Designers’ guide to EN 1993-1-1_Steel_structures, General_rules_(2005) | Bending | Buckling

DESIGNERS’ GUIDES TO THE EUROCODES

DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 EUROCODE 3: DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES GENERAL RULES AND RULES FOR BUILDINGS

Eurocode Designers’ Guide Series
Designers’ Guide to EN 1990. Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design. H. Gulvanessian, J.-A. Calgaro and M. Holický. 0 7277 3011 8. Published 2002. Designers’ Guide to EN 1994-1-1. Eurocode 4: Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures. Part 1.1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings. R. P. Johnson and D. Anderson. 0 7277 3151 3. Published 2004. Designers’ Guide to EN 1997-1. Eurocode 7: Geotechnical Design – General Rules. R. Frank, C. Bauduin, R. Driscoll, M. Kavvadas, N. Krebs Ovesen, T. Orr and B. Schuppener. 0 7277 3154 8. Published 2004. Designers’ Guide to EN 1993-1-1. Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures. General Rules and Rules for Buildings. L. Gardner and D. Nethercot. 0 7277 3163 7. Published 2004. Designers’ Guide to EN 1995-1-1. Eurocode 5: Design of Timber Structures. Common Rules and for Rules and Buildings. C. Mettem. 0 7277 3162 9. Forthcoming: 2005 (provisional). Designers’ Guide to EN 1991-4. Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures. Wind Actions. N. Cook. 0 7277 3152 1. Forthcoming: 2005 (provisional). Designers’ Guide to EN 1996. Eurocode 6: Part 1.1: Design of Masonry Structures. J. Morton. 0 7277 3155 6. Forthcoming: 2005 (provisional). Designers’ Guide to EN 1992-1-1. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. Common Rules for Buildings and Civil Engineering Structures. A. Beeby and R. Narayanan. 0 7277 3105 X. Forthcoming: 2005 (provisional). Designers’ Guide to EN 1991-1-2, 1992-1-2, 1993-1-2 and EN 1994-1-2. Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures. Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures. Eurocode 4: Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures. Fire Engineering (Actions on Steel and Composite Structures). Y. Wang, C. Bailey, T. Lennon and D. Moore. 0 7277 3157 2. Forthcoming: 2005 (provisional). Designers’ Guide to EN 1998-1 and EN 1998-5. Eurocode 8: Design Provisions for Earthquake Resistant Structures. General Rules, Seismic Actions and Rules for Buildings. M. Fardis, E. Carvalho, A. Elnashai, E. Faccioli, P. Pinto and A. Plumier. 0 7277 3153 X. Forthcoming: 2005 (provisional). Designers’ Guide to EN 1992-2. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. Bridges. D. Smith and C. Hendy. 0 7277 3159 9. Forthcoming: 2005 (provisional). Designers’ Guide to EN 1993-2. Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures. Bridges. C. Murphy and C. Hendy. 0 7277 3160 2. Forthcoming: 2005 (provisional). Designers’ Guide to EN 1994-2. Eurocode 4: Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures. Bridges. R. Johnson and C. Hendy. 0 7277 3161 0. Forthcoming: 2005 (provisional). Designers’ Guide to EN 1991-2, 1991-1-1, 1991-1-3 and 1991-1-5 to 1-7. Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures. Traffic Loads and Other Actions on Bridges. J.-A. Calgaro, M. Tschumi, H. Gulvanessian and N. Shetty. 0 7277 3156 4. Forthcoming: 2005 (provisional). Designers’ Guide to EN 1991-1-1, EN 1991-1-3 and 1991-1-5 to 1-7. Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures. General Rules and Actions on Buildings (not Wind). H. Gulvanessian, J.-A. Calgaro, P. Formichi and G. Harding. 0 7277 3158 0. Forthcoming: 2005 (provisional).

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DESIGNERS’ GUIDES TO THE EUROCODES

DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 EUROCODE 3: DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES GENERAL RULES AND RULES FOR BUILDINGS

L. GARDNER and D. A. NETHERCOT

Series editor H. Gulvanessian

reserved. Thomas Telford Publishing. including translation. no part of this publication may be reproduced. VA 20191-4400 Japan: Maruzen Co.com A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: 0 7277 3163 7 © The authors and Thomas Telford Limited 2005 All rights.Published by Thomas Telford Publishing. 1 Heron Quay. mechanical.thomastelford. no liability or responsibility can be accepted in this respect by the authors or publishers Typeset by Helius. 1801 Alexander Bell Drive. stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means. Thomas Telford Ltd. Designs and Patents Act 1988. Brighton and Rochester Printed and bound in Great Britain by MPG Books. Victoria First published 2005 Eurocodes Expert Structural Eurocodes offer the opportunity of harmonized design standards for the European construction market and the rest of the world. electronic. London E14 4JD URL: http://www. Except as permitted by the Copyright. Book Department. Tokyo 103 Australia: DA Books and Journals. Mitcham 3132. Thomas Telford Ltd. For comprehensive and useful information on the adoption of the Eurocodes and their implementation process please visit our website or email eurocodes@thomastelford. 1 Heron Quay. London E14 4JD This book is published on the understanding that the authors are solely responsible for the statements made and opinions expressed in it and that its publication does not necessarily imply that such statements and/or opinions are or reflect the views or opinions of the publishers.com Distributors for Thomas Telford books are USA: ASCE Press. Chuo-ku. without the prior written permission of the Publishing Director. To achieve this. Bodmin . the construction industry needs to become acquainted with the Eurocodes so that the maximum advantage can be taken of these opportunities Eurocodes Expert is a new ICE and Thomas Telford initiative set up to assist in creating a greater awareness of the impact and implementation of the Eurocodes within the UK construction industry Eurocodes Expert provides a range of products and services to aid and support the transition to Eurocodes. While every effort has been made to ensure that the statements made and the opinions expressed in this publication provide a safe and accurate guide. 648 Whitehorse Road. Ltd. Reston. 3–10 Nihonbashi 2-chome. photocopying or otherwise.

3 (cold-formed sections). . Guidance on design for the ultimate limit state dominates Part 1. subclauses. Part 1. and it is for this reason that the chapters vary greatly in length. When dealing with loads and load combinations it makes appropriate reference to the companion Eurocodes EN 1990 and EN 1991.5 (plated structures) and Part 1. which is also used where text from EN 1993-1-1 has been directly reproduced (conversely. the section numbering does not match the code. tables and expressions of EN 1993-1-1 are in italic type. Part 1..1. quotations from other sources. including other Eurocodes. equation (D5. however. member and frame level for various situations are covered in some detail. section numbers and equation numbers match those in EN 1993-1-1). Part 1. each of which deals with a particular aspect of the design of structural steelwork.8 (connections). the procedures for design at the cross-sectional. It is. figures. complemented by several other parts. designers will need to consult several parts of the code. this is mirrored herein.1 contains no material on connections.g. General This text concentrates on the main provisions of Part 1.g. Chapters 1–11 directly reflect the arrangement of the code (i. but deals with some aspects of Part 1. are in roman type). All cross-references in this guide to sections. In the case of Chapters 12–14. The Eurocode format specifically precludes reproduction of material from one part to another. In addition. annexes.Preface With the UK poised to adopt the set of structural Eurocodes it is timely to produce a series of guides based on their technical content.1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings (EN 1993-1-1) is the master document. Thus. often by making specific reference to actual sections of the code documents. The ‘basic rules’ of the EN 1993-1-1 therefore provide insufficient coverage for the complete design of a structure (e. paragraphs. Expressions repeated from EN 1993-1-1 retain their numbering. etc. and illustrates the application of certain of the design procedures with a series of worked examples. it makes comparisons with the equivalent provisions in BS 5950.e.1) in Chapter 5. Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures. For the design of steel structures. Layout of this guide The majority of the text relates to the most commonly encountered design situations. all of which is given in Part 1. It does this by presenting and discussing the more important technical provisions. e.8). in practice. of this guide. and the arrangement adopted is explained at the start of each of these chapters. other expressions have numbers prefixed by D (for Designers’ Guide). clauses. and cross-references to sections.1 of the code. Thus.

normally without stating quite what is given there. Nethercot vi . Acknowledgements In preparing this text the authors have benefited enormously from discussions and advice from many individuals and groups involved with the Eurocode operation. Gardner D.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 It is for this reason that we have elected to base the content of the book on more than just Part 1. countries are required to publish the code plus its companion National Annex as a single document – full transfer to the use of Eurocode 3 within the UK will not be immediate. and appropriate preparation for its usage (and for the withdrawal of BS 5950) should now be underway. However.1. To each of these we accord our thanks. Eurocode 3 will become increasingly dominant in the next few years. This is necessary because the timetable for producing National Annexes is such that they cannot be written until after the relevant Eurocode has been published (by CEN) – specifically they should appear no later than 2 years from the so-called date of availability. Readers will also find several references to the National Annex. We are particularly grateful to Charles King of the SCI. A. who has provided expert advice on many technical matters throughout the production of the book. L. Since the Eurocode is not regarded as complete for use in actual practice until its National Annex is available – indeed.

Assumptions 1.6. Design assisted by testing Materials 3. Requirements 2. Basic variables 2.2.7.5. Verification by the partial factor method 2. Structural steel 3.4. Connecting devices 3.3.1. Terms and definitions 1. Symbols 1.3. General 3. Other prefabricated products in buildings Durability Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 .5. Normative references 1. Principles of limit state design 2.1. Scope 1.2.Contents Preface General Layout of this guide Acknowledgements v v v vi 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 9 9 10 10 10 11 13 13 13 15 15 17 Introduction Background to the Eurocode programme Status and field of application of Eurocodes National standards implementing Eurocodes Links between Eurocodes and product-harmonized technical specifications (ENs and ETAs) Additional information specific to EN 1993-1 UK National Annex for EN 1993-1-1 General 1. Distinction between Principles and Application Rules 1.2.4.4.3.1. Conventions for member axes Basis of design 2.

7.2.6.3. General 99 6.4.4.2. Battened compression members 101 6.2.5: cross-section resistance under combined bending and shear 53 6.3.4: shear resistance 50 6. Basis 5. Cross-section requirements for plastic global analysis 21 22 22 22 23 25 26 26 26 26 32 34 Chapter 6 Ultimate limit states 35 6.3. Bending moment 45 Example 6. Compression 43 Example 6.3. Imperfections 5.4.1. Bending.5.4.1.4.10.1.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Chapter 5 Structural analysis 5. Tension 42 Example 6.2. General 35 6.3. Laced compression members 100 6.3.1: tension resistance 42 6.2.2.2.3.2.4.2.9.2: cross-section resistance in compression 44 6.1.1. Torsion 51 6. Bending and axial force 55 Example 6.2.6.3: cross-section resistance in bending 46 6.2. General 36 6. Section properties 36 6. Effects of deformed geometry on the structure 5.4.5.9: member resistance under combined major axis bending and axial compression 81 Example 6.2. Buckling resistance of members 61 6. Uniform members in bending and axial compression 80 Example 6.2.5.5. Uniform built-up compression members 98 6.6: cross-section resistance under combined bending and compression 57 6.1. General method for lateral and lateral torsional buckling of structural components 97 6. Lateral torsional buckling of members with plastic hinges 97 6. Bending and shear 52 Example 6.5. Structural modelling for analysis 5.4. Global analysis 5.10: member resistance under combined bi-axial bending and axial compression 89 6. Classification of cross-sections Example 5. Structural stability of frames 5.7: buckling resistance of a compression member 66 6. Uniform members in bending 68 Example 6. Uniform members in compression 61 Example 6.2.3.2. Shear 48 Example 6. Closely spaced built-up members 101 viii .8: lateral torsional buckling resistance 74 6. Classification of cross-sections 5.8.2. Resistance of cross-sections 36 6. shear and axial force 60 6.1.2.3.2. Methods of analysis considering material non-linearities 5.1: cross-section classification under combined bending and compression 5.4.3.2.

Angles connected by one leg 12.3. Design resistance 12.5.6. Background 12.3.5.2.2.4.1. Structural analysis taking account of material non-linearities 10.2. Fillet welds 12. Continuous restraints 11.1. Flexural buckling of members in triangulated and lattice structures 11. Butt welds 12. General 12.6.7. Structural joints connecting hollow sections 12.1.3(4) Annex B (informative) – Method 2: interaction factors kij for interaction formula in clause 6. Dynamic effects Annex A (informative) – Method 1: interaction factors kij for interaction formula in clause 6. Serviceability limit states for buildings 7. Introduction 12.3(4) Annex AB (informative) – additional design provisions 10.4.3.2.3.7. Slip-resistant connections 12. Horizontal deflections 7. Simplified provisions for the design of continuous floor beams Annex BB (informative) – buckling of components of buildings structures 11.4. General 103 103 104 104 105 106 106 Chapter 8 107 Chapter 9 111 115 115 115 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 117 117 118 118 121 121 121 122 122 122 123 124 125 125 126 126 126 126 127 128 128 128 128 129 129 129 131 131 131 131 Chapter 12 ix .5. Prying forces 12. classification and modelling 12.1. Block tearing 12. Welded connections 12. Vertical deflections Example 7. Structural joints connecting H or I sections 12.1.4.5.1.2.1.5.1: vertical deflection of beams 7.5. Long joints 12.4. Connections to unstiffened flanges 12. General 12.4. General 7.3.4.1.2.8. Global analysis 12.6.1. rivets or pins 12. Connections made with bolts.2.5.7.CONTENTS Chapter 7 Serviceability limit states 7. Analysis. Stable lengths of segment containing plastic hinges for out-of-plane buckling Design of joints 12.8.2. Force distribution 12.5.4.5.4. General 12.3. Connections made with pins 12.3.5.2.7. Basis of design 12.1.2. Force distributions at ultimate limit state 12.4.6.

10.1.3. torsional and torsional–flexural buckling) 13.1.6. Distortional buckling 13.9. Local buckling Example 13.6. Web crushing.3: member resistance in compression (checking flexural.8.5.3.6.2. Material properties 13. Rounded corners and the calculation of geometric properties 13.3. Buildings Example 14.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Chapter 13 Cold-formed design 13. Design procedure Example 13.2.2: cross-section resistance to distortional buckling 13. Actions 14. Fundamental combinations of actions 14.1: combinations of actions for buildings 133 133 135 135 135 137 137 140 140 140 140 141 144 146 149 150 150 151 153 153 153 154 154 155 158 161 163 Chapter 14 References Index x .6. crippling and buckling Actions and combinations of actions 14. Shear lag 13.4. Scope of Eurocode 3.2. Torsional and torsional–flexural buckling Example 13.2.1.6. Introduction 14. General 14.3. Flange curling 13.1: calculation of section properties for local buckling 13.4.3. Introduction 13. Part 1.7.3 13. Linear spring stiffness K 13. Background 13. Outline of the design approach 13.1.

Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures. under the chairmanship of Professor Patrick Dowling of Imperial College London. the responsible committee. comprises 10 documents: EN 1990.Introduction The material in this introduction relates to the foreword to the European standard EN 1993-1-1. Background to the Eurocode programme Work began on the set of structural Eurocodes in 1975. however. main grouping of Eurocodes. had the benefit of the earlier European Recommendations for the Design of Structural Steelwork.1 Apart from the obvious benefit of bringing together European experts. Part 1. and eight further documents essentially covering each of the structural materials (concrete. termed ENVs. prepared by the European Convention for Constructional Steelwork in 1978.g. Progress was. the European column curves. started to appear. EN 1991. rather slow. The full suite of Eurocodes is: EN 1990 EN 1991 EN 1992 EN 1993 EN 1994 EN 1995 EN 1996 EN 1997 EN 1998 EN 1999 Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures Eurocode 4: Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures Eurocode 5: Design of Timber Structures Eurocode 6: Design of Masonry Structures Eurocode 7: Geotechnical Design Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance Eurocode 9: Design of Aluminium Structures . covering actions on structures. The following aspects are covered: • • • • • • Background to the Eurocode programme Status and field of application of Eurocodes National standards implementing Eurocodes Links between Eurocodes and product-harmonized technical specifications (ENs and ETAs) Additional information specific to EN 1993-1 National Annex for EN 1993-1-1. and unchanged. and it was not until the mid-1980s that the official draft documents. masonry etc). preparation of this document meant that some commonly accepted design procedures already existed. steel. e. For structural steelwork. The original. covering the basis of structural design.1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings.

2 . information accompanying such products should clearly state which. EN 1993-1 is intended for use by designers and constructors.g. importantly. Additional information specific to EN 1993-1 As with the Eurocodes for the other structural materials. and this guide is intended to provide interpretation and guidance on the application of its contents. and. unaltered text of that Eurocode. The National Annex may only include information on those parameters (known as Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs)) within clauses that have been left open for national choice. This may then be preceded by a National Title Page and National Foreword. testing and execution standards and relevant authorities. each addressing specific steel components. National standards implementing Eurocodes The National Standard implementing Eurocodes (e. if any. where basic requirements. including all annexes (as published by CEN). Rules are provided for common forms of construction. clients. listed in Chapter 1 of this guide. and it is recommended that specialist advice is sought when considering unusual structures.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Status and field of application of Eurocodes Generally. BS EN 1993-1-1) must comprise the full. More specifically. An introduction to the provisions of EN 1990 and EN 1991 may be found in Chapter 14 of this guide. In particular. EN 1993-1 is split into 11 parts. the Eurocodes provide structural design rules that may be applied to complete structures and structural components and other products. committees drafting design-related product. may be followed by a National Annex. these clauses are listed later in this chapter. along with loads (actions) and action combinations are specified. limit states or materials. NDPs have been taken into account. the Eurocodes serve as reference documents that are recognized by the EU member states for the following purposes: • • • as a means to prove compliance with the essential requirements of Council Directive 89/106/EEC as a basis for specifying contracts for construction or related works as a framework for developing harmonized technical specifications for construction products. Links between Eurocodes and product-harmonized technical specifications (ENs and ETAs) The clear need for consistency between the harmonized technical specifications for construction products and the technical rules for work is highlighted. Eurocode 3 for steel structures is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1990 and EN 1991.

3(2) 6.2(1)B 7.4(3) 6.3.3.2.2(8) 5.3(1) 3.2. 0 and β and geometric limitations for the method Values for parameter f Value for the slenderness limit l c0 Value for the modification factor kfl Choice between alternative methods 1 and 2 for bending and compression Limits of application of general method Vertical deflection limits Horizontal deflection limits Floor vibration limits Buckling lengths Lcr 3 .3.3.2(2) 6.1(1)B 6.4(1)B 6.3(3)B Comment Actions for particular regional or climatic or accidental situations Material properties Material properties – use of Table 3.3.2.1(2) 3.3.1.2.4(1) 7.1(1)B 7.3(5) 6.2.1(3) 5.3(1)B BB.2.3.3.1(1) 3.2.3.1(1) 6.2(3) 5.2.2.3(3)B 3.3(1) 6.1 or product standards Ductility requirements Fracture toughness Fracture toughness for buildings Through thickness properties Limit on αcr for analysis type Scope of application Value for relative initial local bow imperfections e0/L Scope of application Numerical value for factor k Numerical values for partial factors γMi for buildings Other recommended numerical values for partial factors γMi Imperfection factor αLT for lateral torsional buckling Numerical values for l LT.2.2(1) 3.4(2)B 6.2.2.2(11) 5.1(1) 3.3.4(1)B 5.3.2.INTRODUCTION UK National Annex for EN 1993-1-1 National choice is allowed in EN 1993-1-1 in the following clauses of the code: Clause 2.2.2.

Eurocode 3 now comprises six parts: EN 1993-1 EN 1993-2 EN 1993-3 EN 1993-4 EN 1993-5 EN 1993-6 General Rules and Rules for Buildings Steel Bridges Towers.6 Clause 1. Masts and Chimneys Silos. has seen each of the final documents subdivided into a number of parts. as covered in Section 1 of the code.3 Clause 1.4 Clause 1. some of which have then been further subdivided. .2 Clause 1. Part 1 itself consists of 12 sub-parts: EN 1993-1-1 EN 1993-1-2 EN 1993-1-3 EN 1993-1-4 EN 1993-1-5 EN 1993-1-6 EN 1993-1-7 EN 1993-1-8 EN 1993-1-9 EN 1993-1-10 EN 1993-1-11 EN 1993-1-12 General Rules and Rules for Buildings Structural Fire Design Cold-formed Members and Sheeting Stainless Steels Plated Structural Elements Strength and Stability of Shell Structures Strength and Stability of Planar Plated Structures Transversely Loaded Design of Joints Fatigue Strength of Steel Structures Selection of Steel for Fracture Toughness and Through-thickness Properties Design of Structures with Tension Components Made of Steel Additional Rules for the Extension of EN 1993 up to Steel Grades S700. The following clauses are addressed: • • • • • • • Scope Normative references Assumptions Distinction between Principles and Application Rules Terms and definitions Symbols Conventions for member axes Clause 1.1 Clause 1. Thus.7 1.1. Scope Finalization of the Eurocodes. Tanks and Pipelines Piling Crane Supporting Structures.5 Clause 1.CHAPTER 1 General This chapter discusses the general aspects of EN 1993-1-1. the so-called conversion of ENVs into ENs.

1. Normative references Information on design related matters is provided in a set of reference standards. It is worth noting that EN 1993-1-1 is primarily intended for hot-rolled sections with material thickness greater than 3 mm. 1. whilst omission of the letter ‘P’ indicates an application rule. appropriately skilled and supervised contractors. since no duplication of content is permitted between codes. Principles are statements for which there is no alternative. 6 . 1. whereas Application Rules are generally acceptable methods. for information on bolts and welds. clause numbers that are followed directly by the letter ‘P’ are principles. and Part 1. Both sections are worth reviewing because the Eurocodes use a number of terms that may not be familiar to practitioners in the UK. Terms and definitions Clause 1. Assumptions The general assumptions of EN 1990 relate principally to the manner in which the structure is designed. Eurocode 3 states that all fabrication and erection should comply with EN 1090. and adequate maintenance. working directly from the Eurocodes for even the simplest of steel structures requires the simultaneous use of several lengthy documents. for guidance on material selection.4.3. Emphasis is given to the need for appropriately qualified designers. Distinction between Principles and Application Rules EN 1990 explicitly distinguishes between Principles and Application Rules. for example Part 1.8.1 of Eurocode 3 is the basic document on which this text concentrates. for example SCI guides and manuals produced by the Institutions of Civil and Structural Engineers.5 Clause 1.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Part 1. 1. Essentially. Further terms and definitions specific to EN 1993-1-1 are included in clause 1.5. suitable materials. which follow the principles and satisfy their requirements. whilst referring to the Eurocode documents themselves when further information is required. It is for this reason that it seems likely that designers in the UK will turn first to simplified and more restricted design rules. 1.5. Given that some reference to the content of EN 1990 on load combinations and to EN 1991 on loading will also be necessary when conducting design calculations. of which the most important are: EN 10025 (in six parts) EN 10210 EN 10219 EN 1090 EN ISO 12944 Hot-rolled Steel Products Hot Finished Structured Hollow Sections Cold-formed Structural Hollow Sections Execution of Steel Structures (Fabrication and Erection) Corrosion Protection by Paint Systems.10. For cold-formed sections and for material thickness of less than 3 mm. EN 1993-1-1 does not use this notation. constructed and maintained. but designers will need to consult other sub-parts. reference should be made to EN 1993-1-3 and to Chapter 13 of this guide.5 of EN 1990 contains a useful list of common terms and definitions that are used throughout the structural Eurocodes (EN 1990 to EN 1999). An exception is that cold-formed rectangular and circular hollow sections are also covered by Part 1. Clause numbers in EN 1993-1-1 that are followed by the letter ‘B’ indicate supplementary rules intended specifically for the design of buildings.2.

then these axes should be referred to as u–u and v–v. The note at the end of clause 1.7 is important when designing such sections. Other symbols are defined where they are first introduced in the code. which makes transition between the documents more straightforward. b z b z tw y tf tf z b z r1 h d y tw y tf z b/4 b z y h z z v h t u z h v u y u z b v y t r tw y tf h y r tw z z v h y y u b z y tf b/2 r2 h tw d y z z t y b z Clause 1. there is generally good consistency in the use of symbols throughout the Eurocodes. 1.1. GENERAL 1. For angle sections. will not be familiar to UK designers.7. such as for angle sections. the y–y axis is parallel to the smaller leg.6. Clause 1. Generally. and the z–z axis is perpendicular to the smaller leg. especially those with multiple subscripts. Symbols A useful listing of the majority of symbols used in EN 1993-1-1 is provided in clause 1. Conventions for member axes The convention for member axes in Eurocode 3 is not the same as that adopted in BS 5950 (where the x–x and y–y axes refer to the major and minor axes of the cross-section respectively.CHAPTER 1.6 1. However.7 h d tw y r y r y h h y d b z r1 y tf r2 Fig. and the z–z axis is the minor principal axis (perpendicular to the flanges. respectively.6. For cross-sections where the major and minor principal axes do not coincide with the y–y and z–z axes. the y–y axis is the major principal axis (parallel to the flanges). Rather. Dimensions and axes of sections in Eurocode 3 7 . Many of these symbols. the Eurocode 3 convention for member axes is as follows: • • • x–x y–y z–z along the member axis of the cross-section axis of the cross-section.

Note that many of the symbols are different to those adopted in BS 5950. for angles and similar sections. which are generally defined by the axes y-y and z-z but for sections such as angles are defined by the axes u-u and v-v’ (i.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 because it states that ‘All rules in this Eurocode relate to the principal axis properties. the u–u and v–v axes properties should be used in place of the y–y and z–z axes properties).1 defines the important dimensions and axes for the common types of structural steel cross-section. 8 . Figure 1.e.

1(2) Clause 2. The following clauses are addressed: • • • • • Requirements Principles of limit state design Basic variables Verification by the partial factor method Design assisted by testing Clause 2. The basic requirements of EN 1990 state that a structure shall be designed to have adequate: • • • • • structural resistance serviceability durability fire resistance (for a required period of time) robustness (to avoid disproportionate collapse due to damage from events such as explosion. durability and robustness of steel structures are given in clause 2. which may be useful.1(2) states that these ‘basic requirements shall be deemed to be satisfied where limit state design is used in conjunction with the partial factor method and the load combinations given in EN 1990 together with the actions given in EN 1991’. Further references to EN 1990 are made throughout the guide. Clause 2. Indicative design working lives are given in Table 2.1 (Table 2.1.3.1.1 Clause 2.4 Clause 2.1. Outline notes on the design working life. Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design. as covered in Section 2 of EN 1993-1-1 and Section 2 of EN 1990. being based on limit state principles using partial safety factors.3 Clause 2. Design working life is defined in Section 1 of EN 1990 as the ‘assumed period for which a structure or part of it is to be used for its intended purpose with anticipated maintenance but without major repair being necessary’.CHAPTER 2 Basis of design This chapter discusses the basis of design. with additional explanation to be found in the Designers’ Guide to EN 1990. including the specification of loading and the development of load combinations.1. Clause 2. Requirements The general approach of Eurocode 3 is essentially the same as that of BS 5950.2 Chapter 14 of this guide gives some introductory recommendations on the use of EN 1990 and EN 1991. when considering time-dependent effects such as fatigue and corrosion.5 2.3 . The approach is set down in detail in EN 1990.1 of EN 1990).2 Clause 2. impact and consequences of human error).1. for example. The design working life of a structure will generally be determined by its application (and may be specified by the client).

DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Table 2. for practical design purposes. In order to ensure that these material requirements are met. bridges and other civil engineering structures Clause 2. reference should be made to Section 3 (and Chapter 3 of this guide).4.1 Durability is discussed in more detail in Chapter 4 of this guide. and inspected and maintained at appropriate intervals. material properties and geometrical data are required in order to calculate the resistance of structural cross-sections and members.g. Clause 2.3. the following guidance is provided: 10 . e. It states that the cross-section and member resistance models given in Eurocode 3 assume that the material displays sufficient ductility. Verification by the partial factor method Throughout EN 1993-1-1. (with consideration given in the design to ensure that parts susceptible to these effects are easily accessible). Indicative design working life Design working life category 1 2 3 4 5 Indicative design working life (years) 10 10–25 15–30 50 100 Examples Temporary structures (not those that can be dismantled with a view to being reused) Replaceable structural parts. geometric and modelling uncertainties (and is the product of γm and γRd). However.2 General principles of limit state design are set out in Section 3 of EN 1990.1. detailed for sufficient fatigue life. and to avoid any confusion that may arise from terms such as ‘nominal values’. designed for wearing. Some preliminary guidance on actions and their combination is given in Chapter 14 of this guide.1 explains that steel structures should be designed (protected) against corrosion. The basic equation governing the resistance of steel structures is given by equation (2.1.1) where Rd is the design resistance.2 reminds the designer of the importance of ductility. 2. Principles of limit state design Clause 2. 2.1): Rd = Rk γM (2.3. ‘characteristic values’ and ‘design values’. designed for accidental actions. Basic variables General information regarding basic variables is set out in Section 4 of EN 1990. 2. Rk is the characteristic resistance and γM is a partial factor which accounts for material.3.2. but the general guidance of clause 2.1. gantry girders and bearings Agricultural and similar structures Building structures and other common structures Monumental building structures. referred to as actions in the structural Eurocodes. Loads. should be taken from EN 1991. whilst partial factors and the combination of actions are covered in EN 1990.

Clause 2.g. the nominal values given in Table 3.CHAPTER 2. are equivalent geometric imperfections that take account of actual geometric imperfections (e.5. It should be noted.1(1) Clause 3. with the necessary detail being given in Annex D of EN 1990. Clause 2. BASIS OF DESIGN • • For material properties.4. dimensions may be taken from product standards or drawings for the execution of the structure to EN 1090 and treated as nominal values – these values may also be used in design (clause 2.2(1)). however. used primarily for structural analysis and member design (see Section 5).4. initial out-ofstraightness). Design assisted by testing An important feature of steel design in the UK is the reliance on manufacturers’ design information for many products.2(2) highlights that the design values of geometric imperfections.5 authorizes this process. which essentially means a reversion to the BS 5950 values.g.5 11 . structural imperfections due to fabrication and erection (e.1 may be used (as characteristic values) for design (see clauses 2.4. For cross-section and system geometry.4.4. residual stresses and variation in yield strength throughout the structural component.1(1) Clause 2. Clause 2. 2. such as EN 10025. misalignment).2(2) Clause 2.1(1) and 3. such as purlins and metal decking.4. that the UK National Annex may state that material properties should be taken as the minimum specified values from product standards.2(1) Clause 2.1(1)).

from product standards are used for fy and fu. up to a maximum thickness of 250 mm (though only thicknesses up to 100 mm are given in Table 3.1 states that values for yield strength fy and ultimate tensile strength fu may be be taken from Table 3. designated ReH.2. EN 10025-2 contains eight categories.2(1) sets the following requirements: • • • fu/fy ≥ 1.CHAPTER 3 Materials This chapter is concerned with the guidance given in EN 1993-1-1 for materials. Clause 3. respectively. The following clauses are addressed: • • • • General Structural steel Connecting devices Other prefabricated products in buildings Clause 3. it is recommended that.2(1) . In order to ensure structures are designed to EN 1993-1-1 with steels that possess adequate ductility.1).2. where A0 is the original cross-sectional area) εu ≥ 15εy.1 of EN 1993-1-1 contains two thickness categories (t ≥ 40 mm and 40 mm < t ≥ 80 mm). and specified values for tensile strength. the nominal values of material properties provided in Section 3 of EN 1993-1-1 may be used in the design expressions given throughout the code.2 Clause 3. Values of yield strength for the most common grades of non-alloy structural steel hotrolled sections (S235.4 3.2.1 for comparison. S275 and S355) from Table 3. for rolled sections.1 Clause 3.10 elongation at failure > 15% (on a gauge length of 5. the UK National Annex may specify exceptions to this. 3. the thickness of the thickest element is used to define a single yield strength to be applied to the entire cross-section. General In general. as explained in the following section. designated Rm.1. For further information.65÷A0.2. reference should be made to the product standards. as covered in Section 3 of the code.3 Clause 3.1 or direct from the product standard (EN 10025 for hot-rolled sections).1 Clause 3.1 of EN 1993-1-1 and from the product standard EN 10025-2 are given in Table 3. Structural steel Clause 3. Although not explicitly stated in EN 1993-1-1. where εu is the ultimate strain and εy is the yield strain. clause 3. However.2. It should be noted that whereas Table 3. The UK National Annex is likely to insist that the minimum specified values for yield strength.

materials need sufficient fracture toughness at the lowest service temperature expected to occur within the intended design life of the structure.2. fy (N/mm2) 235 225 215 215 215 275 265 255 245 235 355 345 335 325 315 S275 t £ 40 40 < t £ 80 275 255 S355 t £ 40 40 < t £ 80 355 335 Clause 3.1. fy (N/mm2) 235 215 EN 10025-2 Thickness range (mm) t £ 16 16 < t £ 40 40 < t £ 63 63 < t £ 80 80 < t< £ 100 t £ 16 16 < t £ 40 40 < t £ 63 63 < t £ 80 80 < t £ 100 t £ 16 16 < t £ 40 40 < t £ 63 63 < t £ 80 80 < t £ 100 Yield strength. in which case the grades given in Table 3. In any case.1 should be checked. Values for yield strength fy EN 1993-1-1 Steel grade S235 Thickness range (mm) t £ 40 40 < t £ 80 Yield strength. In the UK the lowest service temperature should normally be taken as –5°C for internal steelwork and –15°C for external steelwork.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Table 3.6 All steel grades listed in Table 3. 14 . so do not have to be explicitly checked. Those familiar with design to British Standards will notice a marginal (approximately 2%) difference in the value of Young’s modulus adopted in EN 1993-1-1. compared with 205 000 N/mm2.10. the UK National Annex may set slightly more strict requirements.2. Fracture toughness and design against brittle fracture is covered in detail in Eurocode 3 – Part 1.6 as follows: • • modulus of elasticity: E = 210 000 N/mm2 shear modulus: G= • • E ª 81 000 N/mm2 2(1 +ν ) Poisson’s ratio: ν = 0. which is 210 000 N/mm2. In order to avoid brittle fracture. However. it is only the higher-strength grades that may fail to meet the ductility requirements. Design values of material coefficients to be used in EN 1993-1-1 are given in clause 3.3 coefficient of thermal expansion: a = 12 × 10–6/°C (for temperatures below 100°C).1 meet these criteria.

Other prefabricated products in buildings Clause 3.4(1)B 15 . 3.4.8. including bolts.CHAPTER 3. Clause 3.3. MATERIALS 3. Connecting devices Requirements for fasteners. rivets and pins. and are discussed in Chapter 12 of this guide.4(1)B simply notes that any semi-finished or finished structural product used in the structural design of buildings must comply with the relevant EN product standard or ETAG (European Technical Approval Guideline) or ETA (European Technical Approval). and for welds and welding consumables are given in Eurocode 3 – Part 1.

In buildings. mechanical wear and fatigue. extra attention is required. with an appropriate level of maintenance. if the internal relative humidity does not exceed 80%. and the majority of points listed above influence the matter. having due regard to its environment and the anticipated level of maintenance’.. properties and performance of the materials and products the properties of the soil the choice of the structural system the shape of members and structural detailing the quality of workmanship and level of control the particular protective measures the intended maintenance during the design working life. such as coastal sites. or where members may be subjected to wind. For basic durability requirements. . Therefore. Particular consideration has to be given to the environmental conditions.3 Of particular importance for steel structures are the effects of corrosion. the intended maintenance schedule. with brief reference to EN 1990.2 and a general coverage of the subject of durability in steel (bridge) structures is available. Durability may be defined as the ability of a structure to remain fit for its intended or foreseen use throughout its design working life. where it is stated that ‘the structure shall be designed such that deterioration over its design working life does not impair the performance of the structure below that intended. However. and where elements cannot be easily inspected. a fatigue assessment is not generally required. the corrosion protection measures. The following factors are included in EN 1990 as ones that should be taken into account in order to achieve an adequately durable structure: • • • • • • • • • • the intended or foreseeable use of the structure the required design criteria the expected environmental conditions the composition.4 of EN 1990. Corrosion protection does not need to be applied to internal building structures.CHAPTER 4 Durability This short chapter concerns the subject of durability and covers the material set out in Section 4 of EN 1993-1-1. A more detailed explanation of the basic Eurocode requirements for durability has been given by Gulvanessian et al. EN 1993-1-1 highlights several cases where fatigue should be considered. Eurocode 3 directs the designer to Section 2. parts susceptible to these effects should be easily accessible for inspection and maintenance. the shape of members and structural detailing. including where cranes or vibrating machinery are present. and the material composition and properties.or crowd-induced vibrations. For aggressive environments. Corrosion would generally be regarded as the most critical factor affecting the durability of steel structures.

DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Shar p cor ners Rounded cor ners. weld line off bottom Spot weld Fill crevice Fig. Poor and good design features for durability (from SCI publication P-2914) 18 . 4.1.

corrosion cannot take place without the presence of an electrolyte (e.g. water) – suitable drainage and good thermal insulation to prevent cold-bridging (leading to condensation) are therefore of key importance. Additionally.CHAPTER 4. a designer can significantly influence the durability of the steel structure through good detailing. 19 . Poor (left-hand column) and good (righthand column) design features are shown in Fig.1. 4. DURABILITY In addition to suitable material choice.

6 Before the strength of cross-sections and the stability of members can be checked against the requirements of the code.5 Clause 5. Four distinct types of global analysis are possible: (1) (2) (3) (4) first-order elastic – initial geometry and fully linear material behaviour second-order elastic – deformed geometry and fully linear material behaviour first-order plastic – initial geometry and non-linear material behaviour second-order plastic – deformed geometry and non-linear material behaviour.1.CHAPTER 5 Structural analysis This chapter concerns the subject of structural analysis and classification of cross-sections for steel structures.3 Clause 5. (1) First-order elastic analysis Elastic buckling load (2) Second-order elastic analysis (3) First-order plastic analysis Load (4) Second-order plastic analysis Deformation Fig. 5. and the following clauses are addressed: • • • • • • Structural modelling for analysis Global analysis Imperfections Methods of analysis considering material non-linearities Classification of cross-sections Cross-section requirements for plastic global analysis Clause 5.1.1 Clause 5. the internal (member) forces and moments within the structure need to be determined from a global analysis.4 Clause 5. Prediction of load–deformation response from structural analysis . 5. The material in this chapter is covered in Section 5 of EN 1993-1-1. Typical predictions of load–deformation response for the four types of analysis are shown in Fig.2 Clause 5.

Examples of beam-to-column joints that exhibit nominally simple. The choice between a first.3 deals with the inclusion of geometrical imperfections both for the overall structure and for individual members. Typical beam-to-column joints. Consideration of this form of construction and the design of connections in general is covered in Chapter 12 of this guide. However.2.1. plasticity) in the various types of analysis.1 Clause 5. For certain types of structure.4 covers the inclusion of material non-linearity (i. very occasionally. This may be assumed to be the case provided that equation (5. Eurocode 3 recognizes the same three types of joint. one in which the effect of deformations significantly altering the member forces or moments or the structural behaviour is explicitly allowed for) should be conducted. 5. an elastic global analysis would be used when the performance of the structure is governed by serviceability criteria.1) is satisfied: 22 . Effects of deformed geometry on the structure Clause 5. The clause states that a first-order analysis may be used provided that the effects of deformations (on the internal member forces or moments and on the structural behaviour) are negligible.2.2.8. Global analysis 5.1 Guidance on the choice between using a first.1. e. Elastic analysis is also routinely used to obtain member forces for subsequent use in the member checks based on the ultimate strength considerations of Section 6.e. a full material and geometrical non-linear approach may be required. in terms of their effect on the behaviour of the frame structure. a plastic hinge form of global analysis may be appropriate.1. portal frames. can be shown to lead to safe solutions and has the great advantage that superposition of results may be used when considering different load cases.2. In general. (b) Semi-continuous joint.e. This is well accepted. 5. (a) Simple joint. for checks on complex or particularly sensitive configurations. Structural modelling for analysis Clause 5.2.2 Clause 5.and a second-order analysis should be based upon the flexibility of the structure.3 Clause 5.1 outlines the fundamentals and basic assumptions relating to the modelling of structures and joints. 5. Clause 5. the extent to which ignoring second-order effects might lead to an unsafe approach due to underestimation of some of the internal forces and moments. in particular. semi-continuous and continuous behaviour are shown in Fig.2. as BS 5950: Part 1. whilst clause 5.g.4 Clause 5.2 explains how a second-order analysis (i.or second-order global analysis is given in clause 5. and covers this form of construction in Part 1.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 (a) (b) (c) Fig. 5. the Eurocode uses the term ‘semi-continuous’ for behaviour between ‘simple’ and ‘continuous’. (c) Rigid joint Clause 5. It states that the chosen (calculation) model must be appropriate and must accurately reflect the structural behaviour for the limit state under consideration.

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Helsinki) Fig.3. 5.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Fig.4. Swiss Re Building. External diagonal bracing system (Sanomatalo Building. 5. London 24 .

3.3 For the former. d L L2 fNEd 4NEde0. i. it is suggested that the initial shape be based on the mode shape associated with the lowest elastic critical buckling load. Essentially.3 for frames and bracing systems respectively. e. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS and moments directly. they can then be used with the member checks of clause 6.5).3.2 and 5. 5. Imperfections Account should be taken of two types of imperfection: • • global imperfections for frames and bracing systems local imperfections for members.2(6).3. one of two approaches may be used: • • defining the geometry of the structure so that it accords with the imperfect shape. but will usually be treated implicitly within the procedures for checking individual members.2.2(5) and 5. The former require explicit consideration in the overall structural analysis. standard cases. ideally extracted from the results of a global buckling analysis.g.2 Clause 5. d L NEd NEd NEd NEd Fig. d L e0. the method of ‘substitutive members’ is also permitted. Conceptually. the method used to determine Fcr for the frame.3.3 Clause 5. For the latter.5. Whilst this approach may be shown to be reasonable for relatively simple. a method to calculate the necessary loads is provided. the latter can be included in the global analysis.3. Details of the exact ways in which global imperfections should be included are provided in clauses 5. Alternatively. Clause 5.2. Clause 6. Initial sway imperfections Initial bow imperfections NEd NEd fNEd NEd NEd 4NEde0. d f 8NEde0.2. 5. This requires the determination of a ‘buckling length’ for each member. allowing for an initial out-of-plumb when specifying the coordinates of the frame representing the effects of the geometrical imperfections by a closed system of equivalent fictitious forces (replacement of initial imperfections by equivalent horizontal forces is shown in Fig. As a further alternative. Replacement of initial imperfections by equivalent horizontal forces 25 .e.2(5) Clause 5. it becomes increasingly less accurate as the complexity of the arrangement being considered increases.2(6) 5.3. it is equivalent to the well-known effective length approach used in conjunction with an interaction formula. it may be possible to enhance the moments and forces calculated by a linear analysis so as to approximate the second-order values using clauses 5.2.CHAPTER 5. in which an approximation to the effect of the enhanced moments within the frame is made by using a reduced axial resistance for the compression members based on considerations of their conditions of restraint.

Various limitations on the use of each approach are listed. Class 2 cross-sections are those which can develop their plastic moment resistance. and the loading arrangement. clause 5.5.5. semi-compact and slender are replaced in Eurocode 3 with Class 1.4. Thus. the use of at least singly symmetrical cross-sections and the need for rotation capacity in the plastic hinge regions. Clause 5. Cross-sectional resistances may then be determined from clause 6. Class 3 cross-sections are those in which the elastically calculated stress in the extreme compression fibre of the steel member assuming an elastic distribution of stresses can reach the yield strength. using plastic hinge theory – likely to be available in only a few specialized pieces of software non-linear plastic zone – essentially a research or investigative tool rigid–plastic – simple plastic hinge analysis using concepts such as the collapse mechanism. particularly the restrictions on the use of plastic analysis in terms of the requirement for restraints against out-of-plane deformations.2(1) 5. Classification of cross-sections Definition of classes • • • The Eurocode 3 definitions of the four classes are as follows (clause 5. • The moment–rotation characteristics of the four classes are shown in Fig. webs and flanges) within the cross-section. As in BS 5950.g. The classifications from BS 5950 of plastic. the width-to-thickness ratios of the individual compression parts (e.3 distinguishes between three variants of plastic analysis: • • • elastic–plastic. Clauses 5. 5.4. In Eurocode 3.5 Clause 6.6. as described in clause 5.2 Clause 5. 5. 5. Class 2.5. Class 1 cross-sections are fully effective under pure compression. but local buckling is liable to prevent development of the plastic moment resistance.1 Clause 6. but have limited rotation capacity because of local buckling. Classification of cross-sections Determining the resistance (strength) of structural steel components requires the designer to consider firstly the cross-sectional behaviour and secondly the overall member behaviour.3 This section sets out in rather more detail than is customary in codes the basis on which the pattern of the internal forces and moments in a structure necessary for the checking of individual member resistances should be calculated. respectively. Class 3 and Class 4. Class 4 cross-sections are those in which local buckling will occur before the attainment of yield stress in one or more parts of the cross-section. including use in combination with member checks on an ultimate strength basis.1. Basis Clause 5.2.4.2 Clause 5.1 and 6. compact.5. Eurocode 3 accounts for the effects of local buckling through cross-section classification.5. cross-sections are placed into one of four behavioural classes depending upon the material yield strength.5.2 Clause 5.2 cover the cross-sectional aspects of the design process. and are capable of reaching and maintaining their full plastic moment in bending (and may therefore be used in plastic design).4.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 5.2.2(1)): Class 1 cross-sections are those which can form a plastic hinge with the rotation capacity required from plastic analysis without reduction of the resistance. Class 2 cross-sections have a somewhat lower deformation capacity.5.5.4. commonly used for portal frames and continuous beams. Methods of analysis considering material non-linearities Clause 5.2 permits the use of linear elastic analysis. but are also fully effective in pure compression. and are capable of reaching their full plastic moment in 26 . Whether in the elastic or inelastic material range. These align closely with UK practice. cross-sectional resistance and rotation capacity are limited by the effects of local buckling.

and the nominal thickness of the steel element under consideration. 2 or 3. An element that fails to meet the Class 3 limits should be taken as Class 4. M M el Class 2 – limited rotation capacity Class 3 – local buckling prevents attainment of full plastic moment Class 4 – local buckling prevents attainment of yield moment Rotation.1. and this is used to determine the cross-sectional resistance. Assessment of individual parts Each compressed (or partially compressed) element is assessed individually against the limiting width-to-thickness ratios for Class 1.2) where fy is the nominal yield strength of the steel as defined in Table 3. Sheet 2 is for outstand flanges. Table 5. the design requirements for cold-formed members are covered in Eurocode 3 – Part 1. The nominal yield strength depends upon the steel grade.2)) utilizes a base value of 235 N/mm2.2 (see Table 5. The limiting width-to-thickness ratios are modified by a factor ε that is dependent upon the material yield strength. The four behavioural classes of cross-section defined by Eurocode 3 bending. In comparison. increasing the nominal material yield strength results in stricter classification limits.) ε is defined as ε = 235/fy (D5.6. For Class 4 cross-sections.1). and is thus expected to be the most widely used. 5.5. defined as those supported along each edge by an adjoining flange or web. (For circular hollow members the width-to-thickness ratios are modified by ε2.1 of Eurocode 3. which are predominantly of an open nature (e. Clearly. Sheet 1 is for internal compression parts. An effective cross-section is therefore defined based on the width-to-thickness ratios of individual plate elements.CHAPTER 5. a channel section) and of light-gauge material. Sheet 3 deals with angles and tubular (circular hollow) sections. bending moment resistance is therefore limited to the (elastic) yield moment. q Fig.3 and in Chapter 14 of this guide. In hot-rolled design the majority of standard cross-sections will be Class 1.2 contains three sheets. simply because grade S235 steel is regarded as the normal grade throughout Europe. these are discussed later in this section. respectively. Two 27 . STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS Class 1 – high rotation capacity M pl Applied moment. local buckling occurs in the elastic range. Class 3 cross-sections are fully effective in pure compression. but local buckling prevents attainment of the full plastic moment in bending. Effective width formulations are not contained in Part 1. For cold-formed cross-sections. the standard to which the steel is produced. BS 5950 and BS 5400 use 275 and 355 N/mm2 as base values. where resistances may be based on gross section properties obtained from section tables. but are instead to be found in Part 1. design will seldom be based on the gross section properties. where one edge of the part is supported by an adjoining flange or web and the other end is free.g. 2 and 3 elements defined in Table 5. It is worth noting that the definition of ε in Eurocode 3 (equation (D5.

2(10) may allow some relaxation of the Class 3 limits. The following points are worth noting: (1) For sheets 1 and 2 of Table 5. (b) Internal compression parts Clause 5. as emphasized by Fig.3 thickness categories are defined in Table 3. 28 . the Eurocode 3 approach to section classification is more rational than that of BS 5950. In general.2)) is permitted. Notes on Table 5.2 (reproduced here as Table 5.7.3. taken as half the total flange width). However.2 assume that the cross-section is stressed to yield. no modification to the basic definition of ε (given by equation (D5.2 of EN 1993-1-1 The purpose of this subsection is to provide notes of clarification on Table 5.2(9) and 5.7. 5. and the limiting proportions from Table 5. root radii and welds are explicitly excluded from the measurement.2 of this guide.5. For cross-sectional checks and when buckling resistances are determined by means of a second-order analysis.3) Clause 6. using the member imperfections of clause 5. For conventional member design.5 of BS 5950: Part 1 (2000). (2) The compression widths c defined in sheets 1 and 2 always adopt the dimensions of the flat portions of the cross-sections.2.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 c Rolled c Rolled c Welded c Welded (a) (b) Fig. but perhaps less practical in some cases.2(9) Clause 5.3. whereby buckling resistances are determined using the buckling curves defined in clause 6. The classification limits provided in Table 5. 5. Ed (D5. as described in Section 3. clauses 5.5. the UK National Annex is likely to specify that material properties are taken from the relevant product standard.1 of EN 1993-1-1.1) and to contrast the approach and slenderness limits with those set out in Section 3. i. Class 4 cross-sections may be treated as Class 3 if the width-to-thickness ratios are less than the limiting proportions for Class 3 sections when ε is increased by a factor to give the definition of equation (D5. with the appropriate dimensions for c and t taken from the accompanying diagrams.e. Ed should be taken as the maximum design compressive stress that occurs in the member. though where this is not the case. and the second greater than 40 mm and less than 80 mm (for hot-rolled structural steel) or less than 65 mm (for structural hollow sections).5.2 should always be applied. where generally more convenient measures were adopted (such as for the width of an outstand flange of an I section. This was not the case in the ENV version of Eurocode 3 or BS 5950. The first is up to and including 40 mm.5. all classification limits are compared with c/t ratios (compressive width-to-thickness ratios). essentially this results in a reversion to thickness categories as adopted in BS 5950.3 where σcom.3): ε = 235/fy fy /γ M0 σcom. (a) Outstand flanges.2(10) Clause 5. Definition of compression width c for common cases.

5: c/t £ a when a > 0. and should be carried out with reference to Part 1. it may be assumed that the compression width c can be taken as equal to b – 3t. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (3) Implementation of point 2 and re-analysis of test results has enabled Eurocode 3 to offer the same classification limits for both rolled and welded cross-sections.2 of EN 1993-1-1) Internal compression parts c t t c t c t t t t c c Axis of bending t Axis of bending Class Stress distribution in parts (compression positive) Part subject to bending fy + c Part subject to compression fy + c Part subject to bending and compression fy + fy ac c fy fy - 1 c/t £ 72e c/t £ 33e 396e 13a − 1 36e when a £ 0.CHAPTER 5. Calculation of kσ is described in Section 6.75 *) y £ –1 applies where either the compression stress s < fy or the tensile strain ey > fy /E 29 .2 is a buckling factor. Maximum width-to-thickness ratios for compression parts (Table 5.5 of the code.00 275 0.81 420 0.92 355 0.71 when y £ –1*): c/t £ 62e(1 – y) (-y ) e = 235 / f y fy e 235 1. The factor kσ that appears in sheet 2 of Table 5.2 of this guide.33y 460 0.5e when a £ 0. (4) For rectangular hollow sections where the value of the internal corner radius is not known.2.1 (sheet 1 of 3).67 + 0.5: c/t £ 456e 13a − 1 41.5: c/t £ a when a > 0. which depends on the stress distribution and boundary conditions in the compression element.5: c/t £ fy 2 c/t £ 83e c/t £ 38e Stress distribution in parts (compression positive) fy fy + c fy + c + c - c/2 yfy 3 c/t £ 124e c/t £ 42e when y > –1: c/t £ 42e 0. Table 5.

Maximum width-to-thickness ratios for compression parts (Table 5.5 Class 4 cross-sections Class 4 cross-sections (see clause 6. the designer is directed to Part 1.71 e = 235 / f y Overall cross-section classification Once the classification of the individual parts of the cross-section is determined. and to Part 1. The formulae for calculating effective widths are not contained in Part 1.2.75 460 0. instead.2.1 (sheet 2 of 3).6 for circular hollow sections.2.2.5) contain slender elements that are susceptible to local buckling in the elastic material range.2.1 of Eurocode 3.92 c/t £ 21e ks For ks see EN 1993-1-5 355 0.2.81 420 0.00 275 0. 30 . with the exceptions that (i) cross-sections with Class 3 webs and Class 1 or 2 flanges may be classified as Class 2 cross-sections with an effective web (defined in clause 6.3 for cold-formed sections. Eurocode 3 allows the overall cross-section classification to be defined in one of two ways: (1) The overall classification is taken as the highest (least favourable) class of its component parts.2 of EN 1993-1-1) Outstand flanges c c c t t t t c Rolled sections Welded sections Class Stress distribution in parts (compression positive) Part subject to compression Part subject to bending and compression Tip in compression ac Tip in tension ac + c - + c + c - 1 2 Stress distribution in parts (compression positive) 3 fy e c/t £ 9e c/t £ 10e + c c/t £ c/t £ 9e a 10e a + c c/t £ c/t £ + 9e a a 10e a a c - c/t £ 14e 235 1.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Table 5.2. (2) The overall classification is defined by quoting both the flange and the web classification. Clause 6.4) and (ii) in cases where the web is assumed to carry shear force only (and not to contribute to the bending or axial resistance of the cross-section).5 for hot-rolled and fabricated sections.2. Allowance for the reduction in resistance of Class 4 cross-sections as a result of local buckling is made by assigning effective widths to the Class 4 compression elements.4 Clause 6. the classification may be based on that of the flanges (but Class 1 is not allowed). to Part 1.

However.71 0.2 for a cross-section under combined bending and compression first requires the calculation of α (for Class 1 and 2 limits) and ψ (for Class 3 limits).2 of EN 1993-1-1) Angles h Refer also to “Outstand flanges” (see sheet 2 of 3) Class Stress distribution across section (compression positive) 3 Section in compression + fy + t b Does not apply to angles in continuous contact with other components h/t £ 15e: b+ h ≤ 11. For checking against the Class 1 and 2 cross-section slenderness limits. Maximum width-to-thickness ratios for compression parts (Table 5.CHAPTER 5.56 460 0.81 0. For simplicity. it is advisable for economy to conduct a more precise classification under the combined loading.66 420 0. a plastic distribution of stress may be assumed. Classification under combined bending and axial force Cross-sections subjected to combined bending and compression should be classified based on the actual stress distribution of the combined loadings. To apply the classification limits from Table 5.1 (sheet 3 of 3). if the resulting section classification is either Class 1 or Class 2.00 1.75 0.2. if the resulting section classification is Class 3 or 4. an initial check may be carried under the most severe loading condition of pure axial compression.2 of this guide.00 275 0. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS Table 5.5e 2t Tubular sections t d Class 1 2 3 fy e = 235 / f y e e 2 Section in bending and/or compression d/t £ 50e 2 d/t £ 70e 2 d/t £ 90e 2 NOTE For d/t >90e 2 see EN 1993-1-6 235 1. nothing is to be gained by conducting additional calculations with the actual pattern of stresses.51 The calculation of effective properties for Class 4 cross-sections is described in detail in Section 6.85 355 0.92 0. where α is the ratio of the compressed width to the total width of an 31 . whereas an elastic distribution may be assumed for the Class 3 limits.

9).5.9 mm and tw = 7.( tf + r )˜ £ 1 c Ë 2 2 tw fy ¯ (D5. 5.3.2) ε = 235/fy = 235/275 = 0. (b) Class 3 cross-sections element and ψ is the ratio of end stresses (Fig. where the neutral axis lies within the web. 5.7 mm) of less than or equal to 40 mm the nominal value of yield strength fy for grade S275 steel (to EN 10025-2) is found from Table 3.1: cross-section classification under combined bending and compression Section properties First. The topic of section classification under combined loading is covered in detail elsewhere.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 fy + + fy ac c c – yfy (b) – fy (a) Fig. Design rules for verifying the resistance of structural components under combined bending and axial compression are given in clause 6.6 A member is to be designed to carry combined bending and axial load.9 Clause 6.9 for cross-sections and clause 6.5. can be calculated using the equation ˆ 1 Ê h 1 NEd α= Á + . 5. The ratio of end stresses ψ (required for checking against the Class 3 limits) may be determined by superimposing the elastic bending stress distribution with the uniform compression stress distribution. sheet 2): 32 .2.8) and NEd is the axial compression force.4) Clause 6. Clause 3.8.2 Cross-section classification under pure compression (clause 5.3 where c is the compression width (see Fig.2. the ratio of the compressed width to the total width of the element.1 to be 275 N/mm2. (a) Class 1 and 2 cross-sections. An example demonstrating cross-section classification for a section under combined bending and compression is given below.92 Outstand flanges (Table 5. determine the cross-section classification of a 406 × 178 × 54 UB in grade S275 steel (Fig.2. From clause 3. Definitions of α and ψ for classification of cross-sections under combined bending and compression.6: E = 210 000 N/mm2 Example 5.5 For the common case of an I or H section subjected to compression and major axis bending.2. In the presence of a major axis (y–y) bending moment and an axial force of 300 kN. use of the plastic stress distribution also requires that the compression flange is at least Class 2.3.2. 5. classify the cross-section under the most severe loading condition of pure compression to determine whether anything is to be gained by more precise calculations. α. Clause 5. Note that reference should be made to the UK National Annex for the nominal material strength (see Section 3.2 of this guide).8). For a nominal material thickness (tf = 10.3 for members.

.

Cross-section requirements for plastic global analysis For structures designed on the basis of a plastic global analysis. Cross-section and member resistance to combined bending and axial force is covered in Sections 6. in cases where a transverse force that exceeds 10% of the shear resistance of the cross-section is applied at the plastic hinge location.3 of this guide. Clause 5.6(4). a maximum axial force of 411 kN may be sustained in combination with a major axis bending moment. 5.6. in essence. where the cross-section varies along the length.33 > 46. whilst remaining within the limits of a Class 2 section.9 and 6. to ensure that the structural behaviour accords with the assumptions of the analysis. For cross-sections. 34 . a cross-section has sufficient rotation capacity provided both of the following requirements are satisfied: (1) the member has a Class 1 cross-section at the plastic hinge location (2) web stiffeners are provided within a distance along the member of h/2 from the plastic hinge location. respectively. for a uniform member. a series of requirements are placed upon the cross-sections of the constituent members. Clause 5. Guidance on member requirements for plastically designed structures is given in Chapter 11 of this guide.33 13α − 1 \ web is Class 2 Overall cross-section classification under the combined loading is therefore Class 2.2. Allowance for fastener holes in tension should be made with reference to clause 5. this requires the provision of adequate rotation capacity at the plastic hinges.6(4) Additional criteria are specified in clause 5.6(3) Clause 5.81 456ε = 52.6(3) for non-uniform members. Conclusion For this cross-section.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 \ limit for a Class 2 web = 52.6 Clause 5.6 deems that.3.

1 6.1 is slimline while catering for the majority of structural steel design situations. modelling. Although Eurocode 3 has come under some criticism for this approach. etc. in practice.3). which is largely self-contained. γM2.) associated with the prediction of resistance for a given case. However.1. Clause 6. which prescribes modified values.3 Numerical values for the partial factors recommended by Eurocode 3 for buildings are given in Table 6.1.4 of this guide. dictate the value of γM that is to be applied. 6. EN 1993-1-1 is not a stand-alone document. and in more detail in EN 1990 and elsewhere. where reference is frequently made to other parts of the code – for example. the determination of effective widths for Class 4 cross-sections is not covered in Part 1. instead the designer should refer to Part 1. geometry. The uncertainties (material.2 6. Table 6. reference should be made to the UK National Annex.25 .1. γM1 resistance of cross-sections in tension to fracture. Partial factors are discussed in Section 2. for buildings to be constructed in the UK. Numerical values of partial factors γM for buildings Partial factor γM γM0 γM1 γM2 Eurocode 3 1.00 1.3 6.1.5.4 Unlike BS 5950: Part 1.00 1.2 γMi factors assigned to particular resistances in EN 1993-1-1 are as follows: • • • resistance of cross-sections. γM0 resistance of members to buckling (assessed by checks in clause 6. to ensure that the required level of safety is achieved). as well as the chosen resistance model. General In the structural Eurocodes. Plated Structural Elements. This is exemplified in Section 6.CHAPTER 6 Ultimate limit states This chapter concerns the subject of cross-section and member design at ultimate limit states. the resulting Part 1. partial factors γMi are applied to different components in various situations to reduce their resistances from characteristic values to design values (or. The material in this chapter is covered in Section 6 of EN 1993-1-1 and the following clauses are addressed: • • • • General Resistance of cross-sections Buckling resistance of members Uniform built-up compression members Clause Clause Clause Clause 6.

2 covers the calculation of cross-sectional properties. but allowance should be made for larger openings.1(4) allows the resistance of all cross-sections to be verified elastically (provided effective properties are used for Class 4 sections).1).2 Clause 6.2 covers the resistance of cross-sections including the resistance to tensile fracture at net sections (where holes for fasteners exist). 6.1(4) Clause 6. General (6. the familiar von Mises yield criterion is offered in clause 6. and effective properties for the special case where cross-sections with Class 3 webs and Class 1 or 2 flanges are classified as (effective) Class 2 cross-sections. Ed τEd is the design value of the local longitudinal stress at the point of consideration is the design value of the local transverse stress at the point of consideration is the design value of the local shear stress at the point of consideration. and they allow more favourable (partially plastic) interactions. Note that Eurocode 3 uses the generic term ‘fasteners’ to cover bolts. Clause 6. No reduction to the gross area is made for fastener holes.2. Resistance of cross-sections Clause 5. Ed ˆ Ê σ x . Section properties General Clause 6. 6.2 Clause 6.2. the cross-section should be classified in accordance with clause 5.5 Clause 6. Ed ˆ Ê σ z . whereby the interaction of the local stresses should not exceed the yield stress (divided by the partial factor γM0) at any critical point: Ê σ x . In general.1.1. Cross-section classification is described in detail in Section 5.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Clause 6. Clause 6. Although equation (6. Provisions are made for the determination of gross and net areas.2.2. Gross and net areas The gross area of a cross-section is defined in the usual way and utilizes nominal dimensions.2.1(5).3 Clauses 6.5 of this guide. A p A s s Fig. respectively.2. Ed σz. rivets and pins.2 and 6. both cross-sectional and member checks must be performed. Ed ˆ Ê τ Ed ˆ Á ˜ +Á ˜ -Á ˜Á ˜ + 3Á ˜ £1 Ë fy /γ M0 ¯ Ë fy /γ M0 ¯ Ë fy /γ M0 ¯ Ë fy /γ M0 ¯ Ë fy /γ M0 ¯ 2 2 2 6. as given by equation (6.5.3 cover the resistance of cross-sections and the resistance of members. Non-staggered arrangement of fasteners 36 .1) is provided. For this purpose.1) where σx.2 6. Ed ˆ Ê σ z . such as those for services. Clause 6.2.2.2. effective properties for sections susceptible to shear lag and local buckling (Class 4 elements).1(5) Prior to determining the resistance of a cross-section.2. the majority of design cases can be more efficiently and effectively dealt with using the interaction expressions given throughout Section 6 of the code. since these are based on the readily available member forces and moments.

2. the net area of the cross-section is taken as the gross area less appropriate deductions for fastener holes and other openings. Angle with holes in both legs The method for calculating the net area of a cross-section in EN 1993-1-1 is essentially the same as that described in BS 5950: Part 1. the spacing p should be measured along the centre of thickness of the material (as shown in Fig. 6. with marginally different rules for sections such as angles with fastener holes in both legs. In general. for example as shown in Fig. 6.2. the total area to be deducted should be taken as the sum of the sectional areas of the holes on any line (A–A) perpendicular to the member axis that passes through the centreline of the holes.3.3). Á 4 p˜ Ë ¯ measured on any diagonal or zig-zag line (A–B).1.2) is the number of holes extending in any diagonal or zig-zag line progressively across the section is the diameter of the hole. Clause 6. the spacing p therefore comprises two straight portions and one curved portion of radius equal to the root radius plus half the material thickness.2(5) states that for angles or other members with holes in more than one Clause 6.2. For a non-staggered arrangement of fasteners.2) is the spacing of the centres of the same two holes measured perpendicular to the member axis (see Fig.2. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES A p B A s s Fig.2(5) plane. where s p n d0 is the staggered pitch of two consecutive holes (see Fig. for example as shown in Fig. 6.2.2. For a staggered arrangement of fasteners. which results in marginally higher values.3. the total area to be deducted should be taken as the greater of: (1) the maximum sum of the sectional areas of the holes on any line (A–A) perpendicular to the member axis Ê s2 ˆ (2) t nd0 . BS 5950: Part 1 defines the spacing p as the sum of the back marks. Staggered arrangement of fastener holes p Fig.CHAPTER 6. 37 . 6. 6. With reference to Fig. 6. 6. 6.

Relationship between reduction factor ρ and the b /t ratio 38 . Since shear lag effects rarely arise in conventional building structures. clause 1. Part 1. To distinguish between loss of effectiveness due to local plate buckling and due to shear lag (and indeed due to a combination of the two effects). this is examined in more detail in Section 6. no further discussion on the subject will be given herein. reference is also made (from Part 1.6.4.5. The flange width b0 is defined as either the outstand width (measured from the centreline of the web to the flange tip) or half the width of an internal element (taken as half of the width between the centrelines of the webs). and Part 1.3.5. Part 1.3) to Part 1. the limits are relaxed since there will be some plastic redistribution of stresses across the flange.4 of this guide. This convention is described in Eurocode 3.5).DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Effective areas to account for shear lag and local buckling effects Eurocode 3 employs an effective area concept to take account of the effects of shear lag (for wide compression flanges with low in-plane stiffness) and local plate buckling (for slender compression elements).5.0 Reduction factor.8 Internal 0.4. 6.5 states that shear lag effects in flanges may be neglected provided that the flange width b0 < Le /50. and shear lag may be neglected if b0 < Le /20.6 0. r 0.2.2. The required expressions for hot-rolled sections and plate girders are set out and described below. for cold-formed members (though the designer is immediately directed to Part 1.2.5 1. Effective areas for Class 4 compression elements may be determined from Eurocode 3 – Part 1. for cold-formed sections.3. from Part 1. The idea of additional bending moment due to a possible shift in neutral axis from the gross section to the effective section is also introduced. for hot-rolled and fabricated sections. for circular hollow sections. Shear lag The calculation of effective widths for wide flanges susceptible to shear lag is covered in Eurocode 3 – Part 1.0 0 20 40 _ b /t 60 80 100 Outstand Fig. At the ultimate limit state. Local (plate) buckling – Class 4 cross-sections Preliminary information relating to the effective properties of Class 4 cross-sections to account for local buckling (and in some instances shear lag effects) is set out in clause 6.4 0. Eurocode 3 applies the following (superscript) convention to the word ‘effective’: • • • ‘effectivep’ is used in relation to local plate buckling effects ‘effectives’ is used in relation to shear lag effects ‘effective’ is used in relation to combined local plate buckling and shear lag effects. and from Part 1. For the majority of cold-formed sections. where Le is the length between points of zero bending moment.2.5 and so the expressions given below Clause 6.2 0.2.3.2 1. for hot-rolled sections and plate girders.5.

055(3 + ψ ) λ p2 λ p . these are described in Chapter 13 of this guide. is the buckling factor. eff is defined in clause 4. which depends on the stress distribution in the compression element and on the boundary conditions (discussed below).3. taken as ‘c’ from Table 5. The effective area of a flat compression element Ac. is the elastic critical plate buckling stress.4(4) of EN 1993-1-5).188 λ p2 fy σcr b/t 28. values for the reduction factor ρ of less than unity are found.4 of EN 1993-1-5 as the gross area of the compression element Ac multiplied by a reduction factor ρ (where ρ must be less than or equal to unity).4. The general definition of plate slenderness λp includes a buckling factor kσ.1 of EN 1993-1-5).2 of EN 1993-1-5). 6.1) but £ 1.0.4ε kσ (D6. The relationships between the reduction factor ρ and the b/t ratio for an internal element and an outstand element subjected to pure compression (for fy = 275 N/mm2) are illustrated in Fig. taken as the clear width from the weld or fillet to the flange tip h for equal and unequal leg angles – see Table 5. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES also apply. is the appropriate width as follows: for webs.2 (sheet 1) b – 3t for flanges of rectangular hollow section c for outstand flanges. consideration has to be given to the stress distribution within the element. kσ should be found from Table 6. and hence ψ = 1. σ2 = σ1).2 (sheet 3). ε = 235/fy Note that equations (D6.0.3 provides alternative rules. kσ should be found from Table 6.0.0 (D6.2 (Table 4. defined by ψ. which is the ratio of the end stresses σ2 /σ1.CHAPTER 6.e. where the end stresses are equal in magnitude but of opposite sign (i. The form of the equations is such that for very stocky elements. σ2 = –σ1).2) and (D6.e. eff = ρAc For internal compression elements: ρ= λ p .2 and 6.0. Buckling factors kσ for intermediate values of ψ (and values down to ψ = –3) are also given in Tables 6. and for outstand compression elements. The first step to determine kσ is to consider the boundary conditions of the element under consideration (i.3 (Table 4. For internal compression elements.4(3) and 4. and that of pure bending.e. Secondly.3) where λp = = ψ b kσ t σcr is the ratio of end stresses acting on the compression element (in accordance with clauses 4.2) And for outstand compression elements: ρ= but £ 1. is the thickness. and hence ψ = –1. this is clearly not intended. taken as the clear width between welds or fillets bw b for internal flange elements.0 (D6. as given below: Ac. For cold-formed cross-sections of more complex geometry Eurocode 3 – Part 1. whether it is internal or an outstand compression element). which makes allowance for different applied compressive stress distributions and different boundary conditions of the element. The most common cases are that of pure compression.3) are to be applied to slender compression elements. 39 . where the end stresses are equal (i.

578/(ψ + 0.57 – 0.5beff 1 > ψ > 0: beff = ρb 2 be1 = b eff 5−ψ ψ < 0: be2 = beff – be1 s1 be1 b bc s1 be1 be2 b bt s2 be2 s2 beff = ρbc = ρb/(1 – ψ) be1 = 0.43 0 0.05 + ψ) Table 6.1 of EN 1993-1-5) Stress distribution (compression positive) s1 be1 b be2 s2 Effectivep width beff ψ = 1: beff = ρb be1 = 0. Determination of kσ for internal compression elements (Table 4.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Table 6.2.85 1>ψ 0: beff = ρ c 1 > ψ > –3 0.8 40 .43 1>ψ>0 0.70 0 > ψ > –1 1.81 – 6.7 – 5ψ + 17.9 –1 > ψ > –3 5. Determination of kσ for outstand compression elements (Table 4.5beff be2 = 0.2 of EN 1993-1-5) Stress distribution (compression positive) beff s2 c s1 Effectivep width beff 1 > ψ > 0: beff = ρ c bt bc s1 ψ < 0: beff = ρbc = ρ c/(1 – ψ) s2 beff ψ = σ2 /σ1 Buckling factor kσ beff s1 c 1 0.07ψ2 s2 beff s1 s2 bc bt ψ < 0: beff = ρbc = ρ c/(1 – ψ) ψ = σ2 /σ1 Buckling factor kσ 1 0.2/(1.3.29ψ + 9.98(1 – ψ)2 ψ = σ2 /σ1 Buckling factor kσ 1 4.21ψ + 0.34) 0 1.1ψ 2 –1 23.78ψ 2 be2 = 0.4beff 0 7.57 –1 0.6beff –1 23.0 1>ψ>0 8.8 0 > ψ > –1 7.

2.2(11) and 6.2. the stress ratio ψ should be found using a stress distribution obtained with the effective area of the compression flange and the gross area of the web (as shown in Fig.4 states that the compressed portion of the web should be replaced by a part of 20εtw adjacent to the compression flange (measured from the base of the root radius). 6. and is therefore relatively straightforward.CHAPTER 6. Generally.2. However. Accordingly. The effective section is prescribed without the use of a slenderness-dependent reduction factor ρ. (b) Stress distribution There are additional rules given in clause 4.4 41 . 6. and plastic section properties for the remainder of the cross-section are determined. A similar distribution may be applied to welded sections with the part of 20εtw adjacent to the compression flange measured from the base of the weld.2(11) Clause 6. part of the compressed portion of the web is neglected.4) makes special allowances for cross-sections with Class 3 webs and Class 1 or 2 flanges by permitting the cross-sections to be classified as effective Class 2 cross-sections. a Class 3 cross-section (where the most slender element is Class 3) would assume an elastic distribution of stresses.6.2. Clause 5.5. (b) using the effective area of compression. the stress ratio ψ should be based on the properties of the gross cross-section (with any due allowance for shear lag) for web elements. Effective properties of cross-sections with Class 3 webs and Class 1 or 2 flanges The previous subsection describes how effective properties for Class 4 cross-sections should be determined. 6. Eurocode 3 (clauses 5. Effective Class 2 web. 6.5. (a) Cross-section. and its bending resistance would be calculated using the elastic modulus Wel.2.2. Clause 6.4 of EN 1993-1-5 that relate to elements of I sections and box girders: • • for flange elements. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES s1 s1 s2 (a) (b) s2 Fig.2. as prescribed by EN 1993-1-5 b – Neglected ineffective area 20e t w – fy 20e t w z h tw Compression Plastic neutral axis Tension + fy (a) (b) Fig.5). with another part of 20εtw adjacent to the plastic neutral axis of the effective cross-section in accordance with Fig. This subsection describes special rules for cross-sections with Class 3 webs and Class 1 or 2 flanges.4 Clause 6.5. Determination of the stress ratio ψ in webs: (a) based on the gross cross-section.6.2.

fu. with reference to clause 6.2. Tension (6.2. fy. Rd is limited either by yielding of the gross cross-section (to prevent excessive deformation of the member) or ultimate failure of the net cross-section (at holes for fasteners).2.00 and γM2 = 1.6 Inclusion of the 0. The Eurocode 3 design expression for yielding of the gross cross-section (plastic resistance) is therefore given as N pl. The tensile resistance of a lap splice is determined in Example 6.2 for the calculation of cross-section properties.7) The design tensile resistance is taken as the smaller of the above two results.2 of this guide).1: tension resistance 42 . 6. 200 mm wide and 25 mm thick. Clause 6. Also. comparison is made between the bending resistance using elastic section properties (i.9 factor was included in the strength model of equation (6. the total area to be deducted is taken as the larger of: Example 6. Rd = Afy γ M0 6. The subject of joints and the provisions of EN 1993-1-8 are covered in Chapter 12 of this guide. and ultimate tensile strength.1.2).2. assuming grade S275 steel.2.9 factor enabled the partial γM factor to be harmonized with that applied to the resistance of other connection parts (bolts or welds).1 to be 275 and 430 N/mm2. Gross area of cross-section A = 25 × 200 = 5000 mm2 In determining the net area. is to be used as a tie. assuming a Class 3 cross-section) and using the effective plastic properties described above. The partial factor of γM2 = 1.2. Clause 6. In Eurocode 3.2 A flat bar. The design tensile force is denoted by NEd (axial design effect).2.3 demonstrates calculation of the bending resistance of a cross-section with a Class 1 flange and a Class 3 web. Anet. For ductility (capacity design).2.9Anet fu γ M2 (6. Note that reference should be made to the UK National Annex for the nominal material strength (see Section 3.3 The resistance of tension members is covered in clause 6. as shown in Fig.7.6) Clause 6.7) following a statistical evaluation of a large number of test results for net section failure of plates.3. are found from Table 3. The 0.e. the Eurocode 3 design expression is N u.3.3 Clause 6.2. design tensile resistance Nt. For a nominal material thickness (t = 25 mm) of less than or equal to 40 mm the nominal values of yield strength.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Example 6. Calculate the tensile strength of the bar. similarly to BS 5950: Part 1.25 (though for buildings to be constructed in the UK.2.25 is therefore employed for the ultimate resistance of net cross-sections. Rd = 0. the design plastic resistance of the gross cross-section should be less than the design ultimate resistance of the net cross-section. Erection conditions require that the bar be constructed from two lengths connected together with a lap splice using six M20 bolts.2 And for the ultimate resistance of the net cross-section (defined in clause 6. whichever is the lesser. The numerical values of the required partial factors recommended by EN 1993-1-1 are γM0 = 1. Cross-section resistance in tension is covered in clause 6.2. respectively.3. reference should be made to the National Annex).

and therefore may only be applied as the sole check to members of low slenderness (λ £ 0.2.4 Clause 6. The design compressive force is denoted by NEd (axial design effect). Rd is determined in a similar manner to BS 5950: Part 1. Rd = N c. Rd (1375 kN) and Nu. Nt.00 The design ultimate resistance of the net cross-section N pl.4. Rd (1364 kN).3 for Class 1.2. Lap splice in tension member with a staggered bolt arrangement (1) the deduction for non-staggered holes (A–A) = 22 × 25 = 550 mm2 2 2 (2) t Ê nd .2). checks also need to be made for member buckling as defined in clause 6. Compression Cross-section resistance in compression is covered in clause 6. the net area of the cross-section Anet = 5000 – 594 = 4406 mm2 The design plastic resistance of the gross cross-section 5000 ¥ 275 = 1375 kN 1. The design resistance of a cross-section under uniform compression.25 The tensile resistance.2. Ed = 0. N u. For all other cases.3. Rd = Afy γ M0 Aeff fy γ M0 Clause 6. Rd.4.10) (6. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES A 50 mm T 100 mm 50 mm B A T T T 5 at 90 mm Fig. 6. BS 5950: Part 1 gives a tensile resistance of 1325 kN. s ˆ = 25 ¥ Ê 2 ¥ 22 . Rd = 1364 kN Note that for the same arrangement. Nc. The Eurocode 3 design expressions for cross-section resistance under uniform compression are as follows: N c.7. 2 or 3 cross-sections for Class 4 cross-sections (6. 6. This of course ignores overall member buckling effects.CHAPTER 6. is taken as the smaller of Npl.11) 43 .9 ¥ 4406 ¥ 430 = 1364 kN 1.90 ˆ = 594 mm 2 Á 0 Á 4 p˜ 4 ¥ 100 ˜ Ë ¯ Ë ¯ (> 550 mm2) Therefore. Rd = \ Nt.

5.3/14.2 Outstand flanges (Table 5. Note that reference should be made to the UK National Annex for the nominal material strength (see Section 3.77 Limit for Class 2 flange = 10ε = 8.3/8.7 mm A = 9310 mm2 Fig. sheet 1): c = h – 2tf – 2r = 200.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 For Class 1.2) compression member. 2 and 3 cross-sections.29 Limit for Class 1 web = 33ε = 26.77 \ flanges are Class 2 Web – internal compression part (Table 5.5.2.4 Clause 5. the design compression resistance is taken as the gross cross-sectional area multiplied by the nominal material yield strength and divided by the partial factor γM0. no allowance need be made for fastener holes (where fasteners are present) except for oversize or slotted holes.2.1 mm tw h d y r tf z y b = 254. 6. Example 6.2 Section properties The section properties are given in Fig. Section properties for a 254 × 254 × 73 UC 44 . 6.6 mm tw = 8.14 8.2.3 mm c/tw = 200. Cross-section classification (clause 5.85 > 23. and likewise for Class 4 cross-sections with the exception that effective section properties are used in place of the gross properties.81 Clause 5.8.6 mm) of less than or equal to 40 mm. b z h = 254.2.85 26.2 = 7.29 \ web is Class 1 Overall cross-section classification is therefore Class 2. the nominal values of yield strength fy for grade S355 steel (to EN 10025-2) is found from Table 3.6 = 23. Calculate the resistance of the cross-section in compression. with cross-section classification covered in clause 5.2: cross-section resistance in compression A 254 × 254 × 73 UC is to be used as a short (λ £ 0.5. Cross-section resistance in compression is covered in clause 6.1 to be 355 N/mm2. Clause 6.8.2 of this guide).3 mm c/tf = 110.6 mm tf = 14.14 > 7. sheet 2): c = (b – tw – 2r)/2 = 110. assuming grade S355 steel. In calculating cross-sectional areas for compression resistance.2 mm and tw = 8. For a nominal material thickness (tf = 14.4.2) ε = 235/fy = 235/355 = 0.5.2.2 mm r = 12.

13) (6. and the resistance of Class 4 cross-sections utilizes the effective section modulus.CHAPTER 6. Eurocode 3 adopts the symbol W for all section moduli. Bending moment Cross-section resistance in bending is covered in clause 6.2 (or in some cases where λ LT £ 0. Rd = Mc.2.1 of this guide. Mc.3. Subscripts are used to differentiate between the plastic.00 (though for construction in the UK reference should be made to the National Annex). Wel or Weff.4) N c. Rd = Wpl fy γ M0 Wel. and no lateral torsional buckling checks need be made: • • • • where sufficient lateral restraint is applied to the compression flange of the beam where bending is about the minor axis where cross-sections with high lateral and torsional stiffness are employed.e.00 = 3305 kN For unsymmetrical Class 4 sections under axial compression. Rd = Afy γ M0 Clause 6. 2 or 3 cross-sections EN 1993-1-1 recommends a numerical value of γM0 = 1.3.2.3)).5 Clause 6. min fy γ M0 for Class 1 or 2 cross-sections for Class 3 cross-sections for Class 4 cross-sections (6.2. Lateral torsional buckling checks are described in clause 6.5. min fy γ M0 Weff.14) (6.5.15) 45 . Rd = 9310 ¥ 355 1.2. Rd = Mc. This induces a bending moment into the section of magnitude equal to the applied axial force multiplied by this shift eN.3.2. In the cases listed below.2. The design expressions are given below: Mc. respectively). The design resistance of a cross-section in bending about one principal axis. the position of the centre of gravity of the gross cross-section and the centroidal axis of the effective cross-section may not coincide (i.2.10) for Class 1. λ LT £ 0.3 The design bending moment is denoted by MEd (bending moment design effect). The partial factor γM0 is applied to all cross-section bending resistances. The design compression resistance of the cross-section N c. the resistance of Class 3 cross-sections is based upon the elastic section modulus. Clause 6.2 Clause 6. As in BS 5950: Part 1.2.2. the resistance of Class 1 and 2 cross-sections is based upon the full plastic section modulus. as described in clause 6. Situations where lateral torsional buckling may be ignored are not. however.3. This is explained in more detail in Section 6. for example square or circular hollow sections or generally where the non-dimensional lateral torsional slenderness. there is a shift in the position of the neutral axis).3. uncommon.4 (see clause 6.2. Rd is determined in a similar manner to BS 5950: Part 1. The additional bending moment must be accounted for by designing the cross-section under combined bending and axial force.4 (6. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES Cross-section compression resistance (clause 6. member strength may be assessed on the basis of the in-plane cross-sectional strength. Clause 6. and represents the in-plane flexural strength of a beam with no account for lateral torsional buckling.9 6.9. elastic or effective section modulus (Wpl.

Dimensions for a welded I section with 200 × 20 mm flanges and a 600 × 6 mm web 46 .5.0 mm hw = 600. calculate the bending moment resistance.9.0 mm.32 > 4.0 = 4.6: E = 210 000 N/mm2 Clause 5.0 mm h hw d y y tf = 20.2) ε = 235/fy = 235/275 = 0.0 mm c/tf = 91. The chosen section is of grade S275 steel. as described in Section 6.55 Limit for Class 1 flange = 9ε = 8.3: cross-section resistance in bending A welded I section is to be designed in bending. the elastic or effective modulus should be based on the extreme fibre that reaches yield first.9.2. Note that reference should be made to the UK National Annex for the nominal material strength (see Section 3.2 of this guide).3 \ web is Class 3 b z s tw b = 200.0/6.2. sheet 1): c = h – 2tf – 2s = 548.2. and has two 200 × 20 mm flanges and a 600 × 6 mm web.0 mm c/tw = 548.92 Outstand flanges (Table 5. sheet 2): c = (b – tw – 2s)/2 = 91. The weld size (leg length) s is 6. y = 2 536 249 mm3 Fig.0 mm and tw = 6. For a nominal material thickness (tf = 20.55 \ flange is Class 1 Web – internal part in bending (Table 5.3 Limit for Class 3 web = 124ε = 114.0 = 91.32 8.0 mm Wel.6 > 91.5.2 Cross-section classification (clause 5.2. 6. From clause 3.0 mm) of less than or equal to 40 mm the nominal values of yield strength fy for grade S275 steel (to EN 10025-2) is found from Table 3.1 to be 275 N/mm2.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 where the subscript ‘min’ indicates that the minimum value of Wel or Weff should be used.2. 6.e.6 Section properties The cross-sectional dimensions are shown in Fig.0 mm tw = 6. Example 6.0 mm tf z s = 6.6 114.2 of this guide. i.0/20. Clause 3. The proportions of the section have been selected such that it may be classified as an effective Class 2 cross-section. Assuming full lateral restraint.

y. of which bi-axial bending is a special case (with the applied axial force NEd = 0).2. Fastener holes in the tension flange and the tensile zone of the web need not be allowed for.CHAPTER 6.2. Rd = Other examples of cross-section bending resistance checks are also included in Examples 6. Mc. (as for cross-sections under uniform compression). Clause 6. 6.5 2 704 682 ¥ 275 = 743.2.0 – 6.2.2.4 Effective Class 2 cross-section properties (clause 6. 6.2. (a) Cross-section.4 Clause 6.2. y = 2 536 249 mm3.8 ¥ 106 N mm = 743.10.0 – (2 × 20 × 0.2.0 – 20. 6. provided clause 6.2. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES b – Neglected ineffective area 20et w – fy 20e t w z h tw Compression Plastic neutral axis Tension + fy (a) (b) Fig.2.2.5(4) Clause 6. y . the designer should refer to clause 6. for the chosen section.2. Rd = Wpl.8 kN m 1. (b) Stress distribution Overall cross-section classification is therefore Class 3.9.9 and 6.8. a cross-section with a Class 3 web and Class 1 or 2 flanges may be classified as an effective Class 2 cross-section.0 Based on the elastic section modulus Wel. no allowance need be made for fastener holes (where fasteners are present) except for oversize or slotted holes. eff fy γ M0 for effective class 2 sections Clause 6. Therefore. In the compression zone of cross-sections in bending.5) Mc.4) Plastic modulus of effective section Wpl.2.9 Clause 6. Effective Class 2 properties for a welded I section. the bending resistance of the cross-section would have been 697.10. as indicated by z in Fig. Clause 6.5. may be shown (based on equal areas above and below the plastic neutral axis) to be z = h – tf – s – (2 × 20εtw) = 600.2. y .5(5) are satisfied.0) = 352.2. use of the effective Class 2 plastic properties results in an increase in bending moment resistance of approximately 7%. as stated in clause 6. eff = btf(h – tf) + tw{(20εtw + s)[z – tf – (20εtw + s)/2]} + tw(20εtw × 20εtw /2) + tw[(h – tf – z)(h – tf – z)/2] 3 = 2 704 682 mm Bending resistance of cross-section (clause 6.5 kN m.4. 6.5(4) and 6.5(5) 47 .1 mm (D6.2. However.4) Plastic neutral axis of effective section The depth to the plastic neutral axis of the effective section.10. y . For combined bending and axial force.92 × 6.

2.6(3) and it is the plastic shear resistance that will be used in the vast majority of practical design situations. is shown in Fig. defined as the total shear force VEd divided by the area of the web (or equivalent shear area Av). In both cases in Fig.2. for the I section (and similarly for the majority of conventional structural steel cross-sections).2. Expressions for the determination of shear area Av for general structural cross-sections are given in clause 6. Shear (6.2. which carries almost all the vertical shear force.11.11. Distribution of shear stresses in beams subjected to a shear force VEd.6(3).6. the shear stress varies parabolically with depth. by allowing a degree of plastic redistribution of shear stress.6.6(2) therefore defines the plastic shear resistance as Vpl. 6. However. clause 6.2. Rd.6(2) The resistance of cross-sections to shear is covered in clause 6.6 Clause 6. Rd) or an elastic distribution of shear stress. The design shear resistance of a cross-section is denoted by Vc. and. The most common ones are repeated below: 48 . (b) Shear stress distribution Clause 6.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 t h t max = 3V Ed 2ht b h t max = V Ed hb 2I 1+ h 4b t max = V Ed hb 2I (a) (b) Fig. 6. Since the yield stress of steel in shear is approximately 1/÷3 of its yield stress in tension. and may be calculated based on a plastic (Vpl.11. Rd = Av ( fy / 3) γ M0 6.18) Clause 6. based on purely elastic behaviour.2. The design shear force is denoted by VEd (shear force design effect). design can be simplified to working with average shear stress. 6. (a) Cross-section. is relatively small. The shear stress distribution in a rectangular section and in an I section. the difference between maximum and minimum values for the web. Consequently.2. this is essentially the area of the web (with some allowance for the root radii in rolled sections). The shear area Av is in effect the area of the cross-section that can be mobilized to resist the applied shear force with a moderate allowance for plastic redistribution. with the maximum value occurring at the neutral axis. for sections where the load is applied parallel to the web.

H.2. 6. load parallel to the flanges: Av = A – Âhw tw • • • Rolled rectangular hollow section of uniform thickness.6(2).1 of EN 1993-1-5 (and the discussion on p. though this is unlikely to affect cross-sections of standard hot-rolled proportions. This check need only be applied to unusual sections that are not addressed in clause 6. H and box sections. Shear buckling need not be considered provided: hw ε £ 72 tw η hw ε £ 31 kτ η tw Clause 6. 49 .6(4) Clause 6. load parallel to the depth: Av = Ah/(b + h) Rolled rectangular hollow section of uniform thickness. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES • • • Rolled I and H sections.6) where ε= 235 fy kτ is a shear buckling coefficient defined in Annex A.2. The resistance of the web to shear buckling should also be checked.5) (D6.2. such as where repeated load reversal occurs.11). The code also provides expressions in clause 6.3 of EN 1993-1-5. or in cases where plasticity is to be avoided. 50 of this guide).2. load parallel to the web: Av = ηÂhw tw but ≥ ηhwtw Rolled channel sections.CHAPTER 6. load parallel to the web: • Welded I.6(4) for checking the elastic shear resistance of a cross-section. channel and box sections. load parallel to the web: Av = A – 2btf + (tw + 2r)tf Av = A – 2btf + (tw + r)tf Welded I.6(2) for unstiffened webs for webs with intermediate stiffeners (D6. where the distribution of shear stresses is calculated assuming elastic material behaviour (see Fig. load parallel to the width: Av = Ab/(b + h) Circular hollow section and tubes of uniform thickness: Av = 2A/π where A b h hw r tf tw η is the cross-sectional area is the overall section breadth is the overall section depth is the overall web depth (measured between the flanges) is the root radius is the flange thickness is the web thickness (taken as the minimum value if the web is not of constant thickness) is the shear area factor – see clause 5.

1 of EN 1993-1-5 that η be taken as 1. reference should be made to the National Annex).20 (except for steel grades higher than S460. Rd = 2092 ¥ (275/ 3) = 332 000 N = 332 kN 1. Rd = Av ( fy / 3) γ M0 Shear resistance (clause 6. 6. For a nominal material thickness (tf = 13.2.9 × 13. 6.6: Vpl.7(9).3) + (8.2.7 mm A = 4160 mm2 tw Fig.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Clause 6. the shear area is given by Av = A – 2btf + (tw + r)tf Av = 4160 – (2 × 88.2. to determine shear buckling resistance. Shear area A v For a rolled channel section. Section properties for a 229 × 89 mm rolled channel section 50 .5) and (D6. and designers should refer to these for specific guidance.6 + 13.6 Shear resistance is determined according to clause 6.2.3 Av = 2092 mm2 \ Vpl.2. where η = 1. numerical values for η are given in the National Annexes.3 mm r = 13.6 mm) of less than or equal to 40 mm the nominal values of yield strength fy for grade S275 steel (to EN 10025-2) is found from Table 3.6). reference should be made to clause 5. provided: hw ε £ 72 tw η for unstiffened webs z h = 228. though a conservative value of 1. Section properties The section properties are given in Fig.6 mm b = 88.3 mm and tw = 8. Clause 6.6 mm tf = 13.18) EN 1993-1-1 recommends a numerical value of γM0 = 1.1 to be 275 N/mm2. For cross-sections that fail to meet the criteria of equations (D6.6) (6.7) × 13. However.2 of EN 1993-1-5.9 mm h y r tf z y tw = 8.00 is recommended).00 Shear buckling Shear buckling need not be considered.00 (though for buildings to be constructed in the UK.12. Example 6.4: shear resistance Determine the shear resistance of a 229 × 89 rolled channel section in grade S275 steel loaded parallel to the web. loaded parallel to the web. Rules for combined shear force and torsion are provided in clause 6.7(9) It is recommended in clause 5.00 may be used in all cases.12.

10 Clause 6. 6.2. Rd.7(9) 51 . In such cases.2. Such non-uniform torsion may occur either as a result of non-uniform loading (i. In engineering structures it is the latter that is the most common. or elastically by adopting the yield criterion of equation (6. whose torsional rigidities are very large.2. which must be demonstrated to be greater than the design shear force VEd. shear and axial force). and warping torsion may be neglected.2. such as I or H sections. and pure twisting is relatively unusual.2.5 \ no shear buckling check required Conclusion The shear resistance of a 229 × 89 rolled channel section in grade S275 steel loaded parallel to the web is 332 kN.1) (see clause 6.92 η = 1.7(4) Depending on the cross-section classification.2.7(7) allows useful simplifications for the design of torsion members. Therefore.2.7. in which case. and the applied torque is resisted by a single set of shear stresses.7.7.8 and 6. though the UK National Annex may specify an alternative value).7(7) Clause 6.7(4). for open sections.2 (η from EN 1993-1-5.2.2. Torsion Clause 6.5 23. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES ε = 235/fy = 235/275 = 0. Clause 6.7 Clause 6. longitudinal direct stresses and an additional set of shear stresses arise.2.e.2.2.2 Actual hw /tw = (h – 2tf)/tw = [228. T. Warping torsion exists where the rate of change of the angle of twist along the length of a member is not constant. the member is said to be in a state of non-uniform torsion. distributed around the cross-section. Saint Venant torsion dominates.7(9) defines a reduced plastic shear resistance Vpl. Ed due to the warping. Torsional loading can arise in two ways: either due to an applied torque (pure twisting) or due to transverse load applied eccentrically to the shear centre of the cross-section (twisting plus bending). BS 5950 (2000) gives a shear resistance of 324 kN.6 – (2 × 13. as noted in clause 6. 6. varying torque along the length of the member) or due to the presence of longitudinal restraint to the warping deformations.8 Clause 6. For the case of combined shear force and torsional moment.10 provide guidance for torsion acting in combination with other effects (bending.2. Saint Venant torsion is the uniform torsion that exists when the rate of change of the angle of twist along the length of a member is constant. Ed and the warping torsion Tw.6 = 23.2.1(5) Clause 6. For closed-section members (such as cylindrical and rectangular hollow sections).7 Clause 6.7(6) Clause 6. For non-uniform torsion. the longitudinal warping deformations (that accompany twisting) are also constant. Conversely.7(6).2. torsional resistance may be verified plastically with reference to clause 6. 72 ε 0.11 Clause 6.CHAPTER 6. Saint Venant torsion may be neglected.5 η 1.2.92 = 72 ¥ = 55. The torsional moment design effect TEd is made up of two components: the Saint Venant torsion Tt.2. The resistance of cross-sections to torsion is covered in clause 6.2.3)]/8. whose torsional rigidities are low. Ed. Consequently clauses 6. Detailed guidance on the design of members subjected to torsion is available. Ed due to the warping torsion longitudinal direct stresses σw.1(5)). Ed due to the Saint Venant torsion shear stresses τw.5 £ 55. clause 6. there are three sets of stresses that should be considered: • • • shear stresses τt. For the same cross-section.2.

6 Clause 6.2. which involves somewhat tedious calculations. T. defined by equation (6. Ed 1.6.27) • for a structural hollow section: Ê ˆ τ t. Rd Á 1.2. T.30) may be applied to the common situation of an I section (with equal flanges) subjected to bending about the major axis.2.2. and when torsion is present Vpl. Rd = (Wpl.8(2) states that provided the applied shear force is less than half the plastic shear resistance of the cross-section its effect on the moment resistance may be neglected.29): fyr = (1 – ρ)fy where ρ is defined by equation (D6.25( fy / 3)/γ M0 ( fy / 3)/γ M0 ˜ Ë ¯ (6.2.7).29).28) Clause 6. in the majority of cases (and particularly when standard rolled sections are adopted) the effect of shear force on the moment resistance is negligible and may be ignored – clause 6. Ed and τw.30) Clause 6. T.6 of this guide. V. In this case the reduced design plastic resistance moment allowing for shear is given by M y . Ê 2V ˆ ρ = Á Ed . T. However. Bending and shear (6. Ed Vpl.7) Clause 6. An example of the application of the cross-section rules for combined bending and shear force is given in Example 6. the moment resistance should be calculated using a reduced design strength for the shear area.26) for a channel section Ê ˆ τ t. Rd may be obtained from clause 6. as described in Section 6.5Vpl. C.2.2. Rd (6. Ed Vpl. Rd £ My.2.5 and Aw = hw tw. Rd) (D6.7). Rd may be obtained from clause 6. An alternative to the reduced design strength for the shear area. is equation (6. Rd may be derived from equations (6. Rd Ë ( fy / 3)/γ M 0 ¯ (6.8(2) Bending moments and shear forces acting in combination on structural members is commonplace.5. Rd ¯ 2 6.6.29) (for VEd > 0.25( fy / 3)/γ M0 Vpl.2. T. y . c. Rd = Á 1 ˜ Vpl. My. Rd should be replaced by Vpl.2. The exception to this is where shear buckling reduces the resistance of the cross-section. Clause 6.28): • for an I or H section Vpl.2.1˜ Ë Vpl.8. Rd (6.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Vpl.7 Vpl.26) to (6. given by equation (6. For cases where the applied shear force is greater than half the plastic shear resistance of the cross-section. Equation (6. Rd is obtained from clause 6.2. Rd. Ed are defined above and Vpl.6 where τt.ρ Aw 2 /4 tw ) fy γ M0 but My. obtained from clause 6. 52 .7.30).5 where ρ is defined by equation (D6. Rd = Á 1 ˜ Vpl. Ed τ w. Rd = 1 • τ t. V.

General arrangement and loading b z tw y y h = 412.8 mm b = 179.32 > 4.2 mm A = 9450 mm2 Wpl.5 mm tf = 16.2 Outstand flange in compression (Table 5. 6.2.68 \ flange is Class 1 1050 kN A B 0. Section properties for a 406 × 178 × 74 UB 53 .7 m Fig. From clause 3.6 Cross-section classification (clause 5.0 = 4.14.CHAPTER 6. Note that reference should be made to the UK National Annex for the nominal material strength (see Section 3.13 results in a maximum design shear force VEd of 525 kN and a maximum design bending moment MEd of 367.1 to be 275 N/mm2. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES A short-span (1. as shown in Fig.5: cross-section resistance under combined bending and shear Section properties The section properties are set out in Fig. sheet 2): c = (b – tw – 2r)/2 = 74.5.13.0 mm and tw = 9.6: E = 210 000 N/mm 2 Clause 3.32 8. 6.5 mm h d tw = 9.5 mm) of less than or equal to 40 mm the nominal values of yield strength fy for grade S275 steel (to EN 10025-2) is found from Table 3.68 Limit for Class 1 flange = 9ε = 8. In this example a 406 × 178 × 74 UB in grade S275 steel is assessed for its suitability for this application.0 mm r tf z r = 10.8 mm c/tf = 74. 6.92 Clause 5.2. simply supported. 6. The arrangement of Fig. Example 6. 6. y = 1 501 000 mm3 Fig.13.5 kN m.2) ε = 235/fy = 235/275 = 0.4 m). For a nominal material thickness (tf = 16.2 of this guide).14.2. laterally restrained beam is to be designed to carry a central point load of 1050 kN.8/16.5.7 m 0.

5 = 40.2.00 Shear buckling need not be considered.2) × 16. Clause 6.00 412 kN m > 367.30) may be utilized.4 mm c/tw = 360. Rd must be calculated.18) For a rolled I section.5 + 10.2. loaded parallel to the web.6 Shear resistance of cross-section (clause 6. Rd = Av ( fy / 3) γ M0 (6. y .5 Bending resistance of cross-section (clause 6.2.2.56 > 37.5) Mc. Rd = Clause 6. V.1 40.8/9.2 kN 1.2. therefore a reduced moment resistance My. clause 6.8 – (2 × 16. y fy γ M0 for Class 1 or 2 cross-sections (6. y .2 × 380.2.13) The design bending resistance of the cross-section 1501 ¥ 10 3 ¥ 275 = 412 ¥ 10 6 N mm = 412 kN m 1.2 > 525 kN Clause 6.8) 54 .2 (from EN 1993-1-5.5 kN m \ cross-section resistance in bending is acceptable Mc.8 Clause 6. Rd = hw ε £ 72 tw η for unstiffened webs 72 ε 0.5 = 4341 mm2) 4341 ¥ (275/ 3) = 689 200 N = 689.5 = 37.8 mm \ Av = 9450 – (2 × 179.1 £ 55. though the UK National Annex may specify an alternative value).0) + (9.2 Actual hw /tw = 380.94 \ web is Class 1 Therefore. Rd = Wpl. the overall cross-section classification is Class 1. hw = (h – 2tf) = 412. the shear area Av is given by Av = A – 2btf + (tw + r)tf (but not less than ηhw tw) η = 1.8 × 9.4/9.2.5 \ no shear buckling check required \ shear resistance is acceptable 689.92 = 72 ¥ = 55. For an I section (with equal flanges) and bending about the major axis. provided \ Vpl.8(5) The applied shear force is greater than half the plastic shear resistance of the crosssection.56 66.94 Limit for Class 1 web = 72ε = 66. sheet 1): c = h – 2tf – 2r = 360.5 η 1.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Web – internal part in bending (Table 5. Resistance of cross-section to combined bending and shear (clause 6.2.6) Vpl.0) = 380.5 × 16.2.8(5) and equation (6.0 \ Av = 4184 mm2 (but not less than 1.

CHAPTER 6. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES

M y , V, Rd =

(Wpl, y - ρ Aw 2 /4 tw ) fy γ M0
2

but My, V, Rd £ My, c, Rd

(6.30) (D6.7)

2 Ê 2V ˆ Ê 2 ¥ 525 ˆ ρ = Á Ed - 1˜ = Á - 1˜ = 0.27 Ë 689.2 ¯ Ë Vpl, Rd ¯

Aw = hwtw = 380.8 × 9.5 = 3617.6 mm2 fi M y , V, Rd =
(1 501 000 - 0.27 ¥ 3617.62 /4 ¥ 9.5) ¥ 275 = 386.8 kN 1.0

386.8 kN m > 367.5 kN m

\ cross-section resistance to combined bending and shear is acceptable

Conclusion A 406 × 178 × 74 UB in grade S275 steel is suitable for the arrangement and loading shown by Fig. 6.13.

The design of cross-sections subjected to combined bending and axial force is described in clause 6.2.9. Bending may be about one or both principal axes, and the axial force may be tensile or compressive (with no difference in treatment). In dealing with the combined effects, Eurocode 3 prescribes different methods for designing Class 1 and 2, Class 3, and Class 4 cross-sections. As an overview to the codified approach, for Class 1 and 2 sections, the basic principle is that the design moment should be less than the reduced moment capacity, reduced, that is, to take account of the axial load. For Class 3 sections, the maximum longitudinal stress due to the combined actions must be less than the yield stress, while for Class 4 sections the same criterion is applied but to a stress calculated based on effective cross-section properties. As a conservative alternative to the methods set out in the following subsections, a simple linear interaction given below and in equation (6.2) may be applied to all cross-sections (clause 6.2.1(7)), though Class 4 cross-section resistances must be based on effective section properties (and any additional moments arising from the resulting shift in neutral axis should be allowed for). These additional moments necessitate the extended linear interaction expression given by equation (6.44) and discussed later.
NEd M y , Ed M z , Ed + + £1 NRd M y , Rd M z , Rd

6.2.9. Bending and axial force

Clause 6.2.9

Clause 6.2.1(7)

(6.2)

where NRd, My, Rd and Mz, Rd are the design cross-sectional resistances and should include any necessary reduction due to shear effects (clause 6.2.8). The intention of equation (6.2) is simply to allow a designer to generate a quick, approximate and safe solution, perhaps for the purposes of initial member sizing, with the opportunity to refine the calculations for final design.

Clause 6.2.8

Class 1 and 2 cross-sections: mono-axial bending and axial force The design of Class 1 and 2 cross-sections subjected to mono-axial bending (i.e. bending about a single principal axis) and axial force is covered in clause 6.2.9.1(5), while bi-axial Clause 6.2.9.1(5) bending (with or without axial forces) is covered in clause 6.2.9.1(6). Clause 6.2.9.1(6) In general, for Class 1 and 2 cross-sections (subjected to bending and axial forces), Eurocode 3 requires the calculation of a reduced plastic moment resistance MN, Rd to account for the presence of an applied axial force NEd. It should then be checked that the applied bending moment MEd is less than this reduced plastic moment resistance.

55

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EN 1993-1-1 treats bi-axial bending as a subset of the rules for combined bending and axial force.9. Ed/MN.16. Ed/MN. equation (6. Rd 0. Checks for Class 1 and 2 cross-sections subjected to bi-axial bending. with or without axial forces.2.4 0.41) represents a more sophisticated convex interaction expression. Rd ¯ α β (6. z.9(6) My.9(6) allows α and β to be taken as unity. Clause 6.40) Conclusion In order to satisfy the cross-sectional checks of clause 6.2. y.(0.1(6) the simple linear interaction expression of equation (6. Rd ¯ Ë MN.0. Clause 6. as defined below.0 0.2 1.4) and CHS I and H sections (n = 0.1.2 kN m. α=β= 1.41) in which α and β are constants.2.0 0. y .2.9 Class 1 and 2 cross-sections: bi-axial bending with or without axial force As in BS 5950: Part 1.5 kN m 1.2) may be used.2 kN m 1 . Ed ˆ Ê M z .2 Linear interaction I and H sections (n = 0.2 0. Rd = 524.16 shows the bi-axial bending interaction curves (for Class 1 and 2 cross-sections) for some common cases. Rd = Wpl fy γ M0 = 2 232 000 ¥ 235 = 524.8 Mz. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES Mpl.9.48 = 342.13n2 Figure 6. For I and H sections: α=2 α=2 and and β = 5n β=2 but β ≥ 1 For circular hollow sections: For rectangular hollow sections: 1.66 but α = β £ 6 1 . Although Clause 6.0 0. which can result in significant improvements in efficiency: Ê M y . 6.5 ¥ 0.2 0.2) I and H sections (n = 0. the maximum bending moment that can be carried by a 457 × 191 × 98 UB in grade S235 steel.6 0. z .CHAPTER 6.0 fi MN. y .1(6). Bi-axial bending interaction curves 59 .6) Clause 6. thus reverting to a conservative linear interaction.9. Rd Fig.6 0.8 1.4 0.2.2.0 1. y .5 ¥ 1 . in the presence of an axial force of 1400 kN is 342. Ed ˆ Á ˜ + Á ˜ £1 Ë MN. are set out in clause 6.

2.10. then a reduced yield strength should be calculated for the shear area (as described in clause 6.9. clause 6. and provided shear buckling is not a concern (see Section 6.44) where Aeff is the effective area of the cross-section under pure compression Weff. may subsequently be checked for bending and axial force according to clause 6.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 eN G G¢ G (a) (b) Fig.2.2. z .17.9.2.3) are also designed based on a linear interaction of stresses. allowances for fastener holes should be made in the unusual cases of slotted or oversized holes or where there are holes that contain no fasteners.42).2 Class 3 cross-sections: general For Class 3 cross-sections. eN 6.2 permits only a linear interaction of stresses arising from combined bending moments and axial force. as given by equation (6.2.5(4) cross-section (see Fig.9. provided the shear force VEd is less than 50% of the design plastic shear resistance Vpl.2. with the maximum fibre stress (in the longitudinal x-direction of the member) limited to the yield stress fy divided by the partial factor γM0.44): M y .8 of this guide and clause 5. for Class 4 cross-sections the stresses must be calculated on the basis of the effective properties of the section.2. min fy /γ M0 Weff. with a reduced strength shear area.2. and limits the maximum fibre stress (in the longitudinal x-direction of the member) to the yield stress. However.2.2. and allowance must be made for the additional stresses resulting from the shift in neutral axis between the gross cross-section and the effective Clause 6.2.2. As an 60 . Class 4 sections subjected to combined bending and axial force Clause 6. Rd (clause 6. Shift in neutral axis from (a) gross to (b) effective cross-section Clause 6.9 The design of cross-sections subjected to combined bending.9 Clause 6. shear and axial force is covered in clause 6.3 (clause 6.9).2. Bending. Ed = fy γ M0 (6.2.2.6).10.42).9.1 of EN 1993-1-5).5(4) and Chapter 13 of this guide). The resulting interaction expression that satisfies equation (6. Ed + NEd eNz NEd + + £1 Aeff fy /γ M0 Weff. 6.17.8).2.6 Clause 6. However. then the cross-section need only satisfy the requirements for bending and axial force (clause 6. Class 4 cross-sections: general As for Class 3 cross-sections. shear and axial force Clause 6. min fy /γ M0 (6.42) As when considering compression and bending in isolation. clause 6. y .2. In cases where the shear force does exceed 50% of the design plastic shear resistance of the cross-section.9. Ed + NEd eNy M z . based on the extreme fibre that reaches yield first is the shift in the relevant neutral axis. 6. and includes the bending moments induced as a result of the shift in neutral axis is given by equation (6. the cross-section. min is the effective section modulus about the relevant axis.2.2.8 Clause 6. fy divided by the partial factor γM0. as below: σ x .10 Clause 6.2.

3.3. for example. Clause 6. and the design buckling resistance should be taken as N b. Although minor technical differences exist. this may simplify calculations.1 Clause 6.3 Clauses 6.3 covers the buckling resistance of members. the primary difference between the two codes is in the presentation of the method.3.3. Eurocode 3 provides no design expressions for calculating buckling resistances. Rd = χ Afy γ M1 χ Aeff fy γ M1 Clause 6.2).2 Clause 6.1 to 6. an equivalent reduction to the thickness is also allowed.3.4 6.3. Guidance is provided for uniform compression members susceptible to flexural. that result from the shift in neutral axis from the gross cross-section to the effective cross-section (multiplied by the applied compression force). in the case of compression members.4 may be used to directly determine member buckling resistances.3.3 are applicable to uniform members. DMEd. This must be shown to be less than or equal to the design buckling resistance of the compression member. or for members with a non-uniform distribution of compression force along their length (which may arise.3.3. and uniform members subjected to a combination of bending and axial compression (see clause 6. Compression members with Class 1. Clauses 6. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES alternative to reducing the strength of the shear area. Uniform members in compression General The Eurocode 3 approach to determining the buckling resistance of compression members is based on the same principles as that of BS 5950.48) where χ is the reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode (flexural.3. where framing-in members apply forces but offer no significant lateral restraint). For member design.1. Buckling resistance of members Clause 6. which does not appear in BS 5950).3.3. however.3. no account need be taken for fastener holes at the member ends. the load should be applied uniformly). Buckling curves The buckling curves defined by EN 1993-1-1 are equivalent to those set out in BS 5950: Part 1 in tabular form in Table 24 (with the exception of buckling curve a0. it is. The design of uniform members subjected to combined bending and axial compression is covered in clause 6.1 to 6.47) (6. These buckling modes are discussed later in this section.3.3.3 Clause 5.3 Clause 6. and are as given below: 61 .3.3. torsional and torsional–flexural buckling (see clause 6. Nb. Buckling resistance The design compression force is denoted by NEd (axial design effect). such as those with tapered sections.1. 2 and 3 cross-sections and symmetrical Class 4 cross-sections follow the provisions of clause 6. defined as those with a constant cross-section along the full length of the member (and additionally. Rd (axial buckling resistance). torsional or torsional flexural).3. the basic formulations for the buckling curves remain unchanged. 2 and 3 cross-sections for (symmetric) Class 4 cross-sections (6.1 for Class 1.3. 6. uniform bending members susceptible to lateral torsional buckling (see clause 6. Regardless of the mode of buckling. noted that a second-order analysis using the member imperfections according to clause 5. For non-uniform members.3 Clause 6.CHAPTER 6. Members with non-symmetric Class 4 cross-sections have to be designed for combined bending and axial compression because of the additional bending moments.1). Rd = N b.3).

6. in terms of elastic critical forces.2) need be applied.0 1.2. clause 6.2 0.8 Curve b Curve c 0.18.1. 6. as defined above. is in a generalized format requiring the calculation of the elastic critical force Ncr for the relevant buckling mode. 6. l Fig. b.0 0.18 it can be seen.1 of the code (reproduced here as Table 6. and hence λ.0. The non-dimensional slenderness λ. 2 and 3 cross-sections for Class 4 cross-sections α Ncr is an imperfection factor is the elastic critical buckling force for the relevant buckling mode based on the gross properties of the cross-section. 6.4 of the code (reproduced here as Fig.5 Non-dimensional slenderness.5 1.2 1. or.4 0. 6.04) there is no reduction to the basic cross-section resistance. c and d. In this case.3.18.3. The shapes of these buckling curves are altered through the imperfection factor α. the five values of the imperfection factor α for each of these curves are given in Table 6.4). This means that for compression members of stocky proportions (λ £ 0.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 χ= 1 Φ + Φ2 . buckling effects may be ignored and only cross-sectional checks Clause 6.1.5 2. As shown in Fig. for NEd /Ncr £ 0. 1. EN 1993-1-1 defines five buckling curves. in all cases. From the shape of the buckling curves given in Fig.6 Curve d 0. that for values of non-dimensional slenderness λ £ 0. labelled a0. c 0.0 (6. for the various buckling modes is described in the following section.0 Curve a0 Curve a Reduction factor.0 0.49) where Φ = 0.5[1 + α(λ . The relevant buckling mode that governs design will be that with the lowest critical buckling force Ncr. It is worth noting that as an alternative to using the buckling Clause 6.2 the buckling reduction factor is equal to unity. Calculation of Ncr. EN 1993-1-1 buckling curves 62 .0 2.λ 2 but χ £ 1. a.2(3) allows the buckling reduction factor to be determined graphically directly from Fig.18).2) + λ 2 ] λ= λ= Afy N cr Aeff fy N cr for Class 1.2 (clause 6.2(3) curve formulations described above.

2 tf £ 40 mm 40 mm < tf £ 100 tf £ 100 mm h/b £ 1.2 z b z tf z tf y y S 460 a0 a0 a a a a c c b c c d a0 c b Rolled sections h y y tf > 100 mm Welded I-sections tf £ 40 mm y y tf > 40 mm z z Hollow sections hot finished cold formed generally (except as below) y tw z b z tf Welded box sections h y thick welds: a > 0.and solid sections any c c any L-sections b b 63 .4. T.5tf b/tf < 30 h/tw <30 any c c U-.1 of EN 1993-1-1) Buckling curve Imperfection factor α a0 0.76 Table 6.34 c 0.CHAPTER 6.5.49 d 0. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES Table 6. Selection of buckling curve for a cross-section (Table 6.2 of EN 1993-1-1) Buckling curve Buckling about axis y–y z–z y–y z–z y–y z–z y–y z–z y–y z–z y–y z–z any any any S 235 S 275 S 355 S 420 a b b c b c d d b c c d a c b Cross section tf z Limits h/b > 1.13 a 0.21 b 0. Imperfection factors for buckling curves (Table 6.

flexural buckling is by far the most common buckling mode for conventional hot-rolled structural members.3. the BS 5950 definition of slenderness (λ = LE /ry) is already ‘non-dimensional’.3.1. respectively) E = 93. For standard hot-rolled and welded structural cross-sections. torsional (clause 6. The appropriate buckling curve should be determined from Table 6. λ is useful for relating the column slenderness to the theoretical point at which the squash load and the Euler critical buckling load coincide. the designer should also check for the possibility that the torsional or torsional– flexural buckling resistance of a member may be less than the flexural buckling resistance. This allows a more direct comparison of susceptibility to flexural buckling to be made for columns with varying material strength.1. which is equivalent to the ‘allocation of strut curve’ table (Table 23) of BS 5950: Part 1. 64 .9ε fy and ε= 235 fy λ1 = π (fy in N/mm2) Clearly.3).1.3. flexural buckling is the predominant buckling mode. which includes the material properties of the compression member through λ1.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 The choice as to which buckling curve (imperfection factor) to adopt is dependent upon the geometry and material properties of the cross-section and upon the axis of buckling.3 Clause 6. the load at which failure occurs reduces. which always occurs at the value of non-dimensional slenderness λ equal to 1. and torsional stiffness is associated with the material thickness cubed the cold-forming process gives a predominance of open sections because these can be easily produced from flat sheet.1.51) Aeff fy for Class 4 cross-sections where Lcr i is the buckling length of the compression member in the plane under consideration.50) (6. As the slenderness of the column increases.3. The non-dimensional slenderness λ is given by λ= λ= Afy N cr N cr = Lcr 1 i λ1 = Lcr i λ1 for Class 1.2 of EN 1993-1-1).1. 2 and 3 cross-sections Aeff /A (6.4 Non-dimensional slenderness for various buckling modes EN 1993-1-1 provides guidance for flexural (clause 6. Open sections have inherently low torsional stiffness.3 Flexural buckling of a compression member is characterized by excessive lateral deflections in the plane of the weaker principal axis of the member. particularly for thin-walled and open sections. is that all variables affecting the theoretical buckling load of a perfect pin-ended (Euler) column are now present.1. Torsional and torsional–flexural buckling are discussed further in Section 13. As stated earlier. Clause 6. Further.4) buckling modes. Clause 6.3.1.3. However.0.3. determined using the gross properties of the cross-section (assigned the symbols rx and ry in BS 5950 for the radius of gyration about the major and minor axes. and is equivalent to the effective length LE in BS 5950 (buckling lengths are discussed in the next section) is the radius of gyration about the relevant axis. Buckling modes with torsional components are generally limited to cold-formed members for two principal reasons: • • cold-formed cross-sections contain relatively thin material. but the advantage of the Eurocode 3 definition of ‘non-dimensional slenderness’ λ. and hence governs design in the vast majority of cases.3.4) and flexural–torsional (clause 6.5 (Table 6.7 of this guide. Calculation of the non-dimensional slenderness for flexural buckling is covered in clause 6.

7 of this guide.85L 1. BS 5950: Part 1 therefore generally offers effective (or buckling) lengths that are less optimistic than the theoretical values. and should be taken as λT = λT = Afy N cr Aeff fy N cr Clause 6. TF are not provided in EN 1993-1-1. TF but Ncr £ Ncr.1. T is the elastic critical torsional buckling force (see Section 13.5L 2. and by assuming buckling to be about the minor (z–z) axis. Typically. Lcr 0.CHAPTER 6.0L Calculation of the non-dimensional slenderness λT for torsional and torsional–flexural buckling is covered in clause 6.1. The provisions of Annex BB are discussed in Chapter 11 of this guide. T and Ncr.4. T Ncr.3 of the code. 2 and 3 cross-sections for Class 4 cross-sections (6. it is therefore recommended that the BS 5950 buckling lengths be adopted.6. partly because no common consensus between the contributing countries could be reached. The generic definition of λT is the same as the definition of λT for flexural buckling. on the basis that there is inevitably a degree of flexibility in the connections.5 (Table 6. Lcr 1.4 for Class 1.7 of this guide) Ncr. Nominal buckling lengths Lcr for compression members End restraint (in the plane under consideration) Effectively held in position at both ends Effectively restrained in direction at both ends Partially restrained in direction at both ends Restrained in direction at one end Not restrained in direction at either end One end Effectively held in position and restrained in direction Other end Not held in position Effectively restrained in direction Partially restrained in direction Not restrained in direction Buckling length.6 contains the buckling 65 . ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES Table 6. In the absence of Eurocode 3 guidance. Some guidance on buckling lengths for compression members in triangulated and lattice structures is given in Annex BB of Eurocode 3.2 of EN 1993-1-1). Buckling curves for torsional and torsional–flexural buckling may be selected on the basis of Table 6.85L 0.3. TF is the elastic critical torsional–flexural buckling force (see Section 13. Buckling lengths Lcr Comprehensive guidance on buckling lengths for compression members with different end conditions is not provided in Eurocode 3.7L 0.52) (6.3. except that now the elastic critical buckling force is that for torsional–flexural buckling (with the proviso that this is less than that for torsional buckling). Table 6.2L 1.7 of this guide). but may be found in Part 1. and in Section 13.53) where Ncr = Ncr. Formulae for determining Ncr. UK designers have been uncomfortable with the assumption of fully fixed end conditions.0L Buckling length.

6.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Fixed Pinned Pinned Free in position Partial restraint in direction Free 0. General arrangement and loading d = 244.19. channels or T sections. y = 415 000 mm3 Wpl.21.7. Nominal buckling lengths Lcr for compression members lengths provided in clause 4. as shown in Fig. The column has pinned boundary conditions at each end.5 × 10 CHS 66 . and the inter-storey height is 4 m. 6. The boundary conditions and corresponding buckling lengths are illustrated in Fig. 6.20.5L 2.2L 1.19.3 of BS 5950: Part 1.85L 1. Section properties The section properties are given in Fig.7.0L Fixed Partial restraint in direction Fixed Pinned Fixed Fixed Fixed Fig.5 mm t t = 10.10 of BS 5950: Part 1.0 m Fig. Example 6.21. Section properties for 244. these buckling lengths are not to be applied to angles.20. 6.7: buckling resistance of a compression member A circular hollow section (CHS) member is to be used as an internal column in a multi-storey building. where L is equal to the system length.0L 1. for which reference should be made to clause 4.7L 0.5 × 10 CHS in grade S275 steel for this application.85L 0. Assess the suitability of a hot-rolled 244. 6. 6. y = 550 000 mm3 d I = 50 730 000 mm4 Fig.0 mm A = 7370 mm2 Wel. The critical combination of actions results in a design axial force of 1630 kN. NEd = 1630 kN 4.

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692 .3.1(2) Clause 6.3 (for rolled sections and equivalent welded sections).5 kN 1.4 • • Designers familiar with BS 5950 will be accustomed to simplified calculations. calculation of Mcr is discussed later in this section of the guide.3 Clause 6. it is recommended that the provisions of clauses 4. Such simplifications do not appear in the primary Eurocode method.3. The third is a general method for lateral and lateral torsional buckling of structural components. 244. In the absence of explicit Eurocode guidance.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Buckling curves Φ = 0. Rd = 1836.3. where determination of the elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling Mcr is aided.3 of BS 5950: Part 1 be followed.5[1 + 0.21 × (0. Clause 6.91 ¥ 7370 ¥ 275 = 1836.3. Uniform members in bending General Clause 6.2.4 and discussed in the corresponding section of this guide.3.3.2 and 4. Lateral restraint Clause 6.4 Clause 6.3.5 > 1630 kN \ buckling resistance is acceptable Conclusion The chosen cross-section.4. As described in Section 6. by inclusion of the geometric quantities ‘u’ and ‘v’ in section tables. The second is a simplified assessment method for beams with restraints in buildings. in grade S275 steel is acceptable.562] = 0.1(2) deems that ‘beams with sufficient lateral restraint to the compression flange are not susceptible to lateral torsional buckling’.3.2.0 \ N b.3.3. Further guidance on lateral restraint is available.2.57). and member strengths may be assessed on the basis of the in-plane cross-sectional strength.2.2.562 0. and is set out in clause 6.69 + 0.5 of this guide. EN 1993-1-1 contains three methods for checking the lateral torsional stability of a structural member: • The primary method adopts the lateral torsional buckling curves given by equations (6. lateral restraints need to possess adequate stiffness and strength to inhibit lateral deflection of the compression flange.0. 6.56) and (6. divided between the intermediate lateral restraints in proportion to their spacing.2.69 χ= 1 0.2 (general case) and clause 6.2.5 ¥ 10 3 N = 1836. and is set out in clause 6.2. whereby intermediate lateral restraints are required to be capable of resisting a total force of not less than 2.2 Laterally unrestrained beams subjected to bending about their major axis have to be checked for lateral torsional buckling (as well as for cross-sectional resistance).3.5% of the maximum design axial force in the compression flange within the relevant span. for example.5 × 10 CHS. In order to be effective. there are a number of common situations where lateral torsional buckling need not be considered.3. in accordance with clause 6.2. This method is discussed later in this section of the guide.3.3.3. given in clause 6. This method is discussed later in this section of the guide.2.2) + 0. Annex BB is discussed in Chapter 11 of this guide.2.7 68 .56 – 0. though there is little guidance on what is to be regarded as ‘sufficient’.2 Clause 6. Annex BB offers some guidance on the level of lateral restraint that may be provided by trapezoidal sheeting.

3 Clause 6.2. MEd must be shown to be less than Mb. From equation (6. whereas BS 5950 offers only two curves (only making a distinction between rolled and welded sections). Rd.2) are described through equation (6.3.3). 69 .7 (Table 6.3.2. y Wy = Wel.3.3. including rolled sections.2.CHAPTER 6.3 Clause 6. no account need be taken for fastener holes at the beam ends.2.2) + λLT 2 ] λLT = W y fy Mcr αLT Mcr is an imperfection factor from Table 6. χLT for bending) multiplied by the cross-section strength (Afy /γM1 for compression. Eurocode 3 provides four lateral torsional buckling curves (selected on the basis of the overall heightto-width ratio of the cross-section. and checks should be carried out on all unrestrained segments of beams (between the points where lateral restraint exists).2.2. Lateral torsional buckling curves for the general case (clause 6. Clause 6.2) • rolled sections or equivalent welded sections (clause 6.55) where Wy is the section modulus appropriate for the classification of the cross-section. a clear analogy between the treatment of the buckling of bending members and the buckling of compression members can be seen. it may also be applied outside the standard range of rolled sections. and the lateral torsional buckling resistance by Mb. the type of cross-section and whether the cross-section is rolled or welded). Rd (buckling resistance moment). In determining Wy. Lateral torsional buckling curves The lateral torsional buckling curves defined by EN 1993-1-1 are equivalent to (but not the same as) those set out in BS 5950: Part 1 in tabular form in Tables 16 and 17. the general case.3. For example.3.5[1 + αLT (λLT .56): χLT = 1 2 2 ΦLT + ΦLT . Wy fy /γM1 for bending).3.2 but χLT £ 1. The design buckling resistance of a laterally unrestrained beam (or segment of beam) should be taken as M b.λLT Clause 6. y for Class 1 or 2 cross-sections for Class 3 cross-sections for Class 4 cross-sections χLT is the reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling.3. Clearly.2. but. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES Lateral torsional buckling resistance The design bending moment is denoted by MEd (bending moment design effect). unlike clause 6.3 of EN 1993-1-1) is the elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling (see the following subsection). the buckling resistance comprises a reduction factor (χ for compression.55). y Wy = Weff.2. as given below.2. Wy = Wpl. it may be applied to plate girders (of larger dimensions than standard rolled sections) and to castellated and cellular beams.2.0 (6.2 Clause 6.2 Clause 6. may be applied to all common section types.2. In both cases.3.56) where ΦLT = 0.0.3. Eurocode 3 defines lateral torsional buckling curves for two cases: • the general case (clause 6. Rd = χLT W y fy γ M1 (6.3.

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mod £ 1 (6. though EN 1993-1-1 indicates that λLT.91 0. 0 and β.33 − 0. Since no lateral torsional buckling checks are required within this plateau length (and resistance may simply be based on the in-plane cross-section strength). determination of the non-dimensional lateral torsional buckling slenderness λLT first requires calculation of the elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling Mcr.3 but χLT. clause 6. 0 – 0. except to say that Mcr should be based on gross crosssectional properties and should take into account the loading conditions.6 of EN 1993-1-1).3. Figure 6. mod = χLT f Clause 6. by many.3 also includes an additional factor f that is used to modify χLT (as shown by equation (6.2.3.58)).86 0.4.3.0(λLT.5(1 – kc)[1 – 2. as f = 1 – 0.3. but of particular interest is the plateau length of the curves.3. the real moment distribution and the lateral restraints (clause 6.58) offering further enhancement in lateral torsional buckling resistance. For UK construction. it may be seen that the curve for the rolled and equivalent welded case is more favourable than that for the general case. reference should be made to the UK National Annex.2.94 0. However.90 0.8) and is dependent upon the shape of the bending moment diagram between lateral restraints (Table 6.2(2)).75. it is regarded as ‘textbook material’. Overall.CHAPTER 6.10.6 of EN 1993-1-1) Moment distribution y=1 –1 £ y £ 1 kc 1.2.0 1 1. 0 may not be taken as greater than 0.2(2) formulations include the complexity of the subject and a lack of consensus between the contributing nations.3.2. Reasons for the omission of such Clause 6. Correction factors kc (Table 6.3. and it is therefore likely that the UK National Annex will set f equal to unity. It is yet to be universally accepted. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES Table 6.33 y 0.8)2] (D6. Eurocode 3 offers no formulations and gives no guidance on how Mcr should be calculated.2.2.3 Elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling Mcr As shown in the previous section.82 National choice is also allowed for the values of the two parameters λLT. The method of clause 6. The factor f was derived on the basis of a numerical study.3 may offer significant savings in calculation effort for some arrangements. χLT.2.2 Clause 6.3).3.2.2) and the case for rolled sections or equivalent welded sections (clause 6. 71 .77 0.10 – Table 6. and β not less than 0.2.22 compares the lateral torsional buckling curves of the general case (clause 6.3. The imperfection factor αLT for buckling curve b has been used for the comparison. Clause 6.

loaded through the shear centre at the level of the centroidal axis.12 for transverse loading.0 l LT 1.9) where G= E 2(1 + υ ) IT Iw Iz Lcr is the torsion constant is the warping constant is the second moment of area about the minor axis is the length of the beam between points of lateral restraint.5 (D6.0 0. restrained against rotation about the longitudinal axis and free to rotate on plan.00 0. Numerical solutions have also been calculated for a number of other loading conditions.10): π2 EI z Ê I w Lcr 2 GIT ˆ + 2 Mcr = C1 π EI z ˜ Lcr 2 Á I z Ë ¯ 0. Mcr may be calculated through equation (D6. 6.8 to represent the exact analytical solution to the governing differential equation. Lateral torsional buckling curves for the general case and for rolled sections or equivalent welded sections 72 .5 (D6. Mcr = C1Mcr.5 1.11 for end moment loading and from Table 6.22.10) where C1 may be determined from Table 6. under standard conditions of restraint at each end.5 2. 1.5 General case Fig. The standard conditions of restraint at each end of the beam are: restrained against lateral movement. Equation (D6.9) was provided in ENV 1993-1-1 (1992) in an informative Annex.9): Mcr. 0) to take account of the shape of the bending moment diagram. The C1 factor is used to modify Mcr. and with the standard conditions of restraint described above.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 The elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling of a beam of uniform symmetrical cross-section with equal flanges.e. loaded through the shear centre and subject to uniform moment is given by equation (D6. 0 (i. and performs a similar function to the ‘m’ factor adopted in BS 5950.80 cLT Rolled and equivalent welded case 0.20 0.00 0. 0 = π2 EI z Ê I w Lcr 2 GIT ˆ + 2 π EI z ˜ Lcr 2 Á I z Ë ¯ 0. and has been shown.40 0.20 1.0 2. for example by Timoshenko and Gere. For uniform doubly symmetric cross-sections.60 0.

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11)) –1.10).50 –0.0 0.11) should not be applied when C1 is greater than 2.8 m and to support two secondary beams as shown in Fig.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 4.00 Ratio of end moments. D C B A Fig.70 (D6. so the value of Mcr rises. as expected. 6.0 2. equation (D6.23 shows.8: lateral torsional buckling resistance A simply supported primary beam is required to span 10.11 and from equation (D6.70. thus. these increases in Mcr are associated principally with changes that occur in the buckled deflected shape.52ψ2 but C1 £ 2.5 1.11 for end moment loading may be approximated by equation (D6.5 3.11.0) results in the lowest value for Mcr.5 C1 'More exact' solution (Table 6. The secondary beams are connected through fin plates to the web of the primary beam. which changes from a symmetric half sine wave for a uniform bending moment (ψ = 1) to an anti-symmetric double half wave for ψ = –1.88 – 1. though other approximations also exist:9 C1 = 1.40ψ + 0.5 0.0 3.10 At high values of C1 there is some deviation between the approximate expression (equation (D6.0 1.75 –0. y Fig. Figure 6.24.75 1.25 0.23 compares values of C1 obtained from Table 6.5 2. Select a suitable member for the primary beam assuming grade S275 steel. that the most severe loading condition (that of uniform bending moment where ψ = 1. 6. General arrangement 74 .11).10). 6.24. Example 6.11)) and the more accurate tabulated results of Table 6.11) where ψ is the ratio of the end moments (defined in Table 6. Figure 6.25 0. Tabulated and approximate values of C1 for varying ψ The values of C1 given in Table 6.00 –0.0 0.11) Approximate solution (equation (D6. and full lateral restraint may be assumed at these points. As the ratio of the end moments ψ decreases.23.

Consider a 762 × 267 × 173 UB in grade S275 steel. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES 425.1 kN B A 52.5 m (a) 3. By inspection.2 m 5. pl = 6198 × 103 mm3 r tf z Iz = 68. Lateral torsional buckling checks will be carried out on segments BC and CD.3 mm tw y y tf = 21.1 m 267.5 kN SF (b) 477. 6.CHAPTER 6.26.3.2. lateral torsional buckling curves for the general case (clause 6.50 × 106 mm4 It = 2670 × 103 mm4 Iw = 9390 × 109 mm6 h d Fig.6 kN D 2.25.1 kN A B C 319. 6.2 Section properties The section properties are shown in Fig. For the purposes of this worked example.2) will be utilized.6 kN C D B A C D BM 1194 kN m 1362 kN m (c) Fig.5 mm A = 22 000 mm2 Wy.2 mm b = 266.2. 6. segment AB is not critical.3. 6. (a) Loading.6 mm r = 16. Clause 6.25. Section properties for a 762 × 267 × 173 UB The loading. 75 . (b) shear forces and (c) bending moments b z h = 762.24 are shown in Fig. 6.26.7 mm tw = 14. shear force and bending moment diagrams for the arrangement of Fig.

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879 ¥ π2 ¥ 210 000 ¥ 68.2) + 0.2/266. Rd 1469 M b.11 \ M cr = 1.7 = 2. Calculate reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling.2): segment CD MEd = 1362 kN m Determine Mcr: segment CD (Lcr = 5100 mm) π2 EI z Ê I w Lcr 2 GIT ˆ + 2 Mcr = C1 π EI z ˜ Lcr 2 Á I z Ë ¯ 0.0.56) where ΦLT = [1 + αLT (λLT . For curve buckling curve b.93 M b. αLT = 0.552 fy = 0.λLT 2 but χLT £ 1.5 ¥ [1 + 0.0 (6.85 Therefore.4 of EN 1993-1-1).10) Determine C1 from Table 6. Rd = χLT Wy (6.7 (Table 6. Rd = 1469 × 106 N mm = 1469 kN m MEd 1362 = = 0. h/b = 762.3 of EN 1993-1-1).93 £ 1. for a rolled I section with h/b > 2.5 ¥ 106 51002 Ê 9390 ¥ 109 51002 ¥ 81 000 ¥ 2670 ¥ 10 3 ˆ Á 68.55 .11)): ψ is the ratio of end moments = 0/1362 = 0 fi C1 = 1.5 ¥ 106 ˜ Ë ¯ 0.5 (D6.2 Lateral torsional buckling check (clause 6.0) Mb.0.86 × 6198 × 103 × (275/1.63 4311 ¥ 106 The buckling curve and imperfection factor αLT are as for segment BC.0. 78 .8 (Table 6.552 ] = 0.34 ¥ (0.34 from Table 6.0 \ segment BC is acceptable Clause 6.879 from Table 6. Rd = 0.712 .71 \ χLT = 1 0. χLT: segment BC χLT = 1 ΦLT + ΦLT 2 . use buckling curve b.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Select buckling curve and imperfection factor αLT Using Table 6.3.5 = 4311 ¥ 10 6 N mm = 4311 kN m Non-dimensional lateral torsional slenderness λ LT : segment CD λLT = W y fy Mcr = 6198 ¥ 10 3 ¥ 275 = 0.71 + 0.2.55) 0.2) + λLT 2 ] = 0.5 ¥ 106 + π2 ¥ 210 000 ¥ 68.11 (or approximate from equation (D6.2.3.86 Lateral torsional buckling resistance: segment BC γ M1 Mb.

0. 762 × 267 × 173 UB.λLT 2 but χLT £ 1. the limit may be expressed in the form of equation (6. χLT: segment CD χLT = 1 ΦLT + ΦLT 2 .3).3.2. Rd. Rd.77 + 0.55) 0.2) + 0.2.CHAPTER 6. For the simplest case when the steel strength fy = 235 N/mm2 (and thus ε = 1. Rd = 1402 × 106 N mm = 1402 kN m MEd 1362 = = 0. According to BS 5950. z λ 1 M y .0 (6.0). about the minor axis. and reference should therefore be made to the National Annex. Rd.632 Lateral torsional buckling resistance: segment CD γ M1 Mb. and λ1 = 93. subject to national choice. Both λ c0 and λLT. however. Rd 1402 M b.82 0.2.5[1 + αLT (λLT . My. 0 + 0. and uniform moment loading is assumed.2) + λLT 2 ] ΦLT = 0.3 (6.4 Clause 6. Equation (D6.59): λf = Mc.2.59) where kc is taken from Table 6. expressed as a fraction of the resistance moment of the cross-section Mc.0 \ segment CD is acceptable Conclusion The design is controlled by the lateral stability of segment CD.10 (Table 6.1) and that λ c0 = 0. the section modulus Wy must relate to the compression flange. the condition reduces to Lc £ 47if. In determining Mc.3.3.6 of EN 1993-1-1) and allows for different patterns of moments between restraint points.0) Mb.97 M b.12) in which if.34 × (0. in grade S275 steel is acceptable.l2) presumes that the limiting slenderness λ c0 adopts the recommendation of clause 6. with a utilization factor for lateral torsional buckling of 0. Equivalent checks to BS 5950: Part 1 also demonstrated that a 762 × 267 × 173 UB in grade S275 steel is acceptable.56) where ΦLT = 0. Simplified assessment methods for beams with restraints in buildings Clause 6.4 (where λ c0 = λLT.97 £ 1.4 (as recommended in clause 6.3. Rd kc Lc £ λ c0 if. Rd = 0.9ε.93.77 1 \ χLT = = 0.4 Clause 6. More generally.5 × [1 + 0. z is the radius of gyration of the compression flange plus one-third of the compressed portion of the web. Ed is equal to Mc. The chosen cross-section. Rd Clause 6.4 provides a quick.2.3.63 – 0.77 2 .82 × 6198 × 103 × (275/1. 79 . z (D6. Rd = χLT W y fy (6. segment BC is the controlling segment. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES Calculate reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling. Ed.0. approximate and conservative way of determining whether the lengths of a beam between points of effective lateral restraints Lc will be satisfactory under its maximum design moment My.3. 0 are.632] = 0.2.

2 The former is for cases where no lateral torsional buckling is possible. Rk /γ M1 (6. Rk /γ M1 M z . Omitting the terms required only to account for the shift in neutral axis (from the gross to the effective section) for Class 4 cross-sections. then the value of λf . Uniform members in bending and axial compression Clause 6.3. Since.2. My.1 Clause 6. Ed and Mz.3. Ed M z . Ed is less than Mc. 6. subjected to known bending moments and axial forces. the bending moment distributions about both principal axes will be non-uniform (and hence the most heavily loaded cross-section can occur at any point along the length of the member). Mz. Instead. determination of the interaction or k factors is significantly more complex. χz are the reduction factors due to flexural buckling from clause 6. a pair of interaction equations. Rk /γ M 1 M z . The behaviour and design of beam–columns is covered thoroughly by Chen and Atsuta. Most I and H section columns in building frames are likely to fall within the second category. kzz are the interaction factors kij. My. respectively) are induced by lateral loading and/or end moments. Ed. Mz. It is also specifically noted that the cross-section resistance at each end of the member should be checked against the requirements of clause 6.62) in which NEd.8. as well as arrangements where torsional deformation is prevented.3 Clause 6. such as open sections restrained against twisting.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Clearly. Ed M z .3 of BS 5950: Part 1. this is generally safely disregarded in design. plus there is a coupling between the response in the two principal planes.61) and (6. which essentially check member resistance about each of the principal axes (y–y and z–z) is employed.2.62)) to check the resistance of individual lengths of members between restraints. and hence Lc. Rk. equations (6. Rk /γ MI M y . will increase pro rata. kzy. Ed are the design values of the compression force and the maximum moments about the y–y and z–z axes along the member. kyz. Ed NEd + k yy + k yz £1 χ y NRk /γ M1 χLT M y . if the required level of moment My.3. At first sight.1 χLT is the reduction factor due to lateral torsional buckling from clause 6.3. In clause 6. Ed NEd + kzy + kzz £1 χ z NRk /γ M1 χLT M y .3. for example where square or circular hollow sections are employed. respectively NRk. Both interaction equations must be satisfied.2 80 .3 such a pair of interaction equations is provided (see equations (6. taken as unity for members that are not susceptible to torsional deformation kyy. the formulae are M y . in general.3. Clause 6. Two classes of problem are recognized: • • members not susceptible to torsional deformation members susceptible to torsional deformation. The addition of axial loading NEd clearly results in axial force in the member.3. Second-order sway effects (P–∆ effects) should be allowed for. design treatment is necessarily complex.61) (6. either by using suitably enhanced end moments or by using appropriate buckling lengths.Ed. Rd. Rk are the characteristic values of the compression resistance of the cross-section and the bending moment resistances of the cross-section about the y–y and z–z axes.3.62) appear similar to the equations given in clause 4. respectively χy. Members subjected to bi-axial bending and axial compression (beam–columns) exhibit complex structural behaviour.12 Although there is a coupling between the member response in the two principal planes. but also amplifies the bending moments about both principal axes (second-order bending moments).61) and (6. First-order bending moments about the major and minor axes (My.3. However.

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Flange – internal part in compression (Table 5.00 2946.5) 82 .0 = 9.2. y = 491 000 mm3 Wpl.0 – (3 × 16.5 kN 1. Note that reference should be made to the UK National Annex for the nominal material strength (see Section 3.85 26.10) 8300 ¥ 355 = 2 946 500 N = 2946.6: E = 210 000 N/mm2 G ª 81 000 N/mm2 Clause 5.85 26.5 kN > 90 kN \ acceptable N c. y = 368 000 mm3 Wel. Clause 6.0/16.0/16.6 Table 3.85 > 9.2 of this guide). From clause 3.2.0) = 152.81 For a RHS the compression width c may be taken as h (or b) – 3t.0 mm c/t = 152. z = 290 000 mm3 Iy = 36 780 000 mm4 z b Iz = 11 470 000 mm4 IT = 29 820 000 mm4 Fig.0 – (3 × 16.25 Limit for Class 1 flange = 33ε = 26.4) for Class 1.5 Maximum bending moment Bending resistance of cross-section (clause 6.2.2.0 mm A = 8300 mm 2 Wel.0 mm b = 100.2.0 mm c/t = 52. 6.5.0) = 52. Rd N c. Rd = Afy γ M0 Compression resistance of cross-section (clause 6.28.0 = 3.1 to be 355 N/mm2.2.4 The design compression resistance of the cross-section Nc.50 \ web is Class 1 The overall cross-section classification is therefore Class 1 (under pure compression).50 Limit for Class 1 web = 33ε = 26.5. sheet 1): c = b – 3t = 100.2) ε = 235/fy = 235/355 = 0.2. sheet 1): c = h – 3t = 200.85 > 3. 2 or 3 cross-sections (6.25 \ flange is Class 1 Web – internal part in compression (Table 5.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 z r t h y y h = 200.0 mm t = 16.2 Cross-section classification (clause 5. Section properties for 200 × 100 × 16 RHS Clause 3.2. Rd = Clause 6. z = 229 000 mm3 Wpl.

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36 ¥ (1.21 ¥ 1.0 . Ed NEd + kzy + kzz £1 χ z NRk /γ M1 χLT M y .6 Czy wz Non-dimensional slendernesses From the flexural buckling check: λ y = 1.55) 0.62). From the bending moment diagram. Rd 169.5 kN m MEd 139. alternative method 1 (Annex A) will be used for the determination of the interaction factors kij.232 = 0.82 £ 1.36(ψ y .5 M b.33) NEd N cr.33) 90 = 1. y 1 C yy kzy = Cmy CmLT µy 1 . Ed M z .3 Member buckling resistance in combined bending and axial compression (clause 6.3.3. Rk /γ MI M y . Rk /γ M1 M z .0.23 Equivalent uniform moment factors Cmi Torsional deformation is possible (λ0 > 0).NEd /N cr.82 M b.NEd /N cr.97 Lateral torsional buckling resistance: segment BC γ M1 Mb. Rk /γ M1 M z .61) and (6.42 From the lateral torsional buckling check: λLT = 0. Cmy . Ed = 0.2 = = 0. Ed NEd + k yy + k yz £1 χ y NRk /γ M1 χLT M y .0) Mb.23 and λ0 = 0.0.62) Determination of interaction factors kij (Annex A) For this example. since Mz. from Table A.3) Members subjected to combined bending and axial compression must satisfy both equations (6.42 and λ z = 0. There is no need to consider kyz and kzz in this case.61) (6.0. Rd = χLTW y fy (6. 0 = 0.0 \ acceptable Clause 6. ψy = 1.54 + 0.84 \ λmax = 1. Ed M z . M y .79 + 0.79 + (0. For Class 1 and 2 cross-sections k yy = Cmy CmLT µy 1 .21ψ y + 0.0) + 0. Rd = 0.2. 0 = 0.97 × 491 × 103 × (355/1.0. Therefore. Rd = 169.5 × 106 N mm = 169. Rk /γ M1 (6.01 1470 86 .DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 \ χLT = 1 0. y wy 1 0.542 . y Cmy .

χ y ( NEd /N cr.2 ¥ 106 8300 = 34.189 Iy 36 780 000 aLT = 1 - The elastic torsional buckling force (see Section 13.17) iy = (Iy/A)0.( NEd /N cr. εy = M y .0.01 + (1 .(90/415502)] (but ≥ 1.189 ≥ 1.5 = 66.0. 0 + (1 .0) \ CmLT = 1. z ) Wpl. 0 = Cmz need not be considered since Mz. 0 ) Cmy = 1.6 mm iz = (Iz/A)0.Cmy .22 = 5813 mm2 Since the section is closed.0 = 1 = 0. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES Cmz.5 = (36 780 000/8300)0.(90/1470) = 0.5 = = 1 .χ z ( NEd /N cr.5 = £ 1.012 0.41 ¥ (90/1470) µz = wy = wz = 1 . 2 and 3 cross-sections εy = 139.62 + 37.27 229 000 87 .9 90 ¥ 10 3 368 000 IT 29 820 000 ≥ 1.9 ¥ 0.( NEd /N cr.99 1 . T )] CmLT = 1.01 1 + ( 34. y Wel.2 mm y0 = z0 = 0 (since the shear centre and centroid of gross cross-section coincide) i02 = iy2 + iz2 + y02 + z02 = 66.0 [1 .5 = (11 470 000/8300)0. the warping contribution is negligible and will be ignored.( NEd /N cr. z £ 1. z Wel. y for Class 1. z ) 1 .( NEd /N cr.33 368 000 290 000 = 1.CHAPTER 6. T = 1 (81 000 ¥ 29 820 000) = 415502 ¥ 10 3 N = 415 502 kN 5813 Cmy = Cmy . y ) 1 . Ed A NEd Wel.1.96 1 . y ) = 1 . \ N cr.5 = 37.9 ¥ 0.00 Other auxiliary terms Only the auxiliary terms that are required for the determination of kyy and kzy are calculated: µy = 1 . Ed = 0. z )][1 .(90/4127)][1 . y Wpl.7 of this guide) N cr. T = π2 EI w ˆ 1 Ê GIT + i0 2 Á lT 2 ˜ Ë ¯ (D13.189 = 1.01) CmLT = Cmy 2 ε y aLT 1 + ε y aLT 34.(90/4127) = 0.77 ¥ (90/4127) 491 000 = 1.189) aLT [1 .

Ed χLT Mpl.33 ¯ ÎË ˚ Czy = 0. y ˆ 1.99 1 1.96 1 ¥ = 1. z .6 ˆ Ê 1.98 ÈÊ ˘ Cmy 2λmax 2 ˆ w y Wel.bLT ˙ ≥ wy wy ¯ ÍË ˙ Wpl.90 / 1470 0.012 ¥ 1.03 .61) and (6.1) ÍÁ 2 Cmy 2λmax Cmy 2λmax 2 ˜ npl . Ed M z .NEd /N cr. Rk /γ M1 M z . Ed M z .95 Interaction factors kij k yy = Cmy CmLT 1 1 .dLT ˙ ≥ 0. Rk /γ M1 (6.0 \ equation (6. y C yy 0.33 368 000 Á ≥ 0.69 1 .87 = 0.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 npl = NEd 90 = = 0. Ed M z .0 ˝ Ë ¯ Ë 1. y Î ˚ Ï ÈÊ ¸ 1.012 ¥ 1.95 Ê ˆ 1.95 1.61) is satisfied (6.6 C yy = 1 + ( w y .27 491 000 = 0.42 2 ˜ ˙ ¥ 0.97 ¥ 174. y . Rk /γ M1 88 .6 1 . Ed = 0) M y .0 M y .62) M y .01 ¥ 1. Rd =0 bLT = 0.46˜ Ë ¯ \ Czy = 0.6 ¥ = 0.0 (0. Rd Mpl. y ¯ ÍË ˙ Î ˚ ÈÊ ˘ 1. Ed λ0 =0 4 0.06 1 .6 ˆ˘ C yy = 1 + (1.1) ÍÁ 2 .42 2 ˆ Czy = 1 + (1.NEd /N cr.98 µy k yy = 1.90/1470 0.00 ¥ 0.94 £ 1.42˜ . Rd Cmz Mpl. y .41 ¥ 2947) / 1.0 ˙ 1.07 + 0.1) ¥ Ì ÍÁ 2 ¥ 1.14 ¥ 5 ˜ ¥ 0.6 ¥ 1. Ed NEd + k yy + k yz £1 χ y NRk /γ M1 χLT M y .3) / 1.00 ¥ kzy = Cmy CmLT wy µz 1 0.98 Ê 368 000 ˆ Á ≥ 491 000 = 0.0 0.2 + 1.75˜ Ë ¯ \ Cyy = 0. Ed M z .1) ¥ ÍÁ 2 . y Czy = 1 + ( w y . Ed NEd + kzy + kzz £1 χ z NRk /γ M1 χLT M y .62)) M y .14 ˜ npl . Ed = 0) (because Mz.27 Check compliance with interaction formulae (equations (6.Á ¥ 1.33 .012 ¥ 1.1 + λz Cmy χLT Mpl.33 . Rk /γ M1 M z .5aLTλ0 2 dLT = 2 aLT (because Mz.33 ¥ ¥ 0.33 ÓÎ ˛ C yy = 0.06 ¥ = 0.33 ¯˚ 1.03 NRk /γ M1 2946/1. z . y Czy wz kzy = 1.6 1.01 ¥ 1.03 .6 5 wy w z Wpl.94 (0. Rd Cij factors ÈÊ ˘ Wel.61) fi 90 139.

The column is subjected to major axis bending due to horizontal forces and minor axis bending due to eccentric loading from the floor beams.7 mm and tw = 23.0 (0.1 to be 275 N/mm2.CHAPTER 6.10: member resistance under combined bi-axial bending and axial compression An H section member of length 4. Ed = 420 kN m M z.87 = 0.29.3) / 1.61 (0. and uses alternative method 2 (Annex B) to determine the necessary interaction factors kij. a hot-rolled 200 × 100 × 16 RHS in grade S355 steel is suitable for this application.86 Example 6.04 + 0. 0. Ed = 0 Fig. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES fi 90 139.61 £ 1.0 0.2 + 0.94 £ 1.0 (0.62) is satisfied Therefore. For comparison. the design action effects of Fig. Example 6. 6. Section properties The section properties are given in Fig.69 ¥ = 0.97 ¥ 174.0 \ equation (6.10 considers member resistance under combined bi-axial bending and axial load.86 £ 1.57 = 0.0 mm) of less than or equal to 40 mm the nominal values of yield strength fy for grade S275 steel (to EN 10025-2) is found from Table 3. Note that reference should be made to the UK National Annex for the nominal material strength (see Section 3.04 + 0.2 of this guide). 0. Design action effects on an H section column 89 .30. 6. For a nominal material thickness (tf = 37.77 ¥ 2947) / 1.82 = 0. the interaction factors kij (for member checks under combined bending and axial compression) will be determined using alternative method 2 (Annex B). Ed = 110 kN m N Ed = 3440 kN M y. with diagonal bracing provided in both directions. for equation (6.0 \ acceptable) \ acceptable) which gives.07 + 0.06 kzy = 1. The frame is moment resisting in-plane and pinned out-of-plane.94 and. which is discussed in Chapter 9 of this guide.61).29 arise in the column. For this example.00 (0. M y. for equation (6. Ed = –420 kN m M z. From the structural analysis. from the Annex B method.62). 6. kyy = 1. Assess the suitability of a hot-rolled 305 × 305 × 240 H section in grade S275 steel for this application.2 m is to be designed as a ground floor column in a multi-storey building.

51 Limit for Class 1 flange = 9ε = 8.2.2.2 Cross-section classification (clause 5.4 mm tw = 23.2. Section properties for a 305 × 305 × 240 H section From clause 3.10) 30 600 ¥ 275 = 8 415 000 N = 8415 kN 1.5 mm c/tf = 132. Rd = Afy γ M0 Compression resistance of cross-section (clause 6.5 Bending resistance of cross-section (clause 6. z = 1 951 000 mm3 lz = 203.2.92 Outstand flanges (Table 5.7/23.7 mm r = 15.2 mm A = 30 600 mm2 ly = 642.30.51 \ flanges are Class 1 Web – internal compression part (Table 5. sheet 2): c = (b – tw – 2r)/2 = 132.4 The design compression resistance of the cross-section N c.0 kN m 90 .00 8415 kN > 3440 kN \ acceptable N c.51 > 10.5) Major (y–y) axis Maximum bending moment My. Rd = Clause 6.6 Clause 5. y = 4 247 000 mm3 Wpl.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 b z tw h d y y r tf z h = 352. z = 1 276 000 mm3 Wpl.32 8.5.4) for Class 1. y = 3 643 000 mm3 Wel. sheet 1): c = h – 2tf – 2r = 246.2.7 mm c/tw = 246.73 \ web is Class 1 The overall cross-section classification is therefore Class 1.03 × 1012 mm6 Wel.2.2) ε = 235/fy = 235/275 = 0.0 × 10 mm 6 4 IT = 12. 2 or 3 cross-sections (6.0 mm tf = 37.32 > 3. 6.7 = 3.5.2. Clause 6.51 30.1 × 106 mm4 Fig.71 × 106 mm4 Iw = 5.6: E = 210 000 N/mm2 G ª 81 000 N/mm2 Clause 3.0 = 10.5/37.5 mm b = 318.73 Limit for Class 1 web = 33ε = 30.2. Ed = 420.

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2 (from Eurocode 3 – Part 1.5.0 ¥ 275 = 1752.3 kN 1.1 ¥ 23. Therefore. the cross-section need only be checked for bending and axial force.2 kN \ acceptable Shear buckling Shear buckling need not be considered.5 \ no shear buckling check required Clause 6.35) is not satisfied Therefore.5 Vpl.92 = 72 ¥ = 55. Rd and provided shear buckling is not a concern. provided hw ε £ 72 tw η for unstiffened webs η = 1.25 × 8415 = 2104 kN 3440 kN > 2104 kN 0.34) 0.10) Provided the shear force VEd is less than 50% of the design plastic shear resistance Vpl. Rd = 24 227 ¥ (275/ 3) = 3847 ¥ 10 3 N = 3847 kN 1.00 3847 kN > 26.5 η 1.34) is not satisfied Therefore.5hw tw fy γ M0 = \ equation (6.7 ¥ 10 3 N = 1752.33) is not satisfied 0.0 12. Rd for both axes.0 ¥ 275 = 876.25 Npl.5hw tw fy γ M0 (6. VEd < 0.0 = 12. allowance for the effect of axial force on the minor axis plastic moment resistance of the cross-section must be made.2.9). No reduction to the major axis plastic resistance moment due to the effect of axial force is required when both of the following criteria are satisfied: NEd £ 0. Rd = 0.3 kN \ equation (6.10 Clause 6.0 3440 kN > 876. and shear buckling is not a concern (see above).25Npl.3 ¥ 10 3 N = 876.1 ¥ 23.7 kN \ equation (6. 72 ε 0.0 £ 55.0 (6.2.35) 3440 kN > 1752. allowance for the effect of axial force on the major axis plastic moment resistance of the cross-section must be made. In this case.1/23. though the UK National Annex may specify an alternative value).5 ¥ 277.9 Cross-section resistance under bending.33) (6. then the cross-section need only satisfy the requirements for bending and axial force (clause 6.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 \ Vpl.2 Actual hw/tw = 277.7 kN 1. Rd NEd £ 0.2. shear and axial force (clause 6. 92 .2. No reduction to the minor axis plastic resistance moment due to the effect of axial force is required when the following criterion is satisfied: NEd £ hw tw fy γ M0 hw tw fy γ M0 = 277.

CHAPTER 6. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES

Reduced plastic moment resistances (clause 6.2.9.1(5)) Major (y–y) axis:
MN, y , Rd = Mpl, y , Rd 1- n 1 - 0.5a

Clause 6.2.9.1(5)
(6.36)

(but MN, y, Rd £ Mpl, y, Rd)

where n = NEd/Npl, Rd = 3440/8415 = 0.41 a = (A – 2btf)/A = [30 600 – (2 × 318.4 × 37.7)]/30 600 = 0.22 fi MN, y , Rd = 1168 ¥
1 - 0.41 = 773.8 kN m 1 - (0.5 ¥ 0.22)

773.8 kN m > 420 kN m Minor (z–z) axis: For n > a

\ acceptable

È Ê n - aˆ 2 ˘ MN, z , Rd = Mpl, z , Rd Í1 - Á ˜ ˙ Í Ë 1 - a¯ ˙ Î ˚

(6.38)

È Ê 0.41 - 0.22 ˆ 2 ˘ fi MN, z , Rd = 536.5 ¥ Í1 - Á ˜ ˙ = 503.9 kN m Í Ë 1 - 0.22 ¯ ˙ Î ˚

503.9 kN m > 110 kN m

\ acceptable

Cross-section check for bi-axial bending (with reduced moment resistances)
Ê M y , Ed ˆ Ê M z , Ed ˆ Á ˜ +Á ˜ £1 Ë MN, y , Rd ¯ Ë MN, z , Rd ¯
α β

(6.41)

For I and H sections: α=2 and
2

β = 5n (but β ≥ 1) = (5 × 0.41) = 2.04
2.04

420 ˆ Ê 110 ˆ fiÊ + Á Ë 773.8 ˜ Á 536.5 ˜ ¯ Ë ¯

= 0.33

0.33 £ 1

\ acceptable

Member buckling resistance in compression (clause 6.3.1)
N b, Rd = χ Afy γ M1

Clause 6.3.1
(6.47) (6.49)

for Class 1, 2 and 3 cross-sections but χ £ 1.0

χ=

1 Φ + Φ2 - λ 2

where
Φ = 0.5[1 + α(λ - 0.2) + λ 2 ]

λ=

Afy N cr

for Class 1, 2 and 3 cross-sections

Elastic critical force and non-dimensional slenderness for flexural buckling For buckling about the major (y–y) axis:
Lcr = 0.7L = 0.7 × 4.2 = 2.94 m (see Table 6.6)

93

DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1

For buckling about the minor (z–z) axis: Lcr = 1.0L = 1.0 × 4.2 = 4.20 m
N cr, y = π2 EI y Lcr 2 =

(see Table 6.6)

π2 ¥ 210 000 ¥ 642.0 ¥ 106 = 153 943 ¥ 10 3 N = 153 943 kN 29402

\ λy =
N cr, z =

30 600 ¥ 275 = 0.23 153 943 ¥ 10 3
π2 EI z π2 ¥ 210 000 ¥ 203.1 ¥ 106 = = 23 863 ¥ 10 3 N = 23 863 kN Lcr 2 42002

\ λz =

30 600 ¥ 275 = 0.59 23 863 ¥ 10 3

Selection of buckling curve and imperfection factor α For a hot-rolled H section (with h/b £ 1.2, tf £ 100 mm and S275 steel):
• • • for buckling about the y–y axis, use curve b (Table 6.5 (Table 6.2 of EN 1993-1-1)) for buckling about the z–z axis, use curve c (Table 6.5 (Table 6.2 of EN 1993-1-1)) for curve b, α = 0.34 and for curve c, α = 0.49 (Table 6.4 (Table 6.1 of EN 1993-1-1)).

Buckling curves: major (y–y) axis
Φy = 0.5 × [1 + 0.34 × (0.23 – 0.2) + 0.232] = 0.53
= 0.99 0.53 + 0.532 - 0.232 0.99 ¥ 30 600 ¥ 275 \ N b, y , Rd = = 8314 ¥ 10 3 N = 8314 kN 1.0 χy = 1

8314 kN > 3440 kN

\ major axis flexural buckling resistance is acceptable

Buckling curves: minor (z–z) axis
Φz = 0.5 × [1 + 0.49 × (0.59 – 0.2) + 0.592] = 0.77
= 0.79 0.77 + 0.77 2 - 0.592 0.79 ¥ 30 600 ¥ 275 \ N b, z , Rd = = 6640 ¥ 10 3 N = 6640 kN 1.0 χz = 1

6640 kN > 3440 kN

\ minor axis flexural buckling resistance is acceptable

Clause 6.3.2

Member buckling resistance in bending (clause 6.3.2) The 4.2 m column is unsupported along its length with no torsional or lateral restraints. Equal and opposite design end moments of 420 kN m are applied about the major axis. The full length of the column will therefore be checked for lateral torsional buckling.
MEd = 420.0 kN m
M b, Rd = χLTW y fy γ M1

(6.55)

where Wy = Wpl, y for Class 1 and 2 cross-sections.

94

0 ¯ \ kzz = 0.61) (6. Cmy = 0.41 Ê ˆ Ê ˆ NEd NEd kzz = Cm z Á 1 + (2λz .4 × (–1)] = 0.78 kyz = 0.8 ˜ χ y NRk /γ M1 ¯ χ y NRk /γ M1 ¯ Ë Ë Ê ˆ 3440 k yy = 0.53 Ë 0.47 96 . Rk /γ MI M y .4ψ ≥ 0.0.0 ¯ \ kyy = 0.41 (0.6) ˜ £ Cmy Á 1 + 1.0 ˜ Ë ¯ 3440 Ê ˆ kzz £ 0.25 χ z NRk /γ M1 \ kyz = 0.6 × 0. Ed M z .40 Considering z–z bending and in-plane supports: Considering y–y bending and out-of-plane supports: CmLT = 0.60 (but ≥ 0. all three equivalent uniform moment factors Cmy. as follows: Cmi = 0.4) \ Cmz = 0.6 + (0.60 ¥ Á 1 + [(2 ¥ 0.0.3. Ed NEd + kzy + kzz £1 χ z NRk /γ M1 χLT M y . Rk /γ M1 M z . The column is laterally and torsionally unrestrained. alternative method 2 (Annex B) will be used for the determination of the interaction factors kij.3) Since there is no loading between restraints.6 kzz = 0. Equivalent uniform moment factors Cmi (Table B. For axial compression and bi-axial bending. ψ = 0.6] = 0.60 ¥ Á 1 + 1. Rk /γ M1 M z .1)) For Class 1 and 2 I sections: Ê ˆ Ê ˆ NEd NEd k yy = Cmy Á 1 + (λ y .99 ¥ 8415) / 1.79 ¥ 8415)/1.0.40 ¥ Á 1 + (0. kzy and kzz are required.0.4) \ CmLT = 0.59) .6 + [0.6 + 0. ψ = –1. all four interaction coefficients kyy.04 Ë 0.4 χ N /γ ˜ χ z NRk /γ M1 ¯ Ë Ë Rk M1 ¯ z Ê ˆ 3440 kzz = 0. Ed M z .6 (but ≥ 0.2 Interaction factors kij (Table B.4 ˜ = 1. and is therefore susceptible to torsional deformations.8 ˜ = 0.62) Determination of interaction factors kij (Annex B) For this example. the interaction factors should be determined with initial reference to Table B.2 (and Table B.2) ˜ £ Cmy Á 1 + 0.2 Cmz = 0.40 \ Cmy = 0.2) = 0.4 × 0) = 0. Rk /γ MI (6.47 kzy = 1 0. kyz.4 × –1) = 0.72 = 0.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 M y . Ed NEd + k yy + k yz £1 χ y NRk /γ M1 χLT M y .2. Accordingly.99 ¥ 8415 / 1.1λz NEd CmLT .0.78 (0.79 ¥ 8415/1.4 Considering y–y bending and in-plane supports: ψ = –1.23 .0 ˜ Ë ¯ 3440 Ê ˆ k yy £ 0.40 ¥ Á 1 + 0.6 + (0. Cmz and CmLT may be determined from the expression given in the first row of Table B.

.

Laced columns contain diagonal web elements with or without additional horizontal web elements. with the battens acting in flexure.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 • • restraint at plastic hinges stable lengths for segments between plastic hinges. Battened columns (see Fig.68) Clause BB.31. (b) Battened column 98 .4 covers the design of uniform built-up compression members.31. The rules are very similar to the equivalent provision of BS 5950: Part 1. as shown in Fig. In conventional column buckling theory.3.3 More detailed rules covering tapered haunches (with two or three flanges) are provided in clause BB. and the effects of shear on deflections are ignored. 6.5.4.2 Since the design objective is now to ensure that load carrying of the frame is controlled by the formation of a plastic collapse mechanism. and therefore have to be evaluated and accounted for in the development of design procedures.625 £ ψ £ 1 for –1 £ ψ £ 0.68) as Lstable Lstable 35εiz for 0. Types of built-up compression member. For built-up columns. characterized by the layout of the web elements. lateral deflections are assessed (with a suitable level of accuracy) on the basis of the flexural properties of the member. Battened struts are generally more flexible in shear than laced struts. Chords Battens Module Laces (a) (b) Fig. There are two distinct types of built-up member (laced and battened).2 states where restraints are required and the performance necessary from each of them.3. Clause 6.5. these web elements are generally assumed to have pinned end conditions and therefore to act in axial tension or compression. 6. Uniform built-up compression members Clause 6. This may be achieved by providing a suitable system of restraints – lateral and/or torsional. shear deformations are far more significant (due to the absence of a solid web). and are discussed in Chapter 11 of this guide.3. any premature failure due to lateral instability must be prevented. A simple check for stable length of member with end moments M and ψM (and negligible axial load) is provided by equation (6.625 (60 – 40ψ)εiz (6. Clause 6.4 Clause 6.32) contain horizontal web elements only and behave in the same manner as Vierendeel trusses. The principal difference between the design of built-up columns and the design of conventional (solid) columns is in their response to shear. 6. 6. These are closely modelled on the provisions of BS 5950: Part 1. (a) Laced column.

4. Battened columns Clause 6. built-up members can offer much greater efficiency than single members.4. by ‘smearing’ the properties of the web members (lacings or battens). However.1 99 .4 offers a simplified model that may be applied to uniform built-up compression members with pinned end conditions (though the code notes that appropriate modifications may be made for other end conditions).1: (1) The chord members must be parallel.1. (4) The method is applicable to built-up members with lacings in one or two directions. the use of built-up members is less popular nowadays in the UK than in the past.4. Clause 6. Essentially the model replaces the discrete (discontinuous) elements of the built-up column with an equivalent continuous (solid) column. with the added expenses of the fabrication process. Background to the analysis and design of built-up structures has been reported by Galambos9 and Narayanan. Consequently. but is only recommended for members battened in one direction.14 whereas the Eurocode opts for a second-order analysis with a specified initial geometric imperfection. The following rules regarding the application of the model are set out in clause 6.4 Clause 6. Clause 6. Clause 6. and the rather unfashionable aesthetics (often containing corrosion traps). (2) The lacings or battens must form equal modules (i.4 6.e. uniform-sized lacings or battens and regular spacing). (5) The chord members may be solid members or themselves built-up (with lacings or battens in the perpendicular plane). General Designing built-up members based on calculations of the discontinuous structure is considered too time-consuming for practical design purposes.4 also provides guidance for closely spaced built-up members such as backto-back channels. The basis of the BS 5950 method is also different from the Eurocode approach. Joints must also be checked – see Chapter 12 of this guide. with BS 5950 using a modified Euler buckling theory. Design then comprises two steps: (1) Analyse the full ‘equivalent’ member (with smeared shear stiffness) using second order theory.32. (2) Check critical chord and web members under design forces and moments. (3) The minimum number of modules in a member is three. BS 5950: Part 1 offers less detailed guidance on the subject than Eurocode 3. 6. to determine maximum design forces and moments.13 In terms of material consumption. as described in the following sub-section. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES Fig.CHAPTER 6.

1(6).3.2.4.4.2. based on a buckling length measured between the points of connection of the lacing system. Ed in the chords is determined as described in the previous section. Various recommendations on construction details for laced members are provided in clause 6. Ed should be determined from N ch. Laced compression members Chords The design compression force Nch. where the maximum shear forces occur. The design shear force VEd should be taken as VEd = π MEd L (6.2. Design forces in chords and web members Evaluation of the design forces to apply to chord and web members is covered in clauses 6. these are intended to cover small incidental bending moments. 100 .DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Clause 6.NEd /N cr . Clause 6.69) where MEd = N cr = I NEd e0 + MEd 1 . such as those arising from load eccentricities.4. It should be noted that although the formulations include an allowance for applied I moments M Ed . 6.4.5 NEd MEd h0 Ach 2 Ieff (6. This magnitude of imperfection is also employed in the design formulations of clause 6. resulting in the occurrence of the maximum design chord force at the mid-length of the column.4.1 Clause 6.4.1.2.NEd /Sv NEd MEd I M Ed h0 Ach Ieff Sv e0 π2 EIeff is the effective critical force of the built-up member L2 is the design value of the applied compression for on the built-up member is the design value of the maximum moment at the mid-length of the built-up member including second-order effects is the design value of the applied moment at the mid-length of the built-up member (without second-order effects) is the distance between the centroids of the chords is the cross-sectional area of one chord is the effective second moment of area of the built-up member (see the following sections) is the shear stiffness of the lacings or battened panel (see the following sections) is the assumed imperfection magnitude and may be taken as L/500. The formulations were derived from the governing differential equation of a column and by considering second-order effects.4.2 The chords and diagonal lacings of a built-up laced compression member should be checked for buckling in accordance with clause 6. respectively.1(6) and 6. Ed = 0.4.1(6) Clause 6.4.1(6) Clause 6. and has an empirical basis.1(7). The maximum design chord forces Nch.3. This should be shown to be less than the buckling resistance of the chords. The lacings and battens should be checked at the end panels of the built-up member.1(7) For global structural analysis purposes a member (bow) imperfection of magnitude e0 = L/500 may be adopted.70) where MEd has been defined above. For a member with two identical chords the design force Nch. Ed are determined I from the applied compression forces NEd and applied bending moments M Ed .

This contribution is not included for laced columns (see equation (6.72) 6. The second part of the right-hand side of equation (6. the buckling length of the chord Lch may generally be taken as the system length (though reference should be made to Annex BB).73) where Ich Ib is the in-plane second moment of area of one chord (about its own neutral axis) is the in-plane second moment of area of one batten (about its own neutral axis).2.4 101 .1(4) The shear stiffness Sv of the lacings depends upon the lacing layout.4.5h02Ach (6.74) where µ is a so-called efficiency factor. reference should be made to Fig.4. this design compressive force should be shown to be less than the buckling resistance. represents the contribution of the moments of inertia of the chords to the overall bending stiffness of the battened member.5h02Ach + 2µIch (6. 2µIch. and. the effective second moment of area may be taken as Ieff = 0.2 The shear stiffness Sv of a battened built-up member is given in clause 6. controls the level of chord contribution that may be exploited. Clause 6. The recommendations of Table 6.4. 6.3. Battened compression members The chords. Again. Closely spaced built-up members Clause 6. and Clause 6.2. 6.1(3). as for chords.4. In general.1(3) Clause 6.8 of EN 1993-1-1.3. provided the chords of the built-up members are either in direct contact with one another or closely Clause 6.3.1(2) should be taken as Sv = 24 EIch a [1 + (2 Ich /nI b )( h0 /a)] 2 but £ 2π2 EIch a2 (6.74).8 of EN 1993-1-1. the value of which may range between zero and unity.4. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES For lacings in one direction only. buckling lengths are defined in the three-dimensional illustrations of Fig.4. Various recommendations on design details for battened members are provided in clause 6.4. The efficiency factor µ. and may be taken as Ieff = 0. Clause 6. For laced built-up members.3.1(3) and 6.CHAPTER 6.2.4. and it can therefore become uneconomical to neglect the chord contribution.4 covers the design of closely spaced built-up members.9 of EN 1993-1-1. for the three common arrangements.4.1(3) 6. reference should be made to Annex BB).4.4.1(4). Shear stiffness and effective second moment of area The shear stiffness and effective second moment of area of the lacings required for the determination of the design forces in the chords and lacings are defined in clauses 6. Essentially.72)). Lacings The design compression force in the lacings may be easily determined from the design shear force VEd (described in the previous section) by joint equilibrium. taken from Table 6.3.2.2.3.8 of EN 1993-1-1 were made to ensure ‘safe side’ theoretical predictions of a series of experimental results.13 6.4.3. the buckling length of the lacing may be taken as the system length (though.4. The effective second moment of area Ieff of a battened built-up member is given in clause Clause 6.4.4.1(2). For lacings in two directions. the primary reason behind this is that the spacing of the chords in battened built-up members is generally rather less than that for laced members. battens and joints of battened compression members should be checked under the design forces and moments at mid-length and in an end panel.

DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1

Clause 6.3 Clause 6.4

spaced and connected through packing plates, and the conditions of Table 6.9 of EN 1993-1-1 are met, the built-up members may be designed as integral members (ignoring shear deformations) following the provisions of clause 6.3; otherwise the provisions of the earlier parts of clause 6.4 apply.

102

CHAPTER 7

Serviceability limit states
This chapter concerns the subject of serviceability limit states. The material in this chapter is covered in Section 7 of Eurocode 3 Part 1.1, and the following clauses are addressed: • • General Serviceability limit states for buildings Clause 7.1 Clause 7.2

Overall, the coverage of serviceability considerations in EN 1993-1-1 is very limited, with little explicit guidance provided. However, as detailed below, for further information reference should be made to EN 1990, on the basis that many serviceability criteria are independent of the structural material. For serviceability issues that are material-specific, reference should be made to EN 1992 to EN 1999, as appropriate. Clauses 3.4, 6.5 and A1.4 of EN 1990 contain guidance relevant to serviceability; clause A1.4 of EN 1990 (as with the remainder of Annex A1 of EN 1990) is specific to buildings.

7.1. General
Serviceability limit states are defined in Clause 3.4 of EN 1990 as those that concern: • • • the functionality of the structure or structural members under normal use the comfort of the people the appearance of the structure.

For buildings, the primary concerns are horizontal and vertical deflections and vibrations. According to clause 3.4 of EN 1990, a distinction should be made between reversible and irreversible serviceability limit states. Reversible serviceability limit states are those that would be infringed on a non-permanent basis, such as excessive vibration or high elastic deflections under temporary (variable) loading. Irreversible serviceability limit states are those that would remain infringed even when the cause of infringement was removed (e.g. permanent local damage or deformations). Further, three categories of combinations of loads (actions) are specified in EN 1990 for serviceability checks: characteristic, frequent and quasi-permanent. These are given by equations (6.14) to (6.16) of EN 1990, and summarized in Table 7.1 (Table A1.4 of EN 1990), where each combination contains a permanent action component (favourable or unfavourable), a leading variable component and other variable components. Where a permanent action is unfavourable, which is generally the case, the upper characteristic value of a permanent action Gkj, sup should be used; where an action is favourable (such as a permanent action reducing uplift due to wind loading), the lower characteristic value of a permanent action Gkj, inf should be used. Unless otherwise stated, for all combinations of actions in a serviceability limit state the partial factors should be taken as unity (i.e. the loading should be unfactored). An

DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1

introduction to EN 1990 is contained in Chapter 14 of this guide, where combinations of actions are discussed in more detail. The characteristic combination of actions would generally be used when considering the function of the structure and damage to structural and non-structural elements; the frequent combination would be applied when considering the comfort of the user, the functioning of machinery and avoiding the possibility of ponding of water; the quasi-permanent combination would be used when considering the appearance of the structure and long-term effects (e.g. creep). The purpose of the ψ factors (ψ0, ψ1 and ψ2) that appear in the load combinations of Table 7.1 is to modify characteristic values of variable actions to give representative values for different situations. Numerical values of the ψ factors are given in Table 14.1 of this Guide. Further discussion of the ψ factors may also be found in Chapter 14 of this guide and in Corus.3

7.2. Serviceability limit states for buildings
It is emphasized in both EN 1993-1-1 and EN 1990 that serviceability limits (e.g. for deflections and vibrations) should be specified for each project and agreed with the client. Numerical values for these limits are not provided in either document.

7.2.1. Vertical deflections

Total vertical deflections wtot are defined in EN 1990 by a number of components (wc, w1, w2 and w3), as shown in Fig. 7.1 (Fig. A1.1 of EN 1990), where wc w1 w2 w3 wtot wmax is the precamber in the unloaded structural member initial part of the deflection under permanent loads long term part of the deflection under permanent loads additional part of the deflection due to variable loads total deflection (w1 + w2 + w3) remaining total deflection taking into account the precamber (wtot – wc).

In the absence of prescribed deflection limits, those provided in Table 7.2 may be used for serviceability verifications based on the characteristic combination of actions. In general, the deflection limits should be checked against the total deflection wtot.

Table 7.1. Design values of actions for use in the combination of actions (Table A1.4 of EN 1990)
Permanent action Gd Combination Characteristic Frequent Quasi-permanent Unfavourable Gkj,sup Gkj,sup Gkj,sup Favourable Gkj,inf Gkj,inf Gkj,inf Variable actions Qd Leading Qk,1 ψ1,1Qk,1 ψ2,1Qk,1 Others ψ0,iQk,i ψ2,iQk,i ψ2,iQk,i

wc

w1 w2 wtot w3

wmax

Fig. 7.1. Definitions of vertical deflections

104

where the permanent action is unfavourable.5 + (0.1 illustrates the calculation of vertical deflections in beams.1 (Table A1.8 kN/m.2. and is likely to propose that permanent actions be taken as zero in serviceability checks.6 + 20. Vertical deflection limits Design situation Cantilevers Beams carrying plaster or other brittle finish Other beams (except purlins and sheeting rails) Purlins and sheeting rails Deflection limit Length/180 Span/360 Span/200 To suit cladding The UK National Annex may define similar limits to those given in Table 7. and a required second moment of area of 47. and by inspection. 105 . Choose a suitable UB such that the vertical deflection limits of Table 7.7.6 m is subjected to the following (unfactored) loading: • • • dead load: 8.2.2.6: E = 210 000 N/mm2 Using the characteristic combination of actions of Table 7. the maximum deflection δ of a simply supported beam may be taken as δ= 5 wL4 384 EI Clause 3.5 kN/m snow load: 1.1×106 \ 356 × 127 × 33 is acceptable Setting the dead load equal to zero in the serviceability loading gives w = 21. Example 7.8) = 30.76 kN/m. so wtot would be equal to w3.1 ¥ 106 mm 4 384 Eδ 384 210 000 ¥ (5600/200) From section tables 356 × 127 × 33 has a second moment of area (about the major axis) Iy of 82. taking the imposed roof load as the leading variable action is critical. 1 ‘+’ ψ0. essentially reverting to the practice in BS 5950.49×106 > 66.36 ¥ 56004 = ¥ = 66.2. SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES Table 7. we have serviceability loading w = Gk ‘+’ Qk.6 kN/m imposed roof load: 20. \ w = 8. for snow loads (at altitudes > 1000 m). Example 7.49 × 106 mm4: 82. which is to check deflections under unfactored imposed loading.2 are not exceeded.36 kN/m Under a uniformly distributed load. ψ0 = 0.2. 2Qk. From clause 3.6 5 wL4 384 Eδ For a deflection limit of span/200: fi I required = fi I required = 5 wL4 5 30.7 × 1.CHAPTER 7.1 of EN 1990). In this case w1 and w2 would be zero. 2 From Table 14.4 × 106 mm4.1: vertical deflection of beams A simply supported roof beam of span 5.

3.2. Horizontal deflections 7.2. those provided in Table 7. In the absence of prescribed deflection limits.3.3 may be used for serviceability verifications based on the characteristic combination of actions. 7. Essentially. The EN 1990 notation to describe horizontal deflections is illustrated in Fig. Corus3 and other specialized literature. Horizontal deflection limits Design situation Tops of columns in single storey buildings. which depend upon the function of the structure and the source of vibration. where u is the total horizontal deflection of a structure of height H. 7. except portal frames Columns in portal frame buildings. and wind action. Definitions of horizontal deflections Table 7. this is achieved provided the natural frequencies of vibration are kept above appropriate levels. Further guidance on dynamic effects may be found in EN 1990. 7. ground-borne vibrations from traffic. not supporting crane runways In each storey of a building with more than one storey Deflection limit Height/300 To suit cladding Height of storey/300 Horizontal deflections in structures may be checked using the same combinations of actions as for vertical deflections.2. Possible sources of vibration include walking.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 u ui Hi H L Fig.15 106 . and ui is the horizontal deflection in each storey (i) of height Hi.2.2. Dynamic effects Dynamic effects need to be considered in structures to ensure that vibrations do not impair the comfort of the user or the functioning of the structure or structural members. synchronized movements of people.

1 (Table A.1 of EN 1993-1-1). while Method 2 is more straightforward. both of which must be satisfied.2 (Table A.CHAPTER 8 Annex A (informative) – Method 1: interaction factors kij for interaction formula in clause 6. as far as possible.9 to assess the resistance of a rectangular hollow section member under combined axial load and major axis bending. Method 1 is contained within Annex A. Cmz (both of which represent in-plane behaviour) and CmLT (which represents out-of-plane behaviour). the UK National Annex is expected to allow either method to be used.61) and kzy and kzz for equation (6. Inelastic behaviour has been allowed for when considering Class 1 and 2 cross-sections by incorporating plasticity factors that relate the elastic and plastic section moduli. Each of the interaction formulae contains two interaction factors: kyy and kyz for equation (6. but may limit the scope of application of Method 1 to bi-symmetrical sections. are given in Table 8. Emphasis has been placed on achieving generality as well as consistency with the individual member checks and cross-section verifications. due to the large number of auxiliary terms. Clause 6. Of the two methods. The equivalent uniform moment factors Cmi. Development of the method has involved an extensive numerical modelling programme. Method 1 will generally offer more competitive solutions. and Method 2 is contained within Annex B. clause 6.3.16 The basic formulations for determining the interaction factors using Method 1 are given in Table 8. developed at the Universities of Liege and Clermont-Ferrand. have been reported in Boissonnade et al. Method 1 is applied in Example 6.3. 0 that depend on the shape of the applied bending moment diagram about each axis together with the support and out-of-plane restraint conditions. Further details of the method.3. and is described in this chapter. in deriving the interaction factors.2 of EN 1993-1-1). The choice of which method to adopt may be prescribed by the National Annex.3(4) provides two interaction formulae. Two alternative methods to determine these four interaction factors (kyy. Method 1 is based on second-order in-plane elastic stability theory. However. and maintains consistency with the theory. Method 1 generally requires more calculation effort. along with the extensive set of auxiliary terms. kzy and kzz) are given by EN 1993-1-1. A distinction is made between members susceptible or not susceptible to lateral–torsional buckling in calculating the factors Cmy. and described in Chapter 9 of this guide.62). kyz.3(4) For uniform members subjected to combined bending and axial compression.3(4) .

.

.

.3(4) provides two interaction formulae.3.9.3(4) In structures that rely on the flexural stiffness of the columns for stability (i. has been described in Lindner. the top row of Table 9.e. the second and third rows of Table 9.62). both of which must be satisfied. for uniform members subjected to combined bending and axial compression.CHAPTER 9 Annex B (informative) – Method 2: interaction factors kij for interaction formula in clause 6. Cmz and CmLT may be determined from Table 9.61) and kzy and kzz for equation (6. and in Table 9. The background to the method. unbraced frames).3 apply.2 of EN 1993-1-1) for members that are susceptible to lateral–torsional buckling. Each of the interaction formulae contains two interaction factors: kyy and kyz for equation (6.3 of EN 1993-1-1). kzy and kzz) are given by EN 1993-1-1.3 (Table B. and Method 2 is contained within Annex B. Cmy relates to in-plane major axis bending.6 + 0. and CmLT relates to out-of-plane buckling. and described in the previous chapter. which gives Cmi = 0. Two alternative methods to determine these four interaction factors (kyy.4ψ (but a minimum value of 0.3.3 applies.3 of EN 1993-1-1) indicates that the equivalent uniform moment factor (Cmy or Cmz) should be taken as 0. Method 1 is contained within Annex A.17 The basic formulations for determining the interaction factors using Method 2 are given in Table 9. Method 2 is more straightforward than Method 1. developed at the Technical Universities of Graz and Berlin. and described in this chapter.4 is prescribed) for uniform loading between restraints (indicated by unbroken lines in the moment diagrams). When referring to Table 9.1 (Table B.3 (Table B. clause 6. Table 9.1 of EN 1993-1-1) for members not susceptible to lateral–torsional buckling. and is generally more user-friendly.3(4) As described in the previous chapter. kyz. with Cmi factors derived from the left-hand section of the final column for concentrated loading between restraints (indicated by dashed lines in the moment diagrams).3 apply. the second and third rows of Table 9.2 (Table B.3. Clause 6.3 of EN 1993-1-1): • • • for no loading between points of restraint. Cmz relates to in-plane minor axis bending. The equivalent uniform moment factors Cmy.3 (Table B. with Cmi factors derived from the right-hand section of the final column.

.

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2 of EN 1993-1-1. Structural analysis taking account of material non-linearities Clause AB.1 and AB.CHAPTER 10 Annex AB (informative) – additional design provisions Annex AB of EN 1993-1-1 is split into two short sections containing additional information for taking account of material non-linearities in structural analysis and simplified provisions for the design of continuous floor beams.1 states that.2 of this guide relate to clauses AB. for each relevant design situation (or combination of actions). the internal members forces and moments) may be determined using an incremental approach. Clause AB. Clause AB.2 provides two simplified loading arrangements for the design of continuous floor beams with slabs in buildings. but may not be applied where cantilevers are present.2 . and other spans carrying only the design permanent load (2) for maximum hogging moments.1 and 10. all other spans carrying only the design permanent load. Simplified provisions for the design of continuous floor beams Clause AB. alternative spans carrying the design permanent and variable loads. any two adjacent spans carrying the design permanent and variable loads. respectively.2. The guidance is applicable when uniformly distributed loads are dominant. Sections 10. The two loading arrangements to be considered are as follows: (1) for maximum sagging moments. the action effects in a structure (i. in the case of material non-linearities. It is noted that this annex is intended to be transferred to EN 1990 in future revisions of the codes.1 10. Additionally.2 10. each permanent and variable action should be increased proportionally.1.e. Clause AB.1 Clause AB.

3 While the first and third of these provisions will be familiar to those used to BS 5950: Part 1. BB. as covered in Annex BB.1 .1.e.1. 11. Clauses BB. Annex BB provides specific guidance on three aspects of member stability for use when determining the resistance of individual members acting as parts of a frame structure: • • • buckling lengths for chord or web members in triangulated and lattice structures – Lcr values stiffness requirements for trapezoidal sheeting to fully restrain a beam against lateral– torsional instability – S or Cv. respectively. the material on sheeting restraint is new.3 of EN 1993-1-1. the recommended Lcr values also recognize the presence of eccentricities and include allowances for it so that the members can be designed as if axially loaded. i.1. with some recognition being taken of the rotational restraint available to either brace or chord members when the adjacent components possess greater stiffness.2 and BB. Clause BB. Flexural buckling of members in triangulated and lattice structures Clause BB. Behaviour both in the plane of the truss and out of plane are covered. For the former it largely follows the BS 5950: Part 1 approach of combining end restraint and the effect of eccentricities in the line of force transfer into a single design provision. k values maximum stable lengths between adjacent lateral or torsional restraints for members containing plastic hinges – Lm or Lk values. i. smaller buckling lengths.2 and 11. In all cases.e.1 provides Lcr values for a series of situations covering structures composed of either angle or hollow section members. Sections 11.1 to BB. may be used when these can be justified on the basis of either tests or a more rigorous analysis.3 of this guide relate to clauses BB. more competitive values. 11.CHAPTER 11 Annex BB (informative) – buckling of components of buildings structures This chapter is concerned with the supplementary guidance given in EN 1993-1-1 for the buckling of components of buildings.

e. sheeting supported by hot-rolled beams.1). linearly varying or non-linearly varying moment between points of torsional restraint – Lk or Ls stable lengths of haunched or tapered members between adjacent lateral restraints – Lm stable lengths of haunched or tapered members between torsional restraints – Ls. The determination of appropriate values of S and Cv.18 In contrast. the specific formulae for this latter effect presume the beam to be a light purlin with appropriate sheet/purlin fastening arrangements. In addition. member buckling must not impair the ability of such members to deliver adequate plastic hinge rotation. Although reference is made to Part 1.12). This has been studied. Premature failure due to any form of instability must therefore be prevented. However. and a design procedure developed.1). It is.2. depending on the precise conditions of restraint assumed at the brace locations (lateral or torsional) and whether the haunch has three flanges (as illustrated in Fig 11. Both the haunch between this point and the rafter–column joint and the length of the rafter on the opposite side of the plastic hinge extending to the braced location 7 must not fail prematurely by lateral–torsional buckling.5. possible for sheeting to provide a combination of both lateral and torsional restraint. modification factors are given to allow for the presence of a continuous lateral restraint along the tension flange of both uniform and non-uniform members subjected to either linear or non-linear moment gradients. k in terms of beam properties such that the sheeting may be assumed to provide full lateral or torsional restraint.1 11. Thus. clause 10.1) or only two.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 11. restrictions on the slenderness of individual members are required. If the additional benefit of continuous tension flange restraint is to be included then the modification of either equation 118 . Limits covering a variety of conditions are provided in this section: • • • • stable lengths of uniform members subject to axial compression and uniform moment between adjacent lateral restraints – Lm stable lengths of uniform members subject to axial compression and either constant.0 in equation (6. Clause BB2. For the haunch.3 sets out a detailed procedure for calculating the total rotational stiffness CD as a combination of the flexural stiffness of the sheeting and the rotational stiffness of the interconnection between the sheeting and the beam.3 of Eurocode 3. with the result that χLT may be taken as 1.2. k for a particular arrangement should follow the provisions given in Part 1. The overall design premise of failure of the frame being due to the formation of the plastic collapse mechanism requires that a plastic hinge forms as shown at the toe of the rafter (point 6 in Fig. Stable lengths of segment containing plastic hinges for out-of-plane buckling The use of plastic design methods requires that the resistance of the structure be governed by the formation of a plastic collapse mechanism. that document does not provide explicit guidance on the determination of appropriate values of S for particular arrangements of sheeting and fastening.1 illustrates the nature of the situation under consideration.2 of Part 1.3.9) to (BB. Similarly. It is therefore suggested that these need to be applied with caution when considering arrangements of different proportions. reference to other sources is necessary. of course. 11.19 but it is not covered explicitly by Eurocode 3.1. the maximum stable length may be obtained from one of equations (BB. Thus. Continuous restraints Expressions are provided for both the shear stiffness S and the torsional restraint stiffness Cv.55). for example Bryan and Davies. It is for this reason that only cross-sections whose proportions meet the Class 1 limits may be used for members required to participate in a plastic hinge action.g.3 (through clause BB. Figure 11.

For the uniform length rafter between points 6 and 7. including tension flange restraint (BB.1.8). aimed principally at the design of pitched roof portal frame structures. 2. 6. plastic stable length (see Clause BB. restraints. 10. plastic stable length (see Clause BB. elastic section (see Clause 6. as appropriate. 12.5) to (BB. It is. 7.3.2). plastic hinge.1.3).14) should be added.3. bending moment diagram. plastic stable length (see Clause BB.1. χ and χLT from Ncr and Mcr. Much of this material is very similar to the treatment of the same topic in Appendix G of BS 5950: Part 1. 4.5.3. Member with a three flange haunch.3(2)B). plastic stable length (see Clause BB. 5.2. elastic section (see Clause 6. especially when checking stability of the haunched rafter in the eaves region.3).3.3). 11. 1. compression flange.3.3.13) or (BB. elastic section (see Clause 6. of course.1). should be used. equations (BB. ANNEX BB (INFORMATIVE) 2 £ Lm 4 £ Lm 5 1 A–A 1 A 6 B 7 9 B A 3 Mp 8 9 10 11 B–B 12 Fig. 9.CHAPTER 11. 119 . 11.3(2)B).2) or elastic (see Clause 6.5.1) or elastic (see Clause 6. tension flange. 3. 8.

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25 (or 1. ranging from 4. Three situations for bolts designed to operate in shear are defined in clause 3.4. bolts. Information on geometrical restrictions on the positioning of bolt holes is provided in Table 3.1 of EN 1993-1-8).g. These accord with the usual principles adopted when designing joints.3 of EN 1993-1-8.1) 1.4.2.8.1. partial factors γM for the various components present in joints are listed (see Table 2.7 of EN 1993-1-8. e. General Table 3.0 122 .9 and including the UK norm of 8. Either linear elastic or elastic–plastic analysis may be used to determine the forces in the component parts of a joint subject to the set of basic design concepts listed in clause 2. γM γM2 γM3 γM5 Eurocode 3 1. Section 2 of EN 1993-1-8 concludes with an extensive list of reference standards covering the usual components typically found in joints. rivets or pins 12.1 of EN 1993-1-8: • • • • • bearing type – the most usual arrangement slip-resistant at serviceability limit state – ultimate condition governed by strength in shear or bearing slip-resistant at ultimate limit state – ultimate condition governed by slip.1.6 to 10. welds and plates in bearing – γM2 slip resistance – γM3 resistance of joints in hollow section lattice girders – γM5. are given in Table 12. 12. Basis of design In Section 2 of EN 1993-1-8. e.2 of this guide. Numerical values of partial factors γM relevant to connections Partial factor.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 more than just the usual list of notation due to the need to define numerous geometrical parameters associated with the detailed arrangements for various forms of joint. 12.1. Table 12. this topic is covered in Section 6. nuts and washers.3.g. Similarly.25 The effects of eccentricity in the line of action of forces should be allowed for using the principles listed in clause 2.25 1. non-preloaded – the most usual category preloaded – when controlled tightening is employed. two categories for bolts used in tension are defined: Table 3. Only appropriate grade 8.5 of EN 1993-1-8. of which the most common are: • • • resistance of bolts. or needed to construct joints. This generally accords with the provisions of BS 5950: Part 1.4.9 bolts may be designed as preloaded. The numerical values for these partial factors. pins.1 of EN 1993-1-8 lists five grades of bolts.8 or 10.2 of EN 1993-1-8 lists the design checks needed for each of these above five arrangements. as defined by Eurocode 3. It includes the usual provisions for regular and staggered holes in tension members. Connections made with bolts. welding consumables. with reference to the provision of EN 1993-1-1.

and (with reference to Fig. αd = αd = e1 3 d0 for end bolts for inner bolts p1 . p2 and e2 12. k1 is the smaller of: Ê ˆ e2 Á 2. fub /fu or 1.2) where αb is the smallest of αd. Rd = αv fub A γ M2 (D12.63).5 for classes 4. For shear. the resistance is given by Fv.4 ¥ d .3) where is the tensile stress area of the bolt As k2 = 0. DESIGN OF JOINTS p1 e1 e2 p2 Fig.0.1) where αv = 0.1.9 where the shear plane passes through the threaded portion of the bolt is the ultimate tensile strength of the bolt is the tensile stress area when the shear plane passes through the threaded portion of the bolt or the gross cross-sectional area when the shear plane passes through the unthreaded portion of the bolt.6 for classes 4.5 Ë ¯ 0 for edge bolts for inner bolts The symbols p1.5 Ë ¯ 0 Ê ˆ p2 Á 1. e1. the resistance is given by Fb.4. k1αb fu dt γ M2 fub A For bearing.9 (except for countersunk bolts. where k2 = 0.8 where the shear plane passes through the threaded portion of the bolt. For tension the resistance is Ft.4 of EN 1993-1-8 lists the design rules for individual bolts subjected to shear and/or tension. Design resistance Table 3.8 ¥ d . fu is the ultimate tensile strength of the connected parts. 6.1): • in the direction of load transfer.1. 5.0.8. 12.2.6. e1. 12.1.1.CHAPTER 12. p2 and e2 are defined in Fig. 5.7˜ or 2.8.8 and 10.25 3 d0 • perpendicular to the direction of load transfer. 12. and for all classes where the shear plane passes through the unthreaded portion of the bolt = 0. Rd = (D12. Rd = k2 fub As γ M2 (D12.7˜ or 2. Definitions for p1.6 and 8. 123 .

2).7) 12.7 of EN 1993-1-8. the design shear resistance should be reduced by a factor βp. C γ M3 (D12.0 (D12.6 and 3.15 d (D12. Slip-resistant connections Slip-resistant connections should be designed using the provisions of clause 3. C . Rd + Ft.7 × 800As (subject to conformity with standards). Ed Fv.5) For preloaded bolts the design value of preload Fp. Rd.75 £ βLf £ 1.9 of EN 1993-1-8.7 fub As γ M7 (D12.7 of EN 1993-1-8) in bearing and long joints (clause 3. the design shear resistance of all fasteners should be reduced by multiplying by the reduction factor βLf.9) Packing plates Figure 12. Cd = 0. Rd = ks nµ Fp.4 Ft.4) Special provisions are made when using oversize or slotted holes or countersunk bolts. respectively.8 of EN 1993-1-8).0 (D12.6. bolt groups (clause 3. Ed. given by but 0. Cd is given by Fp.4. serv ) γ M3 (D12. and pass through packing of total thickness tp (Fig.3. βLf = 1 Lj . Fasteners through packing 124 . Rd £ 1.8 Ft. For long joints. For situations involving combined tension and shear for which the connection is designed as ‘slip-resistant at serviceability’.0 200 d where Lj is the distance between the centres of the end bolts in the joint. 12.2 of EN 1993-1-8). Values for the factor ks as well as a set of the slip factor µ corresponding to four classes of plate surface are provided in Tables 3.0. Where bolts transmit load in shear and bearing.8) where n is the number of friction surfaces Fp.2. the slip resistance is given by Fs.6) Provisions are also given for injection bolts (clause 3. given by βp = 9d 8 d + 3tp but βp £ 1. Ed 1.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 For combined shear and tension the resistance is covered by the formula Fv. serv = ks nµ( Fp. C = 0. which gives the design slip resistance as Fs.

4. Equations to cover concentrically and eccentrically loaded situations are provided by equations (D12.4.4. 12.5 fu Ant (1/ 3) fy Anv + γ M2 γ M0 (D12. no information on how to recognize such situations or what procedure to use to determine their values is provided.10) and (D12.4 of BS 5950: Part 1.4. Both variants are conceptually similar to the treatment given in BS 5950: Part 1.11) where Ant Anv is the net area subject to tension is the net area subject to shear.3. In the absence of specific guidance it 125 .3. Recent work in Canada that paralleled criticism of the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) treatment26 has suggested that the original ENV concept was both physically more representative of the behaviour obtained in tests and gave clear yet still safe side predictions of the relevant experimented data.3 (Fig. are illustrated in Fig. 12. although the form of presentation is different. Block tearing Several cases of block tearing. and thus separation of the connection. Block tearing 12. These equations differ from those of the earlier ENV document in using net area for both shear and tension. Thus.5. Rd = Veff.11 of EN 1993-1-8 specifically requires that prying forces in bolts loaded in tension be allowed for ‘where this can occur’. 3.10) (D12. Rd = fu Ant (1/ 3) fy Anv + γ M2 γ M0 0.11). 1. DESIGN OF JOINTS NSd NSd NSd NSd Fig. 12. in which shear failure along one row of bolts in association with tensile rupture along another line of bolts results in the detachment of a piece of material. the interaction equation given in Table 3.8 of EN 1993-1-8).4 of EN 1993-1-8 should be treated similarly to the second formula in clause 6. respectively: Veff.CHAPTER 12. 2. Rules are also provided for the tensile resistance of angles connected through one leg that adopt the usual practice of treating it as concentrically loaded but with a correction factor applied to the area. Prying forces Although clause 3.

7. Table 3. vibration and load reversal (except that caused solely by wind loading). and the pin may be designed as if it were a single bolt all other arrangements for which the procedures given in clause 3. 12. two cases are recognized: where no rotation is required. these rules are essentially similar to those in BS 5950: Part 1. Connections made with pins • • For connections made with pins (Fig. although for welds in structural hollow sections this limit is reduced to 2. 12.4. Ed. reference should normally be made to Part 1.3.6.5.2 of EN 1993-1-8 should be followed.4.4. bending and combined shear and bending.5 mm.13. 12.5. 12. 12. For thinner materials.3 of the code.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 seems reasonable to use the procedure of clause 6. with specific guidance being provided in Section 7 of EN 1993-1-8. Force distributions at ultimate limit state A plastic distribution of bolt forces may be used except: • • • for connections designed as ‘slip-resistant at ultimate’ when shear (rather than bearing) is the governing condition in cases where the connection must be designed to resist the effects of impact. Pin connection 126 . Apart from changes to some of the numerical coefficients.4). It is stated that any plastic approach is acceptable providing it satisfies equilibrium and that the resistance and ductility of individual bolts is not exceeded. General Design information is provided for welds covering material thicknesses in excess of 4 mm.10 of EN 1993-1-8 lists the design requirements for pins for shear.1. Welded connections 12. bearing (pin and plates).4.3 of BS 5950: Part 1 to determine the total tensile bolt load Ft. A further limit on the contact bearing stress is applied if the pin is to be designed as replaceable. Information on fatigue aspects of weld Fig.

CHAPTER 12. of BS 5950: Part 1. in which: • • • • σ^ is the normal stress perpendicular to the throat σ|| is the normal stress parallel to the axis of the throat τ^ is the shear stress perpendicular to the axis of the weld τ|| is the shear stress parallel to the axis of the weld. Two methods are permitted for the design of fillet welds: • • the directional method.12b) where 127 . All major types of structural weld are covered. this should not be less than 3 mm. DESIGN OF JOINTS s t t s Fig. σ|| is assumed not to influence the design resistance. 12. 12. 12. τ^ and τ|| must satisfy the pair of conditions given by equations (D12.5. although ways of designing outside these limits are suggested.3. respectively.1 of EN 1993-1-8. 4.5 of EN 1993-1-8) are assumed.12a) and (D12. as listed in clause 4. 4.3 of EN 1993-1-8 indicates how the effective weld thickness should be measured. These approaches broadly mirror those used in the 2000 and 1990 versions.2.5 £ σ^ £ fu γ M2 fu βw γ M2 (D12. and on fracture in Part 1. in which the forces transmitted by a unit length of weld are resolved into parallel and perpendicular components the simplified method.12b): [σ^ 2 + 3(τ ^ 2 + τ||2 )]0. Directional method Normal and shear stresses of the form shown in Fig.9.5. Intermittent fillet welds must meet the requirements of Fig.5 (Fig. while σ^. 4. testing is necessary to demonstrate that the required degree of penetration can be achieved consistently. Fillet welds The usual geometrical restrictions that the included angle be between 60 and 120° applies.1 of EN 1993-1-8 in terms of the ratio of hit/miss lengths. For deep-penetration fillet welds. Stresses on the throat section of a fillet weld design is provided in Part 1. It is generally assumed that the properties of the weld metal will be at least the equivalent in terms of strength. in which only longitudinal shear is considered.12a) (D12. as defined by Fig. ductility and toughness to those of the parent material. A minimum length of 30 mm or six times the throat thickness is required before the weld can be considered as load-carrying.10. Figure 4.4 of EN 1993-1-8.

such arrangements may be designed as if they were full-penetration welds. the resultant of all forces per unit length transmitted by the weld (Fw. 12. Rd). Butt welds For full-penetration butt welds the design resistance is simply taken as the strength of the weaker parts connected. Connections to unstiffened flanges (D12. d and the throat thickness a.1 of EN 1993-1-8).4.6.5beff bp 0.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 fu βw is the nominal ultimate strength of the weaker part joined is a factor (between 0. The value of fvw.5.g.5.6. Specific rules are given for the determination of an effective width of plate beff as defined in Fig.13) 12.0) depending on the steel type (see Table 4. where this is simply the product of the design shear strength fvw.8 and 1. Force distribution Either elastic or plastic methods may be used to determine the distribution of forces in a welded connection.3. Effective width of an unstiffened T joint 128 . Providing the nominal throat thickness of a T-butt weld exceeds the thickness t of the plate forming the stem of the T joint and any unwelded gap does not exceed t/5. 12. Ductility should be ensured. e.5. 4. b. Long joints Apart from arrangements in which the stress distribution along the weld corresponds to that in the adjacent parts. This presumes the use of welding consumables that deliver all weld-tensile specimens of greater strength than the parent metal.14) 12.5. web-to-flange girder welds. Rd = beff. joints with lengths greater than 150a tw beff r tf tw tf 0.8 of EN 1993-1-8) for use in the design expression Ffc. Simplified method At all points along its length. fc ttb fy. Ed) must not exceed the design weld resistance per unit length (Fw.5beff tp tp Fig.d = fu / 3 βw γ M2 (D12. The provisions of this section need to be read in association with the later material in Sections 6 and 7 when dealing with plates attached to I or H or to rectangular hollow sections. d should be taken as fvw.5. 12. fb γ M0 12. Partial-penetration butt welds should be designed as deep-penetration fillet welds.6 (Fig.

Central to it is the concept of the 129 . Global analysis Readers accustomed to the rather cursory linkage between the properties of joints and their influence on the performance of a structure provided in BS 5950 will be surprised at the level of detail devoted to this topic in Eurocode 3.1 – Lw /17 where Lj Lw is the overall length of the lap in the direction of the force transfer (in metres) is the length of the weld (in metres).2 – 0. plastic rigid–plastic elastic–plastic. classification and modelling 12.2 ≥ 0. It does this via the process of classification of joint types in terms of their strength (moment resistance) and their (rotational) stiffness.15) 12.1 = 1.2 = 1. Angles connected by one leg Good practice rules are provided to define situations for which tension at the root of a weld must be explicitly considered and for determining the effective area for angles connected by only one leg so that they may be treated as concentrically loaded. but βLw.7 m for joints connecting transverse stiffeners to web plates should be designed by reducing the basic design resistance by a factor βLw given respectively by βLw.7.16) but βLw.1.6 (D12. Although British codes BS 5950 and its forerunner BS 449 have always recognized three types of framing. in a far more explicit and detailed fashion. Eurocode 3 links each type of framing to each of the three methods of global analysis.0 (D12. • • • • • • simple construction semi-rigid construction (termed ‘semi-continuous’ in Eurocode 3) continuous construction.2Lj /150a and βLw. Table 12.2.6.2 (Table 5.CHAPTER 12. In both cases the provisions are essentially similar to normal UK practice. Analysis. DESIGN OF JOINTS Table 12.6.5.1 of EN 1993-1-8) summarizes this process.1 £ 1. 12.2 £ 1.0βLw. Type of joint model Method of global analysis Elastic Rigid–plastic Elastic–plastic Nominally pinned Nominally pinned Nominally pinned Classification of joint Rigid Full strength Rigid and full strength Semi-rigid Partial strength Semi-rigid and partial strength Semi-rigid and full strength Rigid and partial strength Type of joint model Simple Continuous Semi-continuous for lap joints or 1.

e. Rd with the design moment resistance of the members it connects. i. the equivalent clause for joint strength. Figure 12.2 to 5. f Fig. i. incapable of transmitting significant moments and capable of accepting the resulting rotations under the design loads – design frame according to the principles of ‘simple construction’ joints defined as ‘rigid and full strength’.1 of EN 1993-1-8 states that joint classification may be on the basis of one of: • • • experimental evidence experience of previous satisfactory performance calculation.7 illustrates this schematically for a series of idealized joint types. Reading these in association with clause 5. M Rigid and full strength Semi-rigid and partial strength Nominally pinned Rotation.2.5 of EN 1993-1-8 provides a similarly detailed treatment of secondary moments caused by the rotational stiffness of the joints and moments resulting from eccentricities and/or loading between panel points for lattice girders.2 of EN 1993-1-8 on the classification of joints permits the following straightforward options to be identified: • • joints defined as ‘nominally pinned’.e.1. elastic–plastic or rigid–plastic analysis.3.21 it is reasonable to presume that ‘experience of previous satisfactory performance’ would also be accepted as the basis for classifying these types as either nominally pinned or full strength. the relationship between the moment the joint can transmit and the corresponding joint rotation.1 of EN 1993-1-8. and thus might be interpreted as allowing only the calculationbased approach.2.1. clause 5. having sufficient stiffness to justify an analysis based on full continuity and a strength at least equal to that of the connected members – design frame according to the principles of ‘continuous construction’ using either of elastic. Suitable background texts include Anderson28 and Faella et al. For stiffness.e.29 These texts explain the background to the concept of joint modelling (clause 5. Moment–rotation characteristics of joints 130 . i. 12.1. Designers wishing to adopt the semi-continuous option should ensure that they are properly acquainted with the subject.4 of EN 1993-1-8 set out the requirements in terms of joint properties necessary for the use of each of the three types of global analysis. Given the amount of attention devoted to improving the design of both ‘simple’ and ‘moment’ connections in the UK during the past 15 years and the volume of underpinning knowledge27 of the actual behaviour of the types commonly used in the UK embodied within the BCSA/SCI Green Books.e.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 moment–rotation characteristic of the joint. comparing its design moment resistance Mj. this will require study of far more than just the provisions of Eurocode 3. Clauses 5. does not contain similar wording.2. i. Clause 5.20. Interestingly. clause 5.7.3 of Mp Moment.

g.e. 12. 12.1. 6. Structural joints connecting hollow sections (The London Eye) EN 1993-1-8) necessary for the explicit inclusion of joint stiffness and partial strength properties when conducting a frame analysis. DESIGN OF JOINTS Fig.21 since this provides a simplified and more familiar introduction to the subject. shear in the web panel of the column. General Section 7 of EN 1993-1-8 covers the design of structural joints connecting hollow sections (Fig. In order to obtain the three key measures of performance.1. Since it does this in the context of the determination of • • • design moment resistance Mj. Sj and ϕcd.1c of EN 1993-1-8 represents the behaviour that would be expected from a physical test of the arrangement of Fig 6. the joint is ‘broken down’ into its basic components. however.8. Rd. 12.7. Figure 6. It is.8). and expressions or calculation procedures for determining its contribution to each of the three performance measures are given in Table 6. Rd rotational stiffener Sj rotation capacity ϕcd it is essentially oriented towards semi-continuous construction. e. Structural joints connecting hollow sections 12. General Section 6 of EN 1993-1-8 explains the principles and application of the concept known as the ‘component method’. Structural joints connecting H or I sections 12. Mj. the material has little relevance to joints in simple construction. Readers intending to implement the material of this chapter are strongly advised to prepare themselves by studying the relevant part of the BCSA/SCI guide on moment connections.8.1 of EN 1993-1-8. i.CHAPTER 12. The joint is regarded as a rotational spring located at the intersection of the centrelines of the beam and column that it connects and possessing a design moment–rotation relationship.7. or tension in the bolts.8. limited to 131 .1a of EN 1993-1-8. 12.1 of EN 1993-1-8 illustrates the concept: Fig. Readers already familiar with the CIDECT series of design guides for structural hollow sections will find much of Section 7 of EN 1993-1-8 familiar. The remaining clauses of Section 6 then define and explain those expressions and procedures.

DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 the design of welded connections for static loading.4 to 7.4 of EN 1993-1-8 illustrate all the potential failure modes. In addition to certain geometrical restrictions. Clauses 7. It also contains some provisions for uniplanar joints involving combinations of open and closed sections. Readers intending to implement these would be well advised to first consult the relevant CIDECT material to obtain the basis and background to the specific provisions.7 of EN 1993-1-8 provide. Six specific modes. largely in tabular form. the detailed expressions and procedures for checking the adequacy of each arrangement. while Figures 7.2 of EN 1993-1-8.2.1 of EN 1993-1-8 contains all the geometrical arrangements covered. the detailed application rules are limited to joints in which the compression elements of all the members are Class 2 or better. though guidance for fatigue loading does exist elsewhere. in lattice structures and deals with circular and rectangular hollow section arrangements. defined by clause 7. Figure 7.30 It covers both uniplanar and multiplanar joints. 132 . i. two and three dimensions. are covered for the cases of both axial load and moment loading in the brace member.e.2 to 7.

which is covered in EN 1993-1-3 – General Rules: Supplementary Rules for Cold-formed Thin Gauge Members and Sheeting.1. 13. following improvements in manufacturing techniques. Unlike Chapters 1–11 of this guide. where the section numbers in the guide correspond directly to those in Part 1. corrosion protection.1). Light-gauge sections used in conjunction with hot-rolled steelwork is now commonplace (Fig. light-gauge construction has become increasingly widespread. Fig. However. section numbers in this chapter do not relate to the code.1 of the code. (Courtesy of Metsec) . Introduction Cold-formed. product availability. understanding of the structural response and sophistication of design codes for cold-formed sections. 13. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the behavioural features of cold-formed structural components and to describe the important aspects of the code. such as the aircraft and automotive industries. Light-gauge (cold-formed) sections in conjunction with hot-rolled steelwork. thin-walled construction used to be limited to applications where weight savings were of primary concern. 13.CHAPTER 13 Cold-formed design This chapter concerns the subject of cold-formed member design.1.

durability and fire resistance. and their codified treatment.. covering areas such as connections of cold-formed sections.32 and Rhodes and Lawson. will be outlined in the remainder of this chapter.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 The use of thin. may be found in Grubb et al. crippling and buckling. These effects. These include: • • • • • • • • non-uniform distribution of material properties due to cold-working rounded corners and the calculation of geometric properties local buckling distortional buckling torsional and flexural torsional buckling shear lag flange curling web crushing. Maximum width-to-thickness ratios covered by EN 1993-1-3 Element of cross section b b Maximum value b/t £ 50 t b c t b c b/t £ 60 c/t £ 50 b c t d b c b/t £ 90 c/t £ 60 d/t £ 50 d b b b/t £ 500 t 45° £ f £ 90° c/t £ 500 sin f h f f h 134 . serviceability considerations.31 Gorgolewski et al. Further general guidance.33 Table 13.1. modular construction. cold-formed material brings about a number of special design problems that are not generally encountered when using ordinary hot-rolled sections.

For small internal radii the effect of the rounded corners is small and may be neglected. Part 1.1) where t Ag k n is the material thickness (mm) is the gross cross-sectional area (in square millimetres) is a numerical coefficient that depends on the forming process (k = 7 for cold-rolling and k = 5 for other forming methods) is the number of 90o bends in the cross-section with an internal radius less than or equal to five times the material thickness (fractions of 90° bends should be counted as fractions of n). essentially producing increased yield strengths. Rounded corners and the calculation of geometric properties Cold-formed cross-sections contain rounded corners that make calculation of geometric properties less straightforward than for the case of sharp corners. EN 1993-1-3 also states that its provisions are not to be applied to the design of cold-formed circular and rectangular hollow sections.1 and 13. The code states that the average (enhanced) yield strength may not be used for Class 4 cross-sections (where the section is not fully effective) or where the members have been subjected to heat treatment after forming.3 EN 1993-1-3 is limited in scope by the maximum width-to-thickness ratios set out in Table 13. 13.3. but with corresponding reductions in ductility (ultimate strain).3. Material properties All cold-forming operations that involve plastic deformation result in changes to the basic material properties. and reference should be made to EN 1993-1-1.1. EN 1993-1-3 states that notional flat widths bp (used as a basis for the calculation of effective section properties) should be measured to the midpoints of adjacent corner elements. 13.4. 13. so there may be small discrepancies with hand calculations based on the idealized properties. In such cross-sections. COLD-FORMED DESIGN 13. The code also allows the average yield strength to be determined on the basis of full-scale laboratory testing. provided r £ 5t and r £ 0. It should be noted that section tables and design software will generally conduct calculations that incorporate rounded corners.2 show calculation of the gross and effective sections properties of a lipped channel section. consequently. The EN 1993-1-3 expression for average yield strength is given by fya = fyb + knt 2 ( fu + fyb ) Ag but fya £ fu + fyb 2 (D13. 13. Interestingly. EN 1993-1-3 allows for strength enhancements due to cold-forming by defining an average (enhanced) yield strength fya that may be used in subsequent calculations in place of the basic yield strength fyb (with some limitations which are discussed later). Examples 13.CHAPTER 13. EN 1993-1-3 allows cross-section properties to be calculated based on an idealized cross-section that comprises flat elements concentrated along the mid-lines of the actual elements. based on the idealizations described. Scope of Eurocode 3.2. Use of cross-sections with elements exceeding these proportions must be justified by testing. buckling curves are not provided for such cross-section types.10bp (where r is the internal corner radius. t is the material thickness and bp is the flat width of a plane element). as shown in Fig. 135 .2. as illustrated in Fig.

13. 13.3. (b) Notional flat width bp of plane elements b. (a) Mid-point of corner or bend. d d c bp b bp bp bp.2. Notional widths of plane elements bp allowing for corner radii. c c bp bp (b) (d) Fig.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 gr bp X t P r f/2 f/2 X is the intersection of midlines P is the midpoint of a corner rm = r + t /2 gr = rm[tan(f/2) – sin(f/2)] (a) b bp sw bp = sw f hw h (c) bp. Idealized cross-section properties 136 . c and d. (c) Notional flat width bp for a web (bp = slant height sw). c bp. (d) Notional flat width bp of plane elements adjacent to stiffeners b c b–t c – t /2 h h–t t Fig.

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8) (D13. c/bp £ 0.6) where K Is As is the linear spring stiffness. the initial edge or intermediate stiffener section is considered in isolation.2 and 6. ceff should be obtained by taking kσ as that for a doubly supported element. c ce1 bp.35 £ bp. I s deff bp. I s b/t £ 60 (a) K b/t £ 90 (b) As .60 (D13.38 Based on the reduction factor χd.10) b bp be1 be2 b a a b bp be1 be2 b a a b b1 b ceff b p.7) (D13. discussed in Section 13.47 – 0. The reduced area is calculated from As.9): χd = 1. c /bp ) .0.65 < λd < 1.5) (b) For a double-fold edge stiffener.3 of this guide. red = χd As fyb /γ M0 σcom. both values of kσ are defined in EN 1993-1-5 and in Tables 6.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 kσ = 0. The flexural buckling reduction factor of this section (allowing for the linear spring restraint) is then calculated.0 for λd £ 0. on the assumption that flexural buckling of the stiffener section represents distortional buckling of the full stiffened element.66/λd where λd = fyb /σcr. Initial values of effective widths. The elastic critical buckling stress for the stiffener section is calculated using σcr.35]2 for 0.38 (D13. The reduction factor χd may hence be obtained using the non-dimensional slenderness λd through the expressions given in equations (D13. Ed but As. s for λd ≥ 1. (b) Double edge fold 142 . 13. s = 2 KEIs As (D13.10.83 ¥ 3 [( bp. (a) Single edge fold.7)–(D13. Step 2 In the second step.65 for 0. c ce2 c c b1 As . and deff should be obtained by taking kσ as that for an outstand element.723λd χd = 0. d d K Fig.5 + 0.3 of this guide is the second moment of area of the effective stiffener section about its centroidal axis a–a is the cross-sectional area of the effective stiffener section. red £ As (D13.6. a reduced area for the effective stiffener section is calculated.9) χd = 1.

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47 – 0. s = 14.16 × 1.4 mm \ K1 = 0. s = 2 KEIs As = 2 0. red = χd As fyb /γ M0 σcom.22 ¥ 210 000 ¥ 1132.16 mm b ya a a ceff.2/2 – 2.56 × 2.3)2] Is = 1132.56 = 67.2 × 1.6) σcr.563)/12 + (1. red /As = 1.15 \ 0.23)/12 + (29. 13.3/67.3 mm 2 280 \ tred = tAs. Effective edge stiffener section As = (29.6 ¥ 280/1.22 N/mm (per unit length) for a symmetric section under pure compression Elastic critical buckling stress for the effective stiffener section From equation (D13. s = 280/212 = 1.4 – 9.38 so.5 67.6 mm2 Is = (29.2) × 1.56 × (14.16 + 14.6) = 1. COLD-FORMED DESIGN beff.0 = 43.2) K1 = Et 3 1 2 2 3 4(1 .8 = 53.6 = 212 N/mm 2 Reduction factor χd for distortional buckling Non-dimensional slenderness λd = fyb /σcr. from equation (D9.16 × 1.4 mm4 Calculation of linear spring stiffness K From equation (D13.CHAPTER 13.56 × (43.ν ) b1 hw + b1 + 0.6 mm kf = 1.56 × 14. s = 29. Ed = 0.64 Reduced area (and thickness) of effective stiffener section As.3 hw = 198.64 ¥ 67.5b1 b2 hw kf b1 = b2 = 63.2 mm b yb Fig.65 < λd < 1.11).32) + [14. χd = 1.00 mm 145 .723λd = 0.0 ν = 0.12.

12) (D13.16 × 1. however.e.46 = 3. 13. a subscript T is added to λ to indicate when the buckling mode includes a torsional component: λ = λT = λ = λT = Afy N cr Aeff fy N cr for Class 1. Torsional buckling is pure twisting of a cross-section. though different cross-section types are covered. flexural.92 mm (from the centroid of the gross section to the centroid of the effective section).92 mm Step 3: optionally iterate χd may be refined iteratively using modified values of ρ obtained by taking σcom. flexural buckling also governs many design cases. Torsional–flexural buckling is a more general response that occurs for centrally loaded struts with cross-sections that are singly symmetric and where the centroid and the shear centre do not coincide (e. as shown in Table 13.2 × 1.00] Aeff = 292.38 – 16. Whatever the mode of buckling of a member (i. Subsequent steps are as shown in this example.g. The code provisions for flexural buckling in Part 1.56) + (2 × 29. and by equation (D13. In light-gauge construction. torsional or torsional–flexural) the generic buckling curve formulations and the method for determining member resistances are common. and the cross-section should strictly therefore also be checked for combined axial compression plus bending. accounting for distortional buckling. The only difference is in the calculation of the elastic critical buckling force. is therefore as follows: Nc.8 × 280 × 10–3 = 82.16 × 1.1.13) for Class 4 cross-sections.16/2)] + [2 × (14. 2 and 3 cross-sections. and is used to define λ.2. Torsional and torsional–flexural buckling Flexural buckling is the predominant buckling mode for compression members in typical building structures using conventional hot-rolled sections.4]}/292.00) × 63.8 = 20.2) × 1. a cruciform section).0 kN There is.38 mm The horizontal shift in the neutral axis from the gross section to the effective section is eNy = 20.13) 146 . The compressive resistance of the cross-section.12) for Class 1. a shift in the neutral axis of 3.16/2] + [2 × (29.4 – 29.7. which is particular to the mode of buckling.16 × 1.3 of the code are essentially the same as those of Part 1.16+14. Rd = Aeff fyb = 292.87 × 1.00) × (63.8 mm2 (compared with 341.56) × 29.5 mm2 for local buckling alone) The horizontal position of the neutral axis from the centreline of the web for the effective section is y eff = {[2 × (29. Ed equal to χd fyb /γM0 in Step 1 for each iteration. with the bending moment equal to the applied axial load multiplied by the shift in neutral axis. but torsional and torsional–flexural modes must also be checked. a channel section). The non-dimensional slenderness λ is defined by equation (D13.g.56) + [2 × (29. 2 and 3 cross-sections for Class 4 cross-sections (D13.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Calculation of effective section properties for distortional buckling Effective area Aeff = (73. and only occurs in centrally loaded struts which are point symmetric and have low torsional stiffness (e.

2. T = 1 i0 2 Ê π2 EI w ˆ GIt + Á l 2 ˜ Ë ¯ T (D13. Ncr = Ncr. The elastic critical buckling forces for torsional and torsional–flexural buckling for crosssections that are symmetrical about the y–y axis (i. TF is the elastic critical torsional–flexural buckling force Ncr. COLD-FORMED DESIGN Table 13. T is the elastic critical torsional buckling force.15). T Ncr.14) and (D13.e. where z0 = 0) are given by equations (D13. for torsional and torsional–flexural buckling.CHAPTER 13. respectively: N cr. Buckling curve selection table from EN 1993-1-3 Buckling about axis If fyb is used Any Buckling curve b Type of cross-section If fya is used *) Any c z z y-y z-z a b y y y y z z Any b Any c or other cross-section *) the average yield strength fya should not be used unless Aeff = Ag where. TF but Ncr £ Ncr.14) where i02 = iy2 + iz2 + y02 + z02 G is the shear modulus 147 .

y is the critical force for flexural buckling about the y–y axis Guidance is provided in EN 1993-1-3 on buckling lengths for components with different degrees of torsional and warping restraint.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Web Web (a) Column to be considered Web Hollow sections or sections with bolts passing through two webs per member (b) Column to be considered Fig. TF N cr.15) where Êy ˆ β = 1-Á 0 ˜ Ë i0 ¯ 2 Ncr. 148 . 13.0 0. lT /LT (the effective buckling length divided by the system length) should be taken as 1. 13. T . y ˆ ˜ ˜ ¯ (D13.7 for connections that provide partial restraint against torsion and warping (Fig. It is stated that for practical connections at each end. y Ë N cr. 13. y ˜ Ë ¯ Ë i0 ¯ N cr.13.cr.1 .13a) for connections that provide significant restraint against torsion and warping (Fig. y N cr.13b). T Ê N N ˆ Á 1 + cr. T + 4 Á y0 ˜ = Á 2β Á N cr. (a) Partial and (b) significant torsional and warping restraint from practical connections It Iw iy iz lT y0 z0 is the torsion constant of the gross cross-section is the warping constant of the gross cross-section is the radius of gyration of the gross cross-section about the y–y axis is the radius of gyration of the gross cross-section about the z–z axis is the buckling length of the member for torsional buckling is the distance from the shear centre to the centroid of the gross cross-section along the y axis is the distance from the shear centre to the centroid of the gross cross-section along the z axis. 2 2 Ê Ê ˆ N cr.

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Calculation of the transverse resistance of a web Rw. and stiffened webs. Web crushing involves yielding of the web material directly adjacent to the flange. crippling and buckling Transversely loaded webs of slender proportions. then a reduction in load-bearing capacity due. to the effective reduction in depth of the section or due to possible bending of the web. should be made. Transversely loaded webs can also fail as a result of overall web buckling. 13. Three categories are defined: cross-sections with a single unstiffened web. the mean stress is obtained by multiplying the stress for the effective cross-section by the ratio of the effective crosssection by the ratio of the effective flange area to the gross flange area. Rd involves categorization of the cross-section and determination of a number of constants relating to the properties of the cross-section and loading details. If the stress has been calculated over the effective cross-section. Web crippling describes a form of failure whereby localized buckling of the web beneath the transversely loaded flange is accompanied by web crushing and plastic deformation of the flange. Web crushing. web crippling and web buckling. If the magnitude of flange curling is found to be greater than 5% of the depth of the cross-section.10. are susceptible to a number of possible forms of failure. for example. Web resistance is specified by a number of expressions. 151 . including web crushing. COLD-FORMED DESIGN t z r σa is the flange thickness is the distance of the flange under consideration to the neutral axis is the radius of curvature of an arched beam is the mean stress in the flange. selection of which is based principally on the position and nature of loading and reactions. This form of failure requires that the transverse load is carried from the loaded flange through the web to a reaction at the other flange. cross-sections or sheeting with two or more unstiffened webs. with the web acting as a strut.CHAPTER 13. including the proximity of the loading or reactions to free ends. which are common in cold-formed sections.

are (other than self-weights) broadly independent of the structural material and are thus contained elsewhere. fire resistance and robustness. durability. which refer to temporary conditions. which refer to conditions of normal use transient design situations.1. Permanent actions (G) are those that essentially do not vary with time. For ultimate limit states. Introduction As noted in Chapter 1 of this guide. serviceability (serviceability limit states). EN 1993-1-1 is not a self-contained document for the design of steel structures. variable or accidental.2. 14. This chapter contains a brief review of the guidance provided by EN 1990 and parts of EN 1991 relating to actions and combinations of actions for steel structures. but rather provides the rules that are specific to steel structures. explosion or impact seismic design situations. checks should be carried out for the following.CHAPTER 14 Actions and combinations of actions 14. which refer to exceptional conditions such as fire. for example. The basic requirements of EN 1990 state that a structure shall have adequate structural resistance (ultimate limit states). in Section 3. EN 1990 also emphasizes. such as during execution or repair accidental design situations. such as . as permanent. as relevant: • • • • EQU – loss of static equilibrium of the structure or any part of the structure STR – internal failure or excessive deformation of the structure or structural members GEO – failure or excessive deformation of the ground FAT – fatigue failure of the structure or structural members. that all relevant design situations must be examined. Actions In EN 1990. Design situations are classified as follows: • • • • persistent design situations. It states that the selected design situations shall be sufficiently severe and varied so as to encompass all conditions that can reasonably be foreseen to occur during execution and use of the structure. Actions (or loads) and combinations of actions. actions are classified by their variation with time. which refer to conditions where the structure is subjected to seismic events.

1 Qk. General Actions – Accidental Actions from Impact and Explosions. as stated in clause 4.2a) and (D14. General Actions – Actions During Execution Part 1. Fundamental combinations of actions 14. but high magnitude.1. spatial variation and nature. respectively).3.4. ‘Fundamental’ refers to the persistent or transient design situations. 1 Qk. while the other classifications are necessary for the evaluation of representative values of actions. j ‘+’ γ P P ‘+’ γ Q.1. combinations of actions for persistent or transient design situations (fundamental combinations) at ultimate limit state may be expressed either by  γG. General Clause 6. these have generally been referred to as live loads in British Standards. i j ≥1 i >1 (D14. General Actions – Snow Loads Part 1. wind loads and snow loads. Classification by variation with time is important for the establishment of combinations of actions. i ψ0. such as imposed loads. For each of the selected design situations. and the second is given in two parts by equations (D14.5. Actions on structures may be determined with reference to the appropriate part of EN 1991.10a) and (6. i Qk. Variable actions (Q) are those that can vary with time.10) of EN 1990). Imposed Loads for Buildings Part 1.1. Self-weight. General Actions – Thermal Actions Part 1. The first of the options is given by equation (D14.3. General Actions – Wind Actions Part 1. 1 ‘+’  γ Q. i ψ0. General Actions – Actions on Structures Exposed to Fire Part 1. i i>1 where ‘+’  ψ0 ξ γG γQ P implies ‘to be combined with’ implies ‘the combined effect of’ is a combination factor. such as explosions and impacts.4. 1 ‘+’  γQ. by the less favourable of the two following expressions: Âγ j≥1 j≥1 G. Combinations of actions for serviceability limit states are discussed in Chapter 7 of this guide.3.2. j Gk.2b) (equations (6. j ‘+’ γ P P ‘+’ γQ. j Gk.6.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 the self-weight of a structure and fixed equipment.1Qk. General Actions – Densities.1) or. i ψ0. rather than accidental or seismic design situations. alternatively for STR and GEO limit states.2b) Âξ γ j G. j ‘+’ γ P P ‘+’ γ Q. Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures. 1 ψ0. Actions should also be classified by their origin. Accidental actions (A) are usually of short duration. 1 ‘+’  γ Q.2a) (D14. i Qk. 154 . EN 1991 contains the following parts: • • • • • • • Part 1. i Qk. j Gk. The National Annex will dictate which of the two load combination options should be adopted.7.1) (equation (6. 14. discussed below is a partial factor for permanent actions is a partial factor for variable actions represents actions due to prestressing. discussed below is a reduction factor for unfavourable permanent actions G.10b) of EN 1990.2 of EN 1990 provides two options for the fundamental combination of actions at ultimate limit states.3. these have generally been referred to as dead loads in British Standards. i i>1 (D14.1 of EN 1990.

1(5). Further interpretation of the guidance may be found in Chapter 7 of this guide and elsewhere.2(C). unless it is clearly not a critical combination. but the National Annex may specify alternative values. however.CHAPTER 14. Note that the UK National Annex sets ψ0 for wind loads on buildings to 0.1 of EN 1990). ψ1 and ψ2) used in EN 1990.1 (Table A1. Table 14. Example 14. and reference should be made to Tables 14.2(A) provides design values of actions for verifying the static equilibrium (EQU) of building structures. This clause allows the designer to consider a permanent action as either favourable or unfavourable. note 1 to clause A. in separate load combinations. i. For serviceability limit states.3 of EN 1990.3.4 of EN 1990.3. ψ0 is the factor of interest. Table 14. Methods for establishing combinations of actions for buildings are given in Annex A1 of EN 1990. ξ appears in equation (D14. ψ factors are discussed in Section 4.2 It should be noted. 14. ACTIONS AND COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS The combination factor ψ0 is one of three ψ factors (ψ0.3 and A1. guidance on combinations of actions is given in clauses 6. Upper and lower characteristic values of permanent actions may be determined as described in Gulvanessian et al.3. sup should be used when that action is unfavourable. three approaches are outlined in clause A1. The purpose of the ψ factors is to modify characteristic values of variable actions to give representative values for different situations.5. this approach is only necessary where the results of a verification are sensitive to variations in the magnitude of a permanent action from place to place in a structure. In clause 6.2 As stated in EN 1990. The design values of actions for ultimate limit states in the persistent and transient design situations are given in Tables 14.2 Recommended values of ψ factors for buildings are given in Table 14.2(A)–(C) (Tables A1.2a) and (D14. which are generally absent in conventional steel structures. For the design of structural members (STR) involving geotechnical actions (GEO). not involving geotechnical action. Ignoring prestressing actions.2(A)–(C) of EN 1990). each of the combination expressions contains: • • • persistent actions Gk. for example due to physical reasons.10b) of EN 1990). This simplification is intended only to apply to common cases of building structures. It should be noted that different values for both the ψ factors and the γ factors may be specified by the National Annex. This idea is considered in more detail in Reference 2 with a continuous beam example. Buildings 155 . For load combinations at ultimate limit state. 1 other variable actions Qk.2. each variable action should be considered as the leading variable action.1(1) of EN 1990 allows the combination of actions to be based on not more than two variable actions. should not be considered together in combination. In general.2b).2(B) and 14. and is a reduction factor for unfavourable permanent actions G.1 (2) of EN 1990 states that actions that cannot occur simultaneously. and the lower characteristic value of a permanent action Gkj.1. and hence appears in each of equations (D14.6 in EN 1990). To simplify building design.2b) (equation (6. The combination factor ψ0 is intended specifically to take account of the reduced probability of the simultaneous occurrence of two or more variable actions. Clause 6. (D14.1. Guidance on values for the ξ factor is given in Annex A1 of EN 1990.5 (compared with 0. that simplified rules and deflections limits may be given in the National Annex to EN 1993-1-1.2.1(4) of EN 1990 a distinction is made between favourable and unfavourable actions (where the upper characteristic value of a permanent action Gkj.1 demonstrates how combinations of actions for a simple building structure may be determined for persistent and transient design situations at ultimate limit state. j a leading variable action Qk.1).4. in turn. inf should be used when that action is favourable).2(B) provides design values of actions for the verification of structural members (STR) in buildings.

Recommended values of ψ factors for buildings (Table A1.70 0.8 0. Design values of actions (EQU) (set A) (Table A1.supGkj.10) (*) Variable actions are those considered in Table A1.sup = 1. for sites located at altitude H £ 1000 m a. with the following set of recommended values.50 0.s.1.2(A) of EN 1990) Permanent actions Unfavourable γGj.3 0.20 0 0 0 Table 14. as an alternative to two separate verifications based on Tables A1.i Persistent and transient design situations (Eq.i = 1.l. vehicle weight £ 30kN Category G:traffic area.15 γQ. (*) For countries not mentioned below.20 0.inf Leading variable action (*) γQ.50 0. 30kN < vehicle weight £ 160kN Category H: roofs Snow loads on buildings (see EN 1991-1-3)* Finland. γGj.s.sup = 1.1Qk.5 0.iψ0.9 0.2(A).20 0.7 1. see relevant local conditions.6 0.1 of EN 1990) Action Imposed loads in buildings.l.50 where unfavourable (0 where favourable) γQ.7 0.1 Accompanying variable actions Main (if any) Others γQ.7 0.50 where unfavourable (0 where favourable) provided that applying γGj. The recommended values may be altered by the National annex. based on Table A1. The recommended set of values for γ are: γGj. 6.00 both to the favourable part and to the unfavourable part of permanent actions does not give a more unfavourable effect.iQk.7 0.i = 1.35 γGj.0 0.inf = 0.2(B).1 NOTE 1 The γ values may be set by the National Annex.7 0.7 0. 156 . may be adopted.2 0.infGkj.10 γGj.1 = 1. category (see EN 1991-1-1) Category A: domestic.50 where unfavourable (0 where favourable) NOTE 2 In cases where the verification of static equilibrium also involves the resistance of structural members. residential areas Category B: office areas Category C: congregation areas Category D: shopping areas Category E: storage areas Category F: traffic area. for sites located at altitude H > 1000 m a.3 0 0.3 0.2(A). a combined verification. ψ0 0.5 0.1 = 1.2(A) and A1. Sweden Remainder of CEN Member States.inf = 1.6 ψ1 0.6 0. Iceland.6 0.90 γQ. if allowed by the National annex.70 0.7 0.50 0.5 0 0. Wind loads on buildings (see EN 1991-1-4) Temperature (non-fire) in buildings (see EN 1991-1-5) NOTE The ψ values may be set by the National Annex. Norway.6 0.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Table 14. Remainder of CEN Member States.inf = 1.50 where unfavourable (0 where favourable) γQ.7 0.7 0 0.5 ψ2 0.sup Favourable γGj.

1Qk.85 (so that ξγGj.i γQ. γGj.inf = 1.sup γGj.iQk.35 @ 1.10a and 6. 6.10b will be in the National Annex.i = 1.15). See also EN 1991 to ENV 1999 for γ values to be used for imposed deformations.05 to 1. In case of 6.1Qk.i (Eq.2(B). NOTE 2 The γ and ξ values may be set by the National annex.sup γGj.15 can be used in most common cases and can be modified in the National Annex.10.10) γGj.1 γGj. this also applies if different materials are involved.iψ0. or 6.85 × 1.inf if the total resulting action effect is favourable.Table 14. ACTIONS AND COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS NOTE 4 For particular verifications.1 γQ.inf (*) Variable actions are those considered in Table A1. The following values for γ and ξ are recommended when using expressions 6.inf γQ. A value of γSd in the range 1. all actions originating from the self weight of the structure may be considered as coming from one source.i Persistent and transient design situations Unfavourable Favourable (Eq. For example. 6.1 = 1. the National Annex may in addition modify 6.10a to include permanent actions only.infGkj.50 where unfavourable (0 where favourable) γQ.10a and 6.10b) ξγGj.sup γGj.sup if the total resulting action effect is unfavourable and γG.1 NOTE 1 The choice between 6.50 where unfavourable (0 where favourable) ξ = 0.10.iQk.35 γGj.sup = 1. 6.iψ0. the values for γG and γQ may be subdivided into γg and γq and the model uncertainty factor γSd.1 Accompanying variable actions (*) Permanent actions Persistent and transient design situations Leading variable action (*) Accompanying variable actions (*) Others γQ.supGkj.iQk.10a) (Eq. CHAPTER 14.2(B) of EN 1990) Permanent actions Leading variable action (*) Main (if any) Others γQ. or 6.10b.supGkj.10a and 6. Design values of actions (STR/GEO) (set B) (Table A1.iψ0.sup = 0.1ψ0.10b.infGkj. NOTE 3 The characteristic values of all permanent actions from one source are multiplied by γG.inf Unfavourable Favourable Action Main γQ.supGkj. 157 .1Qk.00 γQ.infGkj.

6. both the leading and the non-leading variable action are multiplied by ψ0.2b) Âξ γ j G.1: combinations of actions for buildings Consider a simple building structure subjected to a permanent action and two variable actions (an imposed load (Category A) and a wind load).7.inf = 1.sup Favourable γGj. i ψ0.1) (equation (6.i = 1.10a) and (6.5 in the UK National Annex) ψ0 for the imposed loads equals 0.30 where unfavourable (0 where favourable) Example 14. From Table 14. i ψ0. j ‘+’ γ P P ‘+’ γQ.3 result from equation (D14.supGkj. 1 ‘+’ Â γ Q. 1 Qk.iψ0.1 Accompanying variable actions (*) Main (if any) Others γQ. 1 = 1. i Qk. γQ. j Gk.inf Leading variable action (*) γQ.00 γQ. γG = 1.10b) of EN 1990) Âγ j≥1 j≥1 G. Since γQ. 1 ψ0.infGkj. i Qk. 1 Qk. j ‘+’ γ P P ‘+’ γ Q.2a) and (D14. 1 ‘+’ Â γ Q. 1 ‘+’ Â γQ.2(C). i Qk.10) of EN 1990).10) Permanent actions Unfavourable γGj. The recommended set of values for γ are: γGj.50 for non-leading variable actions.1) • • • • • • • Combination 1: imposed load as the leading variable action Combination 2: wind load as the leading variable action From Table 14.2(B): for unfavourable permanent actions. γQ.1: ψ0 for the wind loads equals 0. Using equations (D14.sup = 1.2a) (equation (6. Assume that the permanent action is always unfavourable.00 γGj.1) or equations (D14.2b). i = 1.2a) (D14. j Gk.50. it should be stressed that the National Annex will specify which of the two options to use. Using equation (D14. j ‘+’ γ P P ‘+’ γ Q.1 = 1. i (for the non-leading variable) is to be multiplied ψ0.2b) (equations (6. Again.i (*) Variable actions are those considered in Table A1.1) (equation (6. The fundamental combinations of actions for the STR ultimate limit state may be determined using either equation (D14. Design values of actions (STR/GEO) (set C) (Table A1.2(C) of EN 1990) Persistent and transient design situation (Eq. i i>1 (D14.1Qk.35 for the leading variable action.10) of EN 1990) Â γG. 158 .30 where unfavourable (0 where favourable) γQ. the following two combinations of actions given in Table 14. i j ≥1 i >1 (D14.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 Table 14. i i>1 For equation (D14.iQk.1 NOTE The γ values may be set by the National annex.6 (0.2a) and (D14. so only one load combination emerges.10a) of EN 1990).1Qk. i ψ0. j Gk.

2(B) as 0.85.35 1.4.CHAPTER 14.2a) and (D14.1) (equation (6. depending on which of the variable actions is defined as leading. The National Annex will specify which of the two methods (equation (6. with imposed load as the leading variable action Combination 3: from equation (D14.2b).10) of EN 1990) Permanent Combination 1 Combination 2 1. It should be noted that the load combinations given in Tables 14. will remain unaltered.3.4 are based on the EN 1990 regulations. with no account for the specifications of the National Annex. however. Combinations of actions using equation (D14.1). The reduction factor for unfavourable permanent actions ξ is given in Table 14.10b) of EN 1990) should be adopted.9 1.35 Imposed 1.05 1. yields two load combinations.35 1.5 1.10) or equations (6.15 Imposed 1.9 0. The general approach.2b) (equations (6. ACTIONS AND COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS Table 14. Combinations of actions using equations (D14.3 and 14. on the other hand. as with equation (D14.9 1. 159 .10b) of EN 1990) Permanent Combination 1 Combination 2 Combination 3 1.05 Wind 0.10b) of EN 1990).10a) and (6.15 Equation (D14.15 1.10a) and (6. but its value may be specified in the National Annex.5 Table 14.05 Wind 0.2a).5 1. with wind load as the leading variable action. with either variable action leading Combination 2: from equation (D14.4): • • • Combination 1: from equation (D14.2b) (equation (6.2b). and it may specify different values for ψ0 and ξ. Three combinations therefore emerge (Table 14.

References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. ECCS (1978) European Recommendations for the Steel Structures. European Convention for Constructional Steelwork, Brussels. Gulvanessian, H., Calgaro J.-A. and Holický, M. (2002) Designers’ Guide to EN 1990, Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design. Thomas Telford, London. Corus (2002) Corrosion Protection of Steel Bridges. Corus Construction Centre, Scunthorp. Baddoo, N. R. and Burgan, B. A. (2001) Structural Design of Stainless Steel. Steel Construction Institute, Ascot, P291. Davison, B., Owens, G. W. and SCI (2003) The Steel Designers’ Manual, 6th edn. Steel Construction Institute, Ascot, and Blackwell, Oxford. ECCS (1990) Background Documentation to Eurocode 3: Part 1.1. European Convention for Constructional Steelwork, Brussels. Nethercot, D. A. and Lawson, R. M. (1992) Lateral Stability of Steel Beams and Columns – Common Cases of Restraint. Steel Construction Institute, Ascot, P093. Timoshenko, S. P. and Gere, J. M. (1961) Theory of Elastic Stability, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York. Galambos, T. V. (ed.) (1998) Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures, 5th edn. Wiley, New York. Trahair, N. S. (1993) Flexural–torsional Buckling of Structures. Chapman and Hall, London. Trahair, N. S. Bradford, M. A. and Nethercot, D. A. (2001). The Behaviour and Design of Steel Structures to BS 5950, 3rd edn. Spon, London. Chen, W. F. and Atsuta, T. (1977) Theory of Beam Columns. McGraw-Hill, New York. Narayanan, R. (ed.) (1982) Axially Compressed Structures – Stability and Strength. Applied Science, Amsterdam. Engessor, F. (1909) Über die Knickfestigkeit von Rahmenstäben. Zentralblatt der Bauverwaltung, 29, 136 [in German]. Wyatt, T. A (1989) Design Guide on the Vibration of Floors. Steel Construction Institute, Ascot, P076. Boissonnade, N., Jaspart, J.-P., Muzeau, J.-P. and Villette, M. (2002) Improvement of the interaction formulae for beam columns in Eurocode 3. Computers and Structures, 80, 2375–2385. Lindner, J. (2003) Design of beams and beam columns. Progress in Structural Engineering and Materials, 5, 38–47. Davies, J. M. and Bryan, E. R. (1982) Manual of Stressed Skin Diaphragm Design. London: Granada. Nethercot, D. A. and Trahair, N. S. (1975) Design of diaphragm braced I-beams. Journal of Structural Engineering of the ASCE, 101, 2045–2061.

DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1

20. BCSA/SCI (2002) Joints in Steel Construction – Simple Connections. Steel Construction Institute, Ascot, P212. 21. BCSA/SCI (1995) Joints in Steel Construction – Moment Connections. Steel Construction Institute, Ascot, P207. 22. CIDECT (1992) Design Guide for Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) Joints Under Predominantly Static Loading. Comité International pour le Développement et l'Étude de la Construction Tubulaire, Cologne. 23. CIDECT (1991) Design Guide for Circular Hollow Section (CHS) Joints Under Predominantly Static Loading. Comité International pour le Développement et l'Étude de la Construction Tubulaire, Cologne. 24. Jaspart, J. P., Renkin, S. and Guillaume, M. L. (2003) European Recommendations for the Design of Simple Joints in Steel Structures . University of Liège, Liège[1st draft of a forthcoming publication of the Technical Committee 10 “Joints and Connections” of the European Convention of Constructional Steelwork (ECCS TC10)]. 25. Owens, G. W. and Cheal, B. D. (1988) Structural Steelwork Connections. Butterworth, London. 26. Driver, R. G., Grondin, G. Y. and Kulak, G. L. (2004) A unified approach to design for block shear. In: Connections in Steel Structures V: Innovative Steel Connections. ECCS-AISC Workshop, Amsterdam. 27. Nethercot, D. A. (1998) Towards a standardisation of the design and detailing of connections. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 46, 3–4. 28. Anderson, D. (ed.) (1996) Semi-rigid Behaviour of Civil Engineering Structural Connections. COST-C1, Brussels. 29. Faella, C., Piluso, V. and Rizzano, G. (2000) Structural Steel Semi-rigid Connections. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 30. CIDECT (1982) Cidect Monograph No. 7. Fatigue Behaviour of Welded Hollow Section Joints. Comité International pour le Développement et l'Étude de la Construction Tubulaire, Cologne. 31. Grubb, P. J., Gorgolewski, M. T. and Lawson, R. M. (2001) Building Design Using Cold Formed Steel Sections. Steel Construction Institute, Ascot, P301. 32. Gorgolewski, M. T., Grubb, P. J. and Lawson, R. M. (2001) Modular Construction Using Light Steel Framing. Steel Construction Institute, Ascot, P302. 33. Rhodes, J. and Lawson, R. M. (1992) Design of Structures Using Cold Formed Steel Sections. Steel Construction Institute, Ascot, P089.

162

Index
accidental actions 154 actions 153–4 combinations, for buildings 155–9 design values 156, 157 fundamental combinations 154–9 allocation of strut curve 64 axial buckling resistance 61 axial compression force 32 axial design effect 42, 43, 61 battened columns 98, 99 battened compression members 101 beams with restraints, assessment methods for 79–80 bending axial force and 55–60 shear and 52–5 shear and axial force 60–1 uniform members in 68–80 bending/axial compression, uniform members in 79–97 bending moment design effect 45, 69 bending moment, resistance 45–7 cross-section classification 46–7 cross-section properties 46 bi-axial bending 47 cross-section check for 93 interaction curves 59 with or without axial force 59 block tearing 125 brittle fracture 14 buckling curve selection table 147 buckling curves 61–4, 67, 68, 150 imperfection factors 63, 64, 67, 78, 84, 85, 94, 95 selection table 63 buckling factor 39 buckling lengths 25, 65–6 buckling of components of buildings structures 117–19 continuous restraints 118 buckling resistance in bending 68–79, 85–6, 94–5 buckling resistance in combined bending/axial compression 79–97 equivalent uniform factors 96 interaction factors 96–7 interaction formulae 97 buckling resistance moment 69 buckling resistance of compression member 35, 66–8, 93–4, 149–50 built-up compression members 98–101 butt welds 128–9 angles connected by one leg 129 connections to unstiffened flanges 128 force distribution 128 long joints 128–9 characteristic resistance 10 characteristic values 10 Cij factors 88 cold-formed design 133–51 material properties 135 rounded corners and geometric properties and 135–6 combination factor 155 combined bi-axial bending/axial compression 89–97 component method 131 compression resistance 43–5, 61–8 combined bi-axial bending/axial compression 90 cross-section classification 44 cross-section compression resistance 43–5 continuous construction, principles of 130 conventions for member axes 7–8 corrosion 17, 19 critical buckling loads 149 cross-section resistance 35, 36–61, 81 bending resistance 54 under bending, shear and axial force 83–4 to combined bending and shear 54–5 cross-section classification 53–4 distortional buckling 144–6 gross and net areas 36–7

67. 95 member buckling resistance in bending 85 member buckling resistance in compression 84 imperfections 25 imposed loads 154 interaction factors 81 Annex A 107–9 Annex B 111–13 member buckling resistance in bending/axial compression 86 member buckling resistance in bending 85 non-dimensional slendernesses 88 buckling resistance in combined bending/axial compression 95–7 interaction formulae 88–9 intermediate stiffener 141 internal compression elements 40 joint design 121–32 analysis. 145 durability 10. 10 diagonal bracing system 23. 94. 22–5 effects of deformed geometry on structure 22–3 structural stability of frames 23–5 global buckling analysis 25 imperfection factor 150 buckling curves 63. 78. 24 distortional buckling 140–6 calculation of effective section properties for 146 calculation of reduced thickness for effective edge stiffener section 144–6 cross-section resistance to 144–6 elastic critical buckling stress for effective stiffener section 145 linear spring stiffness 140–1. 145 outline of design approach 140 reduced area of effective stiffener section 145 reduction factor 142. 22 global analysis 21. classification and modelling 129–31 basis of design 122 connections made with bolts. 143 calculation of reduced thickness for 144–6 elastic critical buckling stress for 145 geometric properties of 144–5 reduced area of 145 effective area concept 38 to account for shear lag and local buckling 38 flat compression element 39 elastic critical plate buckling stress 39 elastic critical torsional–flexural buckling force 65 elastic torsional buckling force 87 elastic shear resistance of cross-section 49 end moment loading 73. 17–19 edge stiffener 141. 84 flexural buckling resistance 64 fracture toughness 14 general method for lateral and lateral torsion buckling 97 geometric imperfections 11. 60. 64. 74 end stresses. ratio of 32 equivalent uniform moment factors 86–7. 33 design assisted by testing 11 design working life 9. 57 section properties 53 shear resistance 54 in tension to fracture 35 under combined bending/compression 57 under combined bending/shear 53 cross-sections Class 4 30–1 classes 26–7 classification of 26–34 plastic global analysis 34 under combined bending and axial force 31–2 under combined bending/compression 32–4 combined loading 33–4 pure compression 32–3 section properties 32. rivets or pins 122–6 connections made with pins 126 design resistance 123–4 force distributions at ultimate limit state 126 prying forces 125–6 slip-resistant connections 124 global analysis 129–31 design moment resistance 130 rigid and full strength joints 130 H or I sections 131 hollow sections 131–2 joint modelling 130–1 laced compression members 100–1 chords 100–1 164 . 61 fasteners non-staggered arrangement 36. 111. 53.DESIGNERS’ GUIDE TO EN 1993-1-1 properties 36–42. 113 fastener holes 47. 37 staggered arrangement 37 fatigue 17 fillet welds 127–8 directional method 127–8 simplified method 128 flange curling 150–1 flexural buckling 61–8 of members in triangulated and lattice structures 117 elastic critical force and non-dimensional slenderness for 67.

122 permanent actions 153. 30. 68–79. 155 definition 103 dynamic effects 106 for buildings 104–6 horizontal deflections 106 irreversible 103 reversible 103 vertical deflections 104–6 shear area 50 shear buckling 50–1. 65. analysis 26 mechanical wear 17 member buckling resistance 61–101. 137–9 material non-linearities. 42. non-dimensional 86–9 for buckling 64–5. 14 Young's modulus 14 165 . 146–50 in bending 68–79 in bending/axial compression 79–97 in compression 61–8 mono-axial bending and axial force 55–7 National Annex 2. 60. 95 rigid–plastic analysis 26 Saint Venant torsion 51 serviceability limit states 103–6. 64. 64. 95 non-dimensional slendernesses 86–9 for buckling modes 64–5. 92 resistance of web to 49 shear lag 38. 13. 43 torsion. 78. 70 Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs) 2 nominal yield strength of steel 27 non-dimensional lateral torsional slenderness 77. 60. 71 lateral torsional buckling resistance 68–79. 85 light-gauge sections 133 limit state design 10 live loads 154 local (plate) buckling 38–41. 35. 85–6. 146–50 torsional–flexural buckling 61. 146–50 torsional resistance 51–2 torsional restraint stiffness 118 ultimate limit states 35–102. non-dimensional 77. 78–9 elastic critical moment for 71–5 for members with plastic hinges 97–8 general method 97 reduction factor for 78. 52–5 section properties 50 shear stiffness 118 slenderness. 35. 85–6. 155 plastic analysis.INDEX lacings 101 shear stiffness and effective second moment of area 101 lateral torsional buckling 45. variants of 26 plastic modulus of effective section 47 plastic moment resistance 55. 41 distortional buckling 142. 3. 145 lateral torsional buckling 78. 150 slip resistance 124 smeared shear stiffness 99 snow loads 154 stress ratio 41 structural analysis 21–34 taking account of material non-linearities 115 structural modelling for analysis 22 structural steel 13–14 substitutive members 25 tensile resistance 42–3 of lap splice 42. 65. 85–6. 39. 93 plastic neutral axis of effective section 47 plastic shear resistance 48 Principles 9 reduced plastic moment resistance 58–9 reduction factor 38. 44. 31. crippling and buckling 151 welded connections 126–9 width-to-thickness ratios 27. 79. resistance to 51–2 torsional buckling 61. 94–5. 150 out-of-plane buckling. 79. segment containing plastic hinges for 118–19 outstand compression elements 40 partial factors 10–11. 153 ultimate tensile strength 13 uniform built-up compression members 98–102 battened compression members 101 closely spaced built-up members 101–2 design forces in chords and web members 100 laced compression members 100–1 uniform members in bending 68–80 in bending/axial compression 79–97 in compression 61–8 variable actions 154 von Mises yield criterion 36 warping torsion 51 web crushing. 78. 134 wind loads 154 yield strength 13. 97 check for 77–8. 56. 95 lateral torsional buckling curve 69–71 correction factors 71 imperfection factors for 70. 97 lateral torsional slenderness. 150 shear resistance 48–51. 29.

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