly people like to search for it or they are ready to postpone their purchase.

REACTION OF CONSUMERS IF NEW BRAND IS INTRODUCED

Table:24 SHIFT TO NEW BRAND OF THE PREFERED PRODUCT NO, NOT AT ALL MAY CONSIDER NO, SHALL NOT ARYA College Of Engineering & I.T. NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS 35 27 4 49.

Consumer preference towards Cadbury

CAN’T SAY

29

Chart:16 According to the above analysis it is concluded that mostly people are addicted to the same flavor or taste and they don’t want to change it as out of 95 respondents 35 are not ready to try new brand at any cost

REASONS FOR NOT SWITCHING OVER TO OTHER BRANDS

All the consumers why they continue to buy the old brand gave various important reasons. The most important reasons given by the consumers were:  Taste/Flavor  Brand  Image  Quality  Packaging

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

FINIDINGS

 CONSUMER RESEARCH: Consumer research deals with consumer and their problems and solution to the problems. In this I came to know about the consumers need and expectation levels regarding products and ascertainable levels of consumer satisfaction.  PRODUCT RESEARCH: Under product research I came to know about the modification which consumers wants as to the quality, packing, shape, color, and quantity etc of their favorite chocolate.  PRICING RESEARCH:

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury This includes ability to consume, to pay for the product, how much a person can spend on his/her favorite chocolate. In this I have tried to find out consumer’s price expectations and reactions.  ADVERTISING RESEARCH: Under this I have concluded that whether the advertisement appeals the consumers or not. This also includes evaluating and selecting the proper media-mix and measuring advertising effectiveness.

CONCLUSION

A survey of the people has been conducted to know the liking pattern of the Cadbury. It is observed that overall people like to eat Cadbury brand rather than any other. It is concluded that mostly people preferred Dairy Milk of Cadbury due to its flavor/taste, quality and image and due to its hard form. It is thus concluded from the facts collected that mostly people refer to buy big pack of their favorite chocolate, and sometimes some of them go for small and family pack.

SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

 Company should concentrate more on television for advertisement, as mostly people get attracted through television only.  For promotional offers, company should go for free gifts rather than going for other ways.  Nestle company should concentrate on its packing as people are least satisfied with it while Cadbury should concentrate on the shape of a chocolate.  People are unsatisfied with the price and quantity of chocolate so companies should concentrate in this regard also.

Annexure

QUESTIONNAIRE PROJECT REPORT ON CONSUMER PREFERENCETOWARDS CADBURY CHOCOLATES Que1. Do you eat chocolate? Yes No

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury Que2. Which brand of chocolate do you prefer? Cadbury Other

Que3. How much importance do you give to the following factors when you purchase a chocolate? (Tick in the desired column) Factors Flavor/taste Price Quality Packaging Form Brand Image Color Shape Quantity Very Important Important Normal Least Important None

Que4. How much are you satisfied with the following factors in your preferred chocolate? (Tick in the desired column) Factors Flavor/taste Price Quality Packaging Form Brand Very Satisfied Satisfied Normal Least Satisfied Can’t Say

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

Image Color Shape Quantity

Que5. Which form of a chocolate do you like? Hard Crunchy Nutties Chew

Que6. What pack do you purchase? Small Big Family Pack

Que7. Which promotional offers attract you most? Free gifts Price Offer Any other

Que8.Which of these factors affect your purchase?       Advertisement Suggestion from friends and relatives Attractive Display Doctors Advice Brand Ambassadors Ingredients

Que9. Which media of advertisement influence your purchase? Television Hoarding Newspapers Display Brochures

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

Que10. How frequently do you purchase chocolates? Once in a fortnight Weekly Quarterly Daily Monthly

Que11. What according to you is the reasonable price of chocolate? Below5 20.30 5-10 Above 30 10-20

Que12. If your preferred brand is not available for repeat purchases then what will you do?  Postpone your purchase  Switch over to other brand  Go to the other shop to search for your preferred brand

Que13. If another brand of the same product appears in the market, will you prefer to stop buying this brand and buy the new brand? No, not at all No, I shall not I may consider can’t say

Que14. If you don’t like to change to the new brand, then what are the reasons for continuing to purchase the old brand?

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

15. A sale promotion scheme like Rs. 2/- off, 10 gms extra, a candy free, etc. would affect your purchase decision. YES NO 16. If you want to buy a wafer chocolate, say KitKat and if it is not available you would settle for a Bar chocolate, say 5 Star or Cadbury’s Dairy Milk. YES Bitter Caramels, Nuts inside High on Sweet content Any others (Please specify) 18. On an occasion I would like to gift a chocolate to a loved one. YES NO 19. Most of my chocolate purchases are pre-planned. YES NO 20. What size of a chocolate do you normally buy? 5 gms. 25 gms./30gms. 80 gms. 200 gms. Super Saver Packs (105 gms.) YES NO NO Wafer enrobed 17. An ideal chocolate would taste as follows:-

21. Are you happy with the kind of chocolate brands available in India, today?

22. If No, then Why not?

23. The price of your favourite brand or preferred brand of chocolate is: High & Expensive77 Cheap ARYA College Of Engineering & I.T. 57. Reasonably OK

Consumer preference towards Cadbury

24. If the price of your favourite brand is reduced, you will buy more of it? YES NO

PERSONAL DETAILS Name: Address: Age: Between 0-10 Between 20-30 Gender: Phone Number: Marital status: Education: Profession: Between10-20 Above 30

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Consumer preference towards Cadbury

 http://www.cadburyindia.com  http://www.nestle.com  http://www.aphrodite-chocolates.co.uk/history_chocolate.htm  http://www.google.com  http://www.cadbury.co.nz/carnival/index.htm  http://www.packaging-technology.com/…/cadbury4.html  http://www.chocolatereview.co.uk  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/preference

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