This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
THE BEQUEST OF
EDWARD KAYE KENDALL,
Cletk in Holy Orders,
A., D. C. L., formerly Professor hi
FROM-THE- LIBRARY OF TRINITYCOLLEGE TORONTO
and is always. R1VINGTON i. AND JONES. PRIESTLEY. BY WILLIAM SMITH. AND CO. UKES. D. AND J. POPE. AND BROWN HARDING. . NUNN. SCATCHERD AND LETTEKMAN AND OGLE. HURST. R. 1819. ORME. LACKINGTON. ardent judge. Tliee. great Longinus ! all the Nine inspire. DEAN OF CHESTER. And An poet s fire . WRITINGS. fill their critic with a With warmth gives sentence. DUNCAN. CUTHELL. zealous in his trust. D. AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE UFE. LONDON . MAVOR. just. TRANSLATED FROM THE GREEK. And is himself the great Sublime he draws. HUGHES. C. WITH NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. LONGMAN. Whose own example strengthens all his laws. who.DIONYSIUS LONGINUS ON THE 2Lt /- SUBLIME. J. AND CHARACTER OF THE AUTHOR. . . : PRINTED FOR F.
Y ".&. St. . DOVE.lt. F. v ( Printed by J. John s Square.
than what teas absolutely necessary to make him English. through this ivork. ment. a decision peculiar only to those who can Sublimity It relish unaffected i grandeur and natural with the same judicious taste as your Lordship. animated with a vitw of pleas- . and Baron Parker of Macdesfield. and so judicious an encourager of polite learning. He has undergone no farther alteration. is needless to say any thing to your Lordship about the other parts of this performance. that LONGINUS has for some ages appeared in. MY LORD. faithfully repre but whether this translation has any of the is His sense is original spirit.TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE GEORGE. ivas under the patronage of the late Lord MAC The CLESFIELD. EARL OF MACCLESFIELD. Longinus is now going to appear in an English dress. and begs the support of your LORDSHIP S name. Viscount Parker of Ewelme. had writer of so much spirit and judg a just claim to the protection of so ele A vated a genius. sented . since they I went alone can plead effectually for themselves. greatest degree of purity and splendour united.
MY LORD. . and giving this public proof.IV DEDICATION. WILLIAM SMITH. obedient Your Lordship s most and most humble Servant. this and publish Yet I it in some fear of hold with pleasure on lay opportunity of paying my respects to your that LORDSHIP. I am. ing every body pleasing none. .
I saw nothing been compared with the French in either of these which did not yield the greatest encouragement to a new attempt. that the Reader should be made privy to the reasons upon which this Work was under The intrinsic beauty of the taken. Welsted. was the main inducement to its publication. be expected. a spirit which few will ever be able yet has an elegance and to equal. but printed at Oxford in 1698. and every down to those of the printer) most injudiciously preserved. though not always faithful to the text. impaired. London. it find only Boileau is was very much surprised. the other without a name. till the middle of the six SUBLIME teenth century. piece the public. IT will.PREFACE. and t sions of this Treatise said in the title-page to have of Boileau. fto less than nine years have intervened since the finishing . to s translation misrepresented and mangled. was published by Mr. without doubt. But I 1724. The Treatise on the in covered up had slept for several ages. upon a perusal. and a regard for itself first allured me to the attempt . But the first into any modern language. Hall. Esq. The first of him I met with. was the good translation French one of the famous Boileau. the dust of libraries. The Geneva first Latin version by Gabriel de Petra was of it printed at in 1612. 1652 . if For every beauty error (even not totally effaced. . especially for those who might be unable to read the original. and is now made public. much less to surpass. which. The present translation was finished before I knew of any prior attempt to translation in make Longinus speak English. have since accidentally met with two other English ver one by J.
is a decision pe culiar to culties tial men of learning and taste. My thanks are due to that gen tleman. who alone know will the diffi which attend such an undertaking. again of and again by a more sign-was. I attentive study of the original. this translation. and be impar enough to give the translator the necessary indulgence. have succeeded in this. . that what I have done. but shall only smile at the snarling of what is commonly called a critic. but if I have the good fortune to contribute a little towards the fixing a true ju dicious taste. to make it read like an original readers whether my may judge . and enabling my readers to distinguish sense from sound. am only fearful. but for those ani this translation. 1 shall think my time well spent . and the Sublime from fus tian and bombast. and shall be ready to submit to the censures of a judge. but whether the translation be good. JAN. the bulk of the spirit. criticisms of Longinus. I am not the least in pain about the pertinency of those in stances which I have brought from the sacred writers. * Now Lord Bishop of Rochester. among the multiplicity of such as might be had. to illustrate the lest. till Dr. not only for his correct editions. tions with which he Most I of the remarks and observa his were drawn up before had read Latin notes. madversions and corrections of so kindly favoured me. The de : if possible. and amended vised. in which space it has been frequently re submitted to the censure of friends. I may be thought to have omitted some of the best. on account of which the whole learned world is indebted to him. as well as from some of the finest of our I own country. I am sensible. might be done much better . or come any thing near to the life. grandeur from pomp.VI PREFACE. the energy of Longinus. Pearce * did him justice in London. nor thoroughly understood. 1770. his late editions at Longinus himself was never accurately enough published.
20. 142 . Page SOME SECT. How That the Sublime may be known are five sources of the 8.. and why 2. That a knowledge of attainable Sublime is 62 ()3 7. 9 s That Cecilius is treatise on the Sublime imperfect.. in writing 114 115 Of Images -Of Figures 128 as 17. 5. Of Puerilities Of the Parenthyrse. account of the Life. there Sub (&. Of the Frigid Whence rise or ill-timed emotion 55 06 57 these imperfections the true take their 6l (j. That rhetoric give which the writers of im is 1()0 proper 13.. 19. Elevation of Thought That a choice and connexion of proper circumstances will produce the Sub Of 70 lime 1 1 . Of Plato s Sublimity Of Imitation That the best 109 Ill 14. Of Bombast 44 48 51 4... 92 104 of Amplification Of Amplification the definition 12. Writings.gt. authors ought to be our models 15. 16.6 lime 9... Of Question and Interrogation Of Asyndetons Of Heaps of Figures That Copulatives weaken the style 135 138 14O . and Character of Longhuis 1. Whether the Sublime may be learned . 10.CONTENTS. 21. That Figures and Sublimity mutually sist one another 133 18. 3.
26.. 169 1 72 faults. and the pre ference given to the former 184 35... 34.Of Of 32.. Sublime writers considered in a view Of Similes and Comparisons . with 3 1 . Of Hyperboles Of Composition or Structure of Words.. sometimes Sub 154 155 limity 25.. 29. 156 159 163 166 167 That Circumlocution insipid carried too far grows Of Choice of Terms Vulgar Terms . 22. is bet That ter some than what is correct and faultless without being Sublime.2. . 30.. 206 209 4&. that whatever is great and uncommon soonest raises admiration 36. Of apt Connexion of the constituent parts . 180 By the preceding rule Demosthenes and Hyperides are compared. 38.. That Plato Lysias is . 33.. . 210 210 211 215 The for scarcity of sublime writers accounted ... 37. in all respects superior to and in general..Vlll CONTENTS...lt. . 23.. 189 parallel . That broken and precipitate measures de base the Sublime That Words of short syllables are preju dicial to the Sublime That Contraction of Style diminishes the Sublime That low terms blemish the Sublime .. 43. 27. Of Change of Tense * Of Change of Person Of another Change of Person Of Periphrasis or Circumlocution . 28. Page SECT. . 44. 1Q2 194 195 201 of discourse 41. . 39. Of Hyperbatons Of Change of Number That Singulars 144 150 cause 24. Multitude of Metaphors the Sublime.. 40..
THERE agreeable in the mind.SOME ACCOUNT OF THE LIFE. to the It hero. a strength of understanding is always due. than the calm and even labours of men of a studious and philosophi cal turn. The noise of victories and the pomp of triumphs are apt to make deeper impressions on common minds. for the most B . and and a judgment. requires. and the scholar. # OF CHARACTER. though the latter are. A generally paid. and set themselves up to public re particular tribute of admiration is gard. LONGINUS. than the lives of those no part of history more itself. the philosopher. indeed. nor more improving to is who have distinguished themselves from the herd of mankind. from such as have only the show and appearance solidity of of it. WRITINGS. to distinguish those actions which are truly great.
Hisnamewas Dionysius Longinus. If we Grecians he expressly calls man. since * See Sect.gt. rest. were the destroyers of all the we know with regret. with greater probability. . J. pernicious to learning and improvement. But others. That he was a Grecian. What countryman Longinus wag canno certainly be discoic.12 THE LIFE AND WRITINGS sorrowful remembrance of what noble edi fices and how fine a city once crowned the Tyrants and barbarians are not less place. a true) of small importance. but that of point (it is and in the other Demosthenes his country . one Fronto. served and handed down to us.". suppose him an Athenian. and that he was born at ^ t. but the value of is Who what destroyed. is * plain from two passages in the following Treatise . his father is entirely unknown . JOnSlUS. o vered Some fanc ^ mm a S Jrian.Pearce. in one of which he uses this ex ". because an uncle of his. pression. to which Suidas makes the addition of Cassius. a rhetorician. is called by Suidas an Emisenian. xii. but little more. than Bare names are pre to cities and nations. bmdas. - Emisa. we can only guess and deplore. r&. i Dr.
reflects a glory upon. the pro* Fragment. to the celebrated Plu We are also at a loss for the ernploystation in . his father. which gave him an opportunity to increase his knowledge. instead of receiving any from. The improve ment of his mind was always uppermost in his thoughts. in vivacity of parts. andthe youth was spent in travelling with them. quickness of 1 sion. and open his mind with that generous enlarge ment. he was present. that his and diversity of conversation. from variety of objects beginning of his education of his own writings informs but a * remnant us. and his thirst after knowledge led him to those channels by which it is con Wherever rnen of learning were to be found. tarch. were two of those whom he visited and heard with the As he was not deficient greatest attention.OF LONG1NUS. mentof his parents. veyed. of no small reputation in that age. apprehen and strength of understanding. By his mother Frontonis he was allied. their life. 13 a son of excellence and worth. . and lost no opportunity of forming a familiarity and intimacy with Ammonius and Origen. philosophers them. which men of sense and judgment will unavoidably receive. quintum. after two or three removes.
Here our author pursued the studies of humanity and philosophy with the greatest application. where he fixed his residence. . Here he published his Treatise on the Sublime. He Longinus ended with his ar rival at Athens. was capable of learning whatever he desired. and no doubt he desired to learn whatever was commendable and seeking after useful. This city was then. the University of the world. which raised his reputation to such a height. as no critic. from whence were drawn every rivulet and stream that watered and cultivated the rest of the world. either before or since. or willing to improve. He was a perfect master of the ancient writings of Greece. and intimately acquainted not only with the works but the very genius and spirit with which they were written. and soon became the most re markable person in a place so remarkable as Athens. the grand and lasting reservoir of philosophy and learning. His cotemporaries there had such an implicit faith in his judgment.14 THE LIFE AND WRITINGS gress of his improvement must needs have been equal to his industry and diligence in it. and had been for some ages. It was the travels of The constant resort of all who were able to teach. durst ever aspire to.
a perfect master of the style and pe culiar turn of thought of them all. He was. from his opinions and sentiments about them. that they appointed him judge of aU the ancient authors. cedent in every age before. and learned to dis tinguish between the genuine and spurious productions of antiquity. and his sentence stamped upon every piece. another Longinus shall arise. He was looked upon by them as infallible and unerring. . and could discern every beauty or blemish in every composition. For no classic writer till ever suffered in character from an erroneous censure of Longinus. In vain might inferior critics exclaim against this monopoly of judgment. it does honour to those who lodged it in his hands. Whatever objections they raised against it were mere air and unregarded sounds. But in re gard to him. and therefore by his decrees were fine writing and fine sense established. And whatever they blamed. The entrusting any one person with so deli is : its intrinsic value an extraordinary in stance of complaisance it is without a pre cate a commission.OF LONGINUS. as I observed before. 15 and were so well convinced of the perfection of his taste. and unparalleled in any of the succeeding as it is fit it should. or whatever they com- .
The sys tem of philosophy which he went upon. Whilst he taught here. was received or rejected by the public. perhaps. His stay at Athens seems to have been of long continuance. or was confirmed and ratified by his so vereign decision. that he was teaching his scholars the eloquence of De mosthenes. that he was explaining and recommending the doctrine of Plato. and that city perhaps had never enjoyed so able a Professor of fine learning. in those calm retreats where he himself had written . that he celebrated . the famous Porphyry for his pupil. the anniversary of his birth with the highest solemnity.16 THE LIFE AND WRITINGS mended. Plato. was the Academic for whose founder. approbation of Longinus. he had so great a veneration. amongst others. eloquence. only as it met with the Eunapius. he had. on the very spot. where and was pro he had formerly thundered . and philosophy united. how delightful then must those reflections have been. There is something agreeable even in the distant fancy. fessing rhetoric in the place where Cicero studied ! had The mind of our Author was not so con- . which could not but arise in the breast of Longinus.
of the most dissolute and abandoned manners. Trebellius Pollio. of Palmyra. to guide the busy and ambitious passions of the great to noble ends. and therefore he made him his part- . carried on the war with uncommon spirit and success. die. appear on the public stage of life with dignity and honour. to train up young princes to virtue and glory. but will enable their owners to shine. the Emperor Valerian had undertaken an expedi tion against the Persians. who had revolted from the it He was assisted in yoke. And it was the fortune of Longinus to be drawn from the contemplative shades of Athens.OF LONGINUS. who succeeded his father V alerian at Rome. was willing to get a support in the valour of Ode nathus. after by Odenathus. r Roman Gallienus. more conspicuous and to and at last to During the residence of Longio o nus at Athens. who. as to be fit 17 only for a life of stillness and tranquillity. tracted.in the cause of liberty. to mix in more active scenes. but views. qualify not only for study and retirement. and a true phi losophic turn. with out any shadow of worth in himself. Fine genius. king the death of Valerian. to struggle for. being a prince of a weak and effeminate soul. I will not say in in more honourable.
She was descended from the ancient race of Ptolemy and Cleopatra. empire of the world. but chaste in punishing the bad. or relieving the distressed. Splen did. in rewarding the good. A : to a prodigy severe . she was generally on horseback and would sometimes march on foot with . Odenathus. her soldiers. and would probably have risen to it. benevolent and active. and engrossed the attention and admi ration of the world. had he not been taken off. a lady of so extraordinary magnanimity and virtue. in a career of victory.18 THE LIFE AND WRITINGS ner in empire by the title of Augustus. except his own wife Zenobia. by the seemed born for the treachery of his own relations. and decreed his medals. strucken in honour of the Persian victories. and had all those qualifications which are the ornament of her own. ships of war. to be current coin through out the empire. miracle of beauty. guages. His abilities were so great. that they were above the competition of every person then alive. but not profuse . says an historian. and is She was skilled in several lan said to have drawn up herself . inflexibly and generous without Superior to the toils and hard prodigality. that she outshone even her hus band. and his actions so illustrious. and the glory of the other sex.
an uncommon quickly gained share in her esteem. was employed during whole reign. with abilities far inferior to those of Zenobia. in the vicious and scandalous but reign of Gallienus. 19 an epitome of the Alexandrian and Oriental history. but had left imperfect. who succeeded Gal his lienus at Rome. Claudius. who prevailed upon him to quit Athens. and in carrying petitors. Their reduction was afterwards completed by Aurelian. In his conversation she spent the vacant hours of her life. and steering herself by his counsels in the whole series of on that plan of empire. by an uncommon tide of success. gave her an opportunity to extend her con quests. as she He found him not only qualified to form the tender minds of the young. who.or LONGINUS. and undertake the education of her sons. and enlighten the understanding of the aged. modelling her sentiments by his instructions. The great reputation of Longinus had been wafted to the ears of Zenobia. over all the East. the great- . The number of com her conduct . which her husband Odenathus had begun to execute. set up for the empire. but to improve the virtue. against the Northern nations. which she herself had formed. which was very short.
to assume the title of Queen of He marched Vopiscus. and affection for her person. The Emperor marched immediately after. being surprised as well at the rapidity of her conquests. retired with her army to Emisa. not daring to confide in the Emisenians. the best of his forces. was again com pelled to retire towards her capital. till she could . Zenobia was there in readiness to oppose his further progress. till at last the victory inclined a second time to Aurelian . and the unfortunate Zenobia. He worn the then turned his arms against Zenobia. as enraged that she had dared the East. and the of zeal for her service. But the armies coming to an engagement at Daphne. and met with till no check in his expedition he advanced as far as Antioch. The dispute was sharp and bloody on both sides. near Antioch. and leaving Antioch at his mercy. Palmyra. and found her ready to give him battle in the plains before the city. she was defeated by the good conduct of Aurelian.20 THE LIFE AND WRITINGS had for a long time est soldier that imperial purple. against her with Zosimus. in spite of the warmest efforts of Aurelian. she made no doubt inhabitants full of defending herself here. As the town was strongly fortified.
TO ZENOBIA AND HER ADHERENTS. his activity impelled him forwards. to crown his former success. EMPEROR OF THE ROMAN WORLD. as if his words could strike her. what you ought voluntarily to have done already ? I charge you to surrender. Tired o at last with the obstinacy of the besieged. and almost worn out by continued render. yet the siege was attended with a thousand difficulties. AURELIAN. Why am I forced to command.OF LONGINUS. and thereby . new harassed by the frequent attacks of the rian banditti . and his own life sometimes in the utmost danger. ". Aurelian was not long behind. raise 21 and venture again into the open field. Sy and when he came up. he sent Zenobia a written summons to sur terror". into whom by force of arms he was unable to subdue. AND RECOVERER OF THE EAST. he found Palmyra so strongly fortified and so bravely defended. fatigues. that though he invested it with his army. forces. by completing the con His march was terribly quest of Zenobia. His army was daily weakened and dispirited by the gallant resistance of the Palmyrenians.
Remember. This answer was drawn up by Longinus in a spirit peculiar to himself. nor soothed by the cruel promise of resolved by her answer to convince Aurelian. TO THE EMPEROR AURELIAN. shall think proper to place you. whatever is done. that he should a life in exile and obscurity . whom he thought to frighten into compliance. QUEEN OF THE EAST. find the stoutest resistance from her. that in war. not in the least affrighted by the menace. which otherwise attends you. where I. shall spend the remainder of your life. sign to the disposal of the Romans. Zenobia. ". your finest apparel. Your jewels. Never was such an unreasonable demand proposed.22 THE LIFE AND WRITINGS avoid the certain penalty of death. in order to preserve the Palmy renians from being di vested of all their former privileges. Zenobia. and worthy of his mis tress. by any but yourself. your gold.". You. or such rigorous terms offered. should be done by . by the advice of the most honourable senate. Aurelian. and your camels. ZENOBIA. you shall re your silver. your horses.
as) with indigna redoubled his efforts. subtilty of intrigues till at length. says Vopiscus. Queen. than he blushed (not so tion. that Cleo T patra chose rather to die with the title of any inferior dignity ? We expect succours from Persia the Sa racens are arming in our cause even the Syrian banditti have already defeated your army. much He with shame. you command me to become your captive.". surrender imperiously command me to but can } OU forget. Aurelian. the Palmyre- nians. than to live in . 23 You .OF LONGINUS. You shall be . valour. Judge what you are to expect from a conjunction of these forces. No which the conduct of a general could suggest. invested the town more closely than ever. or the bravery of angry soldiers could put in execution. and kept it in continual alarms. He intercepted the aid which was marching from Persia to its relief. as if you were absolute lord of the universe. art was left untried. with which. either by strength of amis. and worn out by continual assaults from with- . had no sooner read this disdainful letter. He reduced the Saracen and Armenian forces. compelled to abate that pride. deprived of all prospect of succour. or the .
THE LIFE AND WRITINGS and by famine within. whither the captives were carried after him. swiftest camels. returned to Emisa. who made her sub ". lian. The Queen and Longinus could not tamely stay to put on their chains. had they not placed fore her eyes in all its be let- allurements. was immediately dispatched in pursuit. they Persia. and Zenobia yet unsubdued. when beset by art ful and ambitious men.24 out. who entering the city was vexed to find his vic tory imperfect. A body of the Zosimus. soldiers The Ro and demand Zenobia longer herself: the former great ness of her spirit quite sunk within her she . Her counsellors (she said) were to be blamed. What could a weak short-sighted woman do. The . who overtook and made them prisoners as they were swiftest horse crossing the Euphrates. now was no owned a master. or rather to insult her. man throng around her. to make fresh Mounted on the endeavoured to fly into head against Aurelian. and not herself. servient to all their schemes ? She never had it aimed at empire. and pleaded for her life. after Aure he had settled Palmyra. her death with incessant shouts. He sat on his tribunal to re ceive Zenobia. were obliged to open the gates and receive their conqueror.
the insolence was .". soldier who was amidst the generous condolence of those who knew his merit. piring happy it. have titles escaped from the depredations of time and barbarians. ter 25 which affronted Aurelian was not her own Longinus wrote it. Pearce has col lected the of twenty-five Treatises. This was no sooner heard. but the greatest part on critical is breath) nothing but a prison . damaged too much and shattered by the storm. comforted his He pitied Zenobia. and friends. and gave his soul the most desirable freedom.OF LONGINUS. since ". Dr. He looked upon death it rescued his body from slavery. his/ lian. The writings of Longinus are numerous. except this on the Sublime. some on philosophical. poured all his vengeance on the head of Longinus. The learned and judi- . and admired the inward ge nerosity of his soul. This world (said he with his ex as a blessing. And even this is rescued as from a wreck. than Aure enough to conquer. and gains his liberty. Yet on this little and im perfect piece has the fame of Longinus been founded and erected. none of which. therefore he who gets soonest out of subjects. but not hero enough to forgive. He was borne away to immediate execution.
From a constant inspection and close study of such an antique fragment of Rome. ". and excite an earnest regret for every particle of it that has perished. statues.26 THE LIFE AND WRITINGS cious have bestowed extraordinary commen dation upon it. It is one of those valuable rem nants of antiquity. The Golden Treatise is its general title. ruins. ". Michael Angelo learned to execute and to teach the art of Sculpture chael Angelo s be made of this imperfect piece on the Sub lime. orators. was therefore called Mi School. since it is a noble school for critics. proportion and delicate finishing of the trunk excludes all hope of equalling such masterly performances. The Sublime/ image is an says Longinus. poets. It resembles those mutilated which are sometimes digged out of Limbs are broken off. The same use may . The remark is refined and just and who more deserving than he of its appli of the soul/ cation ? Let his sentiments be considered let as reflections from his own mind. which it is not fine in the power of any because the living artist to replace. of which enough remains to engage our admiration. reflected from the inward greatness . it and historians. this piece on the Sublime be regarded as the .
yet they are always great without swelling. is equally necessary to a critic. by an intimacy with the greatest and sublimest writers. the air the colouring lively enough to shew is noble. bold with out rashness. planted the seeds of it within him. a pity we have not but as that cannot The it features are graceful. and how many qualifications are ne cessary to form the character of a critic with dignity and applause. we must take up at present with this incomplete. It is . which he himself improved and nursed up to perfec tion.OF LONGINUS. though beautiful miniature. Elevation of thought. light Whenever he has Homer his fire. but the world seems too critic. C 2 . he catches and ardour of it. picture of its 2? author. far beyond what any other could * See Sect. a larger portrait of him be had.* narrow a confinement for that of the And though his thoughts are sometimes stretched to an immeasurable size. IQ view. fine how was. heaven and earth marks out the extent of the poet s and increases the The space between itself genius. and is the most Nature had im shining talent in Longinus. the greatest qualifi cation requisite to an orator or poet. ix.
easy. parallels the he shews in Greek with the two periods the distinguishing excellences of each. How he ad by variety. and terrifies with his thun When he Roman orator. which he There mires and improves upon Homer. as to rage beyond His senseresistance. . style. gradually increasing and getting to such a head. and peaceable flow.28 THE LIFE AND WRITINGS or durst have said. the simplicity. and disorderly regular. the last. der. the words glide along in a smooth. he copies at once his with his lightning. a conflagration. and the sound of his words is an echo to his sense. abrupt. whilst he is making remarks upon it. which bears down all be fore it. and frequently excel. and harmony of his With Demosthenes he is vehement. its beginning. pointed out by him in does not imitate. and devour all things. When Plato is his subject. the first is a very hurricane. he dazzles rides. has been hinted already. no beauty any other. gentle in dispersed. so his style is masterly. When he speaks of Hype- engaging manner. enlivened flexible with ease. sweetness. and always proper and judicious. is every where the very thing he would ex press. As and his sentiments are noble and is lofty.
He stings. The sentence he pronounces is founded upon and supported by reasons which are satisfac His approbation is not at tended with fits of stupid admiration. to the sneers also. the secret workings of the other bias him to excuse or extenuate it in the best manner he is able. but car ries honey along with him. both in what he blames and what he commends. or gaping. fits of drowsiness. nor are his tory and just. The good-nature. and in his dreaming like a god. what actually annoys him. at something surprising which he cannot comprehend . His judgment is exact and impartial.Ol LONGINUS. the bee. His candour is extensive as his judgment. excelling all the world when broad awake. Where Homer sinks into trirles. Whenever he lays open the faults of a writer. is Homer still . un- . yet assuages the smart. of Longinus must He bore an aversion and cavils of those who. he forgets not to mention the qualities he had which were deserving of praise. he . to The penetration of the one obliged him reprove what was amiss . which. if it heals not the wound. like an idiot. not pass without notice. like censures fretful and waspish. he cannot help reproving him but though Homer nods sometimes.
finite con- f Sect. rise in our esteem. xxxi. He fre quently takes pains to shew how misplaced their animadversions are. t Sect. persuaded. The judgment. and become its nuisance. stance of this in his vindication of is an in Theopom- pus from the censure of Cecilius. as the quotation itself to the Jewish legislator. xliii. and to defend the There injured from aspersions. ix. but it was plainly his opinion.* He can not endure to see what is right in that author perverted into error. is a point in which we are not in the least concerned. when we reflect on that exemplary piece of justice he has done to Moses. . is as ho nourable to the critic. and candour. nor where he really errs. Whether he believed the Mosaic history of the creation. I am tiality. -fYet here his good-nature exerts itself again. abuse it. The manner of his quoting that celebrated passage^ from him. and impar with which Longinus declares his sen timents of the writings of others.30 equal to the weighty province of criticism. will. will he suffer him to pass un reproved. and he proposes divers methods of amending what is wrong. that though it be condescendingly suited to the * Sect.
* was a Jewish convert. that she was a Christian. yet it is related in a manner not inconsistent with the majesty of God. long before the time in which he lived and no man of a serious. that Lon- ginus was not only acquainted with the writ ings of the Old Testament. Paul of Tarsus. The Greek translation had been dispersed through empire. as some do. that he never read Moses. stance He is drawing up a list of the greatest orators. it less of a philosophical turn. To contend. Zeno- according to the testimony of Photius. : Roman much ject bia. But there is strong probability. and at the close writings. And further. Besides. ". he says.or LONGINUS. . out the is trifling. but as I am a stranger to the reasons on which he founds where seen it the assertion. since to a manuscript of the latter in the Vatican library. but with those also of the New. And I have some mentioned from Bellarmine. I shall lay no stress upon it. or rather litigious. the chief supporter of an opinion not yet esta- Prefixed to Hudson s Longinus. 31 ception of man. could re as unworthy a perusal. there is pre fixed a passage from some of this Author s which is preserved there as an in of his judgment.
after was looked upon as more than hu man. has been so offi blished. to be his death. make the oppres sive. 1. certainly he ought not to have concealed them from the world. 31. he could not but entertain a Such a judge must high opinion of him. the abandoned Felix tremble. If Longinus ever saw any of the writings of St. needs applaud so masterly an orator. and temples were erected to his honour. If for any of real weight and importance. Paul. I own.* but for what reasons I cannot conjecture. when the inhabitants of Lystra would have sacrificed to him ? Let his writings be examined and judged by the whilst he * Bibliotheca Gracca. and al most persuade Agrippa. .33 THE LIFE AND WRITINGS Fabricius. and was not St. 4. did not the eloquence of St. though bound in degrading fetters.". prejudice. ciously kind as to attribute these words to Christian forgery. Paul. Paul admired as a god. even was on earth. c. For where is the writer that can vie with him in Demos pathetic eloquence? thenes could rouse up the Athenians against sublime and Philip. and Cicero into the breasts shame and confusion of Antony or Catiline and strike . in spite of all his a Christian? Homer.
though less pure than that of Aristotle. that no pure Greek was written after the reign o f the Antonini. to leave this digression it is a remark . though . with nervous and elegant in expressions. and the sublimity of the latter be uni writer. any other composition : But. they will appear more abundantly stocked with sub lime and pathetic thoughts. unknown to any other which enforced him to give all possible strength and energy to his words. The terms he uses are generally so strong and expressive. o diction of Longinus. that they cannot be rendered into another language without wide circumlocution. cannot be found deficient beautiful figures.OF LONOINUS.of Sir William Temple. He has a high and mascu line turn of thought. there appears not in him the least show or affectation of learning. the conciseness or diffuseness of his But the periods being always suited to the nature of his subject. that his language might be properly adjusted to his sense. and sometimes so artfully compounded. 33 and they nay. severest test of the severest critics. is elegant and nervous. with strong and . But further. formly supported by the grandeur of the former. than the world.
writers are even profuse of their com mendations of him in this respect. that on the contrary it sharpened and enlivened his taste. that living library. the generosity. who can feast on inadvertent slips. it brisk but insipid pedantry. is like a voracious ap it breaks out petite with a bad digestion pius. and modesty of Longinus. and the heaviness. . He was not so surly as to reject the sentiments of others without examination. the taste. and consider what a disagreeable and shocking contrast there is between the genius. For how Some extensive must his reading have been. was so far from palling or extinguishing. the candour. but he had the wisdom to stick by his own. without a due balance of judgment. the snarling and sneering temper of modern critics. either into learned dulness. Let us pause a little here.34 THE LIFE AND WRITINGS was wonderfully large. or a In Longinus. His very rules are shining examples of what his remarks the very excelthey inculcate . the dulness. . to de serve those appellations given him by Euna- and a walk ing museum? Large reading. the good-nature. and triumph over what they think a blunder. yet his stock without any prejudice to the brightness of his fancy. he was a according to the natural complexion of differ ent persons.
they are either creeping after. lences he is 35 pointing out. In him these are not different. tic. nor to be all bitterness and Yet such behaviour. To judge in a worthy manner of the performances of men. Pie keeps the same majestic pace. the ends for human understand which we were created. than fine writing. has brought the office into scandal and contempt. fitted more by nature for for heroes of a Dunciad.OF LONGINUS. usurped the name. culations Longinus will make no contempt- . traced our Author thus far as a crio we must view him now in another light. and In these spe the means of their attainment. An Essay on Criti cism appears but once in an age . we must know the dignity of human existing parts of the nature. Addison! Having. the reach of the ing. judges of fine sense and The business of a critic is not only to find fault. but mutually depending and co same character. in those who have gall. is Theirs are often inversions of what right. and what a tedious interval is there between Longinus and Mr. and sinking other men by clogging them with a weight of their own lead. or plunging below them. or soars aloft with his authors . I mean as a Philosopher.
without worthy no Supreme Being. had in a great measure cor rected the notions of inquisitive and thought ful men in this particular. its effects on a superstitious The discourses of Socrates. The sad depra vations of the pagan world are chiefly to be tions of the attributed to a deficiency in this respect. and caused the into vulgar and philoso By what mer. malignancy of world. that his religion was . hope the view will not ap pear superfluous or useless.36 THE LIFE AND WRITINGS and I ible figure. Had the poet designed to have turned the imaginary gods of his ido latrous countrymen into ridicule. yet this will be no excuse for the light . Yet what he has said has never been understood in that and though the whole may be allego rical. and the writings of Plato. it is Longinus has said of Ho plain to me. has exalted his heroes at the expense of his deities. below the human has passed upon him. and sunken the divine nature Homer and therefore deserves that censure of blasphemy which Longinus far . as his commentators would fain per suade us. distinction of religion phical. he could hardly have taken a better method. Man cannot arrive to a just and proper un derstanding of himself.
Addison s Essay on the Whoever reads this part of Imagination. as near as their finite abilities will admit. than what is ordinary and familiar. and an emulation of whatever is great and excellent. however useful. In ascertains the success of their attempts. is implanted in their minds. to Divinity itself. which are only to be excelled by Mr. the same manner he accounts for that turn in the mind. to 37 allow him not Though we be a Christian or a Jewish convert. and to enable them to approach. since without a knowledge and reverence of the Divine perfections. and that piece of Mr. and by the predominancy of them in their minds. of the latter sort. he accounts for the vast stretch and penetration of the human understanding to these he . Addison s . which biasses us to admire more what is great and uncommon. he never could have formed his noble ideas of human This nature.OF LONGINUS. Longinus. Upon these principles. ascribes the labours of men of genius . to quicken their pursuits after real grandeur. yet he was no idolater. life he considers as a public theatre. There are other masterly reflections of this kind in the 33d and 34th Sections. on which men are to act their parts. A thirst after glory.
The mind is the source and standard of whatever can be considered as great and illus trious in any light. and he will neglect the nobler acquisitions. well. which are more suited to the dignity of his nature. and . The pa geantry and pomp of life will be regarded by such a person as true honour and glory . without avail Longinus declares for a close and attentive examination of all things. be they be weighed. it is the inward vigour of the soul. Yet would telling us we were born informing little. From this our actions and our words must flow. perhaps the wreck of his virtue. and high rank in life. Outsides and surfaces may be splendid and but nothing be within deserving our He that suffers himself to be daz alluring. form notions of them both to pursue what us what is so. We And fore we can act or speak as we ought. to the prejudice of his inward tranquillity. very is much to their honour. and centre in solid and substantial grandeur. zled with a gay and gaudy appearance.38 THE LIFE AND WRITINGS will with attention. great. and power. which alone can give merit to ambition. though and by must think this must . yet applause. will be betrayed into admiration of what the wise contemn his pursuits will be levelled at wealth.
But the im portance of liberty in bringing it to perfec tion.* On this he charges the suppression of genius and decay of the sublime. with a spirit of generous indig nation. and the strictest practice of virtue. the philosopher. The condition of man is de plorable. avers. when he into dares not exert his abili and runs imminent danger by sayxliv. a Socrates. and cherished and improved by education. but with caution about it. . and a Homer. but cannot reach maturity without other concurrent causes. a Demosthenes. Yet this in ward vigour is chiefly owing to the bounty of nature. which forms the patriot. is cherished and improved by educa tion. or the poet this : was the rise of an Alexander. Longinus is clear on the affirmative side.OF LONGINUS. may perhaps be more liable to debate. are points in which the whole world agrees. He and a public dungeon. such as public liberty. because tyranny and oppression were tri umphant at the time he wrote. ties. the orator. That the seeds of a great genius in any kind must be implanted within. He speaks feelingly. 39 variously exerted. that slavery is the confinement of the soul. * Sect.
and This must suffers at last a total extinction. lays an immediate restraint on the minds of of genius is vassals. so that the inborn quickly damped. when what ought to be the reward of an honour becomes the prey of knaves and flatterers. lowered one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived. But the infection gradually spreads. And this will be the case wherever power en croaches on the rights of mankind : a servile fear will clog and fetter every rising genius. if we compare Cicero speak ing to Catiline. to the same Cicero pleading That spirit of before Caesar for Marcellus. and turned even the Lord Bacon into a sycophant. fire always be a necessary consequence. No one will write or speak well in such a situation.for ever after. and fear and avarice will bend those to it. will strike such an awe upon it in its tender generous sallies. which prevailed so much in Eng land about a century ago. unless its and infant and check state. easily appear. Tyranny. as will stick. whom nature formed for higher employ able ambition ments. and sink lofty orators into pompous The truth of this remark will flatterers. on subjects of mere amusement.40 THE LIFE AND WRITINGS ing or doing what he ought. erect ed on the ruins of liberty. and which . adulation.
I) xliv. engaged about the mortal. gives rise to luxury and profuseness among the subjects. As plea supplied by money. . the s soul. talk sublimely on any point wherein as his lord acts meanly ? further. so t it is The supported by unjustifiable methods. and he has ceased to cultivate virtue. is But power despotic and unbridled as often generally obtained. their spirit ". is omitted to procure the latter. no method. of degenerate sentiments.". splendid and ostentatious pageantry of those at the helm. .OF LONGINUS. Men become The will be lay in is and good sense and genius must ruins. the worthless part of himself. These are the fatal sources of dissolute manners. of infamy and want. how ever mean. by any indirect tendency. affect his For how shall the vassal dare to masters. sure is because mer. their minds are enervated and insensible to shame. latter part of the Section is this that genius * Sect. faculties of the soul (in the words of * Longinus) will then grow stupid. when the care and study of man lost. it leads to the enjoyment of the for corrupt and abject. 41 cannot. and polish his nobler part. The scope of our Author reflections in the .
inward grandeur of soul is the common centre. all bodies of the same In the latter case. and the morals are itself. Cicero was of the same opinion before him. who have have hitherto appeared in the world. and Quinctilian has a whole chapter to prove that the great orator must be a good man. Men of the finest genius. been for the most part not very de fective in their morals. from whence every ray of sublimity. and marks out the other for public abhorrence. all we should be orators or poets. and the manifest opposition between their thought and prac tice detracts its weight from the one. than texture. with and which the rational as Author of nature has adorned the . neglected. or all This would break in upon that useful variety. is darted out. but little to the credit of am the persons. I and less in their prin sensible there are exceptions ciples. or discourse. since their works become the se verest satires on themselves. to this observation. our eyes would meet only with the same uniformity of colour in every object all : in the former. For all minds are no more of the An same complexion. either in thought.42 THE LIFE AND WRITINGS is can never exert where virtue or rise to sublimity. blockheads. beautiful philosophers. depraved. or action.
and the bravery with which he died by all acknowledged the Prince of Critics. well as the material creation. to lent. 43 There is in every mind a tendency. The Author ap pears sublime in every view.OF LONGINUS. and are not cramped or restrained in the liberty of others ! shewing and declaring it to There are many fortunate concur rences. who have been blessed with portunities of giving it the proper culture and polish. without which we cannot attain to any quickness of taste or relish for the Sublime. with Socrates and Cato. I hope what has been said will not be thought an improper introduction to the fol lowing Treatise. not only in what he has written. worthy to be ranked . and by no worse judge than Boileau esteemed a philosopher. D . but in the manner in which he acted. though perhaps dif ferently inclined. in which (unless I am de ceived) there is a just foundation for every re mark that has been made. what is great and excel their Happy they. who know own pe op culiar bent.
and was cotemporary with Dionysius of Halicarwhom he contracted a very close friendship. . that he was a young Roman. bright genius. this Treatise. and that consequently its advantage (which ought to be the principal aim of every writer) 1 Who this to whom the Author addresses Terentianus. Cecilius was a Sicilian rhetorician. nor is it of any great importance. He. was spoken with sincerity more than complaisance. 2 when we read over together Cecil! us s Treatise on the Sublime. What he says of him. I remember. is thought to have been the first who wrote on the Sublime.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. SECTION You that I. is not possible to be discovered. He lived under nassus. a person of a taste. my dear TERENTIANUS. since Longinus must have disdained to flatter. that it is entirely defective in its principal branches. was. am modern dedicator. from some passages in the sequel of this work. or Posthumius Terentianus. I like a 2 confident. with Augustus. But it ap pears. we thought it too mean for a subject of that nature. an elegant and a particular friend to Longinus.
Be sides. might enable us to raise our natural genius to any height of this SUBLIME. or speak in in the original public. since in excellence it is far the superior). as much to be commended for good designs and earnest endeavours. 45 would prove very small to the readers. in obedience to those com mands. to give you my thoughts on this Sub lime . Those who to write for the world. for the ser vice of 3 those who write for the world. were wholly ignorant of the matter.". or speak in public. though in every treatise upon any sci ence two points are indispensably required . has omitted. . the second (I mean in order of writing. be fully explained . that plain directions be given. 3 ". that the science. the method which. consider whether any thing can be drawn from my private studies. how and by what method such science may be attained yet Cecilius. perhaps. thousand instances to shew what the Sublime is. the first. judiciously ob as if his readers served. You indeed have laid your commands upon me. this writer is not so blamed his for his omissions. But. who brings a .] I take all this be implied word TTO\ITIKOIS.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. which is the subject of it. let us then. as altogether unne cessary.
The Marvellous always works with more surprising force than that which barely persuades or delights. but even throws an audience into transport. both in verse and prose. it is wholly in our either to resist or yield to own power But persuasion. with I request is me that exactness. when he friend. irresisti- the Sublime. to you. and time with their renown. ing truth/ In doing good and speak But since I write. For the Sublime not only persuades. replied. to give your opinion on whatever I advance. my dear ". Dexterity of invention. and good order and economy in composition. In what do we most resemble the gods?". are not to * Pythagoras.46 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. that the Sublime is a certain eminence or perfection of language. who are versed in every branch of polite learning. and that the great est writers. which due to truth. and triumphs over every hearer. For well did the * sage answer the question. ". endued with strength o ble. But you. have by this alone filled all obtained the prize of glory. . there will be little occasion to use many previous words in prov ing. In most cases. strikes home. and that sincerity which is natural to yourself. my dear friend.
] This Dr. with the rapid force of light ning has borne down all before it. so well familiar to himself. but 4 the Sublime. it. to express the power of the Sublime.gt. in this passage. Our Author the uses the preterperfect tense. but Another writer would have this said had been too dull and languid. Author) because you can no more look upon this. upon ". since his style subject.". when pre Besides. &c. than you can upon the flash of that. But these.lt.". the better to express power and rapidity with which sublimity of discourse It is like lightning (says our strikes the minds of its hearers. I known and dent am confi my dear TERENTI ANUS can undeniably prove by his own practice. Pearce has an ingenious observation It is not easy (says he) to determine. or the Sublime. 4? be discerned from one or two passages. sentence inimitably fine in the original. vowels. The Sublime. and They represent are hurried in the celerity of short to the life the rapid motion either of lightning. They run along. . nor scarcely sometimes from the whole texture of a discourse . whether the precepts of Longinus. and shewn at one stroke the compacted might of genius.opei and propriety imaginable. and evtieiKvvrat. or his example.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. he has made use of his words. is in the course of this possessed of all the sublimity of his Accordingly. 4 ". the struc sent. be most to be observed and followed work. with all the art $ia&. and truths like these. when season ably addressed. ture of the words in the close of the sentence is admirable.f&. when is seasonably addressed.
to have the power and is from nature. The Sublime (say they) is born within ". mistake. I have since been favoured with a sight of s the learned Dr. that they are guilty of a great mistake. For that they are guilty of a great some are entirely of opinion. These high attainments to to born within art to and are not is reach them. which should be purely natural. In all 1 the editions is tion. new version of the passage : But we ought not to advance. justifies the emendation. the whole tenor of the piece. because I could not make sense of it. Tonstal conjectural emendations on this Author. It was purposely omitted in the transla tise on the Bathos. who would reduce them (say they) are to the rules of us. be learned by precept: the only have the power from nature. who would reduce it to the rules of art. I beg leave therefore to give the following ". are added rj padove. is. And (as they reason) those ef fects. not to be learned by precept.". before we clear the point. of opinion. whether or no there be any the Sublime or the Pathetic. and here for /3a0oi/e he readeth nadavs. The minute alteration of a single letter enlightens and clears the whole passage : the context. whether or no there be any 1 For some are entirely art in the Sublime. art in before we clear the point. for this plain substantial reason. SECTION BUT we II.48 IONGINUS ON TttE SUBLIME. The only art to reach it. . us. ought not to advance. art. or the profound : a and which perhaps gave rise to a trea perplexing expression.
and lest of art. One unchang d. Though meant each other s aid. Life.". Essay on Criticism. Unerring nature. Art from that fund each just supply provides. true mettle when you check his course. 2 By her just standard. 49 by the dry impover contrary might But I maintain. yet she is not altoge- These observations of Longinus. At once the source. Each motion There guides. and end. which still and your judgment frame is still the same: divinely bright. like a generous horse. and without fair pomp presides : In some body thus the secret soul with vigour fills spirits feeds.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. dispirited and weakened ishing rules of art. are a very proper illustration for one another : First follow nature. and beauty must to all impart. o o For wit and judgment ever are at strife. Tis more to guide. r Works With without show . and the following lines of Mr. clear. than provoke his speed The winged Shews most courser. that the would they only reflect that 2 though nature for the most part challenges a sovereign and uncontrollable power in the easily appear. whom Heav n has bless d w ith * store of wit. Itself unseen. Restrain his fury. and universal light. effect remains. Yet want as much asjain to manage it . like man and wife. the whole . . but in th are. and every nerve sustains. than spur the muse s steed. Pathetic and Sublime. Pope. . force.
and bold without discretion. which depends not upon. of each. That again though she is the founda and even the source of all degrees of the Sublime. no helm to guide their course. And dom further that flights of grandeur are left at then in the utmost danger. that there is a force in elo quence. and art the place of conduct. yet even this could not be . when ran to themselves. yet that method is able to point out in the clearest manner the peculiar tendencies tion.50 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. but delights in a proper regula tion. and to mark the proper seasons in which they ought to be enforced and applied. ther lawless. but it stands as fre quently in need of the curb. is conduct. and no less im greatest good portant. must be owned. . there is one thing which de tion. Demosthenes somewhere judiciously ob That in common life success is the serves. Genius may some times want the spur. without which the other must be unavoidably of short continuance/ Now the same may be asserted of Composi ". will where nature For though it serves particular attention. but cumbered with their own weight. supply the place of success. having no ballast proper ly to poise. that the next. nor can be learned by. But further. rule.
would attend to these re have very good reason to believe he would no longer think any undertaking of flections. First Part of Henry IV. and making Boreas a piper. none of whose lines. .] Shakespeare : the same kind of bombast the southern wind Doth play the trumpet to his purposes. an example of which he produces from some old tragic poet. remain at present. but it is evident that the Author is treating of those imperfections which are opposite to the true Sublime . of extravagant swelling or bom bast. spewing against 2 heaven. I this nature superfluous or useless. and among those.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. he who condemns such works as this in which I am now engaged. 2 tl Making Boreas a piper". Streaming curls of flame. ##**#*#*#i Let them the chimney s flashing flames repel. I d whirl aloft one streaming curl of flame. and some has fallen into expressions below. as I said before. Could but these eyes one lurking wretch arrest. into And embers turn his crackling I dome. If. 51 that light which we receive therefore. But now a generous song have not sounded. known without from art. with 1 Here is a great defect . except these here quoted. SECTION III.
It is certain that writers of great reputation have used allusions of the same nature.52 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. . it thought. or of Leontium. Pearce has produced instances from Ovid. the custom had been only to gild them. Gorgias the Leontine. may be defended honour in the from the custom of the Persians to salute that high title. that a statue his 3 was erected to temple of Apollo at Delphos. and father of the Sophists. His styling though is Xerxes the Persian Jupiter. much less therefore be in prose-writ ing. that Gregory Nazianzen has . of solid gold. swellings. and they become contemptible and ri Tragedy will indeed by its nature admit of some pompous and magnificent diculous. and observed further. their show of being terrible gradually disap pears. has been more severely censured by Hermogenes than Longinus. Upon this account some expressions it allowable must of 3 Gofgias the Leontine are highly ridiculed. and cannot possibly adorn or raise it and whenever carefully examined in the light. but For those forced and unna super-tragical. was a Sicilian He was in such uni rhetorician. or those works which are founded in truth. tural images corrupt and debase the style. The authors of such quaint expressions (as he says) deserve them selves to be buried in such tombs. are not tragical. yet even in tragedy it is an unpar donable offence to soar too high. their monarch by Calling vultures living sepulchres. such-like expressions. versal esteem throughout Greece. and even from Cicero . Dr.
censure more. in his Orator. He is faulty no less in his . c. and calls vultures living sepulchres. with which wits slip in all ages will be into. for they shine not like meteors. who styles 4 53 Xerxes the Persian Jupiter. it. Some expres treat sions of Callisthenes deserve the same ment. running sepulchres. The dish was not large enough 7 for dolphins. and 8 Matris. this And still 5 but glare Clitarchus comes under like stars. little However. wrote an account of the exploits of Alexander the Great. but will hardly commend. the great and such as men of true judgment may accidentally may overlook. succeeded Aristotle in the tuition * Callisthenes of Alexan der the Great. delighted.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. ". says Demetrius. styled those \vild beasts that devour men. he replied. cold and disagreeable. Deme trius 5 Clitarchus Phalereus. the mountains. the description 6 is And for this reason. and wrote a history of the affairs of Greece. and blows. 7 Amphicrates. Hegesias was a Magnesian. swelling description of a wasp. at best they are but conceits. Cicero. Amphicrates was an Athenian orator. Being banished there. Hegesias.". he) upon if into hollow It seems as he was speaking of a wild bull. 226. that ". Pearce. having attended him in his expeditions. and requested to set up a school with arrogance and disdain. says humorously of him. and not of such a pitiful creature as a wasp. or the boar of Erymanthus. Dr. to Seleucia. who blusters indeed . Loud 6 as Sophocles expresses sounding blasts not sweetened by the stop. in his treatise on Elocution. and flies It feeds (says oaks. has censured his ".".
the finest edifice in the world. faults difficult to All thoughts than his expressions. escaped censure. 1. Alexander was born the same night that the temple of Diana at Ephesus. was by a terrible fire reduced to ashes. What said there about the Sufflata constructio s verbomm. has himself who has given so little quarter to He nizance of him. they Divine. Cic.". that he wrote Hercules. 4.54 LONGIISTUS ON THE SUBLIME. attempted thus to turn that accident No wonder (said he) that Diana s temple to his honour &. all taxed with the same imperfections. that fire seems of itself to have extinguished the of the temple. ed.) sufficient is so excessively great. flames which were destroying her temple. ". at a loss for a who man to has any call im One of his frigid expressions is still remaining. but commentators observe from Athenaeus. Delph. 9 in prose an Encomium upon vol. The coldness of this expression it (says Plutarch in Alex. proves empty simple is froth 9 . agrees very exactly with Longinus sense of the bombast. I wonder Plutarch. when.". is for while Plutarch character. Vid. gesias. in a panegyrical declamation on Alexander the Great. in their own opinion. so that no one knowledge of him need ever be pertinent. censuring Hegesias. Bombast however which are most amongst those be avoided. . p. till Dr. may all be For are often.c : was consumed by so so taken that she terrible a conflagration : the goddess was up had no in assisting at Olinthia s delivery of Alexander. Pearce took cog Dulness (says he) is sometimes infectious . Rhetoricorum. leisure to extinguish the ".lt.". 97. what they imagine to be god like spirit. he falls into his very 8 Who Matris was I cannot find.". is 1. Hegesias.
whereas are directly opposite to it. becomes dry and insipid. and and that an author can be But what do we mean by a Puerility ? Why. 55 men are naturally biassed to aim at grandeur. in a word are Jhe most ungenerous unpardonable errors guilty of. person distempered with a dropsy. Hence it is. that it endeavours to go Now beyond the true Sublime. And those persons commonly fail in this particular. Puerilities They are low and grovelling. meanly and faintly expressed.". as well as in the body. by too eager a pursuit of elegance. Nothing. they only delude. they are hurried into the contrary extreme.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. . it is certainly no more than a school boy s thought. that by shunning with the ut most diligence the censure of impotence and phlegm. They are mindful of the maxim. that In great attempts tis glorious ev n to fall. and work effects contrary to those for which they were designed. the only failure in this swoln and puffed-up style is.". ". Empty hu and veiled over with superficial bigness. is drier than a according to the old saying. ". are certain disorders. which. But tumours man in writing.
and Tiberius Caesar. are excessively fond of passionate expressions. sedate. The consequence is. according to reported to have heard him with application. which has named the Parenthyrse. where mo It is timed emotion. cor rect. which bear no rela tion at all to their subject. . they meet with nothing but contempt and derision from their unaffected audience. Quinctilian. by an ill-managed zeal for a neat. or borrowed from the schools. To these may be added a third sort of im 10 TiiEODOperfection in the Pathetic. are hurried into low turns of expression. of no sober understandings. 10 Theodorus is to have taught at Rhodes. where there is no need of a Pathos . deration is requisite. but are whims of their own. But must reserve the Pa thetic for another place. a sweet style. or an ill11 us an unnecessary attempt to work upon the passions. into a heavy and nauseous affectation. in that island.56 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. or some excess. who. since they force themselves into transport and emo tion. and unmoved. above all. and. For several authors. during his retirement Langbaine. whilst their audience I is calm. is thought to have been born at Gadara. And it is what they deserve.
c. that he conquered all Asia in us.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. TiM:Eus abounds very much in the Fri gid. When he tells he commends Alexander the Great. and a But great fertility and strength of thought. it is true. which agrees is drawn in to others. But Longinus takes notice further of his severity which even drew upon him the surname of Epi- timaeus. 57 SECTION ir IV. sufficiently skilled in other points. confirm by one or two instances alone. these qualifications are. clouded by the propensity he has to blazon the imperfections of others. 14. 1 Timaeus was a Sicilian historian. very well with the favourable part of that which this Section. the other vice of which I am speaking. He was indeed a person of a ready invention. and a wilful blind ness in regard to his own . though a fond de sire of new thoughts and uncommon turns has often plunged him into shameful Puerili The truth of these assertions I shall ties. and who sometimes reaches the genuine Sublime. since Cecilius has already given us a larger number. ". polite learning. short character of him in his Orator. E . from the Greek tiriTi^v. because he was continually chiding and finding fault. /. Cicero has sketched a 2. in a great measure. a writer.
elides. in expedition. somewhat extraordinary. and transgress through an affectation of such pretty flourishes ? The . sometimes Why forget themselves. Timaeus.58 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. Xenophon and Plato. by Hermocrates the son of Hermon. raclea). be tween the conqueror of the world and a profes fefrer years sor of rhetoric ! By your method of compu tation. for his heinous impiety towards Jupiter (or Dia) and Hercules (He. he only ten in writing that Panegyric But how does he inveigh against those ! Athenians who were made prisoners after the Guilty (says he) of sacri lege against Hermes.". surprised that he has not passed the same censure on Dionysius the tyrant who. and having defaced his defeat in Sicily ". for they spent thirty years in the siege of Messene. when even the very heroes of good writing. was dethroned by Dion and Hera- should I dwell any longer upon Ti maeus. the Lacedemonians fall vast ly short of Isocrates. they were now severely punished . who was pater nally descended from the injured deity/ Re and what is ally. though edu cated in the school of Socrates. ! images. than Isocrates was composing his Panegyric/ A wonderful parallel indeed.! am ". my TERENTIANUS.
ot&.pOa\(j. to keep directly before them. in this passage.lt. You might 2 with reason think 3 them more modest than the eyes. which that excellent lawgiver public.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. here blamed by Louginus.". if were justly chargeable on the But Longinus must needs have made use of a very instead of tv rote ^aXajuoic. by looking always Hence it was. to walk silently. ". that they differed from statues only in their motion.: stands now in Stephens. would be a great blemish to author. You would think worthy of Xenophon them more modest in their whole behaviour. from wandering.lt.". E 2 . and restores a the best editions. He enjoined them. as if they were so many statues of stone or brass. which. by an unpardonable blunder. be lowed to use the term of modest virgins for the pupils of the eye. is : the bridal 3 bed. 59 former. and keep their eyes as fixed and unmoved. This quite removes the cold and insipid turn. had iv rote o&.". this fine piece. signifying both a virgin and the pupil of the eye. Than is the virgins in their the care eyes. in his Polity of the Lacedemonians.". The word nopij.] Xenophon.lt. virgins in their al Amphicrates might. but what an indecency is it in the great Xenophon ? And what a 2 &. than virgins in sense which ". particularly that at Paris by H. But undoubtedly it that turn upon the word K-op?/. to cover their arms their eyes with their gown. whenever they appeared in ". They observe an uninterrupt speaks thus : ed silence. as it incorrect copy. has given occasion for these cold insipid turns. perhaps. shewing Lycurgus took to accustom the Spartan youth to a grave and modest behaviour.
". and liberty was given him to converse freely with her ever after. calls a person. though married to another person.". The very day when It a veil.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. for then she immediately unveiled. v. as if he had found a treasure. 2Q4-5. or to converse with men. Drunkard ! thou dog in eye ! * Timaeus. v. was the custom throughout Greece. is visible for in stance. ". for instance . a crime. and the Grecian colonies. appear The second or third day in public. . 1.225. in his eyes. that the pupils of the eye should be in general the seats of modesty.. when impudence than in no where more the eyes of some? Homer. could not pass by this insipid turn of Xenophon without imitation. thus of Agathocles : Accordingly he speaks ".] All this is implied in the word avaKaXvirrtiptuv. See Potter s Antiquities. was usual for the bridegroom to make presents to his bride. and on 4 the very day when she was first seen by her husband without a veil . without a it after marriage. ii. \ strange persuasion. for the unmarried women never to veil. which were called avaKaXvrrrijpia. could be guilty/ Neither is the divine Plato to be acquitted of this failure. * 4 Iliad. He ravished his own cousin. p. 1. of which none but he who had prostitutes. After they are when he says. not virgins.
expressions quoted on both sides. strangely When The critics are divided about the justice of this remark. Legum. ceit. he calls + Plato of the eye.". And who. they deposit in the temples these cy * And in another passage . rather than pass over a pretty con SECTION ALL these V. ^ Heiod. Megillus. ". to let them sleep supine on the ". Legum.Neither does an expression of Herodotus fall short of 5 the pains it. Longinus plea blames but afterwards in its candidly favour. c.] 6. when he calls beautiful women. As and not to rouse them up/ -f. 18. of some excuse. and such-like indecencies in composition take their rise from the same ori* Plato a ".J Though this indeed may admit earth. but such sots. and parallel it. o.". Authorities are urged. I join in the opi nion of Sparta. that alleges the only it which can be urged barbarians. is it spoken But neither in such it is prudent to hazard the censure of posterity. 61 written. . a case. since in his history by drunken barbarians. most delightful objects in nature so rude and lation ? by drunken would have given the said uncivil an appel was I appeal to the ladies for the propriety of this ob servation. press memorials/ to the walls. of the eye.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. Terpsichore.
ginal. This plurals . is manifest in hyperboles and but the danger attending an in judicious use of these figures. I shall discover At present it is in the sequel of this work. those pompous and beautiful ex pressions. I mean that eager pursuit of uncom mon turns of thought. which almost infatu ates the writers of the present age. incumbent upon me to inquire. To is upon composition pass a right judgment generally the effect of a . which.62 LONQINUS ON THE SUBLIME. or a ready acquisition. to speak truly. which border so near upon. of which good writing chiefly con sists. the true Sublime. and are so easily blended with. is by no means an easy. So that those correct and elegant. are frequently so distorted as to become the unlucky causes and foundations of oppo site blemishes. if we can gain a thorough insight and penetration into the nature of the true Sublime. easily learned. by what means we may be enabled to avoid those vices. excellences and defects flow almost For our from the same common source. SECTION THIS indeed may be VI.
LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. and what ever is veiled over with a theatrical splendour. nothing great. in the opinion of a wise man. since by despising such things no little glory is acquired. crowns. You cannot be ignorant. titles. are more admired than those who actually pos sess them. life common there is and a gaudy outside. honours. We must examine whether only appearance. SECTION that in VII. ability sufficient to For the persons who have acquire. but through an inward generosity scorn such acquisitions. be success fully attempted. ditious may per haps. We must divest carefully it be not of all it . But however. to speak in the way of encouragement. a contempt of which shews a greatness of souL So riches. my dearest friend. In the same manner we must judge of what ever looks great both in poetry and prose. a more expe method to form our taste. and the last improvement of study and observation. Q^ long experience. can never be regarded as intrinsically good. by the assistance of Rules.
that it calls not up into his mind ideas more enlarged than what the mere sounds of the words convey. upon hearing this passage. and so sensibly affected with its live is mind ly strokes. If it is it cannot stand this without doubt ed and puffed up. cried Sublime ! voild son veritable caractere ! a very it is This fine description of the Sublime. If he finds that it trans ports not his soul. after Cecilius. but on attentive examination he may con its dignity lessens and declines clude. Treatise. nor exalts his thoughts . The reason because he wrote who (as he . may easily dis cover the value of any performance from a bare recital of it. does not appear that Longinus intended. Voila 2 ". 1 For naturally elevated by the true Sublime. and it honour to contemn than to admire the only swell will be more for our it. 2 That 1 It is remarked in the notes to Boileau s translation. le is Conde. because .64* LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. can never be the true Sublime. the ears. as if what was only heard had been the product of its own invention. that it swells in transport and an inward pride. that whatever pierces no deeper than . He therefore who has a competent share of natural and acquired taste. and it is finer still. to give an exact definition of it. superficial pomp and trial. garnish. that the great Prince of out. very sublime itself. But only a description and it any where in this is.
the excessive rage of Athaliah against him and all the Levites . cher Abner. the is manner in which I think may be defined. from any one of these particulars re garded separately.". from together. to illustrate the joins an example from Racine s preceding definition. and makes such impressions on the mind as . or from magnificence of words. what makes the perfect Sublime. and which proceeds either from grandeur of thought and nobleness of sentiment.Abner. lively. Soumis avec respect a sa volonte saiute. adding. he sub Athalie. and animated turn of ex pression . tells I believe it will not be amiss to venture here a definition of it my own way. Je crams Dieu. or . in defining and shewing what the Sublime is. in his opinion. where. these three particulars joined Thus far are Boileau s own words in his twelfth reflection on Longinus. or an harmonious. the greater ideas we con ceive of it. To this the high-priest. whose force we cannot possibly withstand which immediately sinks deep. etn ai point d autre crainte. proper to elevate and transport the soul. mechans arreter les complots. answers: Celui qui met un frein a Sail aussi des la fureur des flots. of these three particular qualifications of sublimity joined together. One of the principal officers of the court of Judah represents to Jehoiada. 65 on the contrary is grand and lofty. which the more we consider. us) had employed all his book. . which may This is give at least it an imperfect idea of it.LONGINUS ON TffE SUBLIME. But since this book of Cecilius is lost. The Sublime a certain force in discourse. not in the least moved. the high-priest. that is to say. the Princess would in a short time come and attack God haughty even in his sanctuary. that. or.
agree in the same joint approbation of any performance then this union of assent. as a com may so express five mon but I. and genuine. . beau tiful. it. In a word. you may pronounce that sublime. . II. if we presup copious pose an ability of speaking well. or the power of raising the passions to a violent and even enthusiastic degree. meets with such general applause. which always pleases. For when persons of different humours. if I VIII. five sorts. and in deed without little. very sources of the Sublime. this combination of so many different judgments. I have shewn in my Essay on Xenophon. any thing besides will avail Theirs/ and most excellent of these a boldness and grandeur in the Thoughts. which sions.66 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. foundation for these it. stamps a high and in disputable value on that performance. is as The second is called the Pathetic. ages. cannot be easily worn out or effaced. and takes equally with all sorts of men. profes and inclinations. and these two being genuine constituents of the Sublime. SECTION THERE are.
which is not only to choose out significant and elegant words. or the pathetic without grandeur. Some distant. of the five. but O C? also to adorn and embellish the style. are the gifts of nature. but must first observe. is the Structure or composition of all the periods. whereas sorts 67 the other art. that. IV. I proceed next to consider each of these sources apart . of senti III. he was under a mistake. V. if he looked upon the Grand and Pathetic For * as including one another. the passage will be ex and there is more of this in the book of Job. but has produced none of the former. The ment and language. The fourth is a noble and graceful manner of Expression. o and in effect the same. which are twofold. depend in some measure upon third consists in a skilful applica tion of Figures. which the preceding. some passions are vastly distant from passions are vastly &c. .] The pathe which is great with out passion. tic without grandeur is preferable to that . Now. latter a fine instance of the Longinus has here quoted from Homer. by the assistance of Tropes. Whenever both unite. in all possi completes all ble dignity and grandeur. Cecilius has wholly omitted the Pathetic.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. any other composition in the world. than in cellent 1 ". The fifth source of the Sublime.".
fear . sorrow. and in my burden is light. expression here is and yet there is as much tenderness and significance can any where be found in the same compass. as lamentation.". grandeur would some it times be unseasonable in such cases. as imagination. Take my yoke upon you. 1 beg leave to observe farther. the allusion the hen taken from an object which is daily before our eyes.ilty : of the heaviest oppression on the minds of Come unto me. When and pity. after taking notice of the cruel inhumanities. and stonest them which are sent unto thee. for I am meek and lowly in heart. even as a hen gathereth !". xxiii. he on a sudden breaks off with. how often would ". he may succeed says. and ye would not The to vulgar and common.68 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. a writer applies to the more tender passions of love though there be at the when a speaker endeavours to engage our affections. and are in themselves of a low de gree . strikes always There is a deal of this sort of Pathetic in the words of our Saviour to the poor Jews. and on grandeur. her chickens under her wings. xi. and learn of me. or would have recalled them from their blindness and been superstition to the practice of real religion and virtue. Jerusalem.) ". and murders. nothing grand in what he Nay. I have gathered thy children together. 28 30. For my yoke is easy. labour and are heavy laden. O Jerusalem. well. who were imposed upon and de luded into fatal errors by the Scribes and Pharisees. and ye shall find rest unto your souls. that there is in it as a continued strain . So again ties. Matt. and I will give you rest. all ye that (Matt. which the Jewish nation had guilty of towards those who had exhorted them to repent ance. 37. or gain our esteem. who had long been the people gr. thou that killest the prophets.
LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME.
lofty without any passion ; as, among a thousand instances, we may see, from what
the poet has said, with so the Aloides :*
much boldness, of
Huge Ossa on Olympus top they strove, And place on Ossa Pelion with its grove
thus climb d, might be assail d.
But the boldness of what he afterwards
success their bold attempts have
of Pathetic in St. Paul
farewell speech to the
What an effect
had upon his
It is scarcely possible to
seriously without tears.
book of Paradise Lost
a continued instance of
Sublimity without Passion.
descriptions of Satan and
the other fallen angels are very grand, but terrible.
exalt as terrify the imagination.
They do See Mr. Ad-
Longinus, as well as
an eminent manner, the poet, as
none but he had deserved
Odyss. Milton has equalled,
not excelled, these bold lines of
in his fight of angels.
See Mr. Addison
Spectator5 No. 333.
LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME.
Among the orators, all panegyrics, and
grand throughout, but yet are for the most
So that those orators, part void of passion. who excel in the Pathetic, scarcely ever suc
ceed as panegyrists
and those whose
at Panegyric, are very seldom able
to affect the passions. But, on the other hand, if Cecilius was of opinion, that the Pa thetic did not contribute to the Sublime, and
that account judged
not worth his
guilty of an unpardonable error.
I confidently aver, that nothing so much raises discourse, as a fine pathos seasonably
It animates a whole performance applied. with uncommon life and spirit, and gives mere
words the force
(as it were) of inspiration.
PART I. SECTION IX.
and most important mean, Elevation of
Thought, be rather a natural than an acquired qualification, yet we ought to spare no pains
LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME.
to educate our souls to grandeur, and impreg
nate them with generous and enlarged ideas.
have hinted in another place, that the Sublime is an image reflected from
the inward greatness of the soul. Hence it comes to pass, that a naked thought without
words challenges admiration, and
by of Ajax
in Virgil behaves
with the same greatness and majesty as Homer s Ajax. He disdains the conversation of the man, who, to his thinking, had injuriously defrauded him of the arms of Achilles ; and she
scorns to hold conference with him, who, in her own opinion, had basely forsaken her ; and, by her silent retreat, shews her resentment, and reprimands ^Eneas more than she could have
oculos aversa tenebat,
Ilia solo fixos
Nee magis incepto vultum sermone movetur, Quam si dura silex, aut stet Marpesia cautes. Tandem corripuit sese, atque inimica refugit
In nemus umbriferum.
Disdainfully she look d
then turning round,
d her eyes unmov d upon the ground, what he looks and swears, regards no more
Than the deaf rocks, when the loud billows But whirl d away to shun his hateful sight, Hid in the forest and the shades of night.
expressed as strongly There or a bare word, as in a number of periods. by silence,
Pathetic, as well as the
LONG IN US ON
undoubtedly noble, above expression.
an admirable instance of
4. Sc. 4.
The preceding we see there, in
Shakespeare s Julius Caesar, scene is wrought up in a mas
the truest light, the noble and
generous resentment of Brutus, and the hasty choler and as After the reconciliation, in the hasty repentance of Cassius.
beginning of the next scene,
Brutus addresses himself to
philosophy you make no use,
If you give place to accidental evils.
bears sorrow better
scap d I
when I cross d you so ? comes unexpected. The
tears will start at
any audience that has
generosity enough to be moved, or
capable of sorrow and
When words are too weak, or colours too faint, to represent a Pathos, as the poet will be silent, so the painter will hide what he cannot shew. Timanthes, in his Sacrifice of Iphigenia, gave Calchas a sorrowful look ; he then painted Ulysses
able to display.
and afterwards her uncle Menelaus, with
the grief and concern in his countenance which his pencil
gradation he had exhausted the pas
and had no
art left for the distress
of her father Agamem
He non, which required the strongest heightening of all. therefore covered up his head in his garment, and left the
spectator to imagine that excess of anguish which colours
73 To arrive at excellence like this. cried Iphicrates.". but were quite too small for the extensive views of his master. that the greatest greatness. a Have I of money Aristophon replied in the negative. that an orator of the true genius must have no mean and ungenerous way of think ing. ?". to purchase peace. and were no less than his own daughter. They would have con tented Parmenio. and the perusal of all posterity. I would accept these proposals. has instanced a brave When he appeared to answer an accu him by Aristophon.Dr. .c. from the well-known records of The proposals here mentioned were made to Alex history. what even you would have sation preferred against ". The sense has been supplied by the editors. &. he demanded of Whether he would have betrayed his country for a sum him.] There is a great gap in the original after these words.I would 3 ". or are engaged in the sordid pursuits of life. whose conceptions are stored and big with And hence it is. reply of Iphicrates.". thoughts are always uttered by the greatest souls. Pearce. ". to produce any For it is thing worthy of admiration.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. in his note to this passage. ". and half his kingdom. . When Parmenio 2 cried. we must needs suppose that which is the cause of it. then done. ander by Darius . Grand and sublime expres sions must flow from them and them alone. scorned to do ?". impossible for those who haves grovelling and servile ideas. I mean.
* head can bound.". but die in self and his country ? ". but 16. if I was Alexander And so Alexander made this noble reply. 15. in the There is the same evidence of a generous s Prince of Orange to incline reply to the Duke of Buckingham. if I was Parmenio.". heart. here placed before Dr. than the most laboured dis The soul seems to rouse and collect itself. The it ! space between heaven and of Solomon earth. the last dike. Virgil has copied verbatim. and make deeper impressions. 3 Longinus here sets is out in all pomp s and spirit ! of Homer. Not to live to see its ruin. xviii. . de what he could do in that desperate situation of him manded. darts forth at once in the noblest and most conspicuous point the of view. Pearce has taken notice of such a ". who. when he earth. Pope.".". So 3 the space between heaven and earth marks out the vast reach and capacity of Homer * s ideas. While scarce the skies her horrid She stalks on Mr. v. How vast ". 443. and then courses. These short replies have more force. His answer shewed the greatness of his mind. says. but applied to Fame : . upon the Chap. accept these proposals. the reach of man imagination and is what a vast idea. would I.74 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. him to an inglorious peace with the French. in it See the note Mr. 3.". to this description of Discord. Wisdom it : Thy it almighty stood Word touched the heaven. shew a greater soul. ". * 4 Iliad. Pope s it translation. thought in the leaped down earth.
and has something in it exceedingly nasty. No. Her feet on earth. queens. described the extent of Slander in the greatest pomp : of expression.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. 321. And for the Milton combat. and fertility of invention . dilated stood : Like Teneriff or Atlas unremov d His stature reach d the sky. whose breath is Rides on the posting winds. when he prepares (according to Mr. Shakespeare. The image of Hesiod. and doth All coiners of the world. is bor rowed from low life. Slander. has. Collecting all his might. This description applied to discord.) equally sublime with either the description of Discord in Homer. nay the secrets of the grave. Cyrnbeline. 75 may Homer s with more justice be genius than the extent cff But what is disparity. Ingrediturque solo et caput inter nubila condit. her forehead in the skies. whose tongue Out-venoms all the worms of Nile. without any imitation of these great masters. This viperous slander enters. s is description of Satan. or that of Fame in Virgil : Satan alarm d. elevation of thought. Whose head sharper than the sword. matrons. and of course cannot be approved by r 2 . and on his crest Sat horror plum 5 d. Kings. s what a fall there in 5 Hesiod description of melancholy. here blamed by Longinus. Soon grows the pigmy to gigantic size. It offends the stomach. and Maids. by the natural strength of his own genius. Addison. Spectator. belie states.
* This brings to my. and howl d Within.76 if LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. who are set off in the most horrible deformity. hell. In that of Sin. If aught disturb d their noise. black it stood as night. But Milton s judiciousness as tend to raise a just in selecting such circumstances is and natural aversion. the poem ! of the Shield may be ascribed to him A filthy moisture from her nostrils flow the judgment. The one seem d woman to But ended foul in the waist. d. An inferior genius might have amused himself. in Scuto Here. unseen. Fierce as ten furies. * Hesiod. and rung A hideous peal And : Yet when yet there they list would creep. Book llth. v. Voluminous and vast : a serpent arm d With mortal sting about her middle round A cry of hell-hounds never ceasing bark d full With wide Cerberean mouths loud. and fair. and what ought to be painted in that manner sooner than Sin ? Yet the circumstances are picked out with the nicest skill. and written perhaps like a surgeon rather than a poet. still bark d.remembrance the conduct of Milton. into her womb. and raise a national abhorrence of such hideous objects. Of Death he says. . there is indeed something loathsome . 267. in his description of Sin and Death. kennel there . with expatiating on the filthy and nauseous objects abounding in so horrible a scene. no where more visible than in his description of a lazar-house. many ! a scaly fold. terrible as And shook a dreadful dart.
but loathsome and nauseous. what is disagreeable should not be described at all. Agreeable sensations are not only produced by bright and lively objects. sad.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. but never to raise our distaste by foul and nauseous representations. But Milton aims only entailed at He upon man. &c. or the smiling landskip. It is the of the painter to please. and exciting at the passions. and not to poet s to make us sometimes thoughtful and sedate. dark. or at least should be strongly shaded. the dark wood. cannot be described too well . in by shewing the miseries the most affecting manner. and a generous sympathy in all their afflictions. Apelles drew the portrait of Antigonus. is exceedingly poetic . in which the whole race of mankind perpetually involved. the distant howling wilderness. and of some of which we ourselves must one day be victims. offend It is the art the sight. the melancholy grot. since we are indebted for no little share of it to the silent night. an inborn sedateness in the mind. that he might hide the blemish. and hanging precipice. There is a serious turn. which renders images of terror grateful and engaging. the cheer ful sunshine. Immediately a place Before his eyes appear d. Sight so deform. and touching. lost When an eye. . 77 has not represented his image terrible. It is net the blue sky. It is too long to quote. noisome. once our horror at the woes of the afflicted. but sometimes by such as are gloomy and solemn. who had he judiciously took his face in profile. that give us all our plea sure. What is terrible. We solemn. and groan at this is scene of miseries. what heart of rock could long Dry-ey d behold ! To return to the remark. but the whole it the latter part of startle sublime.
would not with good reason cry if the steeds of the Deity were to out. He almost said. but imitates. Pope. with what majesty and pomp does Homer exalt his deities ! Far as a shepherd from some point on high O er the wide main extends his boundless eye. On the other hand. 770. but boldly avers. with thund ring sound. and looks towards the sea. 7 by the reach of the sight.* Mr. considering the superlative magnificence of this thought. measures the leap of the horses by the extent of the world. e. nothing to ob This is sufficiently great . assigns to every leap of the horses. 6 the world itself would want room for it !". How * c grand also and pompous are those 7 ! descriptions of the corribat of the gods Iliad. eye will run over when a spectator The is is space which Homer equal to that which the placed upon a lofty emi is nence. And who is there. for he bounds not the leap tent of the world leaps. It is highly worthy of remark. He take a second leap. that the whole ex would not afford room enough for two such Dr. improves and raises it. but Longinus has said what is greater than this. At one long leap th immortal coursers bound.78 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. Through such a space of air. I had Homer. Pearce. v. that. where there struct the prospect. how Longinus seems here inspired with the genius of not only approves and admires this Divine thought of the poet. that ". s Milton description of the fight of angels is well able to .
that they easily incline us to grow fond of those few blemishes which are dis but is by no means a sufficient cernible in his poems. . But lines let : us return to Milton. earth Had The to her centre shook. after their defeat by Diomed. $. stand a parallel with the combat of the gods in Homer. excuse for the poet. and discover fine allego ries under these sallies of his fancy. 388.* Deep in the dismal regions of the dead Th infernal monarch rear d his horrid head . till now. The engagement between Juno and Latona has a little of the air of burlesque. : heav n all Resounded and had earth been then.". His commentators indeed labour heartily in his defence. thought of fiery arches arrows. Heav n 79 And in loud thunders bids the trumpet sound. wide beneath them groans the rending ground.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. And flying vaulted either host with fire.". His Venus and Mars make a ludicrous sort of appearance. arms on armour clashing bray d Horrible discord. ! So under Both fiery cope together rush d all battles main. ver. This may satisfy them. Homer s excellences are indeed so many and so great. and to contend that he is broad awake. Was never . being drawn over the armies give us by the flight of flaming * may some idea of Mil- Iliad. when he is actually nodding. such as heard in heav n. with ruinous assault And inextinguishable rage . and take notice of the following Now storming fury rose And clamour. and the madding wheels Of brazen chariots rag d : dire was the noise Of conflict over head the dismal hiss Of fiery darts in flaming vollies flew.
s arm should lay And pour in light on Pluto s drear abodes. my friend 8 ! The earth laid open to its centre. Tartarus itself disclosed to view. and sharing the danger of this important battle But yet. to gods. Pope. to be able to discern in illus the excellences of his author. of the reach of his genius and had earth been then.80 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. and dreadful ev n Mr. recals to their re membrance it the time. to enable them to form a no tion of this battle . That magnificent description of the combat of the gods. ! these bold representations. or more sublime terms. things mortal and ! immortal. before time was. which : is super latively great. or that part of infinite duration in which ex was fought. He and to raise it the more. Leap d from his throne.* Abhorr d by men. Pearce. all earth Had to her centre shook. than here in Longinus. Dr. 6l. this visible creation isted only in the prescience * 8 Iliad. and to display his trating own them. is the excellence of a true critic. seems apprehensive. more This cannot possibly be expressed or displayed in more concise. What a prospect is here. the whole world in com motion. that the mind of his readers was not stocked enough with ideas. ver. heaven and hell. all combating together. . and tottering on its basis and what is more. lest Neptune His dark dominions open to the day. if not allegorically ton s lively imagination . as the last thought. clear. when of God. v.
the punishments. and extravagantly shocking. when he For Homer. is of the When you read (says he) in ". Nay. and snarling at. with those evils of every kind under which they lan guish.". he excel those descrip tions of the combats of the gods. who fought at Troy. 9 same opinion with Longinus Plutarch. the seditions. of gods thrown out of heaven by one another. : Homer. light. in my gives us a detail of the wounds. and per in that description of Neptune. are downright blasphemy. tears of the deities. one ano ther. grandeur. infelicity of the gods as everlasting as their far does nature. you may with reason say. But he represents the . quarrelling with. he makes their condition worse than human for when man is overwhelmed in misfortunes. or of gods wounded by. death affords a comfortable port. and degraded his gods into men. in his treatise on reading the poets. 9 81 understood. had shonemore uniformly great. im prisonments. has to the utmost of his power exalted his heroes. into gods. gods . as and paints his majesty. Here had Thy thy fancy glow d with usual heat. and rescues him from misery. when he sets And how a deity in his true all him in fection.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. opinion.
and thy footsteps are not any description of the works of Omnipotence. in pomp. and did fly. 16 19. Ixviii. such Divine descriptions. The waters saw thee. ixxvi. and darkness was under his feet. . in The books of Psalms and of Job abound ". 7 Then the earth shook and trembled. in a thousand passages of Scripture. as alsa xlvi.". and the description of the Son of God in the book of Revelation. and perfection. because he was wroth. Psalm Ixxvii. 1 1 17. xcvii. the lightnings shone upon the ground. which has been already applauded by several writers 10 : Fierce as he pass d the lofty mountains nod. the footsteps of uY immortal god.82 tONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. the same vein of sublimity is always to be discerned. So ". earth felt trembled as he trod. again. xix. That particu larly in the 18th 10. cxlviii. cxiv. ~\ The And ia forests shake. and came flying upon the wings of the wind. Thy way the sea. and fire out of his mouth devoured : coals were kindled at it. in general. and were shaken. civ. The clouds poured out water. cxxxix. than that which Homer arrays his gods. and were afraid the depths were troubled. in greater majesty. I The Deity is described. : O also God. the air thundered. xcvi. and thy paths in known. the waters saw thee. great waters.". And wherever there is beg the reader to peruse in this view the following Psalms. There went up a smoke out of his nostrils. He bowed the And heavens also and came down. chapter iii. or the excellence of the Divine Be I ing. ver. is inimitably grand: Psalm. and thine arrows went abroad. The voice of thy thunder was heard round about . the earth is in was moved and shook withal. of Habakkuk. he rode upon a cherub. the foundations also of the hills moved. chap.
This Divine passage has furnished a handle for many of those who are willing to be thought critics. no ordi- Copying such sublime images in the poetical parts of Scrip ture. Pope. rolling o er the deep. to shew their pertIliad. Homer can deserves such vast encomiums from the critics. Mr. ness and stupidity at once. Gambol around him on the wat ry way. 1827. has made Milton succeed If so well in his fight of angels. : Exults and owns the monarch of the main The parting waves before his coursers fly The wond ring waters leave the axle dry. they are blind to and will notxJis- its Sublimity. 11 So likewise the Jewish legislator.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. Th His whirling wheels the enormous monsters glassy surface 83 sweep. and heating his imagination with the combat of the gods in Homer. for describing Neptune with sufficiently so much pomp and mag ? nificence. And heavy The sea whales in awkward measures play subsiding spreads a level plain. as the light of which cern it speaks. . they Each to heard his voice and went Obsequious: Heav n his wonted face renewed. Before him At his pow r Divine his way prepar d command th up-rooted hills retir d his place. And * 11 with fresh flowretshill and valley smil d. how we admire those Divine descrip tions which Milton gives of the Messiah He on the wings of cherub rode sublime On the crystalline sky. Though its bright lustre. .* . . Some pretend that Longirms never saw . 7 ver. Illustrious far and wide. in sapphire thron d.
say they. and importance of event. can contribute to Subli mity. which vation. may find it the edition of Boileau s works. God. is manner of quoting sage by Longinus. will be surprised to rind the names of Huet and Le Clerc. since gran deur consists not in ornament and dress. Whoever has the in curiosity to see the particulars of this dispute. He defence. In such company. He then shews at large. elevation of thought. taken to pieces. and therefore condemn its Boileau undertook it. that whatever noble and majestic expression. ". : was done There . and sifted it as long as It is tried it.84 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. will however remarkable. yet be ex passage For he spake.". and therefore not grand. &c. in four volumes It is 12mo. that this though Monsieur Huet in not allow the Sublimity of tols the following in Moses. (and indeed there is not a page in Scripture which abounds not with instances to strengthen this remark. some. That interrogation between the narrative part and the words of the Almighty himself. though he has so candid an acknow ledgment of his merit. carries with it an air of reverence and veue- . that Simplicity of expression is so far from being opposed to Sublimity. having conceived a just idea of the power of this it passage. does not by any means forbid it to be grand. they were able. and a particularity in the it stood fast. that it is frequently the cause and foundation of it . They have examined. he commanded. They have simple. and that he never read Moses.) Horace s law. it by a law of Horace misunderstood. though be has actually quoted left . has nobly expressed it nary person. I think has hitherto c pas escaped obser this God said What ? Let there be light.". may be found united in this passage. and it the 33d Psalm ". and has gallantly performed shews them. that a beginning should be unadorned. yet still they cannot find it Sublime. no doubt.
sole privilege of saying to that unruly ele : ment. ". ". Hitherto shall thou pass. O Instances of this majestic simplicity and unaffected gran deur. Lazarus. . ". Ajax. 045. will . I be thou clean. And Mark iv. Such St.) heard that voice. P. with Peace (or rather. who has the (&. i.". 85 And God and there was I if light. John 43. and the earth was. in the beginning of his Law. in great plenty through the Sacred xi. and suspended the battle. where Christ hushes the tumultuous sea into a calm. perplexed what course to take. This cloud of darkness from the Greeks remove .". wilt. prays thus :-fAccept a warrior s pray r. come forth. Let the earth be. and raise his ration.* What? Let there be light.".". 325. 3.". viii. A thick and impenetrable cloud of darkness had on a sudden enveloped the Grecian army.". They sunk at his com com mand. in . Sacred Classics. 3.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. said. regard to his mortals that you may see how he accustoms us to mount along with him to heroic grandeur. clean. are to be Writings. Lord. which manded universal nature into being. eternal Jove . Matt. awful attention to the voice of the great Creator. me 39. here shall thy proud waves be * Gen. I add another quotation from the poet. t Iliad. It seems designed to awaken the reader. critic. hope my friend will not think me tedious. and no farther stopped. p. ". if thou thou canst make St.". ver. be silent). be The waters (says a still. met with as St.lt.
o. vourable gale. though Jove himself should oppose his Here Homer. and let us see our foes. like a brisk and fa efforts. a fondness for the fabulous clings fast o to age. that when a great genius is in decline. But because in that darkness he could display his valour in no illustrious exploit. he is as warm and impetuous he says of Hector) as his heroes are. Or baleful flames on some thick forest cast. and his great heart was unable to brook a sluggish inactivity in the field of ac he only prays for light. not doubting to crown his fall with some notable perform tion. not for life.86 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. We ll bravely though Jove himself oppose. . ver. are here patheti He begs cally expressed it is Ajax himself. be brought to 60y. or (as With such a furious rage his steps advance. am Many arguments may * Iliad. ance. Give us but light. As when the god of battles shakes his lance. renews and swells the fury of the battle . fall.* Yet Homer himself shews (what I in the Odyssey going to add is necessary on seve ral accounts). Swift marching lay the wooded mountain waste : Around his mouth a foamy moisture stands. a request like that would be be : The sentiments of Ajax neath a hero.
I suppose. ver.* It proceeds. in reality. except and impetuosity. much less exceed. tain not the whose grandeur continues the same. Let us here take a view of Longinus. there Achilles lies. He gives his opinion. 10Q. whereas the greatest part of the Odyssey 12 is spent in narration. the delight of old age. that Homer de Odyssey. which began at Troy. to ". this of s Longinus in sublimity. and written in the and ia every respect equal to the Iliad. Homer may with * 12 Odyss. he has furnished it with continued scenes of action and combat . the epilogue of the Iliad Patroclus there. . y. . though its rays re same fervent heat. that having written the Iliad in the youth and vigour of his genius. Never did any criticism equal. in the Odyssey.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. man divinely wise There too my dearest son. the Odyssey is no more than : There warlike Ajax. but this especially. from the same rea son. as so many episodes of that fatal war. and that he introduces those terrible dangers and horrid ~ disasters. that in the Odyssey he has occasionally mentioned the sequel of those calamities. may be resembled the selling sun. a undergone by his heroes. in violence work of his old age. being the cline of his life. whilst he points out the beauties of the best writers. 8? prove that this poem was written after the Iliad . So that.". as formerly For.
yet shone Above them That all lh archangel. and th excess Of glory obscur d as when the sun new. and the solidity of his Tasso. impaired and in decay. an allusion to the sun in eclipse. natural inherent vigour. nor appeared Less than archangel ruin d. and just. is described by ton. .ris n : Looks through the horizontal misty air. This fine comparison of Homer ard of good writing. In dim eclipse. darken d so. he gives them the eulogies Equal himself to the most ce due to their merit. In shape and gesture proudly eminent. but leaves posterity in himself a model Dr. by the true laws and stand He not only judges his predecessors and pattern of genius and judgment. climate displays 1 hope. his devils stretch of in his his invention. tion of thought. Fine genius its shew spirit. to the sun. above the rest. great. in every age and This remark will. is certainly an honour to poet and critic. whose grandeur still remains. Pearce. and with fear of change Perplexes monarchs . Stood like a tow r his form not yet had : lost All her original brightness. be a proper introduction to the following lines of Mil where grandeur. as He will describes Homer in and the same eleva Homer himself would have set oft his he its roes. is which Milton arrays an honourable proof of the judgment. by which our ideas are won derfully raised to a conception of what it was in all its glory : He. lebrated authors. without the meridian justice be and at the same time his own. disastrous twilight sheds On half the nations. It is a fine resemblance. resembled to the setting sun.88 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. beautiful. Shorn of his beams or from behind the moon. . horrible grandeur in his throughout poem.
Yet. sometimes flows. dreams of ignorance. and puts such words and sentiments into his mouth as are pro perly diabolical. not the same volubility and quick nor is the work em variation of the phrase There is . nor do they hurry away the reader in so rapid a current.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. the sublimity not continued with so . savouring too much of old . like the when it ocean. women s tales. 89 The style is not so grand and majestic as that of the Iliad. nor so uniformly noble the tides of passion flow not along with so much profusion. and the fantastic makes some of them walk upon out their resemblance of a instead of hair . whose very deserted by the tide. when he makes his Pluto speak (for he has made use of the old poet ical names). heat of his beams. has opened a council of devils but his description of them is frivolous and puerile. It is true. His devil talks somewhat like Milton s. he supports his character with a deal of spirit. and after them they drag an immense length of tail. shores. mark out s how wide nius. pomp. which are d6- 4th canto. He and dresses with twisting serpents human head horns sprout upon their foreheads. so Homer all ge when ebbing into those fabulous and incredible ramblings of Ulysses. that height of obscured G . shews plainly how sublime it once had been. much spirit. but looks not with half that horrible glory. Not that I am forgetful of those storms. the feet of beasts. bellished with so many strong and expressive images.
of true sublime. it is evident.". I am speaking. from the whole series of is the Odyssey. who wrote a treatise against the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer. ever. Those stories of shutting up the winds in a bag . that. His enterprise was certainly too daring. whom squeaking pigs . and some other instances of the No . . 13 Zoilus. of Jupiter s being nursed by the doves like one of their young . when he took Zoilus calls no sustenance : for ten days . of Thraciau extraction. the greatest geniuses are apt to turn aside unto trifles. but it is the old age of Homer. punishment undoubtedly too severe. and sacrificed him as it were to the injured genius of his Homer. and entitled it. indeed. I have digressed thus far merely for the sake of shewing. in the decline of their vigour. and those incre dible absurdities concerning the death of the all these are undeniable instances of suitors The most infamous name of a certain author. Dr. Homer s Reprimand ". that there in it far more narration than action. old age. Pearce.90 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. of the men in Circe s island 13 metamorphosed little into swine. How of the Odyssey . of Ulysses in a wreck.] : which so exasperated the people of that age. manner in several parts scribed in so terrible a of Ulysses adventures with the Cyclop. that they put the author to death.
LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. are. my friend. in age. that great authors. to warm. in further excuse of this digression. 15 The word moral word does not fully give the idea of the ori r/$oe. but in old age and decline. at different ages. de In youth. yet. for instance. G2 . petuous passion. Esteem is a sedate. We see by it once the worth of the author. they strike at the imagination . and persuade. that But the true critic knows how to pardon. bent.lt. and cool. critics. at Such conduct is uncommon. hot. his Translator has fared s &. in the youth and fire of their genius. and the candour of the judge.". and peaceable affection of the mind. So former. but afterwards to amuse. Pope are the faults of a angel. Essay on the Odyssey. At first they endeavour to move. desire of convincing yon. but such as even Jove might dream. but our language will not furnish any other ginal that comes so near it. faults (in that performance) but his beauties are the beauties of an man. this in the 91 14 Dreams indeed they Odyssey. subside and settle in the latter. Love. but just. chiefly in their abound such passions as are strong and vehement. one might imagine. to transport . to excuse. is a violent. and to exte nuate. and sedate. For though the pas and im sions are the differ in same in their nature. that a decrease of the Pathetic in great ora my tors and poets often ends in the 15 moral kind 14 After Longinus had thus summed up the imperfections of Homer. light. The youthful fits and transports of the in progress of time. they speak more to our reason. from the usual bitterness of a heavy censure would immediately follow. The meaning of the passage is. Mr. they degree. peaceable. they betake themselves to such as are mild. Accept.l With persons of so generous a as well as Homer.
an accurate and judicious a storm is is. as there are which are not attended by some adherent circumstances. us consider next. SECTION LET find out X. are agreeable in the ebb of life. and nius. and so Odyssey distinguished from im portant in Greek are fully explained by Quincti- lian. Orat. by these his Iliad. de more even and peaceable affections. drawn from that course of life which the suitors led in the palace of Ulysses. af fecting images of terror.92 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. different from a gale. and such violent turns of passion. and more successfully expressed by a declining ge This is the moral kind of writing here mentioned. has in some degrees the air of a co medy. and but amusing narrations. whether we cannot no sub- some other means to infuse sublimity into our writings. though both are wind. calm descriptions. Thus the Odyssey. . s The the xa^oc and rj$oc so frequently used. in the sixth book of his Institut. and therefore more frequently attempted. require a stretch of fancy to express or to conceive. in which consists the nature of the Pathetic lightful . where the various manners of men are ingeniously and faithfully described. employ the vigour and maturity of youth. particulars is Homer critics. as Hence it that bold scenes of action. O jects Now. landskips. of writing. furnishing us with rules of morality. dreadful alarms.
". in transport My Ran breath was gone. the while and sees thee all Softly speak. The And youth hears. has collected and dis played them ness. and afterwards connecting them together with so much art. my voice was My bosom glow d . having observed the anxieties and tortures insepara ble to jealous love.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. they cannot but very much affect the imagination. O er my dim eyes a darkness hung. Twas this And rais d For while depriv d my soul of rest. stances. tost. who fondly sits by thee. judicious choice. Blest as th immortal gods is he. must necessa For what by the rily produce the Sublime. and what by the skilful con nexion. who. My ears with hollow murmurs rung. Sappho is an instance of this . and sweetly smile. lost. with the most lively exact But in what particular has she shewn all her excellence? In selecting those circumO stances which suit best with her subject. the subtile flame all quick through my vital frame .choice Q3 of the most suitable of these circum and an ingenious and skilful con nexion of them into one body. . gaz d. such tumults in I my breast.
". receives the addresses of Charaxus. sense the and admitted. Sappho s brother. and anguish. and died away. This. because it. therefore. jealousy. that at sight suppressed. It always used in a contrary sense. To the beloved Fair. I fainted. Strabo and Athenaeus tells us. Besides. My feeble pulse forgot to play. 1 Philips. sunk. complete without throw confusion on the whole. which distracted her with such variety of torture. endeavours to express that wrath. For Plu tarch (to omit the testimonies of has these words of her beloved : ". of this Ode in Ursinus. she sees. her voice was &c. and stricken at what she feels tormenting emotions. This very mo ment Sappho unexpectedly enters. In dewy damps my limbs were chill d My blood with gentle horrors thrill d . is the subject of the Ode. and it is the right. fair. and admits him into her company as her lover. The beautiful many others). and that she was loved by Charaxus. that the name of this fair one was Dorica. . The word doux of Sappho s will in no wise express the rage and is distraction mind. would The title is. In this Ode. Sappho s in famous paramour. which is taken no notice of in the translation. cannot but disapprove the following verses in the French translation by Boileau : dans les doux transports ou s egare mon ame : And. And whoever joins in my sentiments. in my opi nion. in his Eroticon.94 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. . Sappho says. in the fragments of Sappho. Je tombe dans des douces langueurs. 1 There is a line at the end of is this Ode if of Sappho it in the original. Let us then suppose that this Dorica.
very For while and this. and Lucre Catullus has translated this tius has imitated it in his third book. A critique on this Ode may be seen It has it same Spectator. my friend. and in Virgil s ^neid. though surprising upon love. The English translation I have borrowed from the Specta It was done by Mr. Being purg d. rais d with the fire fume of sight : . proper for the The qualities of love are certainly very It is a subject ma nagement of a good poet. s be liable to the same censure with Boileau in the douces lan- gueurs. and affects the with a greater diversity of impressions. on which many may . and a preserving sweet. It is certainly a passion that has more mind prevalent sensations of pleasure and pain. to find how the same moment she is at a loss for her Ode almost verbally. a Being vex sparkling in lovers eyes d. much applauded.lib. and has been tor. a sea nourish d with lovers else ? tears : What is it a madness most discreet.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. 1. I gaz d. Dr. it been admired in all ages. lib. than any other.Are in 5 you not amazed. in Romeo and Juliet. in transport tost. 229. a great resemblance of easily perceivable in Horace s Ode 4. though the following line. My blood with will gentle horrors thrill d. its to Lydia. Pearce. Philips. and besides the imitation of is by Catullus and Lucretius. 13. . Longinus attendants attributes beauty to the judicious choice of those circumstances which are the constant. Love is a smoke. Shakespeare. od. A choking gall. No.
her tongue. Eve knows how to submit. yet and Adam to forgive. weeps. LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. with wand ring steps and Through Eden take their solitary way. are the finest picture of conjugal love that ever was drawn. it The meddled with it. with the highest judgment. yet keep clear of rant with which the cients have scarcely all soul. in Addison has painted both successful and unfortunate. in his 2d canto : never appear again in the poem. They have enjoyed prosperity. He even breaks in upon the rules of Epic. without any cloying or insipid fondness. manner in which they are and will share reconciled. without the violence or fury of passion . Tasso. We are pleased that they have quar when we see the agreeable relled. But Adam and Eve. there jars is He is gloomy.&. And the last scene in which we behold this unfortunate couple. in his Cato.in his Gierusalemme Liberata. her that whining and an stage is continually pestered. Mr.lt. and innocent. When it and goes out of tune. as on some occasions it will. has lost no opportunity of embellishing his poem with some incidents of this passion. adversity together.gt. its thoughtless violence very well. it is In its serenity and sunshine. In them it is true warmth of affection. body. Two of his great personages are a husband and . it to raise our pity. noble. is when slow. Milton. degrees. her ears. her colour. and have no share in the ac tion of it. love has still its force. she complains and anger and resentment. by different Shakespeare has shewn in almost all its characters in one or other of his plays. her eyes. endearing. a sweet and reasonable tenderness. it up finely in the Orphan. by introducing the for they episode of Olindo and Sophronia. all of them as much absent from shine in different lights.X&. in any of their tragedies. in his Otway has wrought Dryden expresses All for Love. They hand in hand. amiable.
dying away. she chills. All the symptoms of this kind are true ef fects of jealous love. he refines and plays upon of Armida. Italian taste. she rea now she is in tumults. The judicious in his natural picture of Dido. Hector and Andromache. who The 2 author of the wife. is The dis power. and recals our attention from the poem. every little He flourishes like Ovid on incident. in the in his to take notice of the poet s wit. And it proceeds from his due application of the most formidable incidents. Ulysses and Pe Virgil has rejected it. but fine characters of it is This might be writing not nature. as I observed before. in the 4th canto. 3 Aristaeus. nelope. the tyranny of beauty. she seems not to be attacked by one alone. consists in the judicious choice and connexion of the most notable circumstances. them with fine-spun conceits. sons toge She glows. as if they 97 to her? had never belonged effects And what contrary ther ? . that the poet excels so much in describing tempests. but then he does more. Milton has followed and improved upon his great masters.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. fight always side by side. she raves. and die together. but by a combination of the most violent passions. with dignity and judgment. the allurements. is said to have wrote a poem. Homer was above it. and now she is does she feel In a word. the Proconnesian. but the excellence of this Ode. her. in the coquettish character amply played I^e indeed always shews the effects of the passion in true colours . .
And wander oceans in pursuit of woe. and dwell amidst the main. But how does Homer 3 raise a description. The lines here quoted seem to be spoken by an Arimaspian. r. Far o er the deep (a trackless path) they go. wondering how in the extremities of a storm. And gods are wearied with their fruitless pray Mr. and sing through every shroud called ApLfiaffTrfta .98 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. or. sail ? Plant woods in waves. a Scy thian people. is men dare trust themselves in ships. There a description of a tempest in the 107th Psalm. in which runs a very high vein of sublimity. while their . arms they rear. and on the waves their mind Sunk are their spirits. situated far from any sea. what madness ! How on ships so frail (Tremendous thought !) can thoughtless mortals For stormy seas they quit the pleasing plain. the winds aloud : Howl o er the masts. and endeavouring to describe the 3 seamen - Dr. And swell d with tempests on the ship descends . and has more . poem on the Arimaspians doubts not but these lines are great and full of terror : Ye pow rs. to men ! tion only one example amongst a thousand them all: He bursts upon Bursts as a wave that from the cloud impends. No ease their hearts. no rest their eyes can find. Pearce. On heav n their looks. of the affairs of the Arimaspians. Every impartial reader will discern that these lines are florid more than terrible. Pope. White are the decks with foam .
spirit in it than the applauded descriptions in the authors of antiquity. and continued it through seven In reading it. and passionate exclamations of Lear himself. go down and are trouble. Then the are they glad. because they their desired haven. They reel to and fro like melted away be a drunken man. at their wit s-end. with inimitable art. fitted to raise in the which such grand occurrences are of the thoughtful. and the danger become extreme. We view him Contending with the fretful elements. fury. again to the depths their soul is cause of trouble. And instant death on ev ry wave appears. 624. one almost hears the wind and thunder. * Iliad. which is as outrageous in his breast. so that the waves thereof are He still. almighty power introduced to calm at miserable distressed. maketh the storm a calm. which heaven. Bids the wind blow the earth into the sea. Pale. because when the storm is in all its is rage. trembling. and beholds the flashes of lightning. be quiet ! . tir 99 d. made use of a storm King Lear. seem to rival the storm. .* Mr. and for his wonderful works to the children of men !". raiseth the stormy wind. and give preservation to the It ends in that fervency of devotion. so he bringeth praise them unto Oh that men would Lord for his goodness. ". ver. minds He up commandeth and the waves thereof. Shakespeare has. once the roaring main. they lifteth They mount up to . The anger. inflamed his daughters. Then they cry unto the Lord in their and he bringeth them out of their distresses. the sailors freeze with fears.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. Pope. as in the ele and ulcerated by the barbarities of ments themselves. o. in his tragedy of who are exposed to it in open air . one sees the piteous condition of those scenes.
Let the great gods. Hide thee. to stamp on the imagination. thou wretch. Find out their enemies now. and the poor old shelter in a man is forced along the open heath. thou bloody hand. Rive your concealing continents. man exposed : to all the inclemencies of the weather der. by lodging Edgar in it before then). That under covert and convenient seeming practis d on man s life. thunder. caitiff. We afterwards see the distressed old . and turned it thus. Close pent-up guilts. ! are my daughters . fire. That keep this dreadful thund ring o er our heads. to take the poet has laid wretched hovel. and thou simular art incestuous : man of virtue. ver. I tax not you. Tremble. things might change or cease : tears his white hair. but he as violent nature itself in hurry and disor and boisterous as the storm fire. Nor rain. 299- . The There ** storm still continues. Thou That Hast perjur d. A slender plank preserves Or That them from their fate. * swell the curled waters bove the main. Which Catch the impetuous blasts with eyeless rage in their fury. shake to pieces. spit spout rain .100 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. ye elements And immediately after. fresh terror new incidents. That hast within thee undivulged crimes Unwhipt of justice. Rumble thy belly-full. and ask These dreadful summoners grace. The * Arali Pluenomen. Aratus has attempted a refinement upon the last thought. wind.
a plank preserves them. in . wheresoe er you are. miseries and disorders of Lear and Edgar are then painted with such judicious horror. defend you Your loop d and window d ! From seasons such as these ? Too little care of this Take Oh ! I have ta en physic. thus ba But the poet is so far nishing their despair. while they are only not swallowed up in every in passions of the old king are so turbulent. This tempest will not give me leave to ponder On things would hurt me more Nay. I have quoted those passages which have the moral reflections them. since they add solemnity to the terror. that he paints them a most desperate situation. ". he only and besides. And shew the The heav ns more just. by . When own honest Kent entreats Prithee go in thyself. he lessens and refines it away sets a bound to the impending danger. to go in.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. 101 But instead of increasing the terror. he cries. Expose thyself to feel what wretches feel. that he will not be him persuaded to take any refuge. saying. pray. and unfed sides. That thou mayst shake the superflux to them. and alarm at once a variety of passions. pomp. and then I ll sleep Poor naked wretches. That bide the pelting of this pitiless storm get thee in . I ll ! How shall your houseless heads.". seek thy ease . from confining the danger of his sailors. raggedness. that every imagination must be strongly affected by such tempests in reason and nature.
with the ship. and have death before their eyes as fast * as they escape it. it appears to perfection. in the ori ginal : Besides. We see a great deal of It in Milton. and have omitted the following words. would be quote ex read and amples. of making the words correspond with the sense. By this means the danger &c.". is one of the most ex The cellent that can be found fined observations of this composition. the harshness and jarring of the syllables give us a lively image of the down storm.102 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. de Corona. the danger is discerned in the very hurry and confusion of the words the verses are tossed up and . since they can possibly escape none * Orat. and the whole description terrible is in itself a and furious tempest. are an evidence how exceedingly fond the ancients were of There should be a such a style style of sound as well as of words. The many and re nature in Dionysius of Halicarnassus. Nay more. discerned. but in folly to Mr. ". tK Savaroio. in it.". where he relates * the con4 . beauty Longinus here commends in Homer. ] I have given this sentence such a turn as I thought would be most suitable to our language. he has forcibly united naturally averse to union. and vir that are some prepositions heaped them one is upon another. It is by the same method that Archilochus has succeeded so well in describing a wreck and Demosthenes. but depends on a great command it of language. which occur ". and a musical ear. wave. Nay more. Pope hear. who can . the danger. 8cc.
by break of day. or coarse expression in so choice a body. The herald demanded aloud. You. or indecent.". He confirmed their re Who would harangue : ? Nobody times. 5 upon arrival of ill was (says he) in the evening/ &c. and to summon the public herald. If I may speak by a figure. though the common voice of our for the country joined in the petition. 103 news. port. or unsightly bits of matter. and culled out the It flower of them. obeyed the summons. ". When the senate were come in. and demanded an oration . gentlemen. the magistrates laid open the reasons of their meeting. The whole It passage in Demosthenes oration runs thus the : was evening when a courier brought in the midst of their repast. The herald repeated the question several . For such expressions are like mere patches. news to the ma gistrates of the surprisal of Elatea. mar 5 ". Before the public council proceeded to debate. the people took their seats above. set fire to away their shops. which in this edifice of grandeur en tirely confound the fine proportions. with this caution. they reviewed the forces of their subjects. On the morrow. and produced the courier. public safety. and driving the tradesmen out. In vain all though the nobody rose up nobody harangued commanders of the army were there. Immediately they arose.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. Others fled to advertise the commanders of the army of the news. rose up. the magistrates convene the senate. not to place any mean. though : the orators were present. fusions at Athens. though Some of them hurried Forum. The to the whole city was full of tumult.
et ? pontus. et virtus Superos quid quaerimus ultra ? quodcunque vides. because that is to excel ourselves : Nay. et aer. because that is Tis pleasant to com due is mand our appetites and passions. because this order. s There sermon ". ascend by a continued gradation to a summit of grandeur. whenever (the topics on which we write or debate. 1 1 Now this may be done to JLucan has put a very grand amplification in the mouth : of Cato Estne dei sedes. and several pauses in the periods) the great incidents. admitting of several begin nings. which they call Amplifi nity to cation . another virtue bearing great affi the former. the symmetry. is a very beautiful one in Archbishop Tillotson 12th : Tis pleasant to be virtuous and good. and deform the beauty of the whole. and to keep within the bounds of reason and religion. Et ccehim.104 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. SECTION THERE is XI. quocunque movebis. in empire. tis pleasant even to mortify and victory : subdue our lusts. heaped one upon another. because that is to excel many others : Tis pleasant to grow better. them . Jupiter est. nisi terra.".
ennoble what is 105 familiar. unless when we are to move compassion. For from earth to heaven. and Christ viii. or Apollos. or skilfully manage a passion. there cannot be perfection. or to make things appear as vile and contemptible. whether Paul. to increase the strength of arguments. you separate as it were the soul from the body. rises gradually God himself. or life. to however amplified. 39II . 1 Cor. that in things ment which is truly Sublime. iii. But in all other methods of Amplification. and a thousand ways But the orator must never forget besides. to aggravate what is wrong. What I have said now differs from what went immediately before. But no author lie But in what manner manner this amplifies in so noble a as St. 29. from mortal man to all things are yours. Paul. or things present. and ye are Christ s . 21 23. See also Rom. if you take away the sublime meaning. 38. lose vigour and nerves. or things to come : all are yours . without a senti this maxim. but they grow dull and languid. is God s. or the world. 30. or death.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. My design was then to shew how much a judicious choice and an artful connexion of proper incidents heighten a subject. or Cephas. ".". For no sooner all their are they deprived of this necessary support. to set actions in their true light.
as gives all them additional strength. and the application of Tropes . and progressively heightening a . from Amplification. Amplification therefore (to give an exact idea of it). for these also invest discourse with peculiar airs of grandeur. of the defini CAN by no means approve ". : In my opinion. the Pathetic. nexion of the particular circumstances inherent in the things themselves. Sublimity consists in but Amplification in number . whence the former is often visible in one single thought. notion of the SECTION I tion XII.106 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. by dwelling some time upon. is such a full and complete con ". the other cannot be discerned. sort of Sublimity differs will soon appear by exactly defining the true latter. they differ lofti in these respects ness. which writers of rhetoric give of Ampli fication. Amplification (say they) is a form of words aggrandizing the subject/ Now this definition may equally serve for the Sublime. but in a series and chain of thoughts rising one upon another.
The one is at the same time grand and concise. when hurried on by the tide. impetuous thunderin-g of the other. but it is evident from what fol drawing a parallel between Plato and Demosthenes. my dear TE- RENTIANUS. pre cipitation. sedate.] * * * (Plato) may be compared to the ocean. lows. and majestic. that it seems to be all fire. overflow their ordinary bounds. that Cicero and Demosthenes (if we Grecians may be admitted to speak our opinions). ut tering every sentence with such force. strength. differ in the Sublime. And it is in the same points. cause thatthe orator (Deiiiosthenes). though he never was cold or flat. in And and passionate ardour whilst Plato. that Longinus is whose waters. the other grand and diffusive.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. Our Demosthenes. and vehemence. What comes next is imperfect . this is the my opinion. and bears down every H 2 . since the end of a Proof is to establish the matter in debate * s * * * [The remainder of the Author remarks on Amplification is lost. 10? It differs from Proof in a particular point/ material article. striking with more powerful might at the pas sions. yet fell vastly short of the . always grave. and are dif fused into a vast extent. is inflamed with fervent vehemence.
devours and spreads on all sides . for history. for easy narrations or pompous amusements. is. they break out at dif his flames are ferent times in different quarters.108 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME thing before it. is Besides. in vehement attacks upon the pas and whenever the audience are to be stricken at once. in the strong efforts of dis course. . forcible But the and true season of applying so intense a Sublime as that of Demosthenes. when they are to be soothed and brought over by gentle and soft insinuation. digressions. and are nourished up to a raging violence by succes I must not sive additions of proper fuel. however pretend to judge in this case so well as you. and many other sorts. may justly be resembled to a thunderbolt. for perorations. or a hurricane. and lasting. And recourse must be had to such dif fusive eloquence as that of Cicero. tion. like a wide conflagration. and thrown into consterna sions. But Cicero. this diffuse kind of eloquence most proper for all fa miliar topics . for short accounts of the operations of nature. their heat is numerous.
* com That Archbishop Tillotson was possessed. of the same sweetness. yet they find them in selves so miserably entangled and hampered an evil course. says he. that they know not how world .". on much the same subject as the instance here quoted by our Critic from Plato. to get loose. Dr. that they have not the courage to rescue them selves.".] These words refer to what Longinus had said of Plato in that part of the preceding Sec tion. may be of service in strength ening in sin ". : 1 ". No sort of slaves are so poor-spirited as they that are iu bondage to their lusts. yet neither does it want an elevation and gran deur 2 and of this you cannot be ignorant. can be denied by none who are versed in the writings of that author. and makes them so base and servile.IONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. and an easy and peaceable flow of the words. Pearce. The fol lowing passage. which is now almost wholly lost: and from hence it is abundantly evident. Their power is gone . Sin is the saddest slavery in the it bieaks and sinks men s spirits. that the person whom he had there pared with the orator was Plato. Though Plato s style particularly excels in smoothness. which are so much admired in Plato. fluency of style. happen to take it them at any advantage. To leave this digression. and bound so fast in chains of their own wickedness. and they are so hard pressed by that they cannot escape the sight of their own condition . To leave this digression. this assertion : : he is speaking of persons deeply plunged ft If consideration. and elevated sense. in an eminent degree. or if they . 109 SECTION 1 XIII.
* never have experienced the sweets of wisdom and virtue. they have not the heart to make use of than to it. de Rep. I.110 as LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. with eyes al taste no ways fixed on the earth. resolute attempts for their liberty. Steph. pamper themselves So that hurried on by their voracious and insatiable appetites. * Plato. 586. They never have the cou rage to lift the eye upwards towards truth. And of all afterwards Blind and miserable men ings of this ! that. folio. lib. Vol. and are embrued in perpetual slaughter/ have any left. resembling so many brutes. but spend all their time in revels and debauches. they up in luxury and excess. Sermon. 9.". in despite the merciful warn God s word and providence. And though they see and feel their misery.". ". will run themselves into desperate state. you have read the following passage in his Those wretches (says he) who Republic. p. . and make their whole life one continued series of errors. edit. almost to an impossibility. make any ". and never think of returning to a better till mind their retreat is difficult. and tamely to submit to it. They but real or substantial pleasure. sink downwards day after day. yet they choose rather to sit down in it. and intent upon their loaden tables. they never felt any the least inclination to it. they are continually running and kicking at one another with hoofs and horns of steel.
seem to be inspired by those whom they imitate. Nothing can be more beautiful. more expressive. In this comparison. till she was rapt into Divine frenzy the earth. if There is. from whence exhale Divine evaporations. be our ambition . besides those already men tioned. be this the fixed and lasting scope of all our labours. It was the custom for the Pythian to sit on the tripod. more analogous. like the Pythian Priestess. those Divine writers are set on a level almost with the gods . which Fame 3 This parallel or comparison drawn between the Pythian is Priestess of Apollo and imitators of the best authors. Pearce. and to be actuated by their sublime spirit. and quite complete. who imi tate the best writers. if Ill we can but resolve opens here before us another path. says Longinus. Dr. speaks true. and the effect of their operations title on their imitators is honoured with the of a Divine spirit. my friend. In the by the operation of effluvia issuing out of the clefts of same manner. an imitation and emulation of the greatest orators and poets that ever flourished. which will carry to the true Sublime.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. happily invented. when she approaches the sacred tripod. to follow his guidance. a chasm in the earth. This excellent writer. . that numbers of imitators are ravished and transported by a spirit not 3 their own. And what is this path ? Why. For hence it is. they. And let this. they have equal power attributed to them with the deity presiding over oracles.
inventor of the Lyric Chorus. from the co . to Suidas. x. in the thirty-seventh 1. from impregnate her on a sudden with the inspira tion of her god. and fill those. he seems nearest to a rivalship with have been able to come the Homer. there arise some fine effluvia. So. . says thus of to him Olympiad. If he ". an imitation of the copying out those bright ori- finest pieces. Orat. Instil. naturally are not of a towering genius. . and cause in her the utter and predictions. Perhaps there might be a ne cessity of my producing some examples of this had not Ammonius done it to my hand. ance of oracles the sublime spirit of the ancients. : had kept in due bounds.". a noble poet.113 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. has drawn a thou sand rivulets to cherish and improve his own productions. with the lofty ideas and fire of others. pious Homeric fountain. c. Dr. but. like vapours from the sa cred vents. according Quinctilian. in on methods consistent with the nicest honour. which work themselves insensibly into the breasts of imitators. 1. or 4 Stesichorus. Pearce. Was who Herodotus alone the constant imitator of 4 : Ho mer ? No Stesichorus and Archilochus imi tated him more than Herodotus but Plato more than all of them who. Nor is such proceeding to be looked up as plagiarism. was born.
that. the style of his prose has a poetical sweetness. the opposition perhaps had too much the air Plato. and is justly esteemed the Homer of philosophers. stretched out his wings. that bees dropped honey on his lips as he lay in the cradle. in inferior : which he was convinced he must always remain an tion. after his feathers were full grown. This shews at least what a great opinion they then entertained of his eloquence. in his younger days. and eleva Though he despaired of equalling Homer in his own way. and made some attempts in tragedy and epic but finding them unable to bear a parallel with the verses of Homer. And it is said. who. since they thought its appearance worthy to be ushered into the world with omens and prognostics. . singing all the with inexpressible sweetness. yet he has nobly succeeded in another. who had a long time engrossed the admiration of the world. 5 them into the fire. the night before he was placed under the tuition of Socrates. had an inclination to poetry. the philosopher dreamed he had embraced a young swan in his bosom . majesty. Cicero was so great an admirer of him that he Jie ". 5 have so much had he not been ambitious of like a youthful entering. The attack was perhaps too rash. 113 Neither do I think that Plato would embellished his philosophical tenets with the florid expressions of poetry. the o lists. and time soared to an immense height in the air. however. and abjured that sort of writing. would talk in the language of It was a common report in the age he lived. said. ginals. If Jupiter conversed with Plato.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. champion. and ardently contending for the prize with Homer.". men. he threw .
24. or Plato. it of enmity. in opeiibus ct diebus. would it not then be of use to raise in ourselves such reflections as these? work and ex How Or if in this case would Homer. but yet could not fail of some advantage. SECTION XIV.* the Such brave contention works good of men. dides? will in some degree lift up our souls to the standard of their It will be yet genius. have raised their thoughts? it be historical how would Thucy- For these celebrated persons. being proposed by us for our pattern and imitation. A greater where victory crowns with never-dying ap plause . or Demosthenes. . for. ver. if to the preceding reflections we add these What would Homer or De own mosthenes have thought of this piece? or what judgment would they have passed upon * Hesiod. when even a is defeat.114 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. of greater use. in such a com petition. prize than the glory and renown of the ancients can never be contended for. as Hesiod says. IF ever therefore we are engaged in a which requires a grandeur of style alted sentiments. attended with honour.
it? 115 It is really a noble enterprise. but a more particu ". that it the esteem and ap plause of succeeding ages. which by some are called Images. The name of an Image is generally given to any idea. however repre sented in the mind. which is communicable to others lar sense by discourse of it . whose views are so short and confined. has now prevailed : When . to the weight. and force of compositions. and be at the same time our evidence. in the moments of composing. magnificence. apprehends that his performance may not be this able to survive him. my dearest youth. to frame such a theatre and tribunal. SECTION XV. and of me. contribute very much. VISIONS. the author? For if any one. There is yet another motive which yield most powerful incitements. and submit them to a scrutiny. the productions of a soul.LONOINUS ON THE SUBLIME. if we ask ourselves What character will posterity may form of work. must needs be im cannot promise itself perfect and abortive. to sit on our own compositions. in which such celebrated heroes must preside as our judges.
: is troubled. because natural. Spectator. is surprise. Furies guard the door. The . surpris d with mortal fright. after the murder of it is mother. Aut Agamemnonius scenis agitatus Orestes. light. and to display them to the life before the eyes of an au dience. that you seem to behold yourself the very things you are describing. and his whole soul disordered in ruins is not so Babylon melancholy a spec his The is distraction of Orestes.) a sight in nature so mortifying as that of a distracted person. Armatam facibus rnatrem et serpentibus atris Cum fugit. ) C There is not (says Mr. You The to design of a poetical image that of a rhetorical is perspicuity. ultricesque sedent in limine Dirae. nor provoke Those vengeful Furies 1 to torment thy son.".116 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. cannot be ignorant. Dryden. that rhetorical and poetical images have a different intent. a fine representation in Euripides. 421. the imagination is a de sign 1 common to both. when his imagination and confused tacle. Or mad Orestes when his mother s ghost Full in his face infernal torches toss d.". shook her snaky locks : he shuns the sight. move and strike However. Virgil refers to this passage in his fourth jEneid. and intercept his flight. the imagination is so warmed and affected. No. 470. -J Flies o er the stage. And The ". mother. Addison. lit. ver. Pity thy offspring.
LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. When Macbeth is is preparing for the murder of Duncan. and convince himself that mere chimera but in vain. will infallibly work on the minds of This is what Longinus commends in Euripides . and confounds his reason. . . the ter : stamped on his imagination will not be shaken off I see thee yet. who can touch such incidents with happy dexterity. and paint such startle at images of consternation. What horrid sights! 117 how glare their bloody eyes! How twisting snakes curl round their venom d heads! uppermost in his consciousness of what he has done is thoughts. Which was not so before. disorders his fancy. There s no such thing. in As delusion. that no poet in this branch of writing can enter into a parallel with Shakespeare. He ror then endeavours to it is summon his reason to his aid. handle tow rd my hand ? come let and yet 1 see thee me clutch thee ! I have thee not still. or the horrors of guilt. and hideous imaginary monsters. his big with the attempt. here it must be added. The poet. is He strongly apprehensive of Divine vengeance. His eyes rebel against images that have no reality. and make him start at The which I see before me. the senses are liable to infinite delusions. and is quite upon the rack. and others. imagination soul is dismayed with the horror of so black an Within. to reason himself out of the : Here he makes a new attempt quite too strong I see thee still. ever the mind is When harassed by the stings of conscience. his looks dismal and affright enterprise . and every thing without ing. but it is this form as palpable which now I draw. Is this a dagger his reason. and the violence of his fears places the avenging furies before his eyes.
The least noise. and leap around me. the soul. 255. Taur. if we consider how the horror is continually worked up.* And again ! : Alas she ll kill me ! whither shall I fly ?t The delusion is described in so skilful a manner. + Euripid. as is it deserves. affecting horror as commend The it. Which gives the stern st good-night he is about it.118 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. the very sound of their own voices. dart out. Forward they spring. to way quote the whole scene. the fatal bell-man. th attempt. that the start at the audience cannot but share the consternation. Hark! peace! It was the owl that shriek d. Every single They seize the image seems whole attention. is shocking and frightful to both : terized. Orest. by the me thod in which the perpetration of the murder is represented. Alack ! I am : afraid they have awak d. * Euripid. The genius of the poet will appear more surprising. In deadly wrath the hissing monsters rise. ! Confounds Hark I laid their daggers ready. the very blood curdles and runs cold. and visionary dagger. The contrast between Macbeth and his wife is justly charac and the qualms of remorse in the other. would be to fact represented in the at sight reality. immediately after. 408. And again. by the hard-hearted villany of the one. . ver. same would rise in the mind of the actual commission. Iphigen. and not the deed. And tis not done us. and alarms and benumb stiffen the sense. He could The best not miss them. through the strongest abhorrence and detestation of the crime. ver.
named Phaeton. v. Ovid had Two fragments of Euripides. That hot unmoisten d region of Will drop thy chariot. ver. Sometimes. This passage. and provoke himself for fight. The poet here 119 actually saw the furies with the eyes of his imagination. -f- the sky * 2 Iliad. and that he may always rise where his sub ject demands it (to borrow an allusion from the Poet)* Lash d by his tail his heaving sides incite His courage. and has himself. which is entirely lost. yet in forced it up to the true spirit of tragedy was not natu many instances he even his genius . and has com pelled his audience to see what he beheld Euripides therefore has laboured very much in his tragedies to describe the two passions of madness and love. but cautious shun the Lybian air . better in these than (if J am not mistaken) in any other. 170. is taken from a tragedy of Euripides. indeed. The foregoing assertion : is evident from that passage. where Sol delivers the reins of his chariot to Phaeton * Drive on. in all probability. For though rally great.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. he boldly aims at Images of different succeeded much kinds. .
almost vitiated. where boasts of Sisera s mother. coelestia tecta cremabis Inferius terras : medio tuliss*imus ibis. nee summurn molire per aethera currum. : horses hoofs a beaten track will shew neither mount too high. and cried through the lattice. the vain-glorious after Sisera s defeat (Judges. Altius egressus. the middle way is best. Nor The But to the distant South. and. as : she was confident. Thus spoke the god. resigning Phaeton : the chariot of the Sun Zonarumque trium contentus fine. . Utque ferant asquos et coelum et terra calores. the Zodiac s But where Along midmost Zone winding circle lies. . nor stormy North. nor sink too low . are described ". 28 ). v. junctamque aquilonibus arcton: Hac Nee sit iter: manifesto rota vestigia cernes. Th impatient youth with haste certainly an eye to into the it in his Met.120 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. polumque Effugit australem. Drive em the not on directly through the skies. That no new fires or heav n or earth infest . ii. Why is his chariot so long in coming ? why Her wise ladies answered tarry the wheels of his chariots ? . A sublimer image can no where be found than in the song of Deborah. 1. his victorious return. by flourishes. let the And Thence Pleiads point thy wary course. when expecting his return. a little after. Addison- The sublimity which Ovid here borrowed from Euripides he has diminished. The mother of Sisera looked out at a window. but sally forth. preme. Keep the mid-way. when he puts these lines to mouth of Phoebus.
that the soul of the poet mounted the chariot along with the rider. The Cassandra now entirely lost. without betraying the least sign of pity or regret. High through the airy void. he could never have conceived so grand an image of it. she returned answer to herself: ? have they not divided the prey to every Have they not sped man a damsel or two ? . jEschylus has the made bold attempts . Snatches the reins. meet 3 for the necks of them that take the spoil of Euripides I is r". in noble and truly heroic Images tragedies. to Sisera a prey of divers colours. the lashing whip and whirl the car the sire. had he not been hurried on with equal ardour through all this ethereal course. ! and warns him with here ! his voice. Pearce. in one of his seven commanders against Thebes. bind themselves by oath not to survive Eteocles : her . Dr. Behind. pursues With eye intent. of divers colours of needle-work on both sides. a prey of divers colours of needle-work. ! Drive there now here ! turn the chariot here Who would not say. . Borne on his planetary steed. whom Excites. &c. outstrip the winds. yea.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. and vaults into the seat. as. 121 He starts . There are some parallel Images in his 3 Cassandra : Ye martial Trojans. the coursers. that it shared as well in danger as in ra pidity of flight with the horses? For.
The seven. and fierce with grasped arms their A gainst Clash d on sounding shields the din of war. now he is not nature itself must fall with Percy. Hurling defiance tow rd the vault of heav n. out flew Millions of flaming swords. The rage and distraction of the surviving father shews how important the son was in his opinion. a warlike leader each in chief. the rude scene may end. highly they rag d the Highest. And darkness be the burier of the dead. On . drawn from the thighs : mighty cherubim the sudden blaze Far round illumined hell . : His grief renders him frantic. that each heart being set bloody courses. and o er the brazen shield they slew then plunging deep their hands terror. the speech of their leader. gives the reader a terrible idea of the fallen angels. are too violent to yield to his proposal in words. and blood-thirsting 4 The following Image The fallen angels. when he hears of the death of his son Hotspur. And let this world no longer be a stage : To feed contention in a ling ring act let But one spirit of the first-born Cain Keign in all bosoms. his ! anger desperate let : : Let heav n kiss earth now not nature let s hand Keep the wild flood confin d order die. but assent in a man ner that at once displays the art of the poet. and imprints a dread and horror on the mind : He Of spake. and Enyo. Stood round A sullen bull . with oaths invok d Mars. and to confirm his words.122 * LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. . fired by in Milton is great and dreadful. Into the foaming gore. How itself in vehemently does the fury of Northumberland exert Shakespeare. Nothing must be.
Euripides has the same thought. as the word &. There is a daring image. and unpolished . to which Euripides has given a softer sweeter turn. he says. to and fro.rv/z/3a/cxua. spurred on too fast by emulation. d. was plac brast. 123 Sometimes. Did quake and nigh asunder i 2 . in Spenser : s Fairy Queen. nor raises /3a&. 5 Tollius is of opinion. rough.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. yet Euripides himself.ZEschylus is censured for making the palace instinct with Bac and chanalian fury. instinct with rage divine. And bitter curses horrible to tell That ev n the temple wherein she to hear. Pearce thinks thought . but only the word which. so nice an idea. by making the mountain only reflect the cries of the Bacchanals.lt. Lycurgus is den appearance of Bacchus The Reel frantic In ^Eschylus the palace of surprisingly affected by the sud : dome and roaring roofs convuls d. that Longinus blames neither the of Euripides nor . 5 And echoes back the Bacchanalian cries. Dr. the thoughts of this author are too gross. has not so much sweetness. but he has turned it with much more softness and pro priety : The vocal mount in agitation shakes. which may parallel that of ^schylus She foul blasphemous speeches forth did .lt. cast.c^i/a. indeed. ventures even to the brink of like imperfections. with an expression of a harsh sound. its on account of antiquity.ZEschylus.
fear came upon me. unhappy imitation of in it Dr. speare. and another Ovid. Metam. ". and tempers it with the utmost propriety. as again . lib. and trembling. and mutt ring thunder.b iv.gt. when he gives us a sight of the 6 appari- Milton shews a greater boldness of fiction than either Euri pides or jEschylus. Macbeth (Act 3. and elegant without grandeur. that there is an in the beginning of Seneca s Troades . and nature gave a second groan Sky lower d. 6 at completing of the mortal sin. but I could not dis- .) the Images are set off in the strongest expression. is entirely lost. at Adam s eating the forbidden fruit. Earth trembled from her entrails. has Sophocles succeeded nobly in his all Images. 441. which is supported with surprising art through the whole scene. Sc. and bury ing himself in the midst of a prodigious tem pest . the : hair of my flesh stood up. Pearce observes. when he describes his CEdipus in the agonies of approaching death. seem to be the peculiar province of Shake . There is a fine touch of this nature in Jt&. when deep sleep falleth on men. In thoughts from the visions of the night. Ghosts are very frequent in English tragedies but ghosts. That in Hamlet is introduced with the utmost solemnity. xiii. 13. and strike the imagination with high degrees of horror. awful At the appearance of Banquo in throughout. and majestic. neat without spirit. 5. where this apparition is de scribed. In such circles none but he could move with dignity. In pangs. when. some sad drops Wept. The tragedy of Sophocles. as well as fairies.124 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. It stood still. which made all my bones to shake then a spirit passed before my face .
1. Orest.". Pearce. 2. &c. gives him this commendation as a poet His excellency lay in moving compassion. tion of Achilles 125 upon his tomb. v. ". our able orators (kind Heaven make them really such!) are very much addicted. when mingled with fiction and fable. they behold the torment ing furies. de : 7 Simonides the Ceian was a celebrated poet. Orat. . Yet to excesses like these. 264. 1. But I know not whether anyone has described that ap parition more divinely than 7 Simonides. With the tragedians. at the depart ure of the Greeks from Troy. To quote all these instances at large would be in endless. Cicero. beauty consists and nicest truth the most exact propriety and sublime excursions are absurd and impertinent. I heard a voice.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. poetry are pushed to a fabulous excess. To return : Images .* cern the form thereof: an image before mine eyes silence and Godr". * Euripid. that when Orestes exclaims. c. Dr. and with all their sagacity never find out. x. quite surpassing the bounds their of probability whereas in : in oratory. Shall mortal man be more just than &c. where fancy sallies out into direct impossibilities. him the inventor of artificial memory and : Quinctilian. declares 1. so that some prefer him in this particular before all other writers.
* Demosth.126 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. ". Loose me. This if But amongst this Author of these disorders the mi serable accused. would be assist hurry and confu sion another should arrive. non procul a fine. for giving liberty to It was slaves.". thou fury. What Oratory? cases. blended with the Proofs and Descriptions. after the defeat of Chaeronea ". would perish on the spot. either of so abject a spirit as to deny his utmost ance. they not only persuade. contra Timocr. whilst another brings the news that the dience. and he was actually the raving. in abundance of add both nerves and passion to our For if the Images be skilfully speeches. and the captives es young or old. let me go. If prison is burst open caped. no man. when he was accused of pass is the ing an illegal decree. to then is They the true use of Images in are capable. unjudged and unsentenced. . but subdue an au any one (says a great orator*) should hear a sudden outcry before the tri bunal. Oral. . SoHyperides. torment ress : Close you embrace. and cry out. to plunge Into th abyss of Tartarus me headlong down Image had seized his fancy. because the mad fit was upon him.
and takes its rise either from an Elevation of Thought. or Images. Amplifica tion. These observations cient.". whence it is. Imitation.".LONG IN US ON THE SUBLIME. This bias of the mind has an easy solution since. the stronger will attract to itself all the virtue and efficacy of the weaker. things are blended together. will. be suffi concerning that Sublime which be longs to the Sense. quite passes It is natural the bounds of mere persuasion. not an cree. that made this de the but the battle of Chaeronea. he intermixes an Image of the battle. to us to hearken always to that which is ex same time that he traordinary and surprising . when two such eclipses the . At exhibits proofs of his legal proceedings. which quite Proof itself. . 127 said he. orator. and by that stroke of art. I fancy. that we regard not the Proof so much as the grandeTTr and lustre of the Image. a choice and connexion of proper Incidents. ".
Pathetic. with the note. is that comes next in order. . because it was reserved for a distinct treatise. on purpose to shew that we lay not a greater stress upon them than is really their due.128 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. if not infinite la bour. conduce not a little to greatness. SECTION THE topic that of Figures . I shall instance only some few of those which contribute most to the elevation of the style. PART THE II. when judiciously But used. for these. is omitted here. xliv. exactly to describe all the species of them. Sect. viiL laid down for the second source of the Sub lime. XVI. See Sect. since it would be tedious. which the Author. PART III.
by this figurative manner of swearing. which is the most natural method of Demosthenes is You were not in the wrong. of which you have domestic trious examples. who fell so gloriously.who fought at Marathon.". were not in the wrong. that they ought to swear by persons.LONGI-NUS ON THE SUBLIME. you were not. and trans ported by a godlike warmth. Now. by those noble souls. at the same time instructing them. of Greece. no. Oxou. p. illus For neither were they in the wrono. de Corona. 12Q producing proofs of bis upright behaviour whilst in public employ. He seems. and by trans ferring what was naturally a proof. to have deified their noble ancestors . ed. He stamps into the breasts of his judges the generous principles of those applauded patriots. who were so lavish of their lives in the field of Marathon/ * &c. into a * Oral.) Demosthenes takes another course. who fought at Platseae. as by so many gods. 124. who O O * fought at Salamis. . when you courageously ventured your lives in fighting for the liberty and safety (". which I call an Apostrophe. he thunders out You an oath by the champions of Greece ". doing this? Athenians. I swear. . and filled as it were with sudden inspiration.
that the hint of this : oath was taken from these lines of 2 Eupolis by my labours in that glorious field. 13. Their joy shall not produce my discontent! * 1 The there observations on this oath are judicious and solid. desolation. by the Figure. as they cannot blame the under taking. he violently and attention of his audi ence. which heals every painful reflection. that this house shall become a See Genesis xxii. 16. he instils that balm into their minds. and teaches them breathes life new into to set as great a value on their unsuccessful engagement with Philip. strengthened by an unusual and reputable oath. ". but the renown of his name. Some would No ! insinuate. and compels them to acquiesce in the event. soaring strain of the Sublime and the Pa 1 such a solemn. such thetic. Dr. as on the victories of Marathon and Salamis. and assuages the smart of misfortune. of whom nothing remains at present. * Marathon. I swear by myself. . and Hebrews vi. ". 5.130 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. Pearce.". is But one infinitely more solemn and awful in Jeremiah xxii. He by his artful them encomiums.- saith the Lord. sole application of this seizes the favour In short. But if ye will not hear these words. Eupolis was an Athenian writer of comedy.
the audience worthy of such virtue those illustrious souls. it 3 This judgment all more than Longinus alone says the writers on rhetoric that ever examined this is admirable. in a bare examination of this oath in polis. stration that they had done their duty . and consequently did not require consolation. to the end that the defeat of Chseronea may be no is oath longer regarded by the Athenians as a mis It is at one time a clear demon fortune. the object. Besides. for their country. if ble of the ridiculousness of using oaths. at the exactest time. to but deviated from who ventured their lives swear by an inanimate In Demosthenes. 3 131 But the grandeur consists not in the bare application of an oath. but he has not at the same time laid open the defects. at a time they were flushed with conquest. Quinctilian. and that addressed to the Athenians. and passage of Demosthenes. and for the strongest rea sons. the battle. Eu Dacier. the poet did not swear by heroes. indeed.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. was very sensi they were not ap plied as happily as the orator has applied them . but in applying it in the proper place. . which Longinus evidently discovers. Yet in Eupolis there is nothing but an oath. addressed to the vanquished. and thereby raise sentiments in . in a pertinent manner. whom he had before deified himself.
and those who fought at Platreae.". all by immediately sub whom. in the warmest fits of fire and In speaking of transport. example.". and then you swear You by those celebrated victories . those who were in the naval engagements near Salamis and Artemisium.132 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. And whereas this objection might be thrown in his way. and thereby brings them off with security and honour. and quite opposite to that of Chaeronea. ". ". not because they purchased victory with their lives. that sobriety and moderation must be observed. objections. he says.". Upon which account he anti cipates joining. bravely exposed themselves to danger in the plains of Marathon. a just encomium and a moving exhortation. but because they lost those for their country. industriously suppressing the very mention of the events of those battles. the city ho noured with a public funeral. Those who so their ancestors. JEschines. all ". speak of a defeat partly occasioned by your own ill conduct. From which pru dent conduct we may infer. the orator took care to weigh all his words in the ba lances of art. . because they were successful. it gives occasion for an illustrious is an oath artfully addressed.
or any amused. in pleading. for the present. from . yet he is averse. a monarch. and sometimes breaks out into bit and though perhaps he may ter indignation suppress his wrath. carries with it a great suspicion A of artifice. again. MUST not in this place. if one invested with arbitrary power. deceit. if he thinks himself childishly no appeal and much before a tyrant.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. which men the shortest manner to. we speak lies whose sentence more. And now shew where. I will omit an observation of tion in turally my own. and attacked by the quirks and sub tleties of a wily rhetorician. or un bounded authority. too frequent and elaborate application of Figures. especially when. SECTION I XVII. impart assistance it Figures na and on the other side receive ner. and stifle his resentments . nay even . in a wonderful man I will this is from sublime sentiments. done. and fraud. my : friend. For he grows immedi ately angry. and by what means. He regards the attempt as an insult and affront to his under standing. before a judge.
Wherefore.". as it were. and removes the suspicion. that commonly attends on the use of Figures. than the pre I swear by those ceding from Demosthenes : noble souls. either of a great affinity they bear to the springs So by means .134 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. for illustration may be drawn from painting : A when several colours of light and shade are drawn upon the same surface. most plausible and persuasive deaf. and wrapt up in such beauty and grandeur. but much nearer to the sight. in its own For as the stars are quite dimmed lustre. those of light seem not only even to lie to rise out of the piece. For in what has the orator here concealed the Figure ? Plainly. the Sublime and Pathetic. and securely defy discovery. Now a due mixture of the Sublime and Pathetic very much increases the force. I cannot produce a better exam ". so the artifices of rheto ric are entirely overshadowed by the superior parallel splendour of sublime thoughts. and obscured. ple to strengthen this assertion. &c. For veiled. they Sem to disappear. a Figure is then most dexterously applied y when it cannot be discerned that it is a Figure. when the sun breaks out all in his blazing rays. to the arguments that can be alleged.
no where so phetical parts of Scripture. and more than a pro phet. Pearce. as well as beauty. in the person of Sisera s mother. whose appearance they cover. that perhaps are more remarkable. a prophet ? yea. lest the choice might give particular.". room to call our judgment in question. or by their own jacent outshine the ad superlative lustre. I mean the words of Christ. are also a noble example of the use of Interrogations. xi. for taking no notice of others. But what went ye out for to unto you. Nor can I in this place pass by a passage in the historical part of Scripture . produced Any reader will observe. whose art they shadow. they that wear soft clothing. visible as in the poetical That this the sense receives strength. perior beauties. from is Figure. easily and pro Numberless instances might be and we are puzzled how to pitch on any in . I say 7 9. amidst so fine variety. Matt. Deborah s words. in a veil of su SECTION XVIII. Question and WHAT shall I say here of Interrogation? 1 *Is not discourse enlivened. in stanced above on another occasion. are in kings houses. in this Figure of self-interrogation and an swer ". : What went ye ? out into the wilderness to see ? a reed shaken with the wind But what went ye out for to see? a man see ? clothed in soft raiment? behold.and movements of our souls. that there is a poetical air in the . Dr. always and Figures.
the meanness and frailty of and perfection the other. God is not a man. could never have made such impression on Agrippa. God that or. unexpected and pathetic To these instances may be added the whole 38th chapter of Job.". and immediately after answers believest thou the prophets ?". The he speaks of King (says he) knoweth of In ver. where we behold the Almighty Creator ex postulatin". as this eloquence. of the one. jesty in terms which express at once the ma* O with his creature. his own ". I know that thou believest. if the sense be preserved. difference is so visible. the most address. predictions of that there ".". he will make good. . and the : words thrown out of interrogation ". neither the son of said. whilst terrogation is. that he should neither the son of man.136 LOXGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. and grandeur lie. is not a man. in Acts xxvi. The smoothest insinuating complaisance. in the third t( person. that he should lie. that it is needless to enlarge How him artfully does St. is particularly an uncommon in ver. 26. There we see how vastly useful the Figure of In us a lofty idea of the Deity. Hath he said. Balaam in the 23d chapter of Numbers. before in the following whom 1 also speak freely ". do it ? he should repent. and thrown more forcibly along Would you/ says by this sort of Figure ? ". ". Then he turns short upon him : King Agrippa. question. transfer his dis course from Festus to Agrippa. he will do j The upon it. in giving and inspires a sense of every Question awes us into silence. strengthened. Paul. and shall he not make it good ?". our insufficiency. and shall he not hath he spoken. man. What he has and what he has spoke. 1Q. \\ hat is the cause of this grandeur will immediately be seen. that he should repent. these things.
that. having been sometime set as rjpero TIQ. not only renders his oration more sublime and lofty. Had this fallen vastly Short of the majesty requisite to as in it is. Ima. up another Philip?". And what advantage would accrue to you from his death.LONG IN US ON THE SUBLIME.* go about the city. and de mand what news ? What greater news can ". Demosthenes. 2 which are omitted in the translation somebody may demand. when it * Demosth. No : but he you yourselves ". and the quick demands. Philip. Ibid. Here are two words in the . Pearce has manifestly an ingenious conjecture. and lords Philip dead? over Greece? very sick. But where shall we land ? 2 The very war will discover to us the rotten and unguarded sides will raise -) been uttered simply and without Interrogation. Dr. it would have of Philip. but more plausible and probable. marginal explanations. but they debase the beauty of the figure.". Let us set sail for Macedonia. For the Pathetic then works the most surprising effects upon us. But the energy and rapidity that appears and answer. the subject in debate. they crept insensibly into the text. when. as soon as his head is laid. than that a Macedonian it is enslaves Is the Athenians. And again. as if they every question replies to his own were the objections of another person. . there be. f original.
[The beginning of is this but the sense easily sup plied from what immediately follows. follows here the beginning of a sentence now maimed and imperfect. but to flow opportunely from it. For in common conversation. they are warmed at once. in the heat and fluency of discourse. but it is from the few words yet remaining. imitates the quick emotions of a passion in its birth. which are studied and laboured.] An- .] * * SECTION XIX. that the Author was going to add another instance of the use of this Figure from Herodotus. are uttered without premeditation. that those things. and answer the de mands put to them with earnestness and And thus this Figure of Question and truth.138 IX)NGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. fitted to the subject seems not by the skill of the speaker. Answer is of wonderful efficacy in prevailing upon the hearer. And this method of questioning and answer ing to one s self. and imposing on him a be lief. is [What evident. ****** Section is lost. when people are questioned.
occidi. 6. Haste. Dryden. frappoient. Anglois. The hurry and distraction of Dido is s spirits. fugere. rajs are collected in a point.cd. and adds the greater spirit and emotion. artfully divested of Conjunc drop smoothly down. that they seem to outstrip the very thought of the tions. Ferte citi flammas. jEmid. Lorrains. Oxon. visible from the abrupt and precipitate manner which she commands her servants to endeavour to stop him Ite. which has some resemblance to description of the same thing. Then (says Xenophon*) closing lct The want lesser of a scrupulous connexion draws things into a For compass. Chant. que Avan^oient. 24th of the Odyssey. sail. Essay on the Odyssey &. 113. 219. in the same manner. Hence is there in is yet greater emphasis. date vela. Voltaire has endeavoured to shew in the la the hurry and confusion of a battle. combattoient. impellite remos. fureur assemble. and quickly row. at JEneas s de in : parture. agreeable to his usual conciseness. same contracted manner. II. p. p. de Agesil. Sallust s 610. mouroient ensemble. sequi.LOXGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. pursue the foe . haul my galleys out set Bring flaming brands.gt. is ba nishing the Copulatives at a proper season. 2d. 139 other great help in attaining grandeur. speaker. * ". Francois. * Rerum Gieec. in these four words only. when the rout of as in the an army shewn the 1. Henriade. K 2 . the the more more vigorous is the flame. et in Oral. capi". For sentences. and the periods are poured along in such a manner. .
ver. they were pushed. with dark forests. as a 1 heap of Figures combined together. O . they slew. Lift tl up your heads. Mr. v BUT nothing so effectually moves. carry with them the energy and marks of a consternation. 251. and be ye lift up. which may be produced. they were slain/ rylochus in Homer :* ! We went. has hitherto not been taken notice of. SECTION XX. So skil Homer rejected the Conjunctions.140 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. Through the lone thicket. they fought. I believe. and the King of glory shall come in. I mean the four last verses of the 24th Psalm. and which so fre quently occur in the best writings. * 1 For Odyss. Amongst the various and beautiful instances of an assem blage of figures. and with shades around. and the desert land in A palace Brown a woody vale we found. ye gates. Ulysses (such was thy command) . one. and yet uttered at the same time with precipitation. K. For words of this sort dissevered from one another. ye ever Who is lasting doors. Pope. So Eu- their shields together. which at once restrains fully has and accelerates the words.
Who There is the King of glory !". There are several turns in the gesture. . Par. chap. So in efficacy. and beauty to one another. which it is impossible for the party that suffers such violence. particularly in the Songof Deborah (Judges. is not figured nor one Figure which not beau * Pag. who does vio lence to another. in the voice of the man. which tiful. chap. because it throws the soul into transport and emotion). to ex press. And that the course of his oration might not languish or grow dull by a further progress in the same track (for calmness and sedateness attend always Pathetic always rejects upon order. 337. and the King of glory come he is in. Demosthenes oration* against Midias. O F ye gates. in the look. he passes immediately to new Asyndetons the King of glory ? The Lord Lift strong and mighty. There is scarce one thought in is them. they strength. but the order. ed. ye everlasting doors. the Lord mighty lift in battles.) and the Lamentation of David over Saul and Jona than.) .". and be ye shall : up. ". when two communicate 141 or three are linked together in firm confederacy. (2 Samuel. i. the Asyndetons are blended and mixed together with the repetitions and lively description. v.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. The Lord of hosts the King of glory are innumerable instances of this kind in the poetical partsof Scripture. up your heads.
when with - his fist. in when like a ruffian. Afterwards. . ". and disorder carries with it a surprising regularity. and fresh repetitions the look. and their very souls by so violent an attack. these things. so that with him order seems always disordered. is words upon that of the blows of him who effect of these . The made the assault the strokes fall one another. in giving a recital of outrages. ". observation to Nor indeed is one be omitted. that he who com". he charges again with sity of hurricanes all : upon are subdued thick the force and impetuo When with his fist. when on These things affect. and insert the Copulatives in this passage. he every where preserves the natural force of his Repe By titions and Asyndetons. To illustrate the foregoing observation. SECTION XXI. in the gesture. in the voice when like an enemy. let us imitate the style of Isocrates. wherever they may seem requisite. can express the heinousness of them/ frequent variation. these things exasperate men unused to such the face/ Nobody. when on the face/ his judges. ".142 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME.
its It is quite deprived of liberty in stant it is race. spirit. chap. the strength will be quite impaired. sist and the power of without difficulty. mits violence things. and divested of that it impetuosity. energy. and strong An instance of it may be seen in 2 Corinth. 143 on another. . what was before forcibly. by which discharged. has by that means given them weight. will have all its fire im mediately extinguished. and filling up the breaks by such additions. is but one sentence. and thirdly in his voice. by smoothing the roughness. is to deprive them of active motion In like manner. ^c. to 10. &. made strikes the very in 1 No writer ever a less use of Copulatives than St. in his first in his gesture.lt. then countenance. of near thirty different members. 4. when embarrassed and entan gled in the bonds of Copulatives. irresistibly pathetical. which are all detached from one an other. significance. the Pathetic. vi. that he had no leisure to knit them together. you will find. and the sedate grandeur of the whole grow flat and heavy. To bind the limbs of racers. that. His thoughts poured in so fast upon him. From if ver.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. and the Copulatives be inserted after the Isocratean manner. may do many which.". you proceed to insert the Con junctions. cannot sub stretching.fyc. by the help of particles. sur if a And prisingly. but Paul. will lose all its energy and spirit.
flow r. fruit. on herb. . me. her starry neither breath of morn. adsum qui feci. Id. And But these the gems of heav n. fair her solemn bird. An Hyperis a transposing of words or thoughts is Virgil very happy in his application of this Figure. her rising sweet. when : she ascends. With charms of Glist ring with earliest birds : nor herb. train. in me convertiteferrum. There is a fine Hyperbaton in the 5th book of Paradise Lost: is Sweet the breath of morn.&. ix. SECTION XXII. and flow r. earliest birds : With charm of pleasant the sun. Dr Pearce. And again. tree. Me. without thee is sweet. lib. With this her solemn bird nor walk by noon. nor fragrance after show rs: Nor grateful ev ning mild nor silent night. Glist ring with dew rs : : fragrant the fertile earth After soft show and sweet the coming on : Of grateful With this evening mild then silent night. ver. Moriamur. fruit. ver. : dew : Or glitt ring starlight.Eneid. and this moon. . In both these instances. which is a natural con sequence of disorder in the mind. the words are removed out of their right order into an irregular disposition. 427.lt. et in media arma ruamus. 348. When first on His orient this delightful land he spreads beams.144 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. HYPER BATONS among baton 1 also are to be ranked * the serviceable Figures. L ii.
and and there. manner of expres Hence it comes to pass. and it is a figure stamped as it were with the 2 image of a most forcible passion. thinks it Whether he did this I cannot determine . or jealousy. fine remark may be illustrated by a celebrated passage in Shakespeaje s Hamlet. by this flux and re flux of passion. their thoughts are in per petual hurry. by accident. When men are actuated either by wrath. are still and every where upon forming new resolutions. has made use of an Hymore truly) of a certain confused and more extensive compass of a sentence. they alter their thoughts. or design. Pearce. breaking through measures before concerted. in explaining the nature of theHyperbaton. that an imitation of these transposi- 2 Longinus here. till. or any of truest those numberless passions incident to the mind. they sometimes return to their first resolution : so that. they fluctuate here. their language. or fear. 3 a piece of art in the Author in order to adapt the dic Dr. without any apparent reason still unfixed : and undetermined. a 3 and their thousand times. where the poet s art has hit off the This . tossed as it were by some unstable blast. . in the close or (to speak of the Section. and again perbaton. or indignation. out of their natural and grammatical order. though Le Fevre tion to the subject. sion.LOtfGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. which cannot be reckoned up.
As if increase of appetite had grown Visit her face too roughly! By Let what it fed on : yet within a Frailty. him. which had raised his resentments.146 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. but expressions fail but as reflections crowd thick up begins abruptly . most celebrated writers the greatest resemblance of the inward workings of nature. thy month is me not think name woman body. The beha viour of his mother that his makes such impression on the young prince. he takes up nineteen lines in mother married again in less than two months s after her husband death : But two months dead nay not so much. but he only touches it. all tears why Oh Heav n ! a beast that wants discourse of reason. she would hang on him. that was to this ! not two Hyperion to a satyr : so loving to my mother. that his In short. ! Hercules Within a month yet the salt of left most unrighteous tears Had the flushing of her galled eyes. My father s Than Ere I to brother . Some and flies off again. \Vith which she follow d my poor father s she. So excellent a king. ! She married Oh most wicked speed! . ev n she Like Niobe. Would have mourn d longer married with mine uncle. That he permitted not the winds of heav n Heav n and earth! Must I remember ? why. it. but no more like ! my father. mind is big with abhorrence of He time after his thoughts turn again on that action of his mother. For art may then be termed pertions gives the strongest and most exact resemblance of nature. telling us.. he runs off into commendations of his father. ! A little month or ere those shoes were old. on his mind.
Before he exhorts them to labour. : nians. . lonians. c. or to : defeat your enemies. subjoins it. (for that is the end of I. now 8fC. and after having thrown them But into consternation. at setting out. when she conceals what assistance she receives from art. In the next place. it seems as if fright had hindered him. : affairs are come to their crisis . for your affairs are crisis. when it seems to be nature. This toil and labour will be of no long continuance it will liberty.* Dionysius the Phocean For our speaks thus in a Transposition ". from paying due civility to his audience. Submit yourselves then to fugitive slaves.". he inverts the order of the thoughts. nay. 6. come to their as he transposed the saluta tion. ". submit to his toil and exhorta he mentions the reason why labour and tion) * Herod. The natural order was this O lo ". feet 147 and consummate. is the time to submit to toil and labour. toil and labour for the present. and guard your free dom.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. now is the important moment. 11. lonians. to secure your undergo that cruelty and op pression which is the portion of slaves.". In Herodotus. and nature then succeeds best.".
in order it. xxvi. proving the integrity of his morals. attempts nut things. in his Some view.". the Jews. Demosthenes. eloquence of St. chap.148 toil lie) LOXGINUft ON THE SUBLIME. Acts. and leaves as unexpectedly again returns to his subject. but by flying to . as described in this Section by Longmus. that thi? -would be the end of his argument. yet he is more discreetly liberal of this kind of Figure than 4 He seems to invert the any other writer. in his imagine defence before King Agrippa. but to be forced unavoidably from him. this so often as Thucydides. and cries out.twelve tribes served God continually in the temple his inoffensive . so that his words seem not premeditated. But Thucydides is still more of a perfect master in that surprising dexterity of trans posing and inverting the order of those which seem naturally united and in separable. for which on the ". that he when one would instance. a ". Your affairs (says come to their crisis. in most of his speeches and argumentations. God It might be reasonably expected. as one who hoped. Why should it be thought a thing incredible with you. bears a very great resemblance to that of De 4 The mosthenes. that should raise the dead?". Paul. sudden he drops the continuation of his defence. that he was a turbulent and seditious he sets out with clearing his character.". and Hies from it with brave irregularity. must be undergone. to attain that happiness of another life. when. he often important point being always uppermost his subject. by those means. are ". indeed.) ". had entirely lost sight of For wipe oft the aspersions thrown upon him by person. and unblameable behaviour. t.".
and unexpected a transition. and. but happy Transpositions. &. by. and conducts them through all the intricate mazes of his discourse frequent extempore . 23. returns to his subject.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. and a long ramble. And this point being once I verily carried. he catches his au dience before they are aware. will be my excuse for giving no par ticular instance. he jects. till it brings him again to the same point of the resurrection. and goes on with his defence. he very pertinently. in so quick though they will not be convinced. which every where occur in his orations. ". The plenty of examples. and forgotten what he was about so strongly engages their concern. and bear their share in. he comes about again as unexpectedly. makes excursions into different sub and intermingles several seemingly un necessary incidents by this means he gives his audience a kind of anxiety. thought. . what to utter every thing is 149 more. in ver. as if he had : lost his subject. by these daring. : so that ly arresting his thoughts in the midst of their career. that they tremble for. and strikes dumb his enemies. it.". the dangers of the speaker: at length. but un expectedly.c. after . very order of his discourse. and raises the surprise and admiration of all. by means of his long Transpositions he drags his readers along.
yet possessed of such noble qualities. 1 Figures. from Cicero is s oration for Sex. when.150 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. de congerie 3 verborum ac sententiarum idem significantium. 1. that he seems to be the to who only man alive who may seem worthy never to appear there. meaning. the troop If Ci cero had said. x. the cohort none. SECTION THOSE totes. Oral. ver. Orat. would have declared speaker. Changes. * ". as to seem the only person alive he is appear upon the stage .". Ros- cius : For though he master of so is tit much art. he numbers up all its particulars : of which we have an instance in Cicero s oration for Marcellus ". densusque viro vir.] The orator makes use of this Figure. cause with cause. vEn. c. 1 Polyptotes. reason with reason/* which may be added that of Virgil. Dr.". Pearce. Changes. but not the force of the See also Quinctilian. 2. and Longinus gives no instance of this Figure : be produced from Cicero s oration for Caelius. instead of the whole of a thing. Instil. 3()K Haeretpede pes. refute accusations by evidences brighter than light itself shall : fact To engage with fact. which are called also 2 Polyp- as 3 Collections.] but one ". The soldiers have his no share in this honour. none. : The centurion has no share in this honour. Dr. may where he says. Quinctilian gives an instance of this Figure. Dr. We will contend with arguments. lib. viii. XXIII. 3.". Pearce. Collections. this ".". ". c. ix. Pearce. we will ". ". 1. .". the lieutenant none.".] Instit.
and rendering what respects. confound the * ". because of the * Therefore being justified have peace with God. and Number. latter part It begins ver. and experience. On those this of Time. hope and hope niaketh not ashamed . of the plural number. and shouts. v. experience. Whose and din. are (as you know. \ve Christ. by faith. &c. I fear. in all And to affecting. ear.". Case. 1. and appear. Person. my friend) well adapted to emotion. knowing that tribulation worketh patience. more grand and what an amazing degree do 5 Changes either of Time. Number. Person. and serviceable in adorning. crowd appear. Gradations. that the word croicd. cause. we As to Change of Numbers. Allowance . through our Lord Jesus By whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein we stand. appear not plainly. and patience. &c. is of tl*e must singular. di versify and enliven the style ! say. * Gradations. Longinus enlarges 6 in the sequel. that in words singular in form may be discerned all the vigour and efficacy of plurals. and that such singulars are highly ornamental. Gender. and rejoice in hope of the glory of God.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. The beauty But it of Figure will. fall 5 Changes of Case and Gender not under the district of the English tongue. It is Figure in continued throughout the chapter. o I assert.".] Rom. but we glory in tribulations also. be lost in the transla tion. be . 6 Along the shores an endless noise. but tlte is There an instance of this branches of the Transpositions. And not only so. must be observed.
nor the Cadmus s. nor the -ZEgyp- be made guage bly in will such cases. and on the other Jocasta. same method of increase. seems to multiply the misfortunes of that unfortunate So another poet has made use of the pair. for \\hen the genius of another lan not retain it. forth. All these terms denote on the one side CEdipus only.152 ". But the number thrown into the plural. and mothers lust or incest ! all the names That e er from could arise. So the words of CEdipus in Sophocles . and by the copiousness of number give it more emphasis and grace. ver. ! produc and since our fata! birth Have mix d our Blended in blood. * CEdip. Of Pelops s. . and all our race confounded. Tyran. quoted by me in For neither do the my other writings. wives. this ".But LONGIXUS OX THE SUBLIME. nuptials d. horrid and incestuous bonds ! See! fathers. 1417.* Oh You first ! nuptials. plurals are most worthy of remark. be cause they impart a greater magnificence to the style. the original beauty must unavoida fly off. brothers. sons. a dire alliance! See! sisters. Then Hectors and Sarpedons issued Figure is that expression of Plato concerning the Athenians.
tus s. but then only when the sub ject will admit of an Amplification. meaning to an For hanging the The metaphor who. r For is to hang such trappings to every passage highly pedantic. trappings. I hope. &c. were used to hang little on the bridles and trapping of their horses. nor the Danaus but we ourselves. that (cwtWae) chiming might add their continual pomp to the solemnity. p. in the Mosaic dispen ornament of bells. bells at public where savours too much of the sophist or pedant. 33. *When the words are thus confusedly thrown into mul tures. or Passion.] I have given this passage such a turn as. 153 dwell here with us.". Grecians entirely. ed. though another reason. * Plato in Menexeno. Yet recourse is not to be had to this Figure on all occasions. 7 For to hang such ". is borrowed from a custom among the ancients. one upon another. nor indeed any others of barbarous descent . Hyperbol6. will clear the English reader. not hav ing our blood debased by barbarian mix dwell here alone/ &c. The robe or ephod of the sation. bells every The literal translation is. ". games and concourses. high-priest. either En one or more. Par. is alleged for it in this had Exodus xxviii.". they excite in us greater and more elevated ideas of things. 245. be sides the pomp and dignity of the sound. titudes. s.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. . an largement.
". 9 25. In Rom.* And. Pearce. Orat. vii. ed. called. in the fol- . to avoid the direct charge of disobedience on the whole body of the Jews. 2 tragedy. and published an edict. this Shakespeare makes a noble use of Figure. St. See ver. on several occasions.] Instead of. sians besieged and took. 17. for ripping open afresh their domestic sores . to guard against the invidiousness which an open accusation might have drawn upon him. which the Per the theatre. have sometimes ON much grandeur and sides. and so charges the insufficiency and frailty of all his countrymen on himself. that no one should ever after write on that subject.". ".- Dr. z all the The whole theatre. But the Athenians (as Herodotus informs us) fined him a thousand drachmae. SECTION XXIV. The Siege the whole theatre was melted 1 ". de Corona. Be Peloponnesus was time rent into factions. * Demosth. Besides. p. plurals reduced and contradicted into singulars.154 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME.] Instead of. s At the representa tion of Phrynicus of Miletus. he transfers the discourse into the first person. magnificence. a tragic poet. all Peloponnesus. at that ".". ". people in Miletus was a city of Ionia.". Oxon. jointly with a change of person. all the in habitants of Peloponnesus were at that time rent into factions. Paul makes use of this figure.. and with different views. the contrary also.". brought a play on the stage about the demolition of this city. all * ". ". Phrynicus.
* Herod. . to contract plurals into one singular sounding and emphatical. and by a sudden and unforeseen change. you relate. 1. which but for vacancy. is the mark of a pathetic speaker. beauty. and in the moment of action. did sit alone Whistling to th air . 6. For when singulars occur unexpectedly to multiply them into plurals. and Antony Enthron d i th market-place. 21. too. renders a dis But the course more nervous and solid. Had gone to gaze on Cleopatra And made a gap in nature. arises from the same cause. no longer but display. c. which is the unexpected change of a word into its opposite number.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. WHEN ally you introduce things past as actu present. there is a very strong dash of the Hyperbole : The city cast Her people out upon her. though in the close. into tears/ * 155 For uniting thus one complete number out of several distinct. the very action lowing lines from his Antony and Cleopatra. in each of these figures.
eyes. ferrumque sub aure reliquit. The horse. 1. Hastam intorsit equo. Institut. quando ipsutn horrebat adire. Orsilochus Romuli. So Virgil. the wound of the horse. By making use of the warrior. of the present tense. 637. of persons has also a wonderful in setting the very things before our and making the hearer think himself actually present and concerned in dangers. wounds him in the belly with his sword. * Xenophon de Cyri . 1. CHANGE effect. Pearce. SECTION XXVI. Quo sonipes ictu furit arduus. impatient of the wound. and the fall Dr. xi. altaque jactat Vulneris impatiens adrecto pectore crura. Virgil makes the reader see almost with his eyes. (says ". JEn. and throws off Cyrus. ver. Volvitur ille excussus humi.7. He falls to the ground/ Thucydides very frequently makes use of this Figure. flings about. before the eyes of your readers.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. and being trampled under foot. * A soldier Xenophon*) falls down under Cyrus s horse.
689- Una omnes ruere. t Herod. tema. 698. L horror. 1. called Meroe. thou would st have thought. . in the -ZEn. la crudeltu. The allusions in exalt the subject. is 15? only attentive to a recital of No force could vanquish them. aut monies concurrere montibus altos. : Canto 9no.". et andeggiar di sangue un lago. Convolsum remis Alta petunt: pelago credas innare revolsas Cycladas. my * 1 Iliad. No toil fatigue. ver. ver. 29. Arati Phaenom. 28?. and at length you will arrive upon a level coast. you shall go on board another ship. . viii. when he them.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. c. ac totum spumare reductis rostrisque tridentibus aequor. o. and then you will arrive at a great city.* And And sail so AratuSj-f* ! O put not thou to sea in that sad month this passage of Herodotus ". You see. so furiously they fought. figure. f ver. After you have travelled over this tract of land. Virgil supplies another instance of the efficacy of this 1. in his Gierusalemme Liberate.J You shall upwards from the city Elephantina. la il lutto Van d intorno scorrendo et in varia imago Vincitrice la morte errar per tutto Vedresti. the last two lines prodigiously heighten and So Tasso describes the horror of a battle very pompously. 2. and sail two days.
Whether for Greece or Iliou he engag d You Mr. in Prov. bear some resem blance.". 14. and a more anxious impa By this address. and walk in his ways For thee. Oh ! well is . LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. di hearing sight ! rectly addressed to the hearers. but fill him with a more earnest attention. 34. Pope. But when you address your dis course. at the entry of the city. ". v. 2. not in general to particular. as here. the doors I call. and my to the an example of it in St. She in crieth at the gates.158 friend. O men. make them fancy themselves actually present in every occurrence. how he carries with him in this excursion it your imagination along how he conducts ! through the different scenes. s Solomon words. at the coming of Unto you. shew thyself There is also to the priest. And ed are another more remarkable. in the Transition. e. t( And he commanded him to tell no man. Pearce. and happy shalt thou be !". 85. Luke. but Go. making even And all such passages. viii.". but to one in could not see. thou shall eat the labour of thj hands. in all Psalm cxxviii. sons of men. to this instance from Homer: voice is ". you not only strike more upon his passions. ver. Dr. * 2 Iliad. tience for the event. Bless they that fear the Lord. so fierce Tydides rag d.* ! all.
321. Which they beheld. but as it is easy to imitate the ancients in the omission of two or three words.". That most of the modern heroic poets have imitated the ancients. Addison ". or thus . to speak for himself. 1 Now Hector. renew d their assault the ships I find at toils. with out premising that the person said thus. THE SUBLIME. it shall not requires judgment to do it in such a manner as they be missed. and that the speech may begin naturally without them. 159 SECTION XXVII. . ver. by a sud den Transition.LONGINUS ON. observes. Maker omnipotent. No. This fi is SOMETIMES when a writer gure produces a vehement and lively Pathetic. in beginning a speech. the moon s resplendent globe And starry pole Thou also mad st the night. he brings him in. in the 4th book of Milton at their Paradise Lost. which he could 1 There is a celebrated and masterly s transition of this kind. . 346. and thou the day. He from this vengeful arm his death shall meet. earth.* That part of the narration. * Iliad. Bade them But whom and leave the spoils distance from the fleet. air. both stood. . open sky ador d The God that made both sky. saying any thing of a person. Spectator. with loud voice. and under shady lodge arriv d. Mr. Thus Both turn d. and heav n.
LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME.
go through with decently, the poet here as sumes to himself, but, without any previous notice, claps this abrupt menace into the mouth of his angry hero. How flat must it have sounded, had he stopped to put in, Hector spoke thus, or thus ? But now the
quickness of the Transition outstrips the very thought of the poet.
most seasonably applied, when the pressing exigency of time will not admit of any stop
or delay, but even enforces a transition from 2 persons to persons, as in this passage of Hecataeus
Ceyx, very much troubled at these
proceedings, immediately commanded all the descendants of the Heraclidze to depart his
prevent therefore your own destruction, not to involve me in your ruin, go seek a
amongst another people." Demosthenes has made use of
the Milesian, the
historians, according to Suidas,
Langbaine. u Demosthenes has made
original ov instead of o, a very small alteration
&c.] Reading here in the due to the sa
gacity of Dr. Tonstal, clearly preserves the sense.
doubtedly Demosthenes makes use of a Transition
LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME.
in a different
manner, and with
passion and volubility, in bis oration against
And shall not one among you Aristogiton :* boil with wrath, when the iniquity of this in
and profligate wretch
This insolent wretch, I say,
Thou most abandoned
excluded the liberty of speaking, not by bars or gates, for these indeed some other might
imper and unfinished, and he almost tears his words asunder to address them at once to dif Who Thou most aban ferent persons doned creature Having diverted his dis course from Aristogiton, and seemingly left 4 him, he turns again upon him, and attacks
same manner with Homer and Hecataeus.
use of this
figure, not truly in a different
manner, but with much more
486. ed. Paris.
passion and * Oral,
in Aristog. p.
used by St. Paul, in his Epistle to the Romans. His shew, that the Jews were not the people of God, exclusive of the gentiles, and had no more reason than they,
drift is to
form such high pretensions, since they had been equally guilty of violating the moral law of God, which was antece
dent to the Mosaic, and of eternal obligation.
Yet, not to
at setting out,
and so render them averse
LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME.
passion. The lordly suitors
more violent strokes of heat So Penelope in Homer,*
But why must you
Bring baneful mandates from that odious crew
the arguments he might afterwards produce, he begins
all their vices,
with the gentiles, and gives a black catalogue of
were, as well
in the eyes of the
appeared excessively heinous the beginning of the second
Therefore chapter, he unexpectedly turns upon them with, thou art inexcusable, man, whosoever thou art, that judgver. 1. and again, ver. 3. "And thinkest thou this, est,"
man, things, and dost the same, that thou shall escape the judgment of God ? &c. &c. If the whole be read with attention, the apostle s art will be
them which do such
eloquence will appear grand,
cutting, the attacks he
rising in their strength.
makes on the Jews successive, and
ver. 681. Odyss. In these verses Penelope, after she had spoken of the ors in the third person, seems on a sudden exasperated at
proceedings, and addresses her discourse were present.
as if they
ungen rous men, devour
in Virgil bears great re
pelagi tot tempestatibus actus,
genitorem, omnis cura? casusque levamen,
me, pater optime, fessum
does a passage also in the poetical book of Job, chap.
where, after he had said of God,
*vi. ver. 7,
But now he hath
LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME.
faithful servants of
their tasks for
crown the board
I scorn their love,
and I detest
they share their last of feasts to-night
ungen rous men, devour my till he be quite undone ?
Heedless of him, yet timely hence
not your fathers oft his might
children you the
d hero you return d may see, Think what he was, and dread what he may be.
a Periphrasis (or Circumlocution) is a cause of Sublimity, nobody, I think, can
deny. For as in music an important word is rendered more sweet, by the divisions
which are run harmoniously upon
Periphrasis sweetens a discourse carried on in propriety of language, and contributes very
there be no jarring or discord in
part be judiciously and musically tempered.
by a sudden Transition, he addresses his words immediately following, Thou
and to ought not to trouble us much to endure storms and want many of those accommodations we might expect at home. in the beginning of his Fu * neral Oration have now discharged the last duties we owe to these our departed ". of this ". and when we sure shall are safely landed in our though they had never been. with what plea we look back on these rough and boisterous seas we be to us as have escaped 1st Vol. on the same thought almost as that quoted by Longinus from Plato. and then bids them adieu . 1 When we we consider that we have but a little while to be upon our journey travelling towards our hea where we shall meet with all the delights we can venly country. And own country. .164 This LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. 98. and give them a higher enjoy ment of the future. the Archbishop has wound it up to a greater height. and after a few days will be quite forgotten. folio. These difficulties and incon veniences will shortly be over. This is the common fate of travellers. from whence he gives them a retrospect of that through whieh they have passed. Plato inters his heroes. In each passage Death is the principal thought to which all the circumstances of the Circumlocutions chiefly refer . and not look to have every thing just to our mind. may be established beyond dispute from a passage of Plato. and we must take things as we find them. here. make the fatal voyage. thus provided. and tem pered it with more agreeable and more extensive sweetness. : We who. to enlarge the comforts. but the Christian orator conducts them to a better world. but ?". that are desire. They have been conducted pubfriends. Archbishop Tillotson will afford us an instance of the use Figure. it foul ways. p.
105. Your souls are pos ". sessed of the best qualification that can adorn a martial breast. by infusing a melodious Circumlocution. a public conducting of them by ". I. look upon la and by en new grace to his encomium. which Longinus so highly .e. 1. Cyropaed. And who can deny that the sentiment by this means is very much exalt ed ? or that Plato. t Herod. licly 165 on their way by the whole body of the their pa city. So that inimi ". - lib. I. You bour as the guide to a happy life larging some other words after the same man ner. he has not only exalted the sense. has tempered a naked and barren thought with harmony and sweetness ? So Xenophon :* You look upon toil as the guide to a happy life. but given . The beauty of this Periphrasis. Nothing produces in you such sensible emotions of joy as commendation/ By expressing an inclination to endure toil in this Circumlocution. and in a private capacity by Here he calls Death rents and relations/ the fatal voyage/ and discharging the fu neral offices. their country. table passage of Herodotus rj~ The goddess afflicted those Scythians.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. ".". who had sacrilegi her temple with 2 the female ously pillaged disease/ * Xenophon.
.] sick Shakespeare. in King Richard the Second. This fortress built Against infection in the by nature for herself hand of war . the generality superior to all in his figures. For this reason. 1 CIRCUMLOCUTION is indeed more dan gerous than any other kind of figure. nor ever will be met with again. have been made upon it.". This royal throne of kings. and abundance of remarks. yet being sometimes too lavish of them) is ri diculed very much for the following expres- commends. unless it be used with great circumspection . as never was.166 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. learned and curious to be sure. This precious stone set in the silver sea. The best way will be to imitate the de corum of Herodotus. has made John of Gaunt pour indeed sound very : out such a multitude to express England. and 1 ". it is otherwise very apt to grow trifling and insi and savour strongly of pedantry and dulness. This other Eden. this little world. Plato (though for pid. SECTION XXIX. Circumlocution is indeed. This happy breed of men. appears not at present. &c. finely. at least. in the ears Some of them of an Englishman for instance. this seat of Mars. Commentators indeed have laboured hard to discover what this disease was. leave it still a mystery. demy paradise.
For the Pathetic partakes as much of the Sublime. that all I have mentioned render compositions more pathetic and affecting. my dear TERENTI ANUS. Par. It is not to be permitted. SECTION BUT by the XXX. Plato de Legibus. 741. sion in his Treatise of 16? Laws :* ". For it is manifest. as writing exactly in rule and cha racter can do of the Agreeable. say the critics. 1. 5. what has been said on this sub I ject. presume. will. of what service Figures may be in producing the Sublime. PART IV. p. ed. that wealth of either gold or silver Had should get footing or settle in a city/ he. abundantly shew.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. . since the sentiments and the language of compositions are generally best explained light they throw upon one another. forbidden the pos session of cattle. And now. he might have called it the wealth of mutton and beef.
But in poetry ****** * * * [The remainder of this Section is lost. let us in the next place consider. the beauty.168 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. in a word. as the enormous mask of a tragedian would do upon the diminutive face of an infant. that the greatest writers de rive with indefatigable care the grandeur. the weight. what it is that remains to be said concerning the Dic tion. it animates our thoughts. And here. and the energy of their expressions. that they should every where swell and look big. Fine words are indeed the peculiar light in which our thoughts must But then it is by no means proper shine. I think. and inspires them with a kind of vocal life. and.] . that a judicious choice of proper and magnificent terms has wonderful effects in winning upon and entertaining an audience. makes the same ridiculous appearance. the solemnity. before persons of so much taste and experience. the strength. For dressing up a trifling subject in grand exalted expressions. makes it shine like a picture in all the gaiety of colour. be denied. This clothes a composition in the most beautiful dress. But it is needless to dwell upon these particulars. cannot. For it is from hence.
that celebrated expres sion of Theopompus seems to nificant of lius ". than the following. me the most sig with. expressed at the same time in line a greater plainness and simplicity of terms. because shall this it is : Nor Thracian vex me more And for this reason. in Images. * * is * * * |- The beginning of * In this verse of is this Sec tion lost. drawn from common life. in compliance with the exigencies of his affairs/ 2 Vulgar terms are sometimes much more 1 There never was a nourable to human of higher grandeur.] * the terms are vulgar. than those of a is : higher nature lines in the truth of this remark s visible . from thete Shakespeare Romeo and Juliet M . a simpli natural l ! which pleases. but have a much better effect. and are far more ex pressive. stand need of a deal of judgment to support and keep them from sinking. in the Essay on Man man s An 2 honest the noblest work of God. or familiar objects. yet there city in it Anacreon. 169 SECTION XXXI. though Cecihas found something to Elaine in it-^- any I ever met Philip (says he) was used to swallow affronts. when managed by : a skilful hand.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. or more ho nature.
I have ventured to give these instances of the beauty and be strength of Images taken from low and common objects. An expression is not the worse for being obvious and familiar. That lets it hop a little from her hand. and the easy and fami liar are tortured into insipid fustian.ver out the highest regret . it And So with a silk thread pulls its loving jealous of liberty.gt. that true genius will steer with such bold rashness on par and A never receive any damage. improperly thrown together. holds equally in regard to Images. th unsteady flame . as loath to quit hold. cause what the Critic says of Terms. grand Words and Images. Addison has made use of an Image of in his Cato. yet This remark. And falls again.170 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. By their management. securely in either course. ticular occasions. back again. in that part of it illustrated which regards the Terms. And yet no further than a wanton 1 s bird. cannot part with his mistress with as the lady could not with her lover in the former instance from Shakespeare. spoken by Apemantus to Timon. most ornamental could are easily understood. lines of he will almost touch upon rocks. They would have thee gone . be- significant than the o possibly be. a lower nature where the k&. Mr. Like a poor prisoner in his twisted gyves. All Images and Words are dangerous want genius and spirit. He has touched it with equal delicacy and grace : Thus o er Hangs the dying lamp. for a judicious application gives it new dignity and strong to such as significance. may be by the following Shakespeare. quiv ring to a point leaps off by its fits. sink into burlesque and sounding nonsense. when .
might have retained ridiculous. the spite Whose naked natures live in all wreakful heav n. bears treatment and reproaches. in inferior hands. soonest engages our Therefore. cawdle thy morning s surfeit ? taste To cure thy Of o er-night Call the creatures. Will put thy shirt on warm ? will these moist trees. to say that he swallows af fronts. And skip when Candied with thou point st out ? will the cold brook. not only with patience. is as happy and expressive a phrase as could possibly be invented. their original baseness. The following passage from Herodotus in my opinion comes Cleomenes (says he) being very near it. 6. the conflicting elements expos d. Yet the same expressions and allusions. whose bare unhoused trunks. to us. 75. ice. and been quite * Herod. M 2 . to promote ill his ambitious designs.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. thy boist rotis chamberlain. but a seeming pleasure.* he had abjured mainder of all human society. and what most familiar belief. cause borrowed from is 171 common life . : and vowed to pass the re his days in a desert ! What think st thou That the bleak air. flatter To Answer mere nature . ". that it is noble and affecting. c. bid them thee . and supported by sueh an air of solemnity. 1. page thy heels. That have out-liv d the eagle. when a person. Oh! thou shalt find is The whole carried on with so much spirit.
shall find. that the is. and unavoidably carry along with them * a whole crowd of metaphors.* Pythes. e. in his Epistle. ?er. as to hurry on like a tor rent. he ex pired/ And again. but are far from hav ing vulgar significations. remaining still in the ship. 1 1.But in this also. 7. with strikes such bitterness and severity . in this instance. proper time when the passions are so up. These expressions ap hacked in pieces/ proach near to vulgar. As cilius number of Metaphors. Cehas gone into their opinion. seized with madness. fought courageously. 18 U Demosthenes. 12. much worked * Herod. cut till. his flesh into small pieces. in express ing the same object. Judc some profligate wretches . let De mosthenes be observed as our model and guide. who have to a proper settled it at two or three at most. 13 :. Those ". with such a continuation of vehement and cutting Metaphors as St. and by him we to apply them.172 LONG1NUS ON THE SUBLIME. them not dumb. . SECTION XXXII. till he was ". with a little knife that he had. bursts not out upon the traitorous creatures of Philip. having entirely mangled his body.
the when they feast with you. by means of this multitude of Tropes. withereth. by how much more honourable and praiseworthy it is. these they have quite subverted/ Here. 173 prostituted souls. against the practices. liveliness of allusion.LONG1NUS ON THE SUBLIME. feeding themselves without fear : clouds they are without water. . insatiable lusts. and that maxim. in force of expression. which to our brave forefathers were the high ambition of life. whom reserved the blackness of darkness for By how much Jewd the bold defence of Christianity. and the standard of felicity. commended by Longinus. who have com bined to wound and mangle their country. measur ing their happiness by their belly and their lust. is waves of the stars. without sea. It is.". however. by that of Demosthenes. who have drunk up its liberty in healths. against the intrigues of a foreign tyrant or. and since to Alexander. those cringing traitors. wicked abandoned men. more petty state. carried about of winds : trees. the orator bursts out upon the traitors in the warmest indignation. ever. to plucked up by the roots: raging foaming out their ^rwn shame: wandering fruit. These are spots in your feasts of charity. whose fruit ". than the reputation of one so much does this passage of the apostle exceed republic . to contend for the glory of God and religion. and height of Sublimity. As for those generous principles of honour. never to endure a master. is and impious blasphemies of glorious than the defence of a . those furies of the commonwealth. to Philip once.
2 as when arrows are said to flesh. Paul. ". (Rom. are very seasonable in a noble com position. so expressed and as it and if I may speak with so much boldness. and those too in good . much palliates the hardness of Such a rule hath a general use. iii. that bold Metaphors ought to be introduced with some small alleviations .) whose God is their belly. iji. . . ". very the figures. his glory.".drunk with and a sword to devour (Deut.) It illustrates the more eloquence of St. be ". plenty.) When he speaks against the heathens. (Phil. re When he exhorts them to put on joicing. and there fore I admit it yet still I maintain. 9-) Christ. whose end is destruction. who uses stronger. and proves the propriety of the strong Metaphors in Scripture. who had changed the truth of God into a (Rom. by the vehement Pathetic and generous Sublime dispersed through the This remark shews the penetration of the judgment of Longinus.". precept of Aristotle and Theophrastus. 42. lie. and whose glory is their shame.174 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME.". 13 18. (Phil. iii. 19. 25. other writer . his hope. For this excuse. his crown. Rom. xxxii. blood.". where they are always mitigated and softened. His joy. that bold 2 Metaphors.". his crown of ". if it may be were. as when.". and more accumulated Metaphors. i. such as. 14. than any expressive. ". say they. xiii. what I advanced before in regard to Figures. he styles his converts. When against wicked men.) See a chain of strong ones. for instance.
45. and do not so much as give lei sure to a hearer. it covered with the shadow of like the Thou room for it. in so unparalleled.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME.de scribed the same thing. c. be cause they immediately strike his imagina tion. is no way inferior to this of Plato. and inflame him with all the warmth and fire of the speaker. But further. -f- Plato in Timseo passim.. unto the sea. and the boughs thereof were She stretched out her branches river. speaks thus of the people of Israel under the Metaphor of a vine ". 1. Alljgory or chain of Metaphors that occurs in Psalm The royal author Ixxx.gt. 8. 3 so Divine a manner. and before them. tic For as all it is the nature of the Pathe and Sublime. and filled it. Egypt niadest : thou hast east out the heathen and planted when it had taken root. the anatomy of the human body. as a chain of continued Tropes. 3 The : Thou hast brought a vine out of it. to run rapidly along. to be strong carry and forcible. whole. .". &. to cavil at their number. in so By pom pous and magnificent terms. Oxon. * these has Xenophon described. ed. they are worked up in. the land. Pearce. and her boughs unto the Dr. 1. The head of man he ". By these has Plato -f. in Illustrations and Descrip tions. so they require the figures. there is nothing so expressive and sig nificant. The hills were goodly cedar-trees.
the Christian armour. and what fre French call riante. The ver on which turns.". in his Epistle to the Ephesians. but in Scripture they are always sup ported by a ground-work of masculine and nervous strength. vi. has been highly applauded by several writers. being the in a continuation of knot Meta Paul has nobly described. 25. : when my me when I washed my steps with butter. and the rock poured me out rivers of oil When and when the eye saw the ear heard me. The neck is an isthmus placed breast. it between the head and the tebrae. xxxix. former of St. and feet as a robe and a diadem. to sing for joy. or joints. was a father There is another beautiful use of this Figure in the latter part of the 65th Psalm. and the tongue is the in tastes. It has indeed been quently observed.176 calls LONGlNUS ON THE SUBLIME. the The description is lively. The blessing of him that was me. was I to the lame. The 39 No. judgment was blind. are so many Pleasure is the bait. I I was eyes to the to the poor. then it blessed me it witness to me. sublime description of the horse in Job. phors. The reader may see some just observations on it. ready to perish came upon me. . as in the days when God preserved me ! when Almighty was yet with me. 86. allures men to evil. without which they are apt to swell into ridiculous Bombast. in the Guardian. and I caused the widow s heart I put on righteousness. chap. &c. a citadel. which hinges. The heart. or laughing. IS. : Oh that I were as in months the past. that the Eastern writings in strong abound very much Metaphors . gave children were about ! . chap. and it clothed me. But the SQth chapter of the same book will afford as fine instances of the beauty and energy of this figure as can any where be met with ".
their rampart and defence against the extremities of heat out like and cold. the lungs should easily yield. should gradually break its violent strokes. the gods. . it is swelled and bloated. either when dis turbed with fear of some impending evil. that whenever choler inflames the heart. from whence. fortified. The blood he calls the pasture of the flesh and adds. entrails. when filled with excre ments. have provided against any ill effect that might hence arise. fur nished with inward vacuities.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. or when inflamed with wrath. And pores he calls nar because the heart is sub The ject to violent palpitations. 1?7 of the veins. they . seat of the concupiscible pas sions. a soft and bloodless substance. by giving a place in the body to the lungs. that for the sake ot nourishing the remotest parts. says Ae. soft through a cushion. and the fountain from whence the blood arises. Afterwards (proceeds he) the gods covered all those parts with flesh. he has named the apartment of the wo The men the seat of the irascible. like a sponge. is a watch-tower completely row streets. and briskly circulates through O all the members. the apartment of the men. The spleen is the sponge of the . and gently giving way to outward impressions. and preserve it from harm.
is obvious though I should not mention it. That the use of Tropes. Many other turns of the same nature in the sequel might be adjoined. 773. at the approach of death. he says. rivulets. as the it common source. and convey And the sluices of the body.178 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. that a (says he) ". 6. opened the body into a number of like a garden well stocked with plenty of canals. * Plato. but these already abun dantly shew. de Legibus. he suffers him be hurried into raw undigested Meta For phors. and a vain pomp of Allegory. as well as of all other things which are ornamental in dis course. and left at the liberty of driving at pleasure. like a ship from her cables. Hence comes to pass. the soul. . as he was mad self to to utter his words. * is it not easy to conceive. p. because oftentimes. 1.". may it enough. that many severely if censure Plato. that the veins might by this means re ceive their supply of the vital moisture from the heart. that Meta phors contribute very much to Sublimity. be carried to excess. Par. is through all loosed. ed. that the Tropes are naturally endued with an air of grandeur. and are of very important service in descrip tive and pathetic compositions.
is a shrewd argument. it joins in firm alliance. to declare him much pre Cecilius ferable to Plato sions . him prope perfection. had certainly these trifling flou rishes in view. biassed to equally indiscreet. but when chastised by another more sober divinity. when he had the rashness. and witty writer. in his 4 Essay on Lysias. correct. as to presume on the concession of certain points which never will be granted. and composes a pleasant and pala For (say they) to call water a sober divinity. For Plato be ing oftentimes faulty. Cicero Quinctilian says river. he was more like a clear fountain than a great calls . He was a neat. ried on by so much heat and prejudice. that the author was table liquor/ not very sober himself. he thence takes occa sion to cry up Lysias for a faultless and con4 Lysias was one of the ten celebrated orators of Athens. when the foaming deity of wine is poured in. and the mixture chastisement. it sparkles and fumes . but not sublime.LONGINUS OX THE SUBLIME. he was hur possibly love Lysias. elegant. loved Lysias as well as his hated Plato with more violence than he could by two pas For though he own self. almost perfect. yet he it Besides. city 1?9 ought to resemble a goblet replenished with a well-tempered mixture ? where.
will it not be worth while to consider at large that important question. ? to I readily allow. and let BUT then. whether the excel lence of fine writing consists in the number of its beauties. be not preferable to that which has nothing extraordinary in its best parts. and faultless? And further.180 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. writer. since whatever is neat and accurate throughout. as in great affluence of fortune. which is so far as truth. in poetry or prose. what is truly grand in the midst of some faults. demand an illustration. that writers of a lofty and towering genius are by no means pure and correct. some minuter articles will una voidably escape observation. correct however throughout. that it has not so much from being the shadow SECTION XXXIII. summate of it. But it is al most impossible for a low and grovelling . being peculiar the Sublime. or in the grandeur of its strokes For these points. In the Sublime. Whether. must be exceedingly liable to flatness. us for once admit the possibility of a faultless and consummate writer .
.] Ep. so much as accidental slips incurred through in advertence. or aim ing at eminence. and cannot by any means be blind or partial to them however. quas aut incuria Aut humana parum cavit natura.? &c. part. Sol. its very height to and grandeur exposes the Sublime sudden Nor am thing. Quod 1 ". such as. So Horace. whereas that of his For my quickly worn out. Offender maculis. So Horace. i. In passing our judgment. but still goes on in the same uniform secure track. we always muster his imperfections. . that 1 in passing our judgment upon the works of an author. Ars Poet. whilst falls.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. I have taken notice of no inconsiderable number of faults in Homer. 262. so that the remembrance of his faults sticks indelibly fast in the mind.". Ep. I. 181 genius to be guilty of error. Ubi plura nitent in carmine. &c. 2 1 judge them not to be voluntary faults. Discitenim citius meminitque libentius illud.] quis deridet. ". and some other excellences is of the greatest authors. I judge them. when the mind is intent 1 ii. which I ignorant indeed of another will no doubt be urged. since he never endangers himself by soaring on high. non ego paucis fudit. quam quod probat et veneratur.
library : Of this 1. by the sole merit of their 4 own intrinsic grandeur. excepting some pieces where he has quitted his own province. Which. because he resided at Rhodes. 1. which was x. in the spirit of Longinus : Great wits sometimes may gloriously offend.] So Mr. poet Quinctilian has thus given his judgment. will creep i And for this sensibly into compositions. Instit. 8cc. . Orat. which are still extant.". Pope. ". though they cannot every where boast an equality of perfection. without passing through the judgment. author of the Argonautics. Though they cannot every where boast.". Dr. He published a performance. things of a higher nature. was a writer without a blemish and no one ever : than Theocritus. c.182 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. but had a certain even mediocrity through out. . and all its end at once attains. would you choose succeeded better in Pastoral 3 ". He was the scholar of Calli4 machus. Pearce. And snatch a grace beyond the rules of art . but called a Rhodian. Essay on Criticism. Apollonius was born at Alexandria. Apollonius. that the 3 great and noble flights. upon reason I give it as my real opinion. yet ought to carry off the prize. But yet. gains The heart. and succeeded Eratosthenes as keeper of Ptolemy s he wrote the Argonautics. not despicable. And rise to faults true critics dare not mend From vulgar bounds with brave disorder part.
He is called by Aristo phanes. lo the Chian. mics. Dr. or the travels of a deity.. a town in the Isle of Ceos. a godlike spirit bearing the noblest career. such spirit as will not bend to rule. delicately. famous for lyric verse born at lulls. whose Erigone is a complete and delicate perform ance. who ties flies off into many and brave irregulari him forwards in . Pearce. smoothly. who. besides Odes. Bacchylides than Pin phocles ? Io the Chian. Pearce. Bacchylides. and not chargeable with one fault.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. he wrote the Erigone. that he said to have drawn from the thence rules for the conduct of And Hiero s. The is life. to Apollonius. . wrote the ApodeEmperor Julian was so He pleased with his verses. Syra- cusan thought them preferable even to Pindar by a judg ment 7 quite contrary to what is given here by Longinus. because he died whilst he was Ode lhat began with those words. in He 6 was predecessor Ptolemy s library at Alexandria. a dithyrambic poet. or In Lyrics. Pearce. wiling an The Eastern Star. Dr. is said to have composed forty fables. to be esteemed a superior poet to Archilochus. 183 to be Apollonius or Theocritus rather than Homer ? Is the 5 poet Eratosthenes. Dr. Among other pieces of poetry. scholar of Callitnachus the poet. than the great So Bacchylides and lo have written . or easily 7 brook control? 6 would you sooner be dar. . a Greek poet. and correctly they have 3 Eratosthenes the Cyrenean.
He has more harmony and a finer cadence. then Hyperides will prove far superior to Demosthenes. and not by their or grandeur. IF the beauties of writers are to be esti mated by quality their number. certain. nothing without the nicest decoration . . I am unfortunately down. which (as Dr. who. he has a greater number of beauties. SECTION XXXIV. but in Pindar and Sophocles. before all that lo ever composed. the most celebrated tragedy of Sophocles. that very fire is many times unsea sonably quenched. He resem bles a champion. professing himself master of the five exercises. who has the least discernment. 8 The CEdipus Tyrannus. in each of them severally must yield the superiority to others. Pearce observes) poets of almost all nations have endeavoured to imitate. who carry fire along with them through the violence of their motion. and those in a degree almost next to excellent. though in my opinion very little to their credit.184 left LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. and then they drop most But yet no one. will 8 scruple to prefer the single QEdipus of So phocles.
] For the clearer understanding of this . is who was in love with an old woman. and proper for the poets. last sort enter into the by the rhetoricians composition of the polished style. Dacier. He raises a laugh with the greatest art. imitated all the virtues of Demosthenes. excelled in the polished style. and forthisreason Cicero calls him venuslissimum oratorem. who. N . He enamoured (cried he) with a lady. We have one in stance of the giaces of this pretty orator: Speaking one day against zEschines.gt. that there are two sorts of the graces one majestic and grave. his style is exquisitely smooth does he utter every thing with one emphadantly added the graces . and of this kind were y\a.".vpov the graces of Lysias. When his subject demands simpli nor city. passage. 1 tical air of vehemence. tempered with most delicious sweetness and the softest harmony of words. \ve must observe.LONGINUS OX THE SUBLIME.". may be counted easier than her trius Upon this account Deme has ranked the graces of Lysias in the same class with those of Sophron. a farce writer. but in valled. like Demosthenes. His thoughts are always just and proper.q&. His turns of wit are inexpressibly fine. The graces of Lysias. Those of the the other simple. and is prodigiously 1 ". called \oyov . all 185 together stands alone and unri For Hyperides has in every point. ex cept the structure of his words. and like railleries in comedy. in the judgment of Dionysius of Halicarnassus. and has abun and beauties of Lysias. whose teeth fingers. ".
LONG IN US ON THE SUBLIME.
His strokes of
dexterous at irony or sneer.
raillery are far
by no means
far-fetched, like those of the depraved imi tators of Attic neatness, but apposite and pro
evading an argument With what humour does he ridicule, and
with what dexterity does he sting in the midst of a smile! In a word, there are inimitable
Never did any one
and resuming his subject with such easy address, and such
pliant activity, This plainly appears in his little poetical fables of Latona ; and besides,
he has composed a funeral oration with such pomp and ornament, as I believe never will, or can, be equalled.
Demosthenes, on the other
unsuccessful in representing the humours and characters of men ; he was a stranger to dif
in his address
pomp and show
and, in a word, for the most part, deficient in all the qualities ascribed to Hyperides.
compels him to be merry or facetious, he makes people laugh, but it is at himself. And the more he endeavours at
LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME.
he ever attempted an oration
mention has been made already, and
Section compares with Demosthenes
orators of Athens.
was one of the ten famous
scholar, and thought by some to have shared with Lycurgus in the public administration. His orations for Phryne and Athe-
nogenes were very much esteemed, though his defence of the former owed its success to a very remarkable incident, men
(Life of the ten orators, in Hyperides.) was the most famous courtezan of that age her Phryne form so beautiful, that it was taken as a model for all the
tioned by Plutarch.
Venus carved at that time throughout Greece yet an intrigue between her and Hyperides grew so scandalous, that an accusation was preferred against her in the court of
Hyperides defended her with all the art and rhetoric which experience and love could teach him, and his oration for her was as But as pretty and beautiful as his subject.
to the ears
makes not so deep an impression
eloquence uncovered the
to the eyes,
unavailing, and lady s bosom.
effectually to soften the judges,
snowy whiteness was an argument
favour not to be resisted, and therefore she was immediately
a compliment to Hyperides, but does
a secret honour to Demosthenes.
Hyperides was a graceful, one that could say pretty things, divert his genteel speaker, audience, and when a lady was the topic, quite outshine De
whose eloquence was too grand to appear for any ; but honour and liberty. Then he could warm, trans thing
port, and triumph
could revive in his degenerate countrymen ; a love of their country and a zeal for freedom ; could make
LONGIXUS ON THE SUBLIME.
or an Athenogenes, he would in such attempts have only served as a foil to Hyperides. Yet after all, in my opinion, the numer
ous beauties of Hyperides are far from hav ing any inherent greatness. They shew the
sedateness and sobriety of the author s ge nius, but have not force enough to enliven O
one that reads
ever sensible of extraordinary
Whereas Demosthenes, adding to a con tinued vein of grandeur and to magnificence
of diction (the greatest qualifications requi site in an orator), such lively strokes of pas sion, such copiousness of words, such ad
and such rapidity of speech ; and, what is his masterpiece, such force and ve
hemence, as the greatest writers besides durst
never aspire to ; being, I say, abundantly furnished with all these Divine (it would be
them human) abilities, he excels which are all before him in the beauties really his own and to atone for deficiencies
sin to call
in those he has not, overthrows all
blaze of his lightning.
them cry out in rage and u* march against Philip.**
Let us arm,
us away, let
LONGINUS GN THE SUBLIME.
to behold, with steadfast
flashing lightning, strokes of the Pathetic, which
one upon another
in his orations.
between Plato and
nent must be drawn in a different
Lysias not only falls short of him in the excel lence, but in the number also of his beauties.
more, he not only
ceeds him vastly in the number of his faults. What then can we suppose that those god
raising their compositions to the
highest pitch of the Sublime, and looked down with contempt upon accuracy and cor
others, let this reason
be accepted. Nature never designed man to be a grovelling and ungenerous animal, but brought him into life, and placed him in the
world, as in a crowded theatre, not to be an idle spectator, but spurred on by an eager thirst of excelling, ardently to contend in
the pursuit of glory,
in its every scene. . rivulet that ministers to but the Nile. and blazes out on our own private hearth. 571. the Ister. 1. not a clear transparent necessities. Interdumque atram piorumpit ad aethera nubem. his soul implanted in an invincible love of grandeur. which will illustrate this passage We Longinus : Horrificis juxta tonat -^Etna minis. . or still much are never surprised more. the Rhine. 1 celestial fires. Hence it is.190 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. though often 1 obscured by vapours and Nor do we reckon any thing in in have a noble description of the volcano of JEtna Virgil. iii. and he will what noble ends we were inclines little born. Thus the impulse of nature our us to admire. is conspicuous on account of excel lence. but view with amaze the they are eclipses. and a constant emulation of what ever seems to approach nearer to divinity than himself.ZEn. the Ocean. v. an exact survey of a life. which. soon discern for and beauty. It passes the bounds of the material world. grandeur. We at the sight of a small fire that burns clear. that the whole universe is not sufficient for the extensive reach and piercing speculation of the human understanding. and launches forth at plea Let any one take sure into endless space.
iii. fundoque exaestuat imo. Dr. and always Turbine fumantcm piceo Attollitque globos et candente faviM. Pearce . Sect. that whatever useful sary to man. of ashes hov ring in the smoke . and it is observable. . coast where . smother d lire. . calls super-tragical. Addison. molten stones. and pour out whole rivers of liquid and unmingled flame. or tears up mountains by the roots. size. o And from hence we is may infer./Etna its The That now Vast show lies. This the remark of Longinus. liquefactaque saxa sub auras Cum gemitu glomerat. and smoke. et siclera lambit Inteidum scopulos. and ruddy flames Now belches Incens d. stench. which cast up stones. avolsaque viscera mentis Erigit eructans. has the it. from their labour furnaces ing abyss. entrails fraught with fire casts out dark rs fumes and pitchy clouds. is always great. in the fourth line. lies level to his . involv d In pestilential vapours. Or slings a broken rock The bottom works with aloft in air.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. Horrid and waste. s short description has the same spirit The which sidera lambit. : rlammarum. and neces abilities. Addison has taken no lation. and is easily acquired but whatever exceeds the common amazing. and grandeur Longinus with Virgil swell in is s. and sometimes whole rocks. in nature more wonderful than the boiling of ^Etna. that notice of those words in his trans Mr.
we must add another consideration. Never fails of its use and advantage. though it casts up pernicious fire from its but here. the case is the same with the burning quently obscured mountain . however exalted. Demosthenes. as well as to the public. less. WITH writers. comes off barely without censure. were the errors of Homer. Plato.192 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. SECTION XXXVI. What can I add further? One exalted and the Sublime sublime sentiment in those noble authors makes ample amends for all their defects.] preceding Section. 1 ". to be culled carefully out and thrown together. to those sublime flight. therefore. that men ". makes near approaches to the What is correct and fault height. be it is . though they are . when he returns to the sublime authors. And. that the sublime is the more to be admired. Longinus. of God./Etna. in the view with amaze the fre (such as the sun and moon). far service to from being useless or amusing merely. regard. and the rest of the most celebrated authors. had celestial fires said. but the grand and the lofty command admiration. 1 never fails of its use and advantage. Those other inferior beauties shew their authors to be men but whose . cause. its of great authors.".". he abyss : iut inates. what is most remarkable. Di Pearce. .
3 a small statue by Polycletus. a all his cele proportions were so finely observed in art Lysippus professed he had learned and imitation of it. at Rhodes by Jalysus. Pearce. that 2 an ill- Colossus cannot be set upon the level with a little faultless statue. still which flourish green and unfading on their brows. The it.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. In the works of art we have regard to exact propor tion. they would not bear the least proportion to those infinite. A certain writer objects here. and As long as streams in silver mazes rove. 3 the little soldier of Polycletus: is but the answer to this very obvious. will flourish. for in wrought stance. awarded the laurels to these great masters. which are so conspicuous antiquity. of of the greatest and ships burden between its legs. erected a size so vast. in those of nature. study that from the . Now speech is a gift bestowed 2 The Colossus was a most famous statue of Apollo. brated statuary. to grandeur and magnificence. has every age and every generation. those inimitable excellences. in these heroes of And for this reason. The Doryphoi us. Fenton. Dr. that the sea ran. Or Spring with annual green renews the grove. and unbiassed by envy. unmoved by par tiality. sailed.
make SECTION XXXVII. should join hands. As. To return. therefore. But to close this long digression. I pretend not to say they are abso lutely right . something . blance and proportion to the originals is re quired in statues. and mutually assist one another. which had been more regularly placed at the beginning of the Treatise since it must be owned. let those who are willing. These are the decisions I have thought proper to make concerning the questions in debate. and almost an impossibility in the Sublime. that it is the business of art to avoid defect and blemish. For. there should be something extraor more than humanly great. use of their own judgment. in the noble faculty of discourse. always to preserve the same majes tic air. art and nature dinary. perfection must certainly result. * Similes and Comparisons bear so near an affinity to Metaphors.194 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. as to 1 The manner \\c Metaphors. which Similes or Comparisons differ from cannot know from Longirius. resem upon us by nature. so. from such union and alliance. because of the in . the same exalted tone.
washed with milk. These two Comparisons are taken from the description of the Beloved in the Song of Solomon (ver. set with the beryl : His hands are as gold-rings his belly is as bright as ivory overlaid with sapphire. the chief among ten thou as the sand. or as a bed of spices.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. My Beloved is is sweet and ruddy. excellent as the yea. His cheeks are as a bed of spices. . and an uncommon sweetness : ". or that cheeks are a bed of spices. as sweet flowers . is ex If you carry not your brains gap which follows expression. of great strength and propriety. differ * is from them only in one particular * * * * # [The remainder of this Section * * * lost] * SECTION XXXVIII. in the original . in which there are more. and fitly set. he is altogether fovely. his lips like lilies. His legs are as pillars of marble set is His countenance His mouth is as upon sockets of Lebanon. which become Comparisons. expressed thus are as the eyes of a dove.] this Section on Hyperboles * As this ceeding bad: &. are strong Metaphors if .lt. fine gold. his locks are bushy.). dropping sweet-smelling myrrh.f Hyperbole. His head most fine gold . His eyes are as the eyes of a dove by the rivers of water. 10 16. and black as a raven. * * * * [The beginning of is lost. ? most sweet. for instance. cedars. but they differ only in the To say that fine eyes are the eyes of a dove.
* always be attended to. an editor of Longinus. is yet Gabriel de of the same fault. de Haloneso. sometimes pro duces an effect contrary to that for which it was intended. . and immediately relaxes. and tread upon One consideration.". in the soles of your feet. can properly be carried.] the most celebrated oration of say. The end and . to dress up trifling subjects in pomp and finem. has censured Timaeus. ad This is Panegyric. in guilty Isocrates. Longinus. to clothe what is old and * Demosthenis seu potius Hegesippi Orat. as some spent upon Sect. nay. them. or. show.196 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. iii. for a frigid parallel between the expedition of Alexander and Isocrates. begins in so indiscreet a manner. design of his Panegyric Ms to prove that the Athenians had done greater service to the united body of Greece than the Lacedemonians ". therefore. has fallen into a shameful puerility. after ten. 1 ". as to be able to render great things contemptible. be making even an elephant more expeditious than cause thev breed faster than he wrote. Petra. Thus Isocrates. the thought mark often spoils is For overshooting an Hyperbole. and this is his begin ning: is The virtue and efficacy of eloquence so great. the How far ". it. fifteen years labour IsocrateSj which. childishly ambitious of saying nothing without enlarge ment. must ".". and its whatever overstretched loses tone.
which in coolness and sedateness would be insupport able. Shakespeare Cymbeline. So. and peep about To find ourselves dishonourable graves. To whom An arm as Thy ? to thee ? what ? art thou ? have not I ? big as thine o I grant are a heart as big o : words bigger for I wear not s My dagger in my mouth. he doth bestride the narrow world Like a Colossus. when uttered in warmth and vehe mence. And Is this what you are going monians? eloquence to practise with regard to the affairs of the Athenians and Lacede For is this ill-timed encomium of an inadvertent admonition to the audience. and makes that commendable. and put off new oc will currences in an air of antiquity/ it not be immediately demanded. Hyperboles literally are impossibilities. in order to : raise the indignation of Brutus Why. and we petty men Walk under his huge legs. Those Hyperboles in short are the best 8 The whole of this remark is curious and refined. So Cassius speaks invidiously of Caesar. in return to the swelling arrogance of a bully. man. again. . that fail may appear without important and great. and therefore can only then be seasonable or productive of Sublimity. not to listen or give credit to what he 8 says. obsolete in a 197 new dress. when the circumstances they may be stretched beyond their proper size. It is the importance of a passion which qualifies the Hyperbole.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME.
f Herod. and with their hands and teeth. 446.". Is Thucydid. deterred them not from drinking it greedily. have before observed of Figures) which have neither the appearance nor air of Hy And this never fails to be the perboles.198 (as I LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. con cerning those warriors who fell at Thermoo In this place they defended them pylae :-f selves with the weapons that were left. ed. nor many of them from fighting ". Oxon. A and fighting desperately bability. like Hyperbole. 1. 7.p. it. 225. gives those expressions of drinking mud and gore. state of those. c. circum desperately for a draught of stance so uncommon and affecting.". and made a slaughter The chiefly of those who were in the river. and gore. 1. . water was immediately discoloured with But the stream polluted with mud blood. an air of pro Herodotus has used a ". which in the heat of a passion flow out in the midst of stance. some grand circum Thus Thucydides has dexterously applied one to his countrymen that perished in Sicily :* The Syracusans (says he) came down upon them. for it. * 7. till they were buried under the arrows of barbarians.
against the fury and violence of armed assailants? Is it pos sible that men could be buried under arrows? Notwithstanding probability in it. As in o He was owner of a piece of this passage: ". all a seeming For the circumstance does this. and raise a laugh. which has nothing to do with mirth. or impetuosity of passion demands them (a point I shall never cease to insist upon). Here must be so over-stretched Now what is promote diversion and laughter.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. only where the heat of action. surdities But there . cessary production of the circumstance. sometimes becomes as to the keenest joke. they sink below and give the spleen. there is not appear to have been fitted to the Hyper bole but the Hyperbole seems to be the ne . very much softens and mitigates 3 So the boldness of too daring expressions. for men to defend themselves with their teeth. most absurd and incredible. the peculiar province of humour and the incidents Comedy. instead of raising the laugh. you will say. otherwise. Genius and discretion are requisite to play the fool with applause. in comedy. it 199 possible. 4 Demetrius Phalereus has commended one of these letters . For applying these strong Figures. ground not so large 3 as 4 a Lacedemonian let- The Author has hitherto treated of Hyperboles as con ducive to Sublimity. because they answer their end. circumstances wholly absurd and incredible pass off very well. is judgment even in writing ab and incredibilities it.
Shakespeare has made Richard III. sent before my time. The Lacedemonians tl Dionysius is at Corinth. or renders trifles more 5 trifling. breathing world . that am curtail proportion. . other species of the Hyperbole) increases the lowness of any thing. speak a merry Diasyrm upon himself: I.2(X) ter. for its sententious and expressive conciseness. who for his tyranny had been driven out of for bread.". to the 5 to imitate his conduct. At the time when that this was written. For laughter is a passion arising from some inward pleasure. To strut before a wanton ambling nymph d of this fair I.". that am rudely stamp d. That dogs bark at me as I halt bv them. The direction is longer than the letter to Philip. very well worth : observation. So it was a hint to Philip not to proceed. which has been It is often quoted to illustrate this passage. they enlarge and they lessen. But Hyperboles equally serve to two pur poses. taught school at Corinth as. Sicily. lamely and unfashionably. Stretch ing any thing beyond its natural size is the And the Diasynn (the property of both. he had begun. Deform Into this d. and want love s majesty. LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. that. Cheated of feature by dissembling nature. Dionysius. scarce half made up. unfinish d. so And . lest he should be reduced same necessitous condition.
our inquiries to
brought down and last source of
The Author, in the fifth division, treats of Composition, or such a structure of the words and periods, as conduces most to
harmony of sound.
This subject has been handled with the
utmost nicety and refinement by the ancient writers, particu larly Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Demetrius Phalereus.
former, in his Treatise on the Structure of Words, has re counted the different sorts of style, has divided each into the
periods of which
composed, has again subdivided those
periods into their different
words, those words into
members, those members into their syllables, and has even anatomized the
very syllables into letters, and
observations on the dif
and sounds of the vowels, half-vowels, and shews, by instances drawn from Homer, Herodo
authors have sweetened and ennobled their Compositions, and
echo to the sense.
a style, he says,
may be sweet without any grandeur, and may be grand without Thucydides is an example of the latter, and any sweetness.
of the former; but Herodotus has succeeded in
both, and written his history in the highest perfection of style.
LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME.
Sublimity, which, according to the divisions premised at first, is the Composition or Struc
ture of the words.
up, in two former treatises, whatever obser-
English reader would be surprised to see with what exactness they lay down rules for the feet, times, and measures
of prose as well as of verse. This was not peculiar to the Greek writers, since Cicero himself, in his rhetorical works, abounds in rules of this nature for the Latin tongue. The works of that great orator could not have lived, and received
such general applause, had they not been laboured with the utmost art ; and, what is really surprising, how careful soever
his attention was, to the length of his syllables, the
and the modulation of
the spirit, or stiffened the freedom of his thoughts.
of his performances, on a general survey, appears grand and
on a closer inspection, every part shews peculiar sym metry and grace. Lonsfmus contents himself here with two or three o general o
observations, having written
loss of these, I fancy, will raise
two volumes already on no great
mind of an English
notion of such
The free language we speak will such refined regulations, for fear of incumbrance not endure and restraint. Harmony indeed it is capable of to a high de as flows not from precept, but the genius and gree, yet such
accuracies in composition.
judgment of composers.
worth a thousand rules
the periods will be rounded and sweetened, and
the style exalted, so that judges shall
endeavours to gain attention
be vain and
where the grandeur of
the sense will atone for rough and unharmonious expression.
LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME.
had made on
present occasion lays me under a necessity of making some additions here.
Harmonious Composition has not only a natural tendency to please and to persuade,
but inspires us, to a wonderful degree, with 2 Fine notes generous ardour and passion.
in music have a surprising effect on the pas sions of an audience. they not fill the
breast with inspired warmth, and heart into heavenly transport?
limbs receive motion from the notes, and the hearer, though he has no skill at all in music,
a strong impression on his body and mind. The sounds of any musical instrument are in
themselves insignificant, yet, by the changes of the air, the agreement of the chords, and symphony of the parts, they give extraordi
nary pleasure, as we daily experience, to the
minds of an audience. Yet these are only spurious images and faint imitations of the
passage two musical instruments are mentioned, av\og and Kidaprj ; but as what is said of them in the Greek will
not suit with the modern notions of a pipe and a harp, I hope
I shall not be blamed for dropping those words, and keeping
these remarks in a general application to music.
LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME.
persuasive voice of man, and far from the ge nuine effects and operations of human nature.
opinion therefore may we justly form of fine Composition, the effect of 3 that
harmony, which nature has implanted
made up of words, which
by no means
but sink with
and reach the understanding.
not inspire us with fine ideas of senti ments and things, of beauty and of order,
same date and existence with our souls? Does it not, bv an elegant strucO ture and marshalling of sounds, convey the
qualities of the
passions of the speaker into the breasts of his
audience? Then, does
not seize their at
by framing an
to suit the sublimity of thoughts, delight, transport, and raise those ideas of dignity
grandeur, which it shares signed, by the ascendant
and was de
mind, to excite in others? But it is folly to endeavour to prove what all the world will
est in ipsa facilitate dicendi, ut nihil
aut auribus aut inentibus jucundius pereipi possit. Qujs enim cantus moderata orationis pronunciatione dulcior inveniri
verborum conclusione aptius
Cicero de Oratore,
the danger which at that time hung hovering over the city. ". p. universally allowed to be the most noble of and most conducing to But for further satisfaction.o$. 205 For experience is an indis putable conviction. stately word moves along in a measure of four times. just as you please TOUTO all.". . And Sublimity. which Demosthenes im mediately subjoins to the decree. arotoexQstv sxQeiv utTTTSo vetyoi. TO fyqQta fjiM. only trans pose a word or two.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. will wotg- uz and you the first how much Harmony In uo-Tref vstpos. quickly discern conspires with Sublimity. hence are they admitted into heroic verse. OXOB. allow to be true. away a syllable. throughout of Dactylics. ed. the finest measure. So. other side. Yet the sentiment itself is not more to be admired It consists than the harmony of the period. tTroiyve.. on * Oral. and justly deserves admiration. as ug vtqoq.* TOUTO pa. sTToiyrsv.gt. . the sub the traction maims the Sublimity. like a vapour. de Corona. and when one is syllable taken away. if you lengthen it. That sentiment seems very lofty. TOV TOTS xivouvov STroiyrs or take vetpog. UO-TTSO This very decree scattered. TO rov TOTS TV TroXsi srspia TavTot KIVOUVOV Tzraoveq&. 114.
when enfeebled by the must be laid upon the additional stress that syllable. preserved. BUT. but when united into one body. an apt Con nexion of the parts conduces as much to the 1 aggrandizing discourse. For the re- grandeur of the period languisheth and laxeth. as symmetry in the members of the body to a majestic mien. all. But the joint force and full result of Essay on Criticism. So the constituent parts of noble periods. Pope In : wit. in the act of division fly off and lose their Sublimity . but when fully skil knit together. they join to promote their 1 own So Mr. they produce what is called a fine person. If they are taken apart. what affects our hearts . when rent asunder and di vided. each single member will have no beauty or grandeur.206 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. amongst other methods. the sense indeed is still but the cadence is entirely lost. . Is not th exactness of peculiar parts Tis not a lip or cheek we beauty call. and associated together by the bond of harmony. as nature. SECTION XL.
but". tragedy. ed. . and other writers. their turn answering so exactly to the sense. there s not room for more.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME.* stophanes. entire strangers to it. or rather have very frequently made use of common and vulgar terms. and dexterously conceal by their in trinsic lowness. * Euripid. possessed of no natural Sublimity. by musically disposing connecting such terms. after the manner of Thucydides. whose history he wrote. as also Ari some passages. Quinctilian (whom Dr. after the murder of his children. Many writers have succeeded 2 this me thod. elevation. according to Dacier. Barnes. 1250. cries. Thus Hercules. and Euripides in very many. yet. but especially Philistus. gives the The words 2 Commentators differ about this Philistus. Hercules furens. Pearce follows) mentions Philistus a Syracusan. but according to Tollius. a great fa vourite of Dionysius the tyrant. are very vulgar. Thus several poets. they clothe their periods in a kind of pomp and exaltation. and by their union and multiplicity bestow a more emphatical turn upon every period. but with the sincerity of a courtier. who. ver. in I m full of mis ries . Some affirm it should be Philiscus. that have not the least air of elegance to re commend them and artfully . wrote comedy.
foreknowledge. and reason d high Of providence. you will quickly be convinced. antiq. 1. So in his description of 3 Dirce dragged along fine bv the / bull. free will. period an exalted air. And if you transpose them into any other order. iii. that there is a tine sculpture on this subject. their foundations loos From Rocks. is a much greater Image than this this in the vi. and by the shaggy tops Uplifting bore them in their hands. . with which remark of Longinus on the sedate grandeur and judicious pauses will exactly square: ning to and fro. the very structure of the words expresses the intricacy of the discourse and the repetition of some of . which image Euripides has represented in this passage. and fate . by Taurisius. woods . the words. In thoughts more elevate. Fix d fate. free-will. 644. waters. foreknowledge absolute . that Euripides excels more in composition than in fine sentiments. 3. us a print in atatuarum urbis Roma. Dirce. So again in in Book ii. will. with epithets of slow pronunciation. Langbaine observes. in wand ring mazes lost. * 3 Zethus and Amphion tied their mother-in-law. When the fallen spirits are engaged deep and abstruse researches concerning fate. They pluck d the seated hills. B. 557.208 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. of which Baptista de Cavalleriis has given p. And found no end. foreknowledge. Paradise There Lost. shews the culty of diffi : making advancements Others apart sat in such unfathomable points on a hill retir d. with all their load. ver. by the hair of her head to a wild bull. in the palace of Farnese at Rome.
1 and make is us attentive only a to the A Pyrrhic a foot of . The dame. mechanically accelerated. Whene er the madd ning creature rag d about And whirl d his bulk around in awkward circles. becomes very dis But what is still worse. but is more it ennobled. two short syllables is . and Dichorees. ~ son. the notes divert the mind from the * sense. NOTHING so much debases Sublimity as broken and precipitate measures. The thought o itsdf is noble. the rock. are indeed neat and brisk. mutually supporting one another. SECTION XLI. these pauses are all of a slow and stately measure. Trochee of Trochee. the oak. They are disposed into due pauses. sedately mounting to solid and sub stantial grandeur. being eternally the same. Trochees. and neither run too hastily off the ear. Periods tuned in these numbers. as in agreeable. nor are. that are fit for nothing but dances.LONGINUS OX THE SUBLIME. but devoid of passion and their cadence . because the terms used in are harmonious. one long and one short and a Dichoree a double . as it were. were dragg d along.s. such as 1 Pyrrhics.
but only an attention to the run of the words. and when under too much confinement. And on the other side. as it were. and tell beforehand. music. Periods forced into too nar row compass. In like manner. but. those that are curtailed and minced. traction lays a restraint Too much Con sense. SECTION XLI1. cannot move so freely as it ought. where the pause will be. that demand a proper conciseness . they have gestures answering to every turn. can even beat the time. I do not mean here Periods. but upon the Conciseness strengthens and adjusts it. so these brisk and rhyming periods never raise in the audience any passion suit able to the subject. as ex actly as in a dance. that when pe riods are spun out into a vast extent. and pent up in words of short and few syllables. on the contrary. or that are. it is evident. Grandeur requires room. Hence. are always destitute of grandeur. foreseeing the places where they must necessarily rest. nailed together in an awkward and clumsy manner. another great di CONTRACTION of Style is minution of Sublimity. their life .210 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME.
which is iinds with the word in Herodotus. 7. seeth resembles more the Greek word &oa. and sordid words are terrible ble mishes to fine sentiments.". the fault that Longinus Milton has something of the like sort which offends the ear. Those of Herodo of a tempest. To be and tired out. * Herod. and lost. . 1. that disagreeably.* to seeth/ how does the uncouth sound of the word seeth. lessen the grandeur ? ".LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. when he says.] I have chosen this word rather than boil. l much tarnish and impair ". . And The wind (says he) was tired out. 1Q1. ended their lives very disagreeably. 211 is spirit evaporate. are divine ly noble.".ariG in the ill sound it that has upon the palate. and those who were wrecked in the storm. Azazcl. SECTION Low XLIII. c. in his description pressed. To is seeth. when we read in Book i. ". is a mean and vulgar term further. but the terms in which they are ex tus. 1 ". very lustre. which not a blemished term in our language : and besides. their gan The seas be Thus.". &c. and all their strength by being quite overstretched. as his right. a word highly disproportioned to the tragical event it is used to ex press.
in like Theopompus. trivial words. Ephorus always wanted a spur. cups and goblets. . and others embellished with most exquisite Add to these art and costly workmanship ? innumerable sorts of arms. that ". either of the produce of the earth. but Thcopompus a curb. be immense quantity of wrought silver and gold. which did not compliment the king with an embassy? What rarity was there. Grecian and Bar barian. has spoiled all. with ? vestments purple. suitably all furnished with necessaries? How many embroidered robes and sumptuous beds. white. His genius was too hot and impetuous. or the work of art. and particoloured How many tents of golden texture. how many ? pickles and 2 preserved fruits How many Theopornpus \vas a Chian and a scholar of Isocrates.". after setting out splendidly in describing the Persian expe dition into Egypt. manner. in all What city or what nation was there Asia. beasts of burden beyond tion. computa bushels of and cattle fit to form the most luxurious repasts. And further.212 8 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. How many with which he was not presented? rich and gorgeous carpets. by the in termixture of some low and ". which was the occa sion of a remark of his master Isocrates. some of which sides an you might see adorned with precious stones.
in which these low terms. 213 hampers. and tents of golden stuffs. unseasonably applied. or of silver embossed. and books.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. as so many mountains or hillocks piled one upon another. in the nar rative of so grand preparations. what an unseemly spec tacle would such a gallimaufry present to the down eye ! It is the same with description.". when his subject required And besides. that necessity or convenience could require? abundance of that In a word. at that very instant. together. become so many blemishes and flaws. of pickles. and were regarded by per sons at a distance. there was so great all sorts of flesh ready salted. they swelled to pro when put digious heights. packs of paper. any grand one should bring and throw expedition. any If. he has shifted the scene. and all things besides. upon making preparation for a parcel of hampers and packs. and presented us with a kitchen. confused mixture of baskets. in the midst of massy goblets adorned with in estimable stones. and of packs. he might have satisfied himself with ~ giving only a summary account of those mountains (as he says they were thought) of Now . He has here sunk from a proper elevation of his sense to a shameful lowness. by his an enlargement.
. to comply with ". removed their channels to the (to make use of Xenophon s words*) greatest distance from the eyes/ thereby to * Xenoph. The dignity of our words ought always to be to it duced proportioned to the dignity of our sentiments. p. in open view. or delicacy or have termed them. might have varied his narration thus ". who has neither placed those parts. and ". nor the vents of the excrements. 1. In the Sublime. heaps of all sorts of viands. as to gratify the nicest palate . provisions. but concealed them as much as is possible. and when he came to offler parti culars of the preparations.214 LONGIXUS ON THE SUBLIME. Oxon. laden with all sorts of meat :". ATO/JI^/WI . unless re by the most urgent necessity. . or rather. which it is indecent to mention. all that and cooks could prepare. as nice and delicate. we ought never to take up with sordid and blemished terms. 2. requisite either for satiety ". edit. that would serve as well to form an exquisite repast. There was a great mul titude of camels and other beasts. Here we should imitate the proceeding of nature in the human fabric. his humour of caterers relating things exactly. 45.".".
3 Cicero de Offic. .LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. and obvious to every one that their opposites must lower and debase it. of my ". a just matter of surprise. me. there are many geniuses well practised in the arts of eloquence and persuasion. that in the age we live. have already shewn what methods elevate and We ennoble. by a particu recital of whatever diminishes and impairs the Sublime. adspectum essent deformem habiturae ac turpem. yet remains to be said.Gl. eas contexit atque abdidit. p. how it comes It is (said he) to to pass. 62. that can discourse with dexterity and strength. upon which. and embellish Quae partes autem corporis. 3 215 preserve the beauty of the animal entire and To lar pursue this topic further. as well as to many others. unblemished. because it suits well with your inqui sitive disposition.Cockman. would be a needless task. it is SECTION XLIV. ad naturae necessitate!!! datae. not long since a philosopher acquaintance discoursed me in the It is following manner. I shall SOMETHING not be averse from enlarging. Edit.
gt. ". The scarcity of such writers is general the world. with which they and triumph. Her words are these ". And what is more. the nurse of true genius that fine writers will be found only in this sort of flourish government. produces fine sentiments in men of genius .] The words the original iraicopadtie tovXtme :ame are differently interpreted by persons of gieat learning and sagacily. : In the last chapter of Longi- . That democracy . or decline and die? Liberty. that there is solidity in that trite obser is vation. excites an honourable emulation. which are worth disputing. reasonable to expect.216 LONOIXUS OX THE SUBLIME. &c. the natural faculties of the orators are sharpened and polished by continual practice. that they are next to none) who may be said to be truly great and sub lime. but none (or so few. Madame Dacier has taken occasion to mention them in her notes upon Te rence. as bates. So that by this means. *we were in . in free states there are prizes to be gained. it invigorates their hopes. shines conspicuously out in the liberty of their de it is But for our parts (pursued he) &. we believe at throughout May last. 1 ". their style in a very graceful manner. and inspires an ambition and thirst of excelling. it is said.". We were born in subjection. and the liberty of their thoughts.
that. and the greatest encourager of sublimity. curcttac. and more natural than.". i. The this Doctor then gives his opinion. but just and is ". near the end). lawful vassalage. to this remark.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. ". in this sense. and avers democracy to be the nurse of genius. chargeable with neither tyranny nor violence. that word. liberty. but to an easy govern Dr.". The Critic (in the person of the philoso pher who speaks here) is accounting for the scarcity of sublime writers . ment. that which Madame Dacier has given it. Tratcofiadtig ZovXstae infancy used to a lawful government. to arbitrary government. according to the observation of Paterculus (1.". born true. the republics of The fact is evident from Greece and Rome. And hence it was. I have chosen to translate these words in the latter sense. as he afterwards owns. as some think. signifies not. a but wit and genius could not long survive What high value P . which (with submission to the judgment of so learned a lady). but of true wit and exalted genius. Hence. seems preferable to. Athens was most democratical. in 217 it is lawful subjection. Longinus added that his affection to the Roman emperor might not be suspected. when kings and rulers are possessed of a full power and authority over their subjects and we find Isocrates : uses ap^rj cik-ata (a despotical government) ". the we are from our mis. and a state of the greatest liberty. Pearce lie) of a quite contrary opinion. as well as some which follow. The word ctKaut (says does not signify mild or easy. yet you would think their genius to have been pent up within the bare precincts of Athens. Eloquence flourished in greater force than in all Greece besides inso : much that (says he) though the bodies of the people were dis persed into other cities. liberty So the city of Rome the only exception not only the seat of was is and empire. In Greece. and plenty in that city alone. in subjection. Pin dar the Theban.". indeed outlived the The Roman power Roman it.
the mind. It is from hence that we may see all other qualifi cations displayed to perfection. * Odyss. according to Homer. as well as of the body. prevailing manners made too strong an im pression on our infant minds. in the minds of slaves but never yet did a slave become : an orator. can possibly be produced ! Slavery the fetter of the tongue. sours and corrupts the passions. the timorous vassal will still be uppermost spirit . takes half his worth away. The invaders of either ought to be resisted by the united force of all men. have never tasted liberty. that copious and fertile source of all that is beau tiful and of all that is great. ver. His being effectually broken. and noble. . generous. and traverse the designs of infinite goodness. For. but cannot own. that whatever day a slave. nothing great or suitable to the dignity of human nature. Pope. 322. since without it. the chain of It embitters life. since they encroach on the privileges we receive from God.* Jove fix d it Makes man certain. and hence are We we nothing but pompous flatterers. and the in fection was sucked in with the milk of our nurses.218 LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. without rebelling against Him who gave them. within us. ought we then to set upon is liberty. and given to continue so. the habit of subjection continually overawes and beats down his genius. and stifles in damps the towering faculties implanted is the birth the seeds of every thing that Reason and Freedom are our amiable. We are to use. resign them.
thought much upon it. and tyranni cally drag us wherever they please. as well as all that live.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. Avarice (that disease of which the whole world is sick cure). but after al . yet is slavery still. does it not flow from the war within us. indeed. in the depths of misery. and may deservedly be called the prison of the soul. 219 Thus 1 have heard (if what I have heard deserve credit) that the cases in which dwarfs are kept. that this corruption of genius is not owing to the profound peace which reigns throughout the world ? or rather. beyond a if I so express it. aided by voluptuousness. may For love of money is the disease which ren ders us most abject and love of pleasure is that which renders us most corrupt. and easily made. overwhelms life itself. and the public dungeon. by too close constriction of their parts. but diminish what bulk they already have. be it 80 never so easy. Here But are you sure heard. are generally I ". holds us fast in chains of thraldom . .". ". yours. and the sad effects of our own turbulent passions? Those passions plunge us into the worst of slaveries. slavery. not only prevent the future growth of those who are inclosed in this case may in them. Such complaints as interrupted. I have. against the present times. or rather.
and constant attendants upon one another. and luxury. to preserve their souls it from the infection of those vices which are firmly allied to them. judge impossible for the pursuers. There they hatch arrogance. but their genuine offspring. what I have mentioned must needs re sult from their depravity. no spu rious brood. the adorers and worship pers of immense riches. injustice. and as for reputation. and there they jointly fix their residence. If these children of wealth be fostered and suf fered to reach maturity. They can no longer endure a sight of any thing above their gro velling selves. For profuse ness will be wherever there is affluence. they re gard it not. to speak more truly. pride. and make the soul groan under the oppressions of inso lence. Wealth unbars the gates of and opens the doors of houses profuseness gets in at the same time. When men are thus fallen. once such corruption in gradually spreads and becomes . : continuance establishment. they quickly engen der the most inexorable tyrants.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. and propagate their species. and the most seared and hardened impudence. they build their nests (in the language of philoso in their new phy). When it fects an age. They are firmly linked together. or. After some cities.
His ". to promote which. 221 The faculties of the soul will then stupid. that may distinguish what is truly great. to find one generous and impar tial soul above the sordid views of avarice.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. universal. Since then the whole tenor of guided only by the rule of interest. can we expect. corrupt and dishonest judge is inca pable of making unbiassed and solid deci sions by the rules of equity and honour. A habit of corruption unavoidably prevents what is right and just. to submit to the yoke of government. rather than continue . after having life is by base and disingenuous practices crept into their wills and since we frequently . and polish his nobler part. from appearing right and just to him. their spirit will be lost. the worthless part of himself. the soul. and he has ceased to cultivate virtue. such a general corruption. the misera ble slaves of our in own avarice. we even desire the death of others to enjoy their fortunes. what works Is it not better for are fit to live for ever ? persons in our situation. hazard our lives for a little pelf. and clear of every selfish passion. so contagious a depravity. and good sense and genius must lie in ruins. when the grow care and study of man is engaged about the mortal.
deadly lethargy. * ". and inspires us with deep resent ments of the irreparable depredations committed on learning and the valuable productions of antiquity. and end in real advantage and substantial glory/ Here perhaps it may be proper to drop 2 this subject. would rage like madmen. and time. on the great loss they have sustained in Longinus s Treatise on the Passions. and passions.222 LONGINUS ON THE SLliLIME. our faint endeavours this In aim at nothing but pleasure and empty osten for those high rise tation. There we should have been taught. or even any brighter intervals of the disease. makes us regret the the loss of the other. . in general (for the exceptions are exceeding few) is thrown away in indolence and sloth. inflame the whole world with endless dis orders? ever is In a word. if rule and obser vation in this case can teach. from noble emulation. &c.". an insensibility to what truly great has been the bane of every Hence life rising genius of the present age.] The learned world ought certainly to be condoled with. since such headstrong when set at liberty. and monks. The more excellence of this on the Sublime. masters of themselves. to elevate an audience into joy. we should have beheld the secret springs and movements of the soul disclosed to view. There. We We come now to the Passions. by Goths. who have burst their prisons. and pursue our business. too weak and languid which take their acquisitions. in all probability.
FINIS. but become an author of it. since I am not mistaken) have a great share in the SUBLIME. Pearce &. Here are the rules which polish the writer s invention. and up the laws refine the critic once for judgment.LONGINUS ON THE SUBLIME. but if treatise. that you may hence Read it understand. though not undamaged. every pulse in At present we must down contented piece on the under the and be satisfied with this invaluable Sublime. s s at Dr.l advice will be this a seasonable conclusion Read over very frequently golden Treatise (which de serves not only to be read but imitated). loss. an account of have promised before in a distinct they not only constitute the ornaments and beauties of discourse. emotion.lt. come now which I 223 to the Passions. heart. and a fine taste. and gained a port. commendations which thejudicious bestow upon the least disproportioned to its merit. in the therefore and digest Virgil s then take up your pen words of Nisus Aliquidjamdudum invadere magnum Mens agitat mihi . to There we should have learned. to put every sit if work upon every passion. For in it but not in are treasured and precepts of fine writing. Here is an object proposed our admiration and imitation. the first rank. Great indeed are the it. nee placida contenta quiete est. not only learn yourself to how the best authors have written. ever.". which with much hazard has escaped a wreck. . or melt them into tears.
DOVE.1 84 Stesichorus . 186.. 70. . 211 . . 96 185. 98.53. 114. 205 Eratosthenes Eupolis Euripides &. 207 174. 198 .212 Thucydides. Pindar . 183. 208 182. 162. 60. .112 183 Theocritus . 7.42. 184. 114. 207. 14-7.175. . 184 Plato.156. 130. 61. 179. 50. 184..134. 137. 78.198. 156.165.160. 157 102. Gorgias the Leontine 52 Theopompus 169. 45. -169 182.. 171.183 - 60.107. 107. 140. 179 Callisthencs 53 Cicero . 113. 169. 114. 107. 87.. .189. 66. Demosthenes. . 1 24.129.185. . 112. -112 53. 131. Hesiorl 75.93 125 Sophocles.172. 67. 89.60. 218 Hyperides.113. 192. 123 Homer.. 183. 131 119. /ESCHYLUS Ammonius Amphicrates 121. 188. 126. 165. 58 . 59 Anacreon Apollonius Aratus Archilochus . 86&. 59. 183 Arimaspians.164. St. 165. 181.gt. 112.109. 1 52. 188 lo the Chian Isocrates - 100. .178. Sappho Simonides - .214 Zoilus 90 Prinltd l)v J.166.148. 186. 183 Theodorus Theophrastus . F. 175. 102. 185.. 14-1.148. 75. 81.. 192. 57. 58. 123. 189 - Aristophanes Aristotle . 56 74. 157. 114. 112. Author of the Poem on the 97 183 58. 114 .4. 139. . 108.INDEX OF AUTHORS MENTIONED BY LONGINUS. . 58..193 Phrynicus . 108 . John s Square . Lysias Matris Bacchylides Cecilius 183 Moses Philistus 53 83 44. Timseus 57. Clitarchus 53 207 154 .gt. . . . Xenophon. Hecatneus 160 53 Hegesias Herodotus.
Date Due .
. Dionysius Longinus On the sublime Smith. trans* .9 unaccess.